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## Concept of Wind Load Analysis:

Buildings are subject to horizontal loads due to wind pressure acting on the
buildings. Wind load is calculated as per IS 875(Part III)-1987. The horizontal
wind pressures act on vertical external walls and exposed area of the
buildings. Some of the pressure acting on exposed surfaces of structural
walls and columns is directly resisted by bending of these members. The infill
walls act as vertical plate supported at top and bottom by floor beams, thus
transferring the loads at slab level. The parapet wall is at terrace transfers
the wind loads to the surface slab by cantilever action. For simplicity, the
wind loads acting on exposed surfaces of a given storey are idealized to be
supported by upper and lower floors.

## Wind forces acting on a given surface is equal to the wind pressures

multiplied by the effected area.

## Design wind speed is given by the equation

Vz= Vb K1 K2 K3 where

## Vb= Basic wind speed in m/sec (Based on Appendix -A of various

cities in IS 875 Part 3)

Basic wind speed Vb, depends on the location of the building. For this
purpose, the country is divided in to six zones with specified wind speeds
ranging from 33m/s to 55 m/s. Basic wind speed is based on gust velocity
averaged over a short time interval of 3 seconds at 10m height from mean
ground level in an open terrain and for 50 years return period. Appendix A
(Fig.1) of the code specified for some important cities/ towns is given.
Vb has 6 values 33, 39,44,47,50 &55 m/sec.

## K1=Risk Coefficient (Table 1 of IS875-part3)

The risk coefficient k1 takes in to account the degree of reliability required
and the expected life of structure.
1.All general buildings (Design life 50 years)

part3).

## It depends of Terrain category and building class/size of structure.

Four terrain categories are specified by the code defending on the
availability of obstruction to the flow of wind.

## Category 1: Refers to no obstructions available to the building (e.g) sea

coasts and flat treeless plains where other structures if any have heights
less than 1.5m.
Category 2: Refers to open terrain with scattered obstructions of 1.5m to
10m height. (e.g) industrial area.
Category 3: Refers to areas of closed spaced buildings of height up to 10m
(e.g) buildings at outskirts of city
Category 4: Refers to area with highly closed buildings of large heights
(e.g) dense city area.
K2 factor also depends on the dimensions of the building under
considerations. Based on dimension of building, the structures are classified
as Class A, Class B, Class C
Class A: Maximum of l, b, h <20m.
Class B: Maximum of l, b, h 20m to 50m.
Class C : Maximum of l, b, h > 50m.

## K3 = Topography factor (Clause 5.3.3.1 of IS875-part3). It depends

on the topography i.e hill region, cliffs and ridges. If the upward ground
slope 0 3 , value of K3 shall be taken as 1.0.
For 0> 3, the value of K3 lies between 1.0 to 1.36.
Design Wind Pressure (pz)
pz= 0.6 Vz2 where
pz= Design Wind speed in N/m2 at height z
Vz= Design wind speed in m/s.
Wind load on a building is calculated for the Building as a whole.
Force coefficients are given for the building as a whole in the code for clad
walls) buildings only.
The wind force acting normal to the building surface is given by
F= Cf Ae pd where
Cf= force coefficient (Figure 4A & 4B of IS 875-part 3-1987).

## Ae=effective frontal area.

pd =design wind pressure.
Built in program automatically calculates the wind loads on the structure
(from the pressures given at different heights) and distributes the loads at
the lateral joints.
Wind loads are converted in to joint loads and exposure factors due to
openings are incorporated.
Exposure factor (c) is the fraction of the influence area associated with the
joint(s) on which the load acts. Exposure factors depends on the openings
provided in the walls of the buildings.
Joint load F= Cf Ae Pd
The above formula can be rewritten as,
F= (Cf Pd) Ae
F= pi Ae where
pi = wind intensity pressure at that heights.
Hence in STAAD Pro, the wind intensities at different heights are given in the
input as follows:
Intensity pi= p1, p2, p3 Height h1, h2, h3 where pi= p1, p2, p3 etc.
The program automatically calculates the wind loads on the structure (from
the pressure given at different heights) and distributes the load at the joints.
Two stages in Wind loads command
2. Apply the defined wind load.
Note: The above Define command must be given immediately after the
support command before giving any load command.
1. DEFINE COMMAND:
SUPPORTS

TYPE 1 (wind intensity in X Direction)
Intensity 1.8 2.0 2.1 Height 10. 15.0 20.0
Exposure 1.0 YRANGE 15.0 17.0
TYPE 2 (wind intensity in Z Direction)
Intensity 1.8 2.0 2.1 Height 10. 15.0 20.0

.

