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References :-

1 Hansen V. E. Israelsen O.W. , Stringham G. E. , " Irrigation Principle

And Practices " ; 1979 , John Wiley & Sons , New York .

2 Pencol Engineering Consultants " Design Manual For Irrigation And

Drainage " ; 1983 , Ministry Of Irrigation Of Iraq .

3 Michael A.M. " Irrigation Theory And Practices " ; 1900 ,Vikas

Publishing House PVT LTD , India .

. 1811 " " . 4

Zaid Ahmed N. 1 Civil Engineering


Contents :-

1 Irrigation .

2 Soil-Water Relations .

3 Measurement Of Soil Moisture .

4 Flow Of Water Into And Through Soils .

5 Water Requirement .

6 Irrigation Efficiencies .

7 Consumptive Use .

8 Water Duty .

9 Conveyance Of Irrigation And Drainage Water .

10 Water Application Method ( Field Irrigation ) .

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1 - Irrigation :-
Irrigation defined :
Irrigation generally is defined as the application of water to soil for the purpose
of supplying the moisture essential for plant growth .

Purpose of Irrigation :-

1 - To add water to soil to supply the moisture essential for plant growth .

2 - To provide crop insurance against short duration of droughts .

3 - To cool the soil and atmosphere , thereby , making more favorable environment
for plant growth .

4 - To wash out or dilute salts in the soil .

5 - To reduce the hazard of soil piping .

6 - To soften tillage pans and clods .

7 - To reduce the hazard of frost .

Irrigation may be accomplished in four different ways :-


1 - By flooding .

2 - By means of furrows , large or small .

3 - By applying water underneath the land surface through sub-irrigation , thus ,


causing the water table to rise .

4 - By sprinkling or drip .

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Source of irrigation water :

A - Precipitation

B - Atmospheric water other than precipitation .

C - Flood water .

D - Ground water .

A - Precipitation :
To be of greatest benefit , Precipitation should have the following characteristics :

1 - Amounts should be sufficient to replace moisture deplete from the root zone .

2 - Frequency should be often enough to replenish the soil moisture before plants
suffer from lake of moisture .

3 - Intensity (
) should be low enough so that water can be absorbed by the
soil .

B - Atmospheric water other than precipitation :

The atmospheric conditions which generally prevail to make this source of water
significant are :

1 - Considerable dew formation .

2 - Fog and clouds .

3 - High humidity .

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C - Flood water :
Flood water is similar in some respects to irrigation water , but it's not supplied
by man . as floods pass over the surface of the land , water is absorbed by the soil
and stored for subsequent use by plants .

D - Ground water :
Ground water is water beneath the soil surface where voids in the soil
substantially filled with water . upward movement of ground water by capillarity
from the water table into the root zone can be a major source of water for plant
growth .

If ground water is within the normal root zone , it's definitely restricts plant
growth .
If ground water is too near the surface that land's ability to economically produce
most crops becomes almost nil .
However , a water table within the lower portion of the root zone may supply a
considerable amount of water and thereby reduce the coast of irrigation more than it
offsets the loss of production . the optimum depth of the water table is that depth
which gives the maximum economic return .
The optimum depth of the water table is that depth within the lower portion of
the root zone .

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2 Soil-Water Relations :
Root zone : is the depth overburden that penetrated by the roots vegetation .

Root Zone ( 1.5 - 1 ) m

( 1.8 - 0.6 ) m (1.8 m) Sugar cone , (1.2 m) maize , (0.9 m) wheat


Soil Profile Intermediate Zone
(0.6 m) fine . . . Table (7.5)

Capillary Zone
W.T

Ground Water

Impervious Large

This root zone should have the following properties :

1 - be well irrigation .

2 - be free from harmful salt .

3 - have plants organic matter .

4 - be well aeration .

Soil classified into four parts :


Va Air Wa = 0
1 - Mineral part ( clay , silt , sand ) .
Vw Ww
v Water w
2 - Organic matter .
Vs Solid Ws

3 - Soil water .

4 - Soil air .

When the soil is saturated with water , volume of air equal zero .
When the soil is dry , volume of water equal zero .

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Physical Properties That Effect On Irrigation Water :
1 - Soil Texture :
It's the property of soil which depends on the size of particles . Soil can be
classified according to ( USDA ) ( U.S. Department Of Agriculture ) :

Soil Diameter ( mm )
Gravel >2
Very coarse sand 2-1
Coarse sand 1 - 0.5
Medium sand 0.5 - 0.25
Fine sand 0.25 - 0.1
Very fine sand 0.1 - 0.05
Silt 0.05 - 0.002
Clay < 0.002

For soil with small particles ( fine texture ) ( such as clay ) swelling , cracks ,
shrinkage , high capillary pore space , high water holding capacity ( W.H.C. ) .
For soil with large particle ( coarse texture ) ( such as sand ) non- capillary pore
space , low ( W.H.C. ) , well drainage , well aeration .

2 - Soil Structure :

It's the property of soil which depends on the arrangement of the soil particles .
structure of soil effect on : Porosity , aeration , ( W.H.C. ) , permeability .

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3 - Apparent Specifics Gravity ( AS ) :

The apparent specific gravity of a soil is defined as the ratio of the weight of a
given volume of dry soil , air space included , to the weight of an equal volume of
water . This ratio is known also as the " the volume weight " or " bulk density "
whereas apparent specific gravity is a dimension less quantity , being weight of soil
per weight of water . It influenced by structure , texture and compactness . Also it
effected on permeability and ( W. H. C. ) .
air

= = @@@@@
. Water = Solid

4 - Real Specific Gravity ( Rs ) :

The real specific gravity of a soil is dimensionless quantity and is defined as the
ratio of the weight of a single soil particle to the weight of a volume of water equal
to the volume of the particle of soil .

- The specific gravity ( Rs ) of the common soil - forming minerals varies from ( 2.5 )
to more than ( 5 ) .

- Rs of soils which have a low percentage of organic matter varies but little 2.65.

- Some irrigated soils , which are formed largely of organic matter , have a real specific
gravity ( 1.5 - 2.0 ) depending on the amount of mineral matter present .

weight of solid Ws
Rs = =
weight of water s Vs

@@@@@

Zaid Ahmed N. 1 Civil Engineering


5 - Pore Space ( porosity ) ( n ) :

The term porosity , equivalent of pore space is defined as the ratio of the volume
of voids ( air - and water - filled space ) to the total volume of soil plus water and
air.
In general , coarse - textured , gravelly and sandy soils have a smaller percentage
of total pore space and fine texture clay loams and clays have a greater percentage .
It is not usual in irrigated soils for the pore space to vary from ( 35 - 55 ) % @@@@

= 100 ( 1 )

n = the percentage pore space .

As = the apparent specific gravity .

Rs = the real specific gravity , approximately 2.65 of most agricultural soils .

It effect on ( W. H. C. ) , movement of air , water , and roots through the soil .


= 100


= 100 = (1 ) 100



= (1 ) 100 = 100 ( 1 )


= =
+

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6 - Infiltration :

A property of soils , of great importance to irrigation , is the time rate at which


water percolate into soil , or rate of infiltration . It is influenced by soil properties
and also by moisture gradient .

7 - Intake :

The rate of infiltration from a furrow into the soil is referred to as the intake rate
. Intake rate is therefore influenced by furrow size and shape .

8 - Permeability :

Is the velocity of water flow through the pore space caused by a given force .

9 - Depth Of Soil :

The importance of having an adequate depth of soiling which to store satisfactory


amounts of irrigation water at each irrigation should be emphasized .
Excessive deep percolation losses usually occur when shallow soils overlying
coarse-texture , highly permeable sands and gravels are irrigated . Deep soils of
medium texture and loose structure permit plants to root deeply provide for storage
of large volumes of irrigation water in the soil .

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Soil Moisture Content
Samples of ( 100 ) or more grams of moist soils are kept in an oven having a
temperature of ( 105 - 110 ) , until the soil is free from moisture . The loss of weight
in drying divided by the weight of the water - free soil , yields the moisture percentage
on the dry - weight basis , represented by the simple ( Pw ) .

The moisture content can be find by :

1 - By dry weight

= 100 ( By dry weight )

Ex : Weight of moisture soil = ( 100 gm ) , weight of water - free soil = ( 80 gm ) ,


loss of weight in drying = ( 20 gm )

20
= ( ) = 25 % ) Pw (
8

2 - By Wet Weight :


= =( )

20
In above example the moisture percentage on the wet-weight basis is = 20% ( ).
100

3 - By Volume :

The percentage on a volume basis is defined as the volume of water per unit volume
of space within the body of soil .


= =( )

1 1 1
Ex : 4
ft3 air ,
4
ft3 water ,
2
ft3 solid soil .
1 1 1 1
= 25 % ( = 3 , = + + = 1 ) @@@@
4 2 4 4

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4 - By Depth :

=
100

or :


d=
100

D = depth of root zone ( depth of soil )

d = depth of water irrigation

As = Apparent specific gravity


= 100 = 100 = 100

It is therefore desirable to convert dry - weight basis moisture percentages ( Pw )


to volume percentage ( Pv ) .
Pv = Pw As

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Classes And Availability Of Soil Water

1 - Hygroscopic Water : its the water on the surface of soil grains and isn't capable
of movement by the action of gravity or capillary forces .

2 - Capillary Water : its that part in excess of the hygroscopic water which exists
in the pore space of the soil and is retained against the force of gravity in soil that
permits unobstructed drainage .

3 - Gravitational Water : it's that part in excess of hygroscopic and capillary water
which will move out of the soil if favorable drainage is provided .

The proportion of each class depends on soil texture , structure , organic matter
content , temperature , and depth of soil column considered .
Water may also be classified as ( unavailable , available ) and gravitational or
superfluous .
Hydraulic Water Particle

Capillary Water Gravitational Water

Gravitational water : It's the water that drains quickly from the root zone under
normal drainages conditions .
1) Unavailable water : It's the water held too tightly by capillary forces and is
generally not accessible to plant roots .
2) Available water : It's the difference between gravitational and available water .

