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POSTAL COACHING

AMIE SECTION-B
CIVIL ENGINEERING

A CV403
CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS
AND

M
CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES

STUDY MATERIAS

I
E RESILIENT-TUTORIALS
OPPOSITE POST OFFICE,
OUTSIDE SHERAN WALA GATE,
PATIALA- 147 001 (PB) INDIA
Phone: 0175-2364253
Email: resilient.tutorials@gmail.com
CV403 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES AMIE SECTION-B 01/01/2017

GROUP-A
UNIT-I INTRODUCTION TO CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS
1.0 Introduction to Civil Engineering Materials
1.1 Historical Perspective
1.2 Stone
1.3 Timber
1.4 Cement
1.5 Steel
1.6 Plastics
1.7 Concrete.
2.0 Engineering Properties of Materials
2.1 Density
2.2 Strength (Compressive, tensile, flexural, shear, etc.)
2.3 Modulus of elasticity
2.4 Fatigue
2.5 Limit
2.6 Creep
2.7 Shrinkage
2.8 Relaxation
2.9 Permeability
2.10 Fire resistance.
3.0 Materials and Environment
3.1 effect of environment on materials.
4.0 Classification of environment
4.1 Temperature
4.2 Humidity
4.3 Rain
4.4 Fire.

2 RESILIENT-TUTORIALS
UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS AMIE SECTION-B 01/01/2017

1.0 Introduction to Civil Engineering Materials


Civil engineering consists of the design, construction, maintenance, inspection, and management of
characteristically diverse public works projects, from railroads to high-rise buildings to sewage treatment
centers. Their construction may be under or above ground, offshore or inland, over mile-deep valleys or flat
terrains, and upon Rocky Mountains or clayey soils. The thought that all these creative efforts are made
possible through the marvelous innovative spirits of civil engineers is in itself comforting and appealing, as
well as challenging for prospective civil and construction engineers. The gigantic achievements of the past
stand as a flashing beacon to promote the potential of civil engineering.
Although the profession of civil engineering per see is of fairly recent origin, the work of civil
engineering is as old as humankind. The most ambitious and historically significant projects throughout the
history of civilization were accomplished to satisfy the fundamental human needs for transportation, water,
shelter, and disaster control nonetheless, the systematic approach to planning for the communitys future, by
training young minds professionally in all facets of civil engineering, is quite new.
Civil engineering is related to the civil structure ranging from buildings to bridges, underground
reservoirs to overhead ones, docks and herbours to airports, roads, water supply, sewerage and drainage,
canals and tube wells. These structures are designed, constructed, supervised and then maintained by civil
engineers who have expertise in their respective fields. The ones who are primarily concerned with the
design of structures are the structural engineers and ones who are associated with construction, supervision
and maintenance are the construction or field engineers. The civil engineers come across various types of
materials in their day to day practice. This necessitates the knowledge of materials i.e., their properties,
storage and uses they can be put to etc.
An engineering structure is the composition of various material depending on its use, location, climate
and aesthetic considerations, etc. this demands a wide range of materials of different properties such as
strength, durability, impermeability and thermal insulation. Therefore, the quality and effectiveness of
materials used in the building construction and their storage are important while planning, designing, and
constructing any building.
Due to the great diversity in the usage of buildings and installations and the various processes of
production, a great variety of requirements are placed upon civil engineering materials calling for a very
wide range of their properties: strength at low and high temperatures, resistance to ordinary water and sea
water, acids and alkalis etc. Also, materials for interior decoration of residential and public buildings,
gardens and parks, etc. should be, by their very purpose, pleasant to the eye, durable and strong. Specific
properties of civil engineering materials serve as a basis for subdividing them into separate groups. For
example, mineral binding materials are subdivided into air and hydraulic-setting varieties. The principal
properties of civil engineering materials predetermine their applications. Only a comprehensive knowledge
of the properties of materials allows a rational choice of materials for specific service conditions.
The importance of standardization cannot be over emphasized. It requires the quality of materials and
manufactured items to be not below a specific standard level. However, the importance of standardization is
not limited to this factor alone, since each revised standard places higher requirements upon the products
than the preceding one, with the effect that the industry concerned has to keep up with the standards and
improved production techniques. Thus, the industry of civil engineering materials gains both in quantity and
quality, so that new, more efficient products are manufactured and the output of conventional materials is
increased.
To develop products of greater economic efficiency, it is important to compare the performance of
similar kinds of materials under specific service conditions. Expenditures for running an installation can be
minimized by improving the quality of civil engineering materials and products. Building industry
economists are thus required to have a good working knowledge, first, of the civil engineering materials,
second, of their optimum applications on the basis of their principal properties, and, third, of their
manufacturing techniques, in order that the buildings and installations may have optimum engineering,
economic performance and efficiency. Having acquired adequate knowledge, an economist specializing in
construction becomes an active participant in the development of the building industry and the manufacture
of civil engineering materials

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CV403 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES AMIE SECTION-B 01/01/2017

Apart from naturally occurring materials like clay, sand, stone and wood, many synthetic and
composite products are extensively used as civil engineering materials nowadays. Each material has its own
merit and demerit. Therefore, before selecting the material one should understand the properties which
would satisfy the functional requirements. The decision will depend on basic issues like physical,
mechanical, and metallurgical properties including their cost, availability, appropriateness, and symbolism.
Broadly, civil engineering materials can be classified as:
(i) Solid materials: Such as stone, bricks, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, steel and timber etc.
(ii) Cementitious: Such as cement, lime etc.
(iii) Protective materials: Such as paints, varnishes, etc. and
(iv) Other ancillary materials and fittings.
1.1 Historical Perspective:

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