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Following is the process of Quality Management -

1) Master Data maintenance -

Maintain material master QM view with required inspection types as 01/0101/0130 for
procurement, 03/04 for in process, 10/11/12 for delivery. Assign characteristics as per
requirement (post to inspection stock, check characteristics, automatic assignement etc)
(Transaction MM01 / MM02).

Maintain sampling scheme (transaction QDP1 / QDP2) & sampling procedure

(Transaction QDV1 / QDV2)

Maintain inspection method (QS31)

Maintain catalogue (Transaction QS31 for code group) & QS41 for selected set).

Maintain master inspection characteristics (Transaction QS21).

Maintain Quality Info Record for Vendor (Transaction QI01) & for Customer (Transaction

Maintain Inspection Plan (Transaction - QP01)

Maintain inspection operation & inspection characteristics for the same in routing for
production (Transaction CA01).

2) Process for Procurement -

Create purchase order (Transaction ME21N). The quality master data is copied to
purchase order (like stock type, certificate required).

If required create source inspection lot manually (transaction QI07)

Carry out source inspection & post the source inspection results (Transaction QE51N).
Take usage decision for the source inspection results (Transaction QA11).

Post GRN (Transaction MIGO).

Inspection lot is created & stock posted to inspection depending on the settings in
material master & quality info record).
Check the material & post the inspection results (Transaction - QE51N). Take usage
decision & post the stock to required stock type (Transaction QA11).

3) Process for Inprocess inspection -

Create &release Production order (Transaction - CO01)

Post the operation results (Transaction - CO11N)

Post the quality inspection results (Transaction QE51N)

Take usage decision (Transaction - QA11)

Confirm Production Order

4) Process for Sales & Distribution -

Create Sale Order (Tranaction - VA01)

Create delivery (transaction - VL01N) when material is ready

Inspection lot is generated. Post inspection results (QE51N)

Take usage decision (QA11)

Post the goods issue (VL02N)

Inspection Processing

Following are the steps in the process flow of inspection processing -

Process Flow

u2022 Inspection lot Creation

u2022 Selection of Inspection Specs

u2022 Sample Drawing

u2022 Actual Inspection

u2022 Results Recording

u2022 Defects Recording

u2022 Usage Decision

u2022 Goods Movement

u2022 Information Management System

Inspection Lot Creation - Inspection processing begins with the creation of inspection lot,
which can be created manually or automatically. There are several functions to be carried
out that will create and prepare an inspection lot for processing. Inspection lot gets
created as a result of goods movement like goods receipt from Vendor, Goods receipt
from Production, Goods issue to Customer.......................

Selection of Inspection Specs - As the inspection lot is created an inspection specification

gets assigned to it. An inspection specification should be assigned to inspection lot if you
want to enter results and take Usage Decision. Inspection specification can be assigned
manually by user or automatically by system. There are different criteria considered
during inspection specification assignment like the inspection type, inspection lot origin,
Material-Vendor-Plant combination.........................

Sample Drawing - Relevant sampling procedures are selected, Once the inspection
specification is assigned to the inspection lot the sample size is to be calculated for the
inspection lot. Calculation of sample size can be done manually or automatically. The
system can only calculate the sample size automatically if you use an inspection
specification to inspect the goods in the inspection lot.

Actual inspection - Inspection method and equipments are selected.

Results Recording - Results of Characteristics are recorded. Recording and processing of

results for inspection characteristics are carried out. Results recording will be based on
Characteristics. The recorded results data will be used for all documentation and
evaluation for Quality Control Purposes.

Defects Recording - Defects found during inspection are recorded. A defect is any
property or attribute of a material, product or process that does not meet the inspection
characteristic specifications. You record the defects with the help of predefined defect
codes maintained in the inspection catalogs. Once a defect record has been created, it is
saved in the system as a quality notification. A quality notification is a system-supported
problem message that you can use to process different types of problems relating to
poor-quality goods or services.

Usage Decision - Decision on Accept/ Reject is recorded. With the Usage Decision we
decide if the material is OK/ not OK.
Goods Movement - After the Usage Decision the material under inspection is released
and posted to Unrestricted/ Blocked Use.