Field Capacity ( F. C ) :
It's the moisture content of soil when gravitational water has been removed . In
practice , field capacity is usually determined ( 2 ) days after an irrigation .
For coarse texture 1 day is used
To drain gravitational water
For fine texture > 4 days is used
Zaid Ahmed N. 13 Civil Engineering
Wilting point ( W. P ) :

The soil - moisture content when plants wilt is called the wilting point .

Wilting point can be divided into :

A - Permanent Wilding Point :

It's the lower end of the available moisture rang or the soil - moisture content
when plants permanently wilt . As an approximation , the permanent wilting
percentage can be estimated@@dividing ( F.C ) by factor ( 2 - 2.4 ) depending upon
the amount of silt in the soil for soils of high silt content ( 2.4 ) should be used .

B - Temporary wilting point :

It's the wilting which occur in many crops on a hot windy day , but the plants
recover in the cooler porti@@@ng of the day .

Permanent wilting , as well as temporary wilting , depends upon :

1 - The rate of water used by the plants .

2 - The depth of the root zone .

3 - W. H. C .

Available Moisture ( Available water ) ( Aw ) :

The difference in moisture content of the soil between field capacity ( F.C ) and
permanent wilting is termed the available moisture . Available moisture can be
expressed as percentage moisture ( Pw ) , as percentage ( Pv ) , or as depth ( d ) .

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Readily Available Moisture ( RAW ) :

Soil moisture content near the wilting point isn't readily available to the plant .
Hence , the term readily available moisture has been used to refer to that portion of
the available moisture that is most easily @@@@@ .

Saturation

Gravitational Water
Rapid Drainage

Field Capacity ( F.C )

Available water Capillary Water


Moisture Slow Drainage

Permanent Wilting ( W.P )

Hygroscopic Water
Unavailable water Essentially No Drainage
Moisture

Fig - Classes of soil-water availability to plants and draining characteristics

F.C G.W

Raw = dn
A.w = 0.75 Aw
W.P

0
H.w

@@@@@

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Percentage Of Allowable Depletion ( P. A. D. ) :

It's the percentage of available moisture which can be used by plant : @@@@@


. . = 100


. . =

Use ( P. A. D. ) = 50 % when no information .

Ex : Given a loam soil of ( 1.3 m ) deep , it's weight ( 2.9 N ) and it's dry weight (
2.5 N ) . If it's ( F.C = 35 % ) by volume and wilting point = 10 % by volume , As
= 1.4 Find :

1 - Available water ( in mm )

2 - The actual depth of water needed of water irrigation ( dn ) .

Ans : 35 % by Vol.
dn = ?
10 % by Vol. 22.4%
2 - = 100

0
Zero content
2.92.5
= 100 = 1.6 % by weight
2.5

To convert by volume Pv = Pw As = 1.6 % 1.4 = 22.4 % by vol.

Aw . = . . = ( 35 10 ) % = 25 % .

Aw = 25 % 1300 = 325 mm

2 - dn = ( F.C - IAw )% D = ( 35 - 22.4 ) % 1300 = 164 mm

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Ex : Given a root zone of ( 1.2 m ) depth , the soil is sandy clay . The initial moisture
content is 7 % by weight . Find : the required irrigation ( dn ) depth if As = 1.4
, F. C = 22 % by wt. .

Ans :

Moisture content by wt.

Pw = F. C - Initial moisture content ( IAw )

Pw = ( 22 - 7 ) % = 15 % by wt.

Moisture content by vol. Pv = Pw As = 15 % 1.4 = 21 %

Moisture content by depth dn = Pv D = 21 % 1200 = 252 mm

Zaid Ahmed N. 17 Civil Engineering


3 - Measurement Of Soil Moisture :-
1 - Appearance And Feel Of Soil Indicate Moisture Content :

One of the oldest and most widely used methods of estimating soil moisture
content is to look at the soil and to feel it . Using the soil auger , samples of soil
usually can be obtained readily throughout the root zone of the soil .

Table ( 4.1 - 79 ) , ( 8.1 - 69 ) can be used as a guide for judging how much
available moisture has been removed from the soil and consequently , how much must
be added during the irrigation period . ( Greater accuracy isn't needed )

2 - Gravimetric Determination Of Moisture :

Soil moisture using this method can be determination by weighing the soil before
and after drying in an oven. This method for primary measurement, ( disadv. 1 ) chiefly
limited in its usefulness by the time required to collect samples and dry theme in an
oven . ( disadv. 2 ) Usually ( 24 h ) are required for drying . simples of about ( 200 gm )
are most often used so that they will dry in a reasonable time and with reasonable
uniformity . ( disadv. 3 ) Such small samples natural may not be , and usually are not ,
representative of large areas . Hence , several samples must be used to obtain
satisfactory representative indication of moisture content :

= 100 = 100 @@@@@

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Ex : Ws = 0.98 N , V = 70 3 , W = 1.22 N , Rs = 2.65 , Vw = ? , n = ?
0.98 106
Ans : = = = 1.43
. 70 9800

1.43
=(1 ) 100 = ( 1 ) = 47 %
2.65

= , = = 1.22 0.98 = 0.24

0.24 0.24 106
9800 = , = = 24.5 3
9800
3
3
Ex : As = 1.3 , t = ? , F.C = 27.2 % by wt. , W.P = 19 % by wt , Q = 7510

A= 12 Mishara , D = 92 cm
Ans :
. = 27.2 1.3 = 35.36 % .
= . = 27.2 19 = 8.2 %
8.2
= 1.3 0.92 = 9.8
100
9.8
= , = 12 2500 = 2940 3
100

2940
= = 39200 = 10.89
75 103

Ex : Given a certain soil with As = 1.3 , W.P = 19 % by wt. , Area = 12 Mish. ,


D = 92 cm . Find the time required to irrigation this water to reach F.C = 27.2 % by
3
wt. , if the discharge of pump is 75 103

* Care must be exercised not to over dry the soil . and burn out the organic matter
( disadvantage = may be burn the organic matter )

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3 - Using Electrical Properties Of A Porous Block :

Porous blocks containing desired electrical elements are placed into the soil . As
the moisture content of the blocks change, the electrical properties change .

Dr.G.J. Bouyoucos developed a gypsum block in which two electrodes of straight


wire were embedded . Moisture in this block tends to become in equilibrium with
moisture in the soil . As the moisture increases , the amount of gypsum in solution
increases and the resistance between the wires decreases .

Other materials have been used for making blocks ( nylon , fiber glass and
combinations of these materials with gypsum ) .
Nylon units are most sensitive at tensions ( < 2 atm ) .
Gypsum blocks operate best at tensions ( 1 - 15 ) atm .
Gypsum blocks are soluble and deteriorate in ( 1 - 3 ) seasons of use since it
is less sensitive to soil salts .
Nylon and Fiber glass units are more sensitive than gypsum blocks at high
moisture content and low tension condition .

Electrods

Resistance

Meter

Block
Pw

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4 - Tensiometers :

A tensiometers consists of porous cup filled with water and attached to a vacuum
gauge or mercury manometer . A hole is bored or dug in the soil to a desired depth , a
handful of loose soil is placed into the hole , and the cup pushed firmly into the soil
. Additional soil is packed around the cup and around the tube wherever necessary
to insure firm contact with the soil . A temporary connection is soon established
between the water inside the cup and the water in the soil outside . As water moves
out of the cup because of the suction or tension existing in the soil water , the vacuum
created in the cup is registered on the gauge . Conversely , an increase of water in the
soil will lower the tension , water will move into the cup , and the gauge will read
less tension .

These units operate satisfactory only when tensions < 0.8 atm
They are most useful in sandy soils .

Vacuum Gage
( Negative Pressure )

Porous
Cup

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5 - Neutron Method Of Measuring Soil Moisture :

In this method fast neutrons are emitted from a source into the surrounding soil
. The fast neutrons are slowed down by the water . The resulting slow neutrons
which reach the counting tube are recorded . Fast neutrons arent registered by the
counter . The greater the water content of the soil , the greater the number of slow
neutrons reaching the counting tube . Hydrogen is the principle element which
absorbs fast neutrons . Since water is the principle source of hydrogen in the soil ,
there exist a very good . Correlation between the amount of water in the soil and the
number of slow neutrons reaching the counter . In practice , a hole is dug with a
auger , and a metal tube is driving into the hole to retain@@ the soil . The neutron
source and counting device are placed within the hole and lowered to the desired
depth .

( disadv. ) Some minerals , as well as Boron and Chlorine , also absorb fast
neutrons and thus influence the reading .

`
Rate Meter

Metal Tube

Neutrons
Source

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4 Flow Of Water Into & Through Soils :-
Energy in flowing water :

Energy is defined as capacity to do work . In fluids , energy may be in two forms :-

1 - Kinetic energy .

2 - Potential energy .

a - Energy resulting from pressure differences .

b - Energy resulting from elevation differences .

The combined energy can be represented by the following form of the widely used
Bernoulli equation :-

2
= + +
2

2
+
2

2
Since the velocity through soils is very small , the kinetic energy ( ) is even
2

smaller and can usually be ignored . Hence :-

P
H= +

When the flow occurs in soils , the equations are similar but are simplified
because of the negligible kinetic energy . Hence , the Darcy - Weisbach equation ,
shown earlier as :-

L 2
H = . .
D 2

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Is used in the following form known as the Darcy eq. :-


=. ( )

L
K : soil permeability ( ) . :stop of the Piezometric headline .
T L
Using the value of ( V ) from Darcy equation in :

= .

= . .

A = is the gross area at right angles to the flow direction .
Darcy's low for velocity of flow can be used for saturated and unsaturated soils .

