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Effect of Fertilizers made of egg shells and coffee grounds

in the growth of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)

Researchers:

Group 4
16 Favis, Team Cy S.
17 Fernandez, Ann Katherine N.
18 Gaite, Anne Dominique
19 Garcia, Bettina
20 Gaticales, Natalia P.
7 5 Amelia David

Submitted in partial fulfillment


of the requirements in Science Research Class
to the High School Department of
St. Theresas College, Quezon City
SY 2015 2016
February 18, 2016

Research Adviser:
Mrs. Lovelene Chua

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APPROVAL SHEET

This research paper entitled Effect of Fertilizers made of egg shells and coffee

grounds in the growth of Okra

(Abelmoschus esculentus) presented to you by Group 4 of Grade 7 Section Five (7-5) to

the faculty of St. Theresas College, Quezon City in partial fulfillment of the

requirements in Science and Research 7 is hereby accepted.

Ms. Lovelene Chua


Science 7 Teacher
January 23, 2015

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This would not have been possible without the guidance and help of several individuals

who contributed and extended their assistance in the preparation and completion of this

study.

(Name the people you wish to thank and their contribution to your study; in paragraph

form)

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this experiment was to see if using coffee beans and crushed eggshells as
fertilizer is as effective as commercial fertilizer. In their hypothesis, they said that if the
crushed egg shells or/and coffee grounds will improve the speed of growth than normal
fertilizer. To test their hypothesis, they had three pots labeled A, B, and C. In pot A, they
had 50g of crushed eggs and 1kg of loam soil. In pot B, they had 50g of ground coffee
and 1kg of loam soil and lastly, in pot C, they had 25 grams of egg shells and 25 grams of
coffee grounds, watered each of them with 50ml water and left enough sunlight for 10
days. Their results stated that in days 1-4 the pots had grown nothing, by day 6, pot B
(coffee grounds) has grown a small sprout unlike pots A and C which havent sprouted.
Day 9, the plant of pot B grew taller and finally, day 10, plant B was fully grown. So, set
up B which had coffee grounds as its fertilizer was the only one successful one proving
that coffee grounds has an effect to the growth of the okra plant.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i
ABSTRACT ii
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 3
Statement of the Problem 4
Significance of the Study 5
Scope and Limitation of the study ...
CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ...
CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ...
CHAPTER IV: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ...
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ...
BIBLIOGRAPHY ...
APPENDIX (if applicable) ...

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Chapter I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study


Todays generation, household moms, usually use fertilizers to their plants. Plants need

fertilizers to absorb nutrients in order to grow. The researchers have observed the use of

inorganic fertilizers in several ornamental plants. The researchers therefore want to

investigate substituting to organic fertilizers particularly egg shells and coffee grounds to

okra plants. The study will help moms to use of available material in the kitchen rather

than buying commercial fertilizers. The researchers will try to find whether the addition

of egg shells or coffee ground in the soil would have an effect to the growth of the plant.

B. Statement of the Problem:

1. Does the addition of crushed egg shells and/or composted coffee ground in the soil have

an effect in the growth of the okra seeds?

2. Compared to commercial fertilizers, are crushed egg shells and/or composted coffee

ground more effective in the growth of the okra seeds?

Hypothesis:

1. If the crushed egg shells and/or composted coffee ground are added to the pot with soil

with okra seeds, the seeds will grow in faster rate compare to the seeds in a pot of soil

with commercial fertilizers.

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2. If the crushed egg shells and/or composted coffee ground is added to the pot with soil

with okra seeds, the seeds will grow at slower rate compared to the seeds with

commercial fertilizers.

3. The addition of either of the two will not have an effect to the growth of the okra seeds.

C. Significance of the study

The vegetables industry of the Philippines plays a big part of the agricultural industry

specifically in the rural areas. We need this in our daily beings. Okra can be very helpful

to us since this contains sufficient amount of nutrients essential to our bodies. If this okra

will grow in an improved ways then it would be beneficial to all Filipinos.

D. Scope and Limitations

The researchers only aim to study the effectiveness of crushed egg shells and/or

composted coffee ground used as fertilizers for the okra seeds. However, due to time

constraint, the study will limit only to the effectiveness of the subject as this may lead to

any of the qualitative properties compared to the commercial fertilizers.

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Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Vegetables play a vital role in the improvement of the diet of mankind. Okra is a good
source of vitamins, minerals, calories and amino acid found in seeds and compares
favorably with those in poultry, eggs and soybean,(Thompson, 1949; Schipper, 2000).
Fertilizer is a very essential input in crop production. The application of fertilizer is
necessary for enhancing the soil nutrient status and increasing crop yield. Okra requires
nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K),calcium (Ca), sodium (Na)
and Sulphur (S) for fertility maintenance and crop production.These nutrients are specific
in function and must be supplied to plants at the right time and at the right quantity. Lack
of sufficient amounts of these nutrients result in poor performance of the crop with
growth been affected resulting to low yield (Shukla and Naik, 1993).

The Eggshells

The main ingredient in eggshells is calcium carbonate. The shell itself is about 95%
CaCO3 (which is also the main ingredient in sea shells) (Powrie, 1972). The remaining
mass is composed largely of phosphorus and magnesium, and trace amounts of sodium,
potassium, zinc, manganese, iron, copper and other proteins. Calcium, which is found in
eggshells, is vital to all forms of plant life and is a "crucial regulator of growth and
development," according to the American Society of Plant Biologists. For an extra boost
of this nutrient, place a powder made from finely crushed eggshells into a watering can
and fill it up. After letting it sit and absorb for several days, use the substance to water
plants, such as vegetables and shrubs, and it will act as a natural fertilizer.

The Coffee grounds


Composted coffee grounds are slightly acidic and full of nitrogen