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A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples

include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes. A natural
disaster can cause loss of life or property damage,[1] and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of
which depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability to recover and also on the infrastructure available.[2]

An adverse event will not rise to the level of a disaster if it occurs in an area without vulnerable population. [3][4] In a
vulnerable area, however, such as Nepal during the 2015 earthquake, an earthquake can have disastrous consequences and
leave lasting damage, requiring years to repair.

Avalanches and landslides[edit]

See also: List of avalanches
A landslide is described as an outward and downward slope movement of an abundance of slope-forming materials
including rock, soil, artificial, or even a combination of these things. [5]
During World War I, an estimated 40,000 to 80,000 soldiers died as a result of avalanches during the mountain campaign in
the Alps at the Austrian-Italian front. Many of the avalanches were caused by artillery fire.[6][7]
See also: Lists of earthquakes
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. At the Earth's
surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by vibration, shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. Earthquakes are
caused by slippage within geological faults. The underground point of origin of the earthquake is called the seismic focus.
The point directly above the focus on the surface is called the epicenter. Earthquakes by themselves rarely kill people or
wildlife. It is usually the secondary events that they trigger, such as building collapse, fires, tsunamis (seismic sea waves)
and volcanoes, which are actually the human disaster. Many of these could possibly be avoided by better construction,
safety systems, early warning and planning.


Ensure the safety of all employees and visitors at the site/facility
Protect vital information and records
Secure business sites and facilities
Safeguard and make available vital materials, supplies and equipment to ensure the safety and recovery of records from predictable
Reduce the risk of disasters caused by human error, deliberate destruction, and building or equipment failures
Be better prepared to recover from a major natural catastrophe
Ensure the organization's ability to continue operating after a disaster
Recover lost or damaged records or information after a disaster
Identify and adequately protect the department's vital records (vital records program)
Reduce the risk of disasters caused by human error, deliberate destructiveness, and building or equipment failure, as well as, the
adverse consequences of all disasters by mandating specific security, maintenance and training programs (disaster prevention)
Ensure the department's ability to effectively resume operations after a disaster by spelling out management policies, procedures, and
resources to be activated in disaster situations (crisis management)
Ensure the department's ability to rapidly reconstruct essential information and salvage damaged records containing information
essential to establishing detailed recovery procedures, and a management directive for implementation (disaster recovery)

5. The summer 2003 heatwave in Europe
The exceptional temperatures recorded in Europe in Summer 2003 is estimated to have killed over 60,000 people. The long term
impact of this event has been equally profound subsequent analysis has shown that this event is difficult to explain but for the
impacts of anthropogenic climate change probably for the first time scientists could say with justification that climate change is
inducing severe weather events. The realisation that these conditions, or worse, may affect Europe on an annual basis as the
climate warms undoubtedly changed the perspective of politicians with regard to the climate change debate.
4. The Wenchuan Earthquake, China, 12th May 2008
The impact of the Wenchuan earthquake on the mountains of the Longminshan range was extraordinary. The destruction of the
schools in particular will remain in the memory for a long time. In the aftermath of the earthquake the world watched as the
government strove to cope with both the disaster itself and the landslide dams that littered the landscape. The successful
mitigation of these dams was an extraordinary achievement, but the treatment of the parents of children killed in schools puts the
authorities in a different light.
3. Cyclone Nargis, Burma (Myanmar), 2nd May 2008
Cyclone Nargis feels like the big event that everyone has forgotten. At the time it was big news, but it rapidly fell off the TV
screens and, given that Burma is a military state, there was little hope of prolonged world attention, especially given the impact of
the Wenchuan earthquake just ten days later. However, the extreme death toll (138,366 people) should serve to remind us that
Indian Ocean cyclones remain a major threat.
2. Hurricane Katrina, USA, 29th August 2005
The impact of Katrina on New Orleans remains one of the enduring images of the decade. That a major city in a developed
country could be so disastrously affected by a hurricane was a shock to many. In many ways the greatest shock was the failure of
the US authorities to take action in the aftermath of the event. Around the world governments became aware of the vulnerability
of coastal cities to large events.
1. The Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, 26th December 2004
The two obvious aspects of this disaster are of course the huge death-toll (165,708 in Indonesia alone, probably c.250,000
worldwide, according to the EM-DAT database) across a huge swathe of the coast around the Indian Ocean, and the dramatic
footage captured by CCTV and personal videos. However, this was a game-changing disaster, causing governments around the
world to sit up and take notice of the potential impact of large events