Soil - permeability measurement ( K ) :


Two of the many types of equipment for measuring permeability are the constant
- head and variable - head permeameters .
1 - constant - Head permeameter :
With a constant head , steady flow through the soil is obtained .

Water Feed Over Flow Graduate for


measure
water added
Wat Constant
Canal
Hf Bed
Soil L Hf Water
Out
Soil L

Graduat Porous Disk b) Field


a) Laboratory
) Q (

.
= * Used for loam , and sandy soil .
.

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2 - Variable - Head Permeameter :
The variable - head permeameter is adapted to the measurement of permeability
of fine texture , compact soil of low permeability . It consist of a cylinder with a
conical top to which is attached a vertical glass tube of small diameter . The cylinder
is pressed into the soil to a known depth , and then the whole apparate@@@ is filled
with water . As the water percolates through the disk of soil in the cylinder , the
water in the glass tube drops .

2.3 L 1 1
= log10 ( or = . . ln )
2 2

a = area of glass tube .


A = area of cylinder .
t = time interval ( ) .
h1 = initial reading .
h2 = final reading ,
Inflow Water Variable

Valve

h1
L h2 Soil Sample

Porous Disk

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Infiltration :-
The factors effected on the infiltration :
1 - Texture and structure .
2 - Soil compaction .
3 - Soil cracking .
4 - Soil water ( salt and sediment ) .
Method of measurement of infiltration :
Kostakov - equation :

Time Time Accumulative Depth Depth Accumulative


( min ) Difference Time ( cm ) Difference Depth
t 0 d 0
+ +
t1-t t1-t d1-d d1-d
t1 + d1 +
t3-t2 t3-t d3-d2 d3-d
t2 + d2 +
t3-t2 t3-t d3-d2 d3-d
t3 d3

Normal
Paper
Accumulative
Depth

Accumulative Time

= .

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Accumulative m
Depth z z
x y
Depend on x
C
Type of Soil
Accumulative Time

((Log - Paper ))


=+ = ( = tan = )

= + ( =) ( =)

= +

= . ( )

= ( = )

<1

Instantaneous Infiltration ( Iins ) :


=

1
= . = 1 < 0 = .


It's unit ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , ( )

Average Infiltration ( Iav ) :

.
= = = . 1 d = dn ( )

Zaid Ahmed N. 27 Civil Engineering


Example : A farm of 2500 m2 is irrigated by 300 m3 of water from a farm gate to
fill it's effective root zone which has1 m deep to its field capacity if PAD = 50 % ,
W.P = 10 by vol. Find :


1- The time needed for irrigation if = 12 0.6 ( )

2- F.C % by vol.

300
1-= == 2500
= 0.12

= 0.12 = 12 =
F.C
dn
= 15. 0.6 Aw
10 % by vol.
W.P

=

= ( 15. 0.6 )

0.4
12 1
12 = 15. =( )0.4 = 0.57
15
12
2 - =
0.5 =

= 24 ,

24
= 100 = 100 = 24 %
100


= 100 24 = 100 = 24 % .
100 100

. = % + . % = 24 + 10 = 34 % .

Zaid Ahmed N. 21 Civil Engineering


Example : A farm with area ( 50 60 ) 2 irrigated at a time ( 5 h ) in order to

reach field capacity , the effective root zone = 0.8 m , the relation of accume . depth
is given as = 22. 0.4 , ( t in hr ) , ( d in mm ) . If F.C = 30 % by vol. determine :-
1) The initial water content of the soil before irrigation in ( mm ) .

2) The amount of the added water during the irrigation .

Ans :

1 - = 22. 0.4 = 22. ( 5 )0.4 = 41.88

30
= 0.8 = 0.24 = 240 ( = . )
100 100

IAw ( initial Aw ) = F.C - dn = 240 - 41.88 = 198.12 mm

41.88
2 - = = 60 50 = 125.64 3
1000

F.C
dn

W.P
I Aw

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Ex : A soil has = 4.28 ( )0.7 ( ) was irrigated by a basin . The moisture

content before irrigation was ( 20 % ) by vol. . The F.C was ( 35 % by vol. ) . The
effective root zone = 1.2 m . Determine :-

1 - The time required to complete the irrigation .

2 - The amount of water after ( 1.5 hr ) from starting .

3 - Iins during ( 3 hr ) .

Ans :

= 4.28 ( )0.7 , = 20 % .

33 20
1 - . = 100 1200 = 396 , IAw = 100 1200 = 240 mm

= 396 240 = 156

= 4.28 0.7 156 = 4.28 0.7 = 170.2

2 - = 4.28 0.7 , = 4.28 ( 1.5 60 )0.7 = 99.87

99.87 2
3
= 1 = 0.09987 ) 1 m2 ( *
1000 1 2

3 - = 4.28 0.7 0.3


= 4.28 0.7 ( 3 60 )0.3 = 0.63

33% F.C
dn = 20%

I Aw W.P

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Ex : An infiltration experiment was applied on a silty soil of ( 1.3 m ) deep . The
accumulated depth was ( 70 mm ) after ( 2 hr ) and ( 120 mm ) after ( 4.5 hr ) . The
moisture content before irrigation was ( 25 % ) by vol. and ( 38 % ) just after
irrigation . Determine :-

1 - Iins in (
) 2 - The time required for irrigation

Ans :

= 70 = 2 = 120 = 4.5

= 25 % . , = 38 % .

= 1

70 = 2 ln 70 = ln + ln 2

120 = 4.5 ln 120 = ln + ln 4.5

= 0.665 120 = 4.50.665 = 44.148

= 44.148 0.665 0.335 t = time between 25% 38%

25
= 1300 = 325
100

38
= 1300 = 494
100

494 325 = 196 = 169 = 44.148 0.665


= 7.53 = 14.93

Zaid Ahmed N. 31 Civil Engineering


Water Requirement :

The total quantity and the way in which a crop requires water , from time its sown
to the time its harvested . Water requirement depend on :

1 - The climate .

2 - Type of soil .

3 - Method of cultivation .

4 - Method of irrigation .

= ( . ) + ( ) = ( ) @@@@@

= + = ( ( ) )

* WR = water required E.T = Evaporation Transportation

IR = Irrigation Water ER = Effective Rain

Gross Area And Net Area :

Gross area :

The area of irrigation project including Agriculture area , Industrial area , living area
etc. .

Net area :

The area which used actually for agriculture .

Net area = 0.8 gross area

Zaid Ahmed N. 32 Civil Engineering


Relation between time , discharge , depth , area :

= ,=

( QLc or dLc )
Seepage
Qg Qt
dLf

Or Farm River
(( Source ))
QLf Qn
Canal

Farm Gate Of
Gate Regulator

> >

= discharge of losses of canal .


dLc dt

= discharge of losses of farm . dLF dg

dn dn
= total discharge .

Total depth ( dt ) :

Is the depth of water diverted from the irrigation water source .

Gross depth ( dg ) :

Is the depth of water ( available depth ) applied at the farm gate .

Net depth ( dn ) :
Is the depth of water applied and stored in root zone a water available for plant .

Zaid Ahmed N. 33 Civil Engineering


= +

= +

= +

= +

. = . ( )

. = .

. = .
=
. = .
=
. = . =

. = . =

Irrigation Efficiencies ( IE ) :

1 - Conveyance Effici. ( Ec ) :

Is the percentage between the water applied from farm gate to the water diverted
from irrigation water source


= 100



= 100

Which depend on the seepage from canal , evaporation growth of plant in canal
( i .e . depend on losses from canal ) .
Zaid Ahmed N. 34 Civil Engineering
2 - Water Application Effici. ( Field Effici.) ( Ea ) :

Is the percentage between the net depth in the farm to the gross depth from farm
head gate . Or the percentage between the water stored in the soil root zone during
the irrigation and the water delivered to the farm .


= 100


= 100

In normal irrigation practice , surface irrigation efficiencies of application are in
the range of ( Ea = 60 % ) , whereas well . designee sprinkler irrigation systems are
generally considered to be approximately ( 75 % ) .

1 - Surface runoff from farm

2 - Deep percolation below the farm root zone soil .

Factors effecting on the efficiencies :

1 - Irregular land surface .



2 - Shallow soils under laid by gravels of high permeability .
3 - Small irrigation streams .

4 - Non - attendance of water during irrigation .

5 - Long irrigation runs .

6 - Excessive single applications .

All these factors contribute to large losses and low efficiency .

Zaid Ahmed N. 35 Civil Engineering


Factors Effecting On The Efficiencies :

1 - Type of soil increasing permeability decrease effici. .

2 - Type of crop and its growth .

3 - Ground water level and salt content .

4 - Method of irrigation .

Ex : water is diverted from a reservoir to an irrigation project through an earth canal


3 3
at a rate of (5 cumec ) (
) the seepage losses where estimate to be ( 0.1 ) and

the length of canal is ( 10 Km ) at the area of irrigation project ( 1000 Mish. ) . The
depth of water to be apply are stored is ( 10 cm ) and the water is delivered one day
per irrigation . What is the discharge ( Qg ) and ( Ea % ) and the discharge of losses
( QLf ) . Assuming the losses occurs at a half time .
Ans :

Ag = 1000 Mish = 5 = 0.1

Lc = 10 Km dn = 10 cm tg = 1 day

= 0.1 10 = 1

1 - = = 5 1 = 4

= 100 = 4 1 24 3600 = 1000 2500

dg = 13.8 cm
10
2 - = 13.8 100 = 72.33 %

1 13.8 10
1 24 3600 = 0.8 1000 2500 ( )
2 100
= 1.759

Zaid Ahmed N. 36 Civil Engineering


Consumptive Use ( Cuor U ) :
Is amount of water used to plant and that evaporate from soil surface and leafage
. Its called also ( evapo - transpiration ) or ( is the sum of transpiration and
evaporation ) .

