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Wind Load Analysis

Concept of Wind Load Analysis:

Buildings are subject to horizontal loads due to wind pressure acting on the
buildings. Wind load is calculated as per IS 875(Part III)-1987. The horizontal
wind pressures act on vertical external walls and exposed area of the
buildings. Some of the pressure acting on exposed surfaces of structural
walls and columns is directly resisted by bending of these members. The infill
walls act as vertical plate supported at top and bottom by floor beams, thus
transferring the loads at slab level. The parapet wall is at terrace transfers
the wind loads to the surface slab by cantilever action. For simplicity, the
wind loads acting on exposed surfaces of a given storey are idealized to be
supported by upper and lower floors.

Wind load analysis as per IS 875 (Part 3)-1987:

Wind forces acting on a given surface is equal to the wind pressures


multiplied by the effected area.

Design wind speed (Vz):

Design wind speed is given by the equation

Vz= Vb K1 K2 K3 where

Vz =Design wind velocity (m/sec)

Vb= Basic wind speed in m/sec (Based on Appendix -A of various


cities in IS 875 Part 3)

Basic wind speed Vb, depends on the location of the building. For this
purpose, the country is divided in to six zones with specified wind speeds
ranging from 33m/s to 55 m/s. Basic wind speed is based on gust velocity
averaged over a short time interval of 3 seconds at 10m height from mean
ground level in an open terrain and for 50 years return period. Appendix A
(Fig.1) of the code specified for some important cities/ towns is given.
Vb has 6 values 33, 39,44,47,50 &55 m/sec.

K1=Risk Coefficient (Table 1 of IS875-part3)


The risk coefficient k1 takes in to account the degree of reliability required
and the expected life of structure.
1.All general buildings (Design life 50 years)

2.Temporary sheds (Design life 5 years)

3.Less important Buildings (Design life 25 years)

4.Important Buildings (Design life 100 years)

K2=Terrain, height and structure size factor (Table 2 of IS875-


part3).

It depends of Terrain category and building class/size of structure.


Four terrain categories are specified by the code defending on the
availability of obstruction to the flow of wind.

Category 1: Refers to no obstructions available to the building (e.g) sea


coasts and flat treeless plains where other structures if any have heights
less than 1.5m.
Category 2: Refers to open terrain with scattered obstructions of 1.5m to
10m height. (e.g) industrial area.
Category 3: Refers to areas of closed spaced buildings of height up to 10m
(e.g) buildings at outskirts of city
Category 4: Refers to area with highly closed buildings of large heights
(e.g) dense city area.
K2 factor also depends on the dimensions of the building under
considerations. Based on dimension of building, the structures are classified
as Class A, Class B, Class C
Class A: Maximum of l, b, h <20m.
Class B: Maximum of l, b, h 20m to 50m.
Class C : Maximum of l, b, h > 50m.

K3 = Topography factor (Clause 5.3.3.1 of IS875-part3). It depends


on the topography i.e hill region, cliffs and ridges. If the upward ground
slope 0 3 , value of K3 shall be taken as 1.0.
For 0> 3, the value of K3 lies between 1.0 to 1.36.
Design Wind Pressure (pz)
pz= 0.6 Vz2 where
pz= Design Wind speed in N/m2 at height z
Vz= Design wind speed in m/s.
Wind load on a building is calculated for the Building as a whole.
Force coefficients are given for the building as a whole in the code for clad
or unclad buildings. In this we considered clad (covered with side cladding or
walls) buildings only.
The wind force acting normal to the building surface is given by
F= Cf Ae pd where
Cf= force coefficient (Figure 4A & 4B of IS 875-part 3-1987).

Ae=effective frontal area.


pd =design wind pressure.
WIND LOADS IN STAAD-PRO
Built in program automatically calculates the wind loads on the structure
(from the pressures given at different heights) and distributes the loads at
the lateral joints.
Wind loads are converted in to joint loads and exposure factors due to
openings are incorporated.
Exposure factor (c) is the fraction of the influence area associated with the
joint(s) on which the load acts. Exposure factors depends on the openings
provided in the walls of the buildings.
Joint load F= Cf Ae Pd
The above formula can be rewritten as,
F= (Cf Pd) Ae
F= pi Ae where
pi = wind intensity pressure at that heights.
Hence in STAAD Pro, the wind intensities at different heights are given in the
input as follows:
Intensity pi= p1, p2, p3 Height h1, h2, h3 where pi= p1, p2, p3 etc.
The program automatically calculates the wind loads on the structure (from
the pressure given at different heights) and distributes the load at the joints.
Two stages in Wind loads command
1. Define the wind load
2. Apply the defined wind load.
Note: The above Define command must be given immediately after the
support command before giving any load command.
1. DEFINE COMMAND:
SUPPORTS

DEFINE WIND LOAD
TYPE 1 (wind intensity in X Direction)
Intensity 1.8 2.0 2.1 Height 10. 15.0 20.0
Exposure 1.0 YRANGE 15.0 17.0
TYPE 2 (wind intensity in Z Direction)
Intensity 1.8 2.0 2.1 Height 10. 15.0 20.0