## LOAD 3 (WL in X Direction)

WIND LOAD X 1.0 TYPE 1
LOAD 4 (WL in -X Direction)
WIND LOAD X -1.0 TYPE 1
LOAD 5 (WL in Z Direction)
WIND LOAD Z 1.0 TYPE 2
LOAD 4 (WL in -X Direction)
WIND LOAD Z -1.0 TYPE 2
WIND ANALYSIS GRAPHICAL METHOD
Click Loads & Definitions Click Definitions
Click Type 1 Comments: Wind 1
Intensity(Kn/m2) Height(m)

15.0 2.0
Click Exposures Factor 1.0 Add Close.
Highlight Exposure and select node cursor and entire structure Assign
to selected nodes Assign Yes Close.
Title : Wind in X +ve dir Add.

Title : Wind in (-)X dir Add

Title : Wind in Z +ve dir Add.
Title : Wind in (-)Z dir Add Close.
Click Wind in X +ve Add.
Wind Load X Direction Factor 1
Define Y range Mini: Max: Add.
Click Wind in X -ve Add.
Wind Load X Direction Factor -1
Define Y range Mini: Max: Add.
Click Wind in Z +ve Add.
Wind Load Z Direction Factor 1
Define Y range Mini: Max: Add.
Click Wind in Z -ve Add.
Wind Load X Direction Factor -1
Define Y range Mini: Max: Add.
Load combination for limit state of collapse as per IS 456-2000.
1. 1.5(D+L) 1.5(D+L)
2. 1.5(D+W) 1.5(D+W in X +ve)
1.5(D+W in Z +ve)
3. 1.5(D-W) 1.5(D+ W in X -ve)
1.5(D+ W in Z ve)
4. 1.2(D+L+W) 1.2(D+L+W in X +ve)
1.2(D+L+W in Z+ve)
5. 1.2(D+L-W) 1.2(D+L-W in X ve)
1.2(D+L+W in Z ve)
6. 0.9D+1.5W 0.9D+1.5W in X +ve
0.9D+1.5W in Z +ve)
7. 0.9D-1.5W 0.9D-1.5W in X ve
0.9D-1.5W in Z-ve
Procedure to calculate Wind Intensity of Pressure at Particular
height to use
Data:
Size of building : Length(b)=36.0m Width (a)=29.0m
Height of building (h)=27.0m
Vz= Vb K1 K2 K3
Vb= 50m/sec
K1= 1.08 m/sec
K2= For Terrain category 2 and class B for 10.m height=0.98 ; 15m
height=1.02
For 20m height=1.05 and 30m height=1.10
K3 =1.0 for plain category.
Vz= 50 x 1.08 x 0.98 x 1.0=52.9
The coefficient Cf is found from Figure 4A and 4B of IS 875-Part 3
a/b= Width of Building/Length of Building=28/36=0.8
h/a=Height of Building/ Width of building= 27/28=0.96
h/b= Height of Building/length of Building=27/36=0.75
Referring Fig. 4A and 4B of IS 875- part 3
For h/a =0.96 Cf=1.24 in X direction in STAAD
For h/b=0.75 Cf =1.215 in Z direction in STAAD
Wind force in a Building = Cf x Pd x area exposed.
The values are tabulated as follows:
Height Vz= Vb K1 K2 Pi = Cf x Pd KN/m2
Pd=0.6 Vz2
in K2 K3 X Z
N/m
metres direction direction
10 0.98 52.92 1680.32 2.08 2.04
15 1.02 55.08 1820.28 2.26 2.21
20 1.05 56.70 1928.93 2.39 2.34
30 1.10 59.4 2117.02 2.63 2.57

Click Loads & Definitions Click definitions
Click Type 1 Comments: Wind 1 (W in X dir)
Intensity(Kn/m2) Height(m)
2.04 10
2.21 15
2.34 20