Evaporation ( E ) :

Is the amount of water which evaporated per unit time (
),(

), (

).

From adjacent soil , water surfaces or from the surfaces of leafage of the plant .

Transpiration ( T ) :

Is the amount of water that used to build plant issues and the amount which
evaporate from plant leafage .

The factors effected on consumptive use :

1 - Temperature :
Increasing temperature lead to increase ( Cu ) .

2 - Precipitation :
In the period of rain the ( Cu ) decrease .

3 - Length of growing season :


By increasing the length of growing season the ( Cu ) will be increase .

4 - Wind speed :
( Cu ) increasing by increasing wind speed .

5 - sun shine :
At the period of sun shine the ( Cu ) will increase .

Zaid Ahmed N. 37 Civil Engineering


Consumptive Use Measurement :

A - Direct Methods :

1 - lysimeter experiments .

2 - Water balance method .

3 - Soil moisture studies .

B - Empirical Methods :

A - Direct method :

1 - Water Balance Method :

Cu = ( I + P ) + ( Gs - Ge ) - R

When :

I = irrigation water .

P = Precipitation .

Gs = Water stored in ground ( ground water ) at the start of ( year ) .

Ge = Water stored in ground ( ground water ) at the end of ( year ) .

R = Drainage water .

This method used for large areas .


Care must be taken to use the same dimensions in all terms of equation above .

Zaid Ahmed N. 31 Civil Engineering


2 - Soil Moisture Studies :

This method is used for uniform soil and when ground water isnt effect on the
moisture of soil .


1 2
=
100
=1

Cu = d = measure in ( mm )
n = number of soil layer .
Pw1i = water content of ( 1st ) sample taken in ( 1st ) time .
Pw2i = water content of ( 1st ) sample taken in ( 2nd ) time .
Asi = Apparent specific gravity for ( i ) layer .
Di = depth of ( i ) layer ( mm ) .

B - Empirical Methods :

1 - Blaney - Criddle equation .

2 - Radiation equation .

3 - Modified Penman equation .

4 - Pen Evaporation equation .

Zaid Ahmed N. 38 Civil Engineering


1 - Blaney - Criddle Method :

Blaney and Criddle developed a simplified formula using temperature and day -
time hours as below :


= 4.6 ( + 17.8 ) ( )
100

Cu = consumptive use . ( ) ( )


= mean temperature ( ) ( )

K = crop factor . ( Table 7.8 ( ) ) ( )

9
T = T + 32
5

Modified Blaney - Criddle Method :

K = crop factor ( (

= ( 0.24 + 0.03 ) ( (


= 4.6 ( + 17.8 )( )
100

Zaid Ahmed N. 41 Civil Engineering


Ex : A crop is to be grown at a certain place the climate condition are tabulated
below . Find the ( Cu ) be Blaney - Criddle method when crop factor equal ( 0.8 ) .

Month T P%
Nov. 18 7.20
Dec. 15 7.15
Jan. 13 7.30
Feb. 14 7.10

Ans :
For :-

= ( + 17.8 )
100
7.2
= ( 18 + 17.8 ) = 2.577
100
7.15
= ( 15.17.8 ) = 2.345
100
7.30
= ( 13 + 17.8 ) = 2.248
100
7.10
= ( 14 + 17.8 ) = 2.257
100
Nov + Dec + Jan + Feb = 9.42


= 4.6 ( + 17.8 )
100

= 4.6 0.8 9.42 = 34.7

Zaid Ahmed N. 41 Civil Engineering


Irrigation Frequency ( I.F ) :

Is the time between tow irrigation processes .

Its depend on :

Time Of Irrigation Time Of


1st Irrigation Frequency 2nd Irrigation

1 - W.H.C.

2 - Depth of root zone .

3 - Consumptive use ( Cu ) .


. = ( in day )

d = depth of readily available water .

d = ( F.C - W.P ) 0.7 75 % ( )

Irrigation Period ( I.P ) :

Is the number of days that can be allowed for applying one irrigation to a given
design area during the peack ( Cu ) period of the crop being irrigated .

IP = II ( irrigation Interval )


IP =

Zaid Ahmed N. 42 Civil Engineering


Continuous And Intermitted Operation :

Time of irrigation called : ( Time of operation ) or ( Time of application )

Its the time of discharge water to farm from gate .

There is a relation between farm gate open and time :

1 - large gate open ( large discharge ) , less time .

Time Of Irrigation Time Of


1st Irrigation Frequency ( Large ) 2nd Irrigation

2 - Half gate open ( less discharge ) , large time .

Time Of Irrigation Time Of


1st Irrigation Frequency ( Small ) 2nd Irrigation

3 - Decrease gate open that lead to no storage of water in the source @@@ and the
all applied water used by plant .

Time Of Time Of
1st Irrigation 2nd Irrigation

Note : First and Second case called : intermittent discharge and the Third called
continuous discharge .

Intermittent ( Rotational ) system :

Means the discharge is applied for a part of time and shut off another part :

. = =

Zaid Ahmed N. 43 Civil Engineering


Continuous system :

Means the discharge supplied continuously ( 24 ) , ( 7 ) or ( 30 ) .

. = = ( = min discharge )

. = ( water requirement )

. = ( water requirement )

. = .


= ( tn = IP = II )

Ex : Its required to provide ( 106 3 ) of (



) to a farm . What would the

required discharge be if the system operated :



1 - Continuous , 2 - , 3 - 12 , 4 - 3.5

Ans :
3
1 - . = 106 = 7 24 3600 = 1.65

2 - = 1.65 7 = 1
3
= 11.55

3 - = 1.65 7 24 = 12.7
3
= 3.3

4 - = 1.65 7 = 3.5
3
= 3.3

Zaid Ahmed N. 44 Civil Engineering
Ex : This information was obtained from soil moisture study in the root zone before
irrigation .

Wet weight of sample Dry weight of sample


Sample Depth ( cm )
( gm ) ( gm )
0 - 25 134.60 126.82
25 - 50 136.28 127.95
50 - 75 122.95 115.32
75 - 100 110.92 102.64


If As = 1.5 , Aw = 17.8 ( after irrigation ) ; find :-
1 - Amount of moisture in different depth ( Pw ) by dry weight .
2 - Total initial moisture content in the root zone before irrigation .
3 - Needed water depth to fill root zone at ( F.C ) .
4 - dgross if ( Ea = 70 % ) .

5 - I.P when ( = 7 ).

Ans :
1 - 1 ( 025 ) = 134.60126.82
126.82
100 = 6.14 % .

= = 1.5 6.14 = 9.2 % .

9.2
1 = 25 = 2.3 , 2 = 2.44 , 3 = 2.47 , 4 = 3.02
100

2 - Moisture content before irrigation = 2.30 + 2.44 + 2.47 + 3.02 = 10.23 cm

3 - Net irrigation depth = 17.8 - 10.23 = 7.57 cm

4 - = 100 =
7.57
0.7
= 10.81

5 - . = = 7.57
7
10
= 10.8 11

Zaid Ahmed N. 45 Civil Engineering


@@@@@

Is the area irrigated by continuous unit discharge .


Its units ( ) or ( )

Water duty can be divided into :


1 - . = ( An = 0.8 Ag )


2 - . =

Depended on :

1 - Type of crop .
2 - Type of soil .
3 - Climate .
3
Ex : Given ( = 3 ) , apply on rotational system of ( 2 day ) a week to ( 400 )

Mishara area . Find the field water duty :


Ans : Qg = Qi = 3 cumec , = 2

Must be convert to continuous system because the law contain :


=

7 = 3 2
3
= 0.85

400
. = = = 470.60
0.85

Qc = Qg ( )

Zaid Ahmed N. 46 Civil Engineering


Conveyance Of Irrigation Water
Canals Classification :

A - Closed Canal ( pipe line ) :

The properties of this canal are :

1 - No seepage .

2 - No evaporation .

3 - No losses in field ( Max Ea ) .

4 - High initial cost .

B - Open Canal :

Mean water flow with free water surface , general trapezoidal in shape
constructed on the ground to carry water to the field from river or reservoir .

Canals can be classified in the following based on function :

1 - Irrigation canal : carry water to the agriculture field .

2 - Carrier canal : besides doing irrigation it carry water for another canal .

3 - Feeder canal : constructed with idea of feeding two or more canals .

4 - Navigation canal .

5 - Power canals .

Zaid Ahmed N. 47 Civil Engineering


Water - Way Design Equations :

Base design assumption :

1 - Flow in due to gravity .

2 - Flow is uniform steady state .

Uniform constant velocity with variable distance .

Steady no change in velocity with time in the same location .

1 - Continuity equation :

Q = 1 1 = 2 2

2 - Manning Formula :

1 2 1
= 3 2 ( )

1.49 2 1
= 3 2 ( )

1 2 1
= 3 2


V = Critical velocity ( )

3
Q = discharge ( )

n = Manning coefficient .
A = Cross section area .

Hydraulic radius ( ) = =

S = Slope of bed canal .

Zaid Ahmed N. 41 Civil Engineering


3 - Chezys Formula :

= .

= . .

V = Mean velocity .
R = hydraulic radios .
S = Slope of canal .
C = Chezys coefficient .

8
=

f = coefficient resistance or friction factor .

Canals Shapes :-
1 - Trapezoidal canal :

= + 2 2 + 1
1 dz dz
= =


= + 2 d
2 1

= + 2
z

+ 2 b
=
+ 2 2 + 1
1 + 2 2 1
= ( ) 2 ( + 2 )
3
+ 2 2 + 1

Zaid Ahmed N. 48 Civil Engineering


2 - Triangular shape : dz dz

d
= 2 2 + 1
1


= 2 , = 2
z
1+ 2

3 - Rectangular :

= . , = + 2

4 - Parabola :

82 t
=+
3
2 1
= , = d
3 0.67

2
=
1.5 2 + 4 2

Ex : A rectangular canal lined with asphalt . The bed width ( 6 m ) , lie on a slop
( 0.0001 ) . Find the depth of uniform flow in this canal when the flow rate is
( 10 cumic ) , ( n = 0.013 ) ?