2. APPLYING THE ABOVE DEFINED WIND LOAD:


LOAD 1 (DL)
.
LOAD 2 (LL)

LOAD 3 (WL in X Direction)


WIND LOAD X 1.0 TYPE 1
LOAD 4 (WL in -X Direction)
WIND LOAD X -1.0 TYPE 1
LOAD 5 (WL in Z Direction)
WIND LOAD Z 1.0 TYPE 2
LOAD 4 (WL in -X Direction)
WIND LOAD Z -1.0 TYPE 2
WIND ANALYSIS GRAPHICAL METHOD
1.Defining Wind Load
Click Loads & Definitions Click Definitions
Wind Definitions Add.
Click Type 1 Comments: Wind 1
Intensity(Kn/m2) Height(m)

15.0 2.0
20.0 2.1 AddClose.
Click Exposures Factor 1.0 Add Close.
Highlight Exposure and select node cursor and entire structure Assign
to selected nodes Assign Yes Close.
2.Applying the Wind Load:
1.Click Load case detail Add
Number : 3, Loading type: Wind
Title : Wind in X +ve dir Add.

2. Click Load case detail Add.


Number :4, Loading type: Wind
Title : Wind in (-)X dir Add

3.Click Load case detail Add


Number :5 Loading type: wind
Title : Wind in Z +ve dir Add.
4.Click Load case detail Add
Number :6, Loading type: Wind
Title : Wind in (-)Z dir Add Close.
3. Assigning Wind load:
Click Wind in X +ve Add.
Wind Load X Direction Factor 1
Define Y range Mini: Max: Add.
Click Wind in X -ve Add.
Wind Load X Direction Factor -1
Define Y range Mini: Max: Add.
Click Wind in Z +ve Add.
Wind Load Z Direction Factor 1
Define Y range Mini: Max: Add.
Click Wind in Z -ve Add.
Wind Load X Direction Factor -1
Define Y range Mini: Max: Add.
Load combination to be considered in Wind Load :
Load combination for limit state of collapse as per IS 456-2000.
1. 1.5(D+L) 1.5(D+L)
2. 1.5(D+W) 1.5(D+W in X +ve)
1.5(D+W in Z +ve)
3. 1.5(D-W) 1.5(D+ W in X -ve)
1.5(D+ W in Z ve)
4. 1.2(D+L+W) 1.2(D+L+W in X +ve)
1.2(D+L+W in Z+ve)
5. 1.2(D+L-W) 1.2(D+L-W in X ve)
1.2(D+L+W in Z ve)
6. 0.9D+1.5W 0.9D+1.5W in X +ve
0.9D+1.5W in Z +ve)
7. 0.9D-1.5W 0.9D-1.5W in X ve
0.9D-1.5W in Z-ve
Total load cases =13.
Procedure to calculate Wind Intensity of Pressure at Particular
height to use
in Staad Pro
Data:
Size of building : Length(b)=36.0m Width (a)=29.0m
Height of building (h)=27.0m
Vz= Vb K1 K2 K3
Vb= 50m/sec
K1= 1.08 m/sec
K2= For Terrain category 2 and class B for 10.m height=0.98 ; 15m
height=1.02
For 20m height=1.05 and 30m height=1.10
K3 =1.0 for plain category.
Vz= 50 x 1.08 x 0.98 x 1.0=52.9
The coefficient Cf is found from Figure 4A and 4B of IS 875-Part 3
a/b= Width of Building/Length of Building=28/36=0.8
h/a=Height of Building/ Width of building= 27/28=0.96
h/b= Height of Building/length of Building=27/36=0.75
Referring Fig. 4A and 4B of IS 875- part 3
For h/a =0.96 Cf=1.24 in X direction in STAAD
For h/b=0.75 Cf =1.215 in Z direction in STAAD
Wind force in a Building = Cf x Pd x area exposed.
The values are tabulated as follows:
Height Vz= Vb K1 K2 Pi = Cf x Pd KN/m2
Pd=0.6 Vz2
in K2 K3 X Z
N/m
metres direction direction
10 0.98 52.92 1680.32 2.08 2.04
15 1.02 55.08 1820.28 2.26 2.21
20 1.05 56.70 1928.93 2.39 2.34
30 1.10 59.4 2117.02 2.63 2.57

1.Defining Wind Load


Click Loads & Definitions Click definitions
Wind Definitions Add.
Click Type 1 Comments: Wind 1 (W in X dir)
Intensity(Kn/m2) Height(m)
2.04 10
2.21 15
2.34 20
2.57 30 Add.
Click Loads & Definitions Click definitions
Wind Definitions Add.
Click Type 2 Comments: Wind 2 (W in Z dir)
Intensity(Kn/m2) Height(m)
2.08 10
2.26 15
2.39 20
2.63 30 Add.
Click Exposures Factor 1.0 Add Close.
Highlight Exposure and select node cursor and entire structure Assign
to selected nodes Assign Yes Close.