List of Masters in QM -

u2022 Material Master (QM View)

u2022 Inspection Plan

u2022 Q-Info Record

u2022 Inspection Methods

u2022 Master Inspection Characteristics

u2022 Catalogs / Code Groups / Codes

u2022 Sampling Procedures / Sampling Schemes

u2022 Dyanamic Modification Rule

u2022 Equipment Master

u2022 Calibration Plan

u2022 Equipment / General Task List

Quality Management in Procurement

Welcome to the QM-PROC page. Quality department can influence or control the
following activities when materials are procured from external suppliers. It supports the
procurement activities by means of functions such as:

u2022 Vendor Evaluation

u2022 Vendor Block

u2022 Vendor Release for requests for quotation and purchase orders

u2022 Assigning technical delivery terms and quality assurance agreements

u2022 Certificate processing

u2022 Status administration of the supply relationships

u2022 Incoming Inspections

u2022 Goods Receipt Inspections

Using the functions of the QM in Procurement component, you can:

u2022 Manage quality-related information for materials, vendors, and manufacturers in

quality info records

u2022 Release or block vendors and manufacturers

u2022 Monitor the QM systems of vendors and manufacturers

u2022 Supply quality documents with requests for quotations and purchase orders

u2022 Evaluate vendors on the basis of quality

u2022 Certify vendors or manufacturers that have QM systems implemented, to reduce

the inspection requirement

u2022 Manage and release supply relationships

u2022 Request that quality certificates be submitted with the delivered goods and monitor
the receipt of these certificates

u2022 Inspect vendor goods at vendor sites (source inspections)

u2022 Inspect vendor goods upon receipt (goods receipt inspections)

u2022 Manage the posted goods in inspection stock

u2022 Block the payment of invoices until the goods have been inspected and accepted

u2022 Process goods receipt inspections for manufacturer-specific materials

u2022 Inspect goods that have been externally processed when they are returned in a
goods receipt

The vendor may be required to comply with the technical delivery terms and the quality
assurance agreements when a quotation is made. If one of the required documents is not
available or not released when a purchase order is opened, the function is blocked.
If technical delivery terms are indicated for a material or if a quality assurance agreement
exists for a material-vendor combination, the long text is printed out (without attached
application files) when the purchase order is created.

When the purchase order is placed, the vendor must be released for delivery of the
relevant material by the quality department, if this was required. Release of this supply
relationship can be restricted to a defined validity period and a maximum delivery

When the goods are ordered, you can stipulate that a certificate is required from the
vendor of the material, in addition to compliance with technical delivery terms and quality
assurance agreements. If a certificate was not supplied although required, the goods are
either posted to blocked stock (if an inspection lot is not generated) or a corresponding
status is set in the inspection lot. Receipt of the certificate must be confirmed at the latest
when the usage decision is made.

Vendor Release - Limits Period/ Quantity, Model, Prototypes, Series.

Vendor Inquiry - Includes Technical Delivery Terms, Notify buyer of Inspection


Vendor Selection - Quality Rating and Quality System.

Purchase Order - Technical delivery Terms, QA Agreement, Certificate Requirment.

Source Inspection - Inspection Lot Creation intime for receiving date.

Inspection for Goods Receipt - Certificate - PO Item, Batch, Goods Receipt, Inspection
Lot Creation, Sample drawing instruction/ Inspection Instruction

Inspection Completion - Usage/ Stock Posting, Withdrawal from inspection stock from
inspection stock, Change Vendor Status.

Follow Up Control - Quality Notification, Letter to Vendor

Quality Information Record

If a quality assurance agreement or a vendor release is required for a material, you must
create a quality information record (quality info record). The quality info record determines
how the material can be processed further. When a quotation or purchase order is
created, the system checks whether a quality info record is required and available for the
combination of material and vendor. The system also checks whether the vendor and
material-vendor combination is blocked or released for quotations, purchase orders
and/or goods receipt. The execution of this check depends on the setting of the QM in
procurement control key in the material master. The quality info record displays a vendor
block specified in the vendor master, the vendor's QM system, and the lock date.

Vendor Master Record

The vendor master contains information about the vendors a company uses. This
information is contained in individual vendor master records. In addition to the name and
address of a vendor, the vendor master record also contains the vendor number and
information about the currency and terms of payment that apply to the vendor. In certain
cases, you may want block the procurement of goods from a certain vendor (for example,
if he delivers poor-quality products). You can block a vendor for quality reasons in two

In the vendor master record - The vendor block applies to all materials and plants

In the Q-info record - The vendor block applies to a specific material and plant

For procurement and purchasing functions, the system first checks the vendor master
record to determine if the vendor is blocked from these functions. If the vendor is not
blocked, the system checks the parameters in the Q-info record, if necessary. The
settings in the Q-info record are only checked if a vendor release or quality assurance
agreement is specified in the material master record via the control key for QM in

Quality Management in Production

Welcome to the QM-PROD page.