Ans :

= 1.935 = 6 = 6 + 2
2 1
1 6 1.67
10 = ( ) . ( 0.0001 ) . 6
3 2 0.656 = 2
0.013 6 + 2
( 6 + 6 )3

2.505
0.53 = = 1.935 ( )
6 + 2

Zaid Ahmed N. 51 Civil Engineering


Ex : Calculate the uniform flow rate in an earth line canal with trapezoidal shape
1
having ( n = 0.022 ) and bottom ( 3 m ) , side slope ( ) ( z = 2 ) and slope of bed
2
( 0.0001 ) with depth of flow ( 1.8 m ) ?

Ans :

= + 2 = 3 1.8 + 2 1.82 = 11.88 2

= + 2 2 + 1 = 11.05

11.88
= = = 1.075
11.05

1 2 1
= 1.075 ( 0.0001 )2 11.88 = 5.67 3
3
0.022

Zaid Ahmed N. 51 Civil Engineering


Design Of Irrigation And Discharge Net Work
Irrigation Canal system :
1 - Main canal ( MC ) : The principal canal of an irrigation scheme , usually taking
off from a river or reservoir . Its length ( L ) = ( 80 - 300 ) km , distance between them
( d ) ( 10 - 25 ) km .

2 - Branch canal ( BC ) : A canal serving a number of other distributary or subsidiary


branch canals . Direct off take to watercourse are avoided ( Primary canal ) .

L = ( 10 - 25 ) km , d = ( 2 - 5 ) km , ( 2000 - 12500 ) ha for each ( BC )

3 - Distributary canal ( DC ) : A canal which supplies a number of watercourses


( secondary canal ) . L = ( 2 - 5 ) km , d = ( 1.5 - 2.5 ) km , ( 300 - 700 ) ha for each ( DC )

4 - Watercourse ( WC ) : A channel taking off from a distributary and supplying


farm channels ( Tertiary canal ) . L = ( 1.5 - 2.5 ) km , d = ( 0.25 - 0.5 ) km ,
( 40 - 60 ) ha for each ( WC )

5 - Farm or field channel ( FC ) : A small channel from which field are irrigated .
L = ( 0.25 - 0.5 ) km , d = ( 0.15 - 0.25 ) km .

Farm unit : The basic unit of land allocation of farmers , usually between ( 5 - 7.5 )
hectares . This may be supplied by one or more farm turnouts .
M.C , L = ( 80 - 300 ) Km , d = ( 10 - 25 ) Km

D.C , L = ( 2 - 5 ) Km , d = ( 1.5 - 2.5 ) Km B.C , L = ( 10 - 25 ) Km


d = ( 2 - 5 ) Km
River

B.C

W.C W.C

W.C , L = ( 1.5 - 2.5 ) Km , d = ( 0.25 - 0.5 ) Km

F.C , L= ( 0.25 - 0.5 )Km , d = ( 0.15 - 0.25 )

Zaid Ahmed N. 52 Civil Engineering


1 - Unlined canals
Type of unlined canal :

For design purposes its useful to divide canals into three categories , namely :

A - Canals susceptible to scouring and sediment deposition .

B - Canals susceptible to scouring but not sediment deposition .

C - Canals susceptible to sediment deposition but not scouring .

Canals in the first group are those with mobile beds carrying sediment laden
water . Canals of this group can be converted to the second group if topographic and
economic conditions are suitable by the inclusion of a settling basin at the head of
the system .

Canals in the second group are those with mobile beds which carry clear water .
Canals in the third group are those with stable beds , lined or unlined , which carry
sediment laden water .

Design Methods Of Canals :


Against silting and scouring :

- Group ( A ) lacey eq.


- Group ( B ) Manning eq. ( with checking velocity ( Vmax , Vmin )
- Group ( C ) Manning eq. ( with checking velocity ( Vmax , Vmin )
For unlined - silting only for lined ( Group ( C ) )

1 - By best hydraulic section ( for lined and unlined canals ) .


2 - Min seepage Losses ( for unlined canals )

Zaid Ahmed N. 53 Civil Engineering


A - Design against silting and scouring :

1 - Canals Of Group ( A ) :

The canal section is designed for scouring and sediment deposition to balance over
the year . Lacey working in India where , as in Iraq the group ( A ) canal type is
common described canals which return to the same configuration after an annual
cycle of silting deposition and scouring as being in regime .

Lacey equation :

2 1
= ( )6 = 1.6 ( )
134


= 0.646 =

Where :


Vcr = critical velocity ( )

d = size of particle ( diameter of particle mm ) , generally = d50 .

fl = lacey silt factor ( dimensionless ) .

Region fl ( for Iraq )


Northern 0.7 - 1.0
Central 0.6
Southern 0.5

2
= 2.39

Zaid Ahmed N. 54 Civil Engineering


Ex : Design a canal with a trapezoidal section for the following data against silt
deposition and scouring :

3
= 30 , = 0.001 , 50 = 5 , = 2.

Ans :

= 1.6 = 1.65 = 3.58


1 1
2 6 30 ( 3.58 )2 6
= ( ) = ( ) = 1.192
134 134
30
= = = 25.172
1.192

2 ( 1.192 )2
= 2.39 = 2.39 = 0.95
3.58

25.17
= = = 26.5
0.95

= + 2 2 + 1 = 2 2 + 1
= + 2

= ( 2 2 + 1 ) + 2 = ( 2 + 1 )2

( 2 2 + 1 )2 + = 0

2 4 ( 2 2 + 1 )
==
2 ( 2 2 + 1 )

26.5 ( 26.5 )2 4 ( 222 + 1 2 ) 25.17


=
2 ( 2 22 + 1 2 )

= 26.5 2 ( 1.05 ) 22 + 1 = 26.5 4.7 = 21.83 > 0.4

Zaid Ahmed N. 55 Civil Engineering


Modified Laceys Method :
Steps Required in Design by Laceys Theory :

1 - From the know sediment size ( d in mm ) , find silt factor by :

= 1.76

2 - Find the velocity ( Vc ) from know ( Q ) and ( f ) from :

2 1
= ( 140 )6

3 - Find the area from continuity equation :

4 - Find Perimeter from :

= 4.75

5 - Equating area ( Ac ) and ( Pc ) to area and Perimeter of the shape of canal .

6 - In step ( 5 ) two equation and two unknowns ( b , d ) solve them


simultaneously .
7 - Find slope of bed ( critical ) from :

5
3
= 1
3450 6

Zaid Ahmed N. 56 Civil Engineering


2 - Canals Of Groups ( B ) :

For canals of group ( B ) there is a limiting condition to prevent scouring . This is


determined by a maximum permissible velocity , Vmax as given below

= . .

Where :

y : depth of flow ( m )

The coefficient ( C1 ) which varies with the type of bed material is given below :

Type of bed material C1


Fine , light sandy soil 0.55
Coarse , light sandy soil 0.60
Sandy , loamy silt 0.66
Coarse silt 0.71


Design by Manning eq. and check Vmax , try = 2.0 = (23)

Zaid Ahmed N. 57 Civil Engineering


3 - Canals Of Group ( C ) :

For canals of group ( C ) there is a limiting condition to prevent sediment


deposition . This is specified by minimum permissible velocity :

= . .

Where :

y : depth of flow ( m )

The coefficient ( C2 ) varies with sediment type and concentration .

Type of suspended material C2


Light loams and very fine sands 0.40
Fine sands ( Approx. 0.4 mm diameter ) 0.55
Moderate coarse sands 0.63
Coarse sands 0.67
Very coarse sands 0.90


Design by Manning eq. And check Vmin , try = 2.0 = (23)

B - Best by Hydraulic Section :


From the Manning formula it is shown that when the area of cross section is a
minimum , the wetted perimeter is also a minimum , and so both lining and
excavation approach their minimum value for the same dimensions of channel . The
best hydraulic section is one that has the least wetted perimeter or its equivalent ,
the least area for the type of section .
Zaid Ahmed N. 51 Civil Engineering
I - For rectangular section :
2
1 2 1 1 3 1
= . . 3 . 2 = 2 2

3
1 1 2
, , 2 = = 5

= + 2 , = ;
2
= ( 2 ) = 5
2 3
( 2 ) + 2 = 5 ( =0 )
5

= , = ( = + )

II - For Trapezoidal Section :

= + 2 2 , = + 21 + 2
2
( ) = 5

=0 = 41 + 2 2

Again by holding ( y ) constant


2 3
=0 =1 ( ) =
1 + 2 3

( = , = , = ) =

Note : For trapezoidal sections with ( Z ) specified equation ( A ) is used to find the
best ( bottom - width - to depth ) ratio .

Zaid Ahmed N. 58 Civil Engineering


Ex : Determine the dimensions of the most economical trapezoidal ( n = 0.016 ) to
3
carry ( 200
) with a slope of ( 0.0004 ) .

3
= 23 , =2 , = 3 2
3


= =
2

1 2 1
= 2
3

2
1.0 3 1
200 = 3 2 ( ) (0.0004)2
0.016 2

8
3 = 146.64 = 6.492

= 7.5 > 0.4

3
=
3

Zaid Ahmed N. 61 Civil Engineering


C - Min Seepage Losses :
y
Parabola b
= 4( 1 + 2 )

Then use Manning equation to Design cross section

Standard Dimensions ( For Unlined Canals )


1 - Side Slope :

The table shown below shows the side slope for unlined canals :

Material Max side slope ( H:V )


Sandy loam , soft clay 3:1
Sandy clay , silt loam 2:1
Firm clay , clay loam 1.5 : 1

Side slopes of canals in Iraq are generally ( 1.5 : 1 ) or ( 2 : 1 ) depending on the


soil .
Side slope of ( 1 : 1 ) have been found to be satisfactory for watercourses ( W.C )
3
and farm channels ( F.C ) carrying water less then ( 0.1
)

2 - Longitudinal slope :

Check ( Vmax ) and ( Vmin ) enough to select or choose slope ( S ) .