The methodology underpinning this project is informed by a comprehensive understanding of the critical factors (economic,
social and environmental) impacting upon the Grampians region following the 2011 Grampians natural disaster. Data for
this project will be collected in September and early October, 2013. The project will be completed by the end of November

Background Research

In the early stages of this project, a brief desktop review will be conducted of national and international literature measuring
social and economic impacts for communities who have been affected by natural disasters. This will include identification
of best practice for emergency services and management for communities as well as relevant local, regional, state and
national strategies and policies. This information will be used to refine the interview schedule and surveys for community

Community Surveys

All members of affected communities will have the opportunity to participate in this research by completing a survey
exploring the impact of the 2011 natural disaster events. Two surveys are available for completion:

Individual/resident survey
Business/community organisation survey

(If you are both a resident and a business owner in the region you may wish to complete both surveys)

Community Consultation

Consultations exploring the impact of landslides from the communitys perspective will be undertaken with affected local
community members and businesses in the Grampians region to solicit their perception of the emergency response at the
time of the event. Up to twenty individual face-to-face and telephone interviews will be conducted with prominent members
of the local community, including community and businesses representatives, tourism organisations, larger agricultural
enterprises and landowners affected by the 2011 floods and subsequent landslides.

Infrastructure Organisations and Emergency Management Consultations

Consultations with key personnel from emergency management and infrastructure organisations across the region affected
by or involved with the 2011 event will be conducted to solicit their perception of the emergency response at the time of the
event and to provide a consolidated inventory of the social, economic and environmental impacts from an organisational

Field Mapping

Field mapping will be undertaken to assess the environmental impact of landslides in the region following the 2011 event,
by undertaking an assessment of Landslide Processes in the Grampians. This work will provide a theory of landslide
processes in the Grampians National Park as a contribution of the analysis of landslide hazard.
Natural Disasters happen in many places to millions of people and i set out to find what variable changes how people react to all
these disasters. I found out it can be the honor system, how prepared they were, if they underestimated the storm, and how their
buildings were structured. Informing people of what to do if a disaster strikes saves thousands of lives, and researching for how to
structure buildings and technology for disasters will help many others evacuate before a disaster hits. How you are prepared and
informed changes how you will react to disasters.

1. Jump up^ U.S. Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters
2. Jump up^ G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, D. Hilhorst (eds.) (2003). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and
People. ISBN 1-85383-964-7.
3. Jump up^ D. Alexander (2002). Principles of Emergency planning and Management. Harpended: Terra
publishing. ISBN 1-903544-10-6.
4. Jump up^ B. Wisner; P. Blaikie; T. Cannon & I. Davis (2004). At Risk - Natural hazards, people's vulnerability and
disasters. Wiltshire: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-25216-4.
5. Jump up^ Highland, Lynn. "Landslide Hazard Information". Geology.com. Geology.com. Retrieved 26
February 2017.
6. Jump up^ Lee Davis (2008). "Natural Disasters". Infobase Publishing. p.7. ISBN 0-8160-7000-8
7. Jump up^ "Avalanche!". WorldWar1.com. Retrieved 2015-01-12.
8. Jump up^ Gibbons, Ann (19 January 2010). "Human Ancestors Were an Endangered Species". ScienceNow.
9. Jump up^ MSN Encarta Dictionary. Flood. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. Archived 2009-10-31.