During the production process it may be necessary to check the quality at different points
or at different intervals or as a result of certain actions. There may be inspections during
the process of production within the operation to proceed for next operation or not,
inspection at the end of production. With QM-Production we can process the inspection
during the production. Following are the QM tasks in prodution -

u2022 Integration of inspection planning in production operations

u2022 Controlling inspections during production

u2022 Statistical process control

u2022 Defining and valuating batches

u2022 Processing internal problem notifications

The R/3 quality inspection functions are fully integrated in the logistics processes. An
inspection lot has to be created for a quality inspection to take place. Inspection lots are
fully integrated in the logistics supply chain. The inspection characteristics in Quality
Management (QM) are integrated in the work scheduling (Material Master view) and
production processing functions (routing operations) of the Production Planning (PP)

Inspection Point -

An inspection point is an identifiable record of inspection results that is assigned to a

work or inspection operation. Several inspection points can be assigned to an inspection
operation. With inspection points, you can have several inspections and can record
multiple sets of characteristic results for an operation. Using inspection points for an
inspection during production, we can do the following:

u2022 Inspect materials at regular intervals

u2022 Time-based intervals (for example, an inspection point every hour or for each work

u2022 Quantity-based intervals (for example, an inspection point for each container)

u2022 Freely-defined intervals (for example, an inspection point each time a tool change

u2022 Record inspection results for each inspection point (for example, for each
container or work shift) and valuate each inspection point with a "usage decision"

Assign a produced quantity to each inspection point and allocate the inspection point
quantities to partial lots. It is recommended that you allocate inspection points with the
same usage decision to partial lots. This allows you to manage partial quantities that
differ in quality. In this way, you can monitor the production process continuously with
respect to the inspection characteristics.

Inspection Points for Inspections During Production

If you inspect during production using routings, rate routings or master recipes and you
want to record inspection results in specific intervals, choose the inspection point type
Free inspection points in production.

Inspection Points in Goods Receipt

If you carry out goods receipt inspections with inspection points, choose the inspection
point type Free inspection points in production.

Inspection Points in Sample Management

If you use the sample management functions in a goods receipt inspection, or inspection
during production with planned physical samples, each sample number is uniquely
identified by an inspection point. Choose the inspection point type Physical sample.

In the task list header (of application components PP and PI), you can set detail levels for
assigning the produced quantities.

At the first and most detailed level ("Partial lots not supported"), the produced partial
quantities are assigned to the inspection points, for which inspection results are also

At the second detail level ("Partial lot for each inspection point"), the partial quantities that
were assigned to the inspection points are combined into partial lots.

At the third detail level ("Partial lot and batch for each insp. point"), the partial lots are
collected in batches.

Inspection Lot Creation

When a production order is released, the system creates an inspection lot record to
manage the inspection specifications and inspection results for all operations. When a
Goods Receipt is taken from production or process order the Inspection lot gets created.
'03' inspection lot for inprocess inspection, '04' inspection lot for Receipt from Production.

Recording inspection results for an inspection point

When you record inspection results in QM, you can also confirm the operations in the PP
component. This can occur automatically. You can confirm the inspection point quantities
in PP in the form of a partial or final confirmation. If you want to confirm additional data in
production planning (in addition to the inspection point quantities and target activities),
you can call up a dialog box for a detailed confirmation. In this dialog box, you can record
such information as actual times or personnel-related data. You can also record defects.

Inspection completion

When you process partial lots and confirm an inspection point, the system automatically
proposes a "usage decision" for each partial lot based on the inspection point valuation.
You can change the proposed code within the predefined code group. The usage
decision for the inspection lot confirms that all inspections have been completed or that
the production order has been completed from a QM standpoint. To make the usage
decision for the inspection lot, you can define a job that makes automatic usage
decisions at predefined intervals, once the orders have been completed.

Proposed quantity for a goods receipt from production

The inspection point quantities for the last QM-relevant operation are proposed for the
goods receipt posting for the order. Only the quantities confirmed to PP as a yield or
rework quantities are taken into consideration.

Quality Management in Sales & Distribution

Welcome to the QM-SD page.

Quality Management in Sales and Distribution involves in creating Quality Certificates,

inspecting the deliveries, Processing complaints and returns processing.The R/3 Quality
Management (QM) component supports the SD processes at various stages. Typical
process flows which involve QM are from the sales order and production to delivery and

In Make to Order Production the characteristics required by the customer are specified in
the configuration in the sales order. The limits that are used for inspection are based on
the configuration. When goods are shipped, a certificate can be included to document
that the goods comply with the customer specification.

In Make to Stock production the product is manufactured and inspected according to your
own specifications. Batch determination during fulfilling sales order or delivery can be
done according to customer specific requirements. When goods are shipped, a certificate
can be included to document that the goods comply with the customer specification.

Complaints and Returns processing - The complaints can be represented in a Quality

Notification, a link to workflow helps to process the complaints. If the goods are returned
an inspection can be done at the receipt. Different follow up actions can take place
depending on the inspection results.