Zaid Ahmed N. 61 Civil Engineering


3 - Roughness Coefficient :

The table shown below shows the Manning coefficients for unlined canals :-

Condition n
Clean , recently completely 0.02
Short grass , few weeds 0.027 - 0.033
Clean bed , weed growth at sides 0.05 - 0.08
Dense weed growth , high stage 0.10 - 0.14

Normal practice is to design the canal section with ( n = 0.025 )

4 - Bed width :

Min bed width ( 0.4 )

5 - Freeboard :

The height of canal bank top above the maximum water level occurring under
normal operating conditions , is required to ensure that the canal does not overtop in
any but extremely abnormal circumstances .

A - For main , branch and distributary canals :-

3
Discharge ( ) Freeboard ( m )

0.15 - 0.99 0.45 Freeboard

1.0 - 2.99 0.55

3.0 - 10 0.65

B - For minor channels :- watercourses ( 0.25 m ) and farm channels ( 0.20 m ) .

Zaid Ahmed N. 62 Civil Engineering


6 - Bank Top Width And Roads :

Bank top width and the outer slope of the canal embankment are chosen in
combination to prevent a hypothetical seepage line breaking the surface of the
embankment . The gradient of the seepage line is assumed as follows :

Good clayey soil 4:1(H:V)


Average loam 5:1(H:V)
Sandy silt 7:1(H:V)

Its preferable to avoid the use of canal banks as public roads , but a road for
operating and maintenance is required on at least one side of each as given below :

Canal type Operating and maintenance road width ( m )


Main ( M.C ) 4m ( normally on both banks )
Branch ( B.C ) 4m ( normally on both banks )
Dist. ( D.C ) 4m ( 2m on un-irrigated side )

Canal type Min bank width ( m )


Dist. ( D.C ) 2.0m ( on un-irrigated side )
W.C 1.0
F.C 0.5

7 - Outer slopes of embankment :

Outer slope is limited by :

1 - The need to provide ( 300mm ) cover to the seepage line


2 - A maximum slope ( 2:1 ( H:V ) )
3 - Slope stability

Zaid Ahmed N. 63 Civil Engineering


8 - Radii of bends ( R ) :
ws
Min R ( M.C , B.C , D.C ) greater of ( 7 ws or 50 m )

ws : width of water , surface ( m ) .


. ) n (

Figure -1-
Figure -2-
Figure -3-
Zaid Ahmed N. 64 Civil Engineering
Canal losses
Type of losses :

1 - Evaporation :

Part of losses of water lost due to evaporation , generally very small compare
with seepage losses , depend on :

a - Temperature b - Wind speed c - Humidity d - Surface area .

2 - Seepage losses :

Major part of water losses depend on :

1 - Type of soil

2 - Age of canal ( old ( silted ) canal is less seepage than a new canal )

3 - Velocity of flow 4 - Cross section of canal 5 - Extent of cracks .

Egyptian formula :

Where :
3
S = Seepage losses ( discharge) ( ).

L = Length of canal ( Km ) .

P = Wetted Perimeter ( m ) .

R = Hydraulic Radius ( m ) .

C = Coefficient 0.0015 0.003

Zaid Ahmed N. 65 Civil Engineering


2 - lined Canals :-
Its covered the bottom and side slope of canal with any material to reduce
seepage losses .

Types of lining :

There are many types of lining for irrigation canals :

1 - Hard surface linings .

2 - Exposed membranes .

3 - Buried membranes .

4 - Earth lining .

Choice of lining :

In general the type of lining is chosen on grown of economy , availability of


materials and machinery for construction and suitability for conditions on the
specified project .

Advantages of lining :

1 - Minimize the seepage losses .

2 - Increase canal discharge by increasing the velocity .

3 - Increasing velocity minimize the losses due to evaporation and seepage .

4 Reduce maintenance cost .

5 Make the bank more stable in high texture soil .

6 Prevent erosion of bed and sides .


Zaid Ahmed N. 66 Civil Engineering
Disadvantages of lining :
1 Lining requires a heavy initial cost .

2 Its very difficult to repair the damage lining .

1 - Hard Surface Lining :

A Portland Cement Concrete , Unreinforced .

- Thickness ( 50 100 ) mm .
- Durability up to ( 50 ) years .
- Reinforcement not used except where soil conditions are dubious e.g. on
swelling clay .
3 /
- Water losses ( 0 - 0.35 ) 106 2
- Suitable for all sizes of canals , all topographical conditions .
- Membrane underlay needed on gypsiferous soils .

B - Precast Concrete Blocks :

- Size ( 500 250 70( thickness ) ) mm .


- Typical weight ( 21 ) Kg per block .
- Durability up to ( 50 ) years .
3 /
- Water losses ( 0 - 0.35 ) 106 2

C - Asphaltic concrete :

- ( 70 - 110 ) mm thickness .
- Durability ( 15 - 20 ) years .
3 /
- Water losses about ( 0 - 0.35 ) 106 2 and more .

Zaid Ahmed N. 67 Civil Engineering


D - Brick And Stone :

- Size ( 300 150 50 ( depth) ) mm laid on ( 10 ) mm mortar bed with 20 mm


plaster cover .
- Durability up to ( 50 ) years .
3 /
- Water losses about ( 0 - 0.35 ) 106 2 .

2 - Exposed Membranes :

1 - Asphaltic materials : such as Polyvinyl ( 0.19 ) mm .

- Very short life ( few irrigation seasons ) .


- Low cost .

3 - @@@@@
3
Such as prefabricated asphaltic membrane ( water losses ( 0 - 0.3 ) ),
106 2
3
Polyethylene ( 0.2 - 0.3 ) mm thickness ( water losses ( 0 - 0.7 ) ) , polyvinyl
106 2
3
Chloride ( PVC ) thickness ( 0.2 - 0.3 ) mm ( water losses ( 0 - 0.7 ) ).
106 2

4 - Earth Linings :

1 - Thick compacted ( 900 ) mm thick .

2 - Thin compacted ( 150 - 300 ) mm.

- Durability ( 20 ) years .
3
- Water losses ( 0.35 - 0.77 ) .
106 2

Zaid Ahmed N. 61 Civil Engineering


Joints :

Joints are required to control cracking in lining as caused by shrinkage , thermal


movement and a small amount of settlement . The following types are used for both
slipform and gunite concrete linings .

A - Transverse contraction joints are uniformly spacing at intervals of 3 m .

B - Where lined depth of canal exceeds ( 1 m ) or the perimeter of lining exceeds


( 9 m ) longitudinal , joints are made in each side slope at ( 0.3 ) m slope distance from
the bottom of the slope . On large canals extra joints are used at a maximum spacing
up the slope of ( 3 m ) , if the slope length exceeds ( 3 m ) .

Figure -4-

Figure -5-
Zaid Ahmed N. 68 Civil Engineering
Figure -6-

Figure -7-
T ( mm ) A (mm) B (mm) C (mm) D (mm)

50 32 - 38 6-9 15 - 20
18 Longitudinal
65 32 - 38 6-9 20 - 25 joints

80 32 - 38 6-9 20 - 25 15 Transverse
100 38 - 45 9 - 12
joints

Expansion joints are needed for gunite which , being thinner , has little
resistance to buckling .
Expansion joints also needed where concrete lining abuts a structure .
Contraction every 3 m , expansion at 4th panel .

Zaid Ahmed N. 71 Civil Engineering


Hydraulic Design Of Section For Lined Canal :
Methods of design :

1 - Best Hydraulic Section .

2 - Manning Equation .


=
, = ( ) , < .


Fr = Freud No. ( = < 0.6 )
.

3 - Against silting check ( Vmin ) to avoid sediment .


3
Ex : Design a concrete lined canal for discharge of ( 1 ) on a slope ( s = 0.0002 )
, ( n = 0.015 ) with rectangular shape .


= 2 = 2 ) 0.015 ( ) n (

1 2 1
= 2
3 , = . = 22

. 2. 22
= = = = =
+ 2 2 + 2 4 2
2
1
1 3
1= ( ) ( 0.0002 )2 ( 22 ) = 0.94 , = 1.875
0.015 2

1 1
= = 2= = 0.566
2 2 ( 0.94 )2

0.566
= = = 0.186 < 0.6
. 9.81 0.94

Zaid Ahmed N. 71 Civil Engineering


Standard Dimensions ( For lined Canals )
1 - Side Slopes :

- The side slopes for unreinforced concrete lined channels are ( 1.5:1 ) ( H : V )
for ( M.C , B.C , D.C )
- For minor channels of less than ( 0.7 ) m lined depth side slopes ( 1 : 1 ) ( unless
flatter slopes are required ) .
Buried membranes side slope ( 2 H : 1 V )

2 - Longitudinal Slope ( S ) :

To maintain sediment transport and prevent weed growth for ( M.C , B.C , D.C ) :-


= 0.00015 . 0.2 ( )

Where :

3
Q = full supply discharge ( )including ( 10% ) average operational loss .

For ( W.C ) its impracticable because of the mode of operation and the flatness
of much of the pogrophy to ensure continuous sediment transporting velocities .

The slope is kept within the range ( 0.0001 - 0.0009 ) ( )


= ( = < 0.6 )
.

The maximum slope in distributaries to avoid an excessive number of cross


regulators :-

= . . . ( ) ( )

Zaid Ahmed N. 72 Civil Engineering


3 -Roughness ( n ) :

Values of n
Type of surface
Min Design Max
Concrete 0.012 0.015 0.018
Shotcrete ( Gunite ) 0.017
This Table
Asphaltic Concrete 0.014
For Your
Exposed prefabricated asphalt 0.015
Info Only
Soil - Cement 0.016

A value of ( n = 0.015 ) has been widely adopted for average finished concrete linings .

4 - Bed Width And Water Depth :



=() or =()

5 - Free Board :

Canal Type And Lined Freeboard Earthwork Freeboard



Discharge ( ) (m) (m)

W.C 0.2 -
D.C < 1 0.25 0.2
D.C 1 0.3 0.2
B.C ( 1 - 3 ) 0.35 0.2
B.C and M.C ( 3 - 10 ) 0.45 0.2

Zaid Ahmed N. 73 Civil Engineering


6 - Bank Top Width And Roads :

The bank tops of ( M.C , B.C , D.C ) are used as main tenancy roads .

Canal type Bank top width ( m ) This


M.C 4 Table
B.C 4 For
D.C 4 and 2 Your
W.C 1 Info
F.C 0.5 Only

7 - Outer Slope And Complete Profile Of Embankments :

- A standard outer slope of ( 2 : 1 ) ( H V ) is used for canal embankments up


to ( 4 m ) height ( height 4 ) .
- ( height > 4 ) stability analysis based on soil is required .

- seepage gradient of ( 4 : 1 ) ( H : V ) can be adopted . Figure -8-


8 - Radii of bends ( R ) :

- Min ( R ) for ( M.C , B.C , D.C ) greater of ( 5 ws or 50 m ) .

- For difficult circumstances



R = 3 Ws ( with velocity 2 )

Figure -9-

Zaid Ahmed N. 74 Civil Engineering


Figure -10 -

Figure -11-

Figure -12-
Zaid Ahmed N. 75 Civil Engineering
Drainage System
1 - Outfall Drain :

A large open drain receiving water from several project areas and discharge it to
a safe outfall .

2 - Main Drain ( M.D ) :

The principal open drain which removes drainage water from the project area .

3 - Branch Drain ( B.D ) :

A large open drain discharging water into a main drain and receiving water form
subsidiary branch drains , secondary drains , or even collectors ( primary drain ) .

4 - Secondary Drain ( S.D ) :

An open drain discharging into a branch or main drain and receiving water from
collectors ( Main collector ) .

5 - Collector Drain ( C.D ) :

An open or pipe drain normally discharge into a secondary drain and receiving
water from surface and subsurface field drains . It may also take the escape flow at
the tail of a distributary canal ( Tertiary drain ) .

6 - Field pipe drain ( Field drain ) :

A buried perforated pipe drain controlling the water table below the crop root
zone ( Field drain ) .

Zaid Ahmed N. 76 Civil Engineering


A system of drains is required for irrigation and land reclamation schemes . The
functions are :

1 - To lower the water table to provide aerated conditions for plant growth .

2 - To remove excess surface and subsurface water from the field .

3 - To convey the drained water to a safe outfall .

Figure -13-
Types of Collectors Drain :
1 - Open collector drain . 2 - Closed collector drain ( pipes ) .

Choice between open and closed collectors :

1 - Advantages Of Open Collectors :

a - Smaller slopes can be used than for pipes .

b - They provide a source of borrow for canals and roads .

c - Field open drains are easily inspected and cleaned .

d - The standard section has ample capacity for tail escape flow and surface runoff .

e - There is a pool of skill in Iraq for the excavation of open drains by dragline .

Zaid Ahmed N. 77 Civil Engineering


2 - Advantage Of Closed Collectors :

a - Maintenance is easier and maintenance costs are lower .

b - Less land is used .

c - Bridges and culverts arent required .

d - The hazard of drain washout is almost completely removed .

A - Open Collector Drains


Design Of Cross Section And Discharge :

A - The design drainage discharge equation for a collector is :

( )
= ( ) ( )

Or :


= ( ) ( ) ( )

Where :


Ig = Gross water requirement ( ).

Ea = Field application efficiency .

Ew = Watercourse conveyance efficiency .

And then By using Manning equation with ( b = 0.8 m ) and check f @@

Zaid Ahmed N. 71 Civil Engineering


Ex :

= 300 , Ea = 0.65 , Ew = 0.92 , A = 24 ha , Q = ??

L
Q = 12


B - By using Drainage coefficient ( ).

= + ( )

Figure -14-
y1 = The bed of a collector is given a minimum depth of ( 0.4 m ) below the invert of
all field drain pipe outlets ( y1 0.4 m ) .

Longitudinal Slope ( for collector ) :



= 20 ( 0.0002 )


= 25 ( 0.0025 )

Roughness coefficient ( for collector ) :

= 0.03

Zaid Ahmed N. 78 Civil Engineering


Bed width ( for collector ) :

The standard bed width is ( 0.8 m ) . This is required to provide storage as a safety
measure against the effect of siltation and weed growth .

Drop - in and depth ( for collector ) :

- ( y1 0.4 m ) below the invent of all field drain ( i.e ) for min - drop ( 0.2 m )
( Min y = 0.2 m ) .

- Min . drop - in = 0.2 m .

Spacing ( for collector ) :

Max length = 250 m

( 540 )
= { } ( ).
( 300 )

Figure -15-

Zaid Ahmed N. 11 Civil Engineering


B - Major Drains ( M.D , B.D , S.D ) :
1 - Design Discharge :

A- Q S.D = Q C.D Q B.D = Q S.D Q M.D = Q B.D

B - By Using Drainage Coefficient .

= +

) C.D ( ) C.D ( )
. ) S.D (
) C.D ( ) M.D ( )
. ) M.D (

2 - Design Of Cross - Section :

1 - By Manning equation ( velocity of Manning eq. must be check with



( = 1.5 - 3 ) or use it ( Vmin = 2 y ) .


2 - By lacey equation ( = 1.5 - 3 ) ( to avoid sediment deposition ) .

f = silt factor must be in the range of ( 0.4 - 1.0 )

( )2
= 2.46


= =

f = 0.4 ( recommended for Iraq ) .

Zaid Ahmed N. 11 Civil Engineering


Longitudinal Slope ( For Major Drains ) :

3
Discharge ( ) Max Bed Slope ( )

This Table
0.1 0.001 ( 100 )

For Your
0.11 - 0.2 0.0007 ( 70 )

Info Only
0.21 - 0.4 0.0005 ( 50 )


0.4 0.00045 ( 45 )

Roughness Coefficient ( For Major Drains ) :

n = 0.03

Bed Width ( For Major Drains ) :

Limiting ratios of bed width ( b ) , to depth of flow ( y ) , are used depending on


the depth :


< 1.0 1.5


= ( 1.0 1.5 ) 2.0 = ( 1.5 3 )


> 1.5 = 3.0
}


The ratio ( = 3.0 ) is used for design by means of the lacey equation for

non - silting velocity .

- Minimum bed width is ( 1.0 m ) .

Zaid Ahmed N. 12 Civil Engineering


Standard Dimension For Drains ( Open Drains ) .

Figure -16-

Figure -17-

Figure -18-
Zaid Ahmed N. 13 Civil Engineering
1 - Berms and Drains :

If an open drain is deeper than ( 5.0 m ) ( y2 5 m ) , additional berms are formed


at ( 5.0 m ) above bed level .

Height of
Min width Width of Height of
bank ( m ) Width of
Drain type of berm at low lend spot bank
bank
G.L ( m ) berm ( m ) Max Min max ( m )

C.D 4.0 - - 0.5 4.0 -


M.D , B.D , S.D
y2 5m
4.0 - 1.0 0.5 5.0 4.0

y2 > 5m 4.0 5.0 1.0 0.5 5.0 4.0

This Table For Your Info Only

2 - Radii of Bends ( R ) :

( 10 50 ) .
={
( 10 100 ) .

3 - Side Slope :

Under typical conditions in Iraq side slope is standard at ( 1.5 : 1 ) ( H : V )


except in an unstable soil such as non - cohesive fine sand .

This Table
Rock 0.25 : 1
Stiff Clay 0.75 : 1 - 1.5 : 1 For Your
Clay , silty Loam 1.50 : 1 - 2.0 : 1
Info Only
Sandy Loam 2.50 : 1 - 3.0 : 1
Loose sandy soils 2.00 : 1 - 4.0 : 1

Zaid Ahmed N. 14 Civil Engineering


Ex : design the cross section of branon drain with trapezoidal section with the

following data : Drainage area = 3360 ha . , drainage coefficient = 3


= 25 .

Manning coefficient ( n ) = 0.03 , Side Slope = 1.5 : 1 ( H = V ) .

Ans :

0.003 3360 10000 3


= = 1.167
24 3600

1 2 1
= 3 2 , = + 2 , = + 2 1 + 2


= 3.0 = 32 + 1.52 = 4.52

4.5 2
= 3 + 2 1 + 1.52 = 6.61 = = = 0.68
6.61

2 1
1
1.167 = ( 0.68 )3 ( 0.00025 )2 4.52
0.03

= 0.84 = 2.53 > 1.0 .

2 1.167
Check silty factor = 2.46 , = = = 0.367
4.5 0.842

= + 2 = 2.53 + 2 1.5 0.84 = 5.05

4.5 0.842
= = = 0.63
5.05

2.46 0.3672
= = 0.53 ( 0.4 1 )
0.63


If ( f ) without the range ( 0.4 - 1 ) change ( = 3 ) to the ratio ( = 2 ) to increase the
depth ( d ) so ( ws ) decrease since ( b ) decrease or change ( s ) lead to increase ( Dm ) which
lead to decrease ( f ) .
Zaid Ahmed N. 15 Civil Engineering
Canal And Drain Layout :
Layout Design Procedure :

1 - Locate main and branch canals on major ridges , main and branch drains in
major depressions .

2 - Locate distributary canals and secondary drains such that they form as nearly
as possible parallel lines .