Quality Certificates - An agreement between the vendor and customer can stipulate that
the certificate must be included with the delivered goods. The certificate confirms that the
delivered goods meet the customer requirements.

Certificate management is divided into Planning and processing phases.

Certificate planning allows you to flexibly structure your certificates. You plan the layout
and content of the certificate. Control data is available for information such as lot
selection, data origin, and inspection results.

Certificate processing can be automated (takes place without any input from the person
responsible for processing). The certificate for a delivery item is processed during the
output determination procedure in SD. If required, you can also create a certificate
manually for a batch or inspection lot (without reference to a delivery).

Certificate Profile -

To create certificates, you define certificate profiles which are based on standard
certificates and forms such as:

- Certificates of analysis

- Works test certificates

- Source inspection certificate

The certificate profile predefines the data that appears on the certificate.

You can assign certificate profiles at different levels. You set these levels in Customizing.
The standard settings include: Material/ship-to party, material, goods group. Certificate
profiles can either be of a special or general nature. The option of setting a level in
Customizing allows you to control the printing of certificates specific to a customer and
material. You can have general certificate profiles, if a group of materials has the same
inspection characteristics and if the same type of certificate is to be produced for these
characteristics. When a certificate is created, the system starts to search for the special
certificate profile entries.

A certificate must also contain all characteristic data that is collected during a multi-stage
production process.
The characteristic data from materials in the production chain can relate to:

Raw materials

Semi-finished products

Finished products


Universal batch management

Update of the batch where-used list

The batch where-used list helps you identify which batches were actually used in the
production process. The where-used list tracks the batch, using the Inventory
Management functions. From the initial posting through to deletion from inventory, each
batch has its own document journal. In addition, links between batches across all
manufacturing levels through to the sales order and batch splits are logged.

Batch determination in sales can take place at the following times:

When a sales order is created, the system can search for a suitable batch. If the search is
successful, the batch number is passed on to delivery and warehouse management. If it
is not successful, this task is left to the subsequent functions.If the batch is not
determined until the delivery stage, a batch split can take place. If a suitable batch is
found, the batch number is transferred to warehouse management.

If you use batch determination in sales for a transaction, you must have created a
strategy record. This record contains typical fields (such as, customer or material) for the
appropriate transaction. The record is classified by a selection class, allowing you to store
the required entries for this transaction as a characteristic value. In the batch
determination process, the classification of the batch records is compared with that of the
strategy record. The search is successful if matching records are found. If the search is
not successful, you must change your search entries and start the batch determination
process again. The characteristic values are default values that you can change or
exclude from the search.

Quality Inspection for Delivery

The Quality Management (QM) component supports the Sales and Distribution (SD)
component by processing quality inspections for goods issues.
The quality inspection for a delivery is necessary to check the quality of a material or
product before it leaves the premises of the manufacturer or vendor.

Usually, the department responsible for quality assurance at the manufacturing company
performs a quality inspection to ensure that the goods are in perfect condition before they
are sent to the customer. The QM inspection is activated in the material master. If a
delivery for a material is created in SD, QM automatically generates an inspection lot for
the delivery items relevant for inspection. The inspection lot is a request to the quality
assurance department to inspect the goods. The inspection result can be stored in the
system in different ways. If the goods are damaged, defect records can be created.
Measured values or valuation codes are stored as characteristic values. You plan the
type of inspection and how it is to take place in the QM master data. The usage decision
completes a QM inspection. The inspected goods are accepted for use, or rejected. This
is referred to as the 'Acceptance' or 'Rejection' of an inspection lot.

If the 'QM control data in SD' is set so that goods are only shipped after inspection
completion, a positive usage decision must be made for an inspection lot before the
goods issue can be posted. Therefore, only goods that have been accepted in a QM
inspection can be dispatched. When an inspection is performed parallel to shipping, the
goods issue does not necessarily have to wait until the usage decision has been made
and the goods have been accepted. Quality control can also release the inspection result
after the goods have been issued. An 'inspection by the customer' is not represented in
our system; no inspection lot is created. Customers perform a source inspection of our
goods at their own premises.

The 'usage indicator' can be set in the header or the item for the sales order. It describes
whether this is a regular supply to the customer, or whether the goods are intended for a
specific purpose. If the customer defines deliveries for different usages, the QM system
can react with various inspection plans: For a model delivery, different characteristics may
have to be inspected before the delivery than for a regular delivery of the same material.

The following dependencies can be set between QM and SD:

An inspection can be performed in different ways, depending on the usage indicator from
the sales order.

The QM inspection can be expected before or during the goods delivery. If an inspection
lot is rejected, you can prevent the goods issue from being delivered if necessary.