3 - Divide the land into watercourse units ( rectangular as possible ) of the


appropriate net area and provide for any items such as state farm headquarters .

( Preferred ) W.C units = 8 No. 7.5 ha farms

W.C units = ( 40 - 60 ) ha

4 - ( W.C ) units are divided into farms , with each farm having one or two farm
channels .

5 - Where ( W.C ) can feed both sides , the spacing of ( C.D = 540 m ) , and where
( W.C ) feed one side then the spacing is ( 300 m ) .

6 - Locale feeder roads , village access roads , and another special roads .

7 - Locate major canal structure e.g. ( regulators , bridges , culverts , .... , etc. ) .

Figure -19-
Zaid Ahmed N. 16 Civil Engineering
Numbering Of Irrigation Canals And Drains
1 - System ( 1 ) :

Start numbering from the irrigation , source and go with the direction of flow
( odd No. to left and even No. to the right ) .

Figure -20-
For drain start numbering from the pumping station and go opposite direction
of flow ( odd No. to left and even No. to the right ) .

2 - System ( 2 ) :

Use ( L ) for ( Left ) and ( R ) for ( Right ) of flow for canals or drains .

Figure -21-
Zaid Ahmed N. 17 Civil Engineering
Water level :

Figure -21-
Dc 7 , Point 3 :

Ground Level ( G . L ) = 10.0 m


Min W.L = 10 + 0.3 = 10.3 m

Point 2 :

G.L = 10.5 m Figure -22-


Min W.L = 10.5 + 0.3 = 10.8 m

Point 1 :

G.L = 10.8 m
Min W.L = 10.8 + 0.3 = 11.1 m

Zaid Ahmed N. 11 Civil Engineering


To find the ( W.L ) at the head

from point 3 = G.L + 0.3 + S . X

10.8 - 10 m
= 10.3 + 0.4 2 = 11.10 m (S= = 0.4 )
2 km km

from point 2 = G.L + 0.3 + S . X = 10.8 + 0.4 1 = 11.2 m

Then choose the largest W.L = 11.20 m

And the ( W.L ) for the all ( Dc ) and choose the largest .

Zaid Ahmed N. 18 Civil Engineering


Ex : Field water duty for every watercourse in the system shown in Fig is

( 4800 ), seepage losses is ( 3 % ) and ( 2.5 % ) for ( W.C ) and ( D.C )

respectively . Find the design discharge for each ( W.C ) and for ( D.C ) .

Figure -23-

. = =
. .

3 3
W.C An ( Mish ) Qg ( )( W.C ) Qt ( )( W.C )

.
1 375 = = . = .
. . .

2 313 0.0650 0.067

3 400 0.0830 0.086

4 300 0.0625 0.064

5 375 0.0780 0.081

6 300 0.0625 0.064

7 413 0.0860 0.089

8 350 0.0730 0.075

= 0.606 for D.C

0.606 3
. = = 0.622 = 100 %
0.975

Zaid Ahmed N. 81 Civil Engineering


Ex : Find the discharge for secondary drain shown in Fig , below by using the
following data :

= 5

Figure -24-
3
C.D A ( Mish ) Q ( )( for C.D )
5
1 400 = 400 2500 = 0.058
1000246060

2 350 0.051
3 425 0.061
4 310 0.045
5 310 0.045
6 400 0.058
7 415 0.060
8 325 0.047
Q C.D = Q S.D =0.425

Zaid Ahmed N. 81 Civil Engineering


Cases of Layout
1 - Undulant Areas :

Locate main and branch canals on major ridges , main and branch drains in major
depressions .

Figure -25-
2 - Declivity Areas ( in one direction ) :

A - Mild Slope :

20 .

Figure -26-
Zaid Ahmed N. 82 Civil Engineering
B - Steep Slope :

> 20 .

Figure -27-
3 - Declivity Areas ( in two directions ) :

M.D locate in major depressions .


Two M.C locate in the side ridges .

Figure -28-
4 - Undulated declivity areas :

Figure -29-
Zaid Ahmed N. 83 Civil Engineering
Water Application Methods ( field irrigation ) :
Irrigation Methods At Field :

A - Surface Irrigation Methods :

1 - Border 2 - Check Basin 3 - Furrow .

1 - Border Irrigation :

The border method of irrigation makes use of parallel ridges to guide a sheet of
flowing water as it moves down the slope . The land is divided into a number of long
parallel strips called borders that are separated by low ridges :

Figure -30-
Zaid Ahmed N. 84 Civil Engineering
The border method of irrigation is adapted to most soils where depth and
topography permit the required land levelling at a reasonable cost and without
permanence reduction in soil productivity . Its , however , more suitable to soils
having moderately low to moderately high infiltration rates . Usually its not used
in coarse sandy soils that have very high infiltration rates because of the stringent
limitations in design .

The border method is suitable to irrigate all close - growing crops like wheat ,
barley , fodder crops and legumes . Its , however , not suitable for crops like rice
which requires standing water during most parts of its growing season .

Recommended safe limits of land slopes in borders are given below :


- Sandy loam to sandy soils = 0.25 % - 0.60 %
- Medium loam soils = 0.20 % - 0.40 %
- Clay to clay loam soils = 0.05 % - 0.20 %
When land slope exceeds safe limits , field are undulating and levelling isnt
feasible , borders maybe laid across the slope and are called contour borders .
The following border lengths are suggested .
- Sandy and sandy loam soils = 60 - 120 m .
- Medium loam soils = 100 - 180 m .
- Clay loam and clay soils = 150 - 300 m .

Zaid Ahmed N. 85 Civil Engineering


2 - Check Basin Irrigation :

There are many variations in its use , but all involve dividing the field into
smaller unit areas so that each has a nearly level surface . Bunds or ridge are
constructed around the areas forming basins within which the irrigation water can
be controlled .

Figure -31-
Check basin irrigation is suited to smooth gentle and uniform land slopes and for
soils having moderate to slow infiltration rates . ( like clay soils ) .

- The method is especially adapted to irrigation of grain and fodder crops in heavy
soils where water is absorbed very slowly and is required to stand for a relatively
long time to ensure adequate irrigation .
- The method is useful when leaching is required to remove salts from the soil
profile .
- The disadvantage of the check basin method of irrigation is that the ridges
interfere with the movement of animal - drawn or tractor - drawn implements
for intercultural or harvesting of crops .

Zaid Ahmed N. 86 Civil Engineering


3 - Furrow Irrigation :

This method of irrigation is used in the irrigation of row crops with furrows
developed between the crop rows in the planting and cultivating processes .

- Furrow irrigation can be used to irrigate all cultivated crops planted in rows ,
including orchards and vegetables .
- The method is suitable for irrigation maize , sorghum sugarcane , cotton , tobacco
, groundnut , potatoes and other vegetables .
- Furrow irrigation is suitable to most soils except sands that have a very high
infiltration rate and provide poor lateral distribution of water between furrows .

Figure -32-
Furrow spacing : furrows can be spaced to fit the crops grown and the type of
machines used for planting and cultivation . Crops like potatoes , maize and cotton
are planted ( 60 - 90 ) cm apart and have furrows between all rows . Vegetable crops
such as lettuce , carrots and onions are spaced ( 30 - 40 ) cm and often have two rows
between furrows . Wide spaced crops like melons , fruit trees and berries , generally
, require more than one furrow between crop rows .

< 45 m on soils which take up water rapidly ( like sand )


Length of furrow = {
300 m on soils with low infiltration rates ( like clay )
Furrow ( Straight - Contour )
spacing generally ( 30 - 40 cm ) depend on type of crop .

Zaid Ahmed N. 87 Civil Engineering


B - Sub - irrigation :

In sub - irrigation water is applied below the ground surface by maintaining an


artificial water table at some depth depending upon the soil texture and depth of
plant roots .

- Sub - irrigation can be used for soils having a low ( W.H.C ) and a high
infiltration rate where surface methods cant be used and sprinkler irrigation is
expensive .
- Not used for soils having a high salt - content .
- Water may be introduced through open ditches or underground pipelines . The
depth of open ditches ( 30 - 100 ) cm , with spacing ( 15 - 30 ) m .

C - Sprinkler irrigation :

In the sprinkler method of irrigation , water is sprayed into the air and allowed
to fall on the ground surface somewhat resembling rainfall . The spray is developed
by the flow of water under pressure through small orifices or nozzles .

This method can be used for almost all crops ( except rice and jute ) and on most
soils . Its , however , not usually suitable in very fine textured soils ( heavy clay

soils ) . Where the infiltration rates less then ( 4
).

Zaid Ahmed N. 81 Civil Engineering


Types Of Sprinkler Method :
1 - Rotating head system :
Small size nozzles are placed on riser pipes fixed at uniform intervals along the
length of the lateral pipe .

Figure -33-
2 - Perforated pipe system :

This method consists of holes perforated in the lateral irrigation pipe . The system

is usually designed for low operation pressures ( 0.5 2.5 2
).

Figure -34-
Based on portability , sprinkler systems are classified into the following types :

1 - Portable system : portable main line and portable lateral and pump (all portable ) .
2 - Semi - portable system : same as portable sys but pump is fixed .
3 - Semi - permanent system : main fixed , lateral portable and pump .
4 - Solid - set system : have enough laterals to eliminate the movement .
5 - Permanent system all permanent .

Zaid Ahmed N. 88 Civil Engineering


D - Drip Irrigation :

Drip or trickle irrigation is one of the latest methods of irrigation which is


becoming increasingly popular in areas with water scarcity and salt problems .

In this method of irrigation is accomplished by using small diameter plastic


lateral lines with devices called drippers at selected spacing to deliver water to
the soil surface near the base of the plant .

Crops like grapes , sugarcane , papaya , banana , guava and most other types of
fruit trees and vegetable have been found respond well to drip irrigation .

Figure -35-

Zaid Ahmed N. 111 Civil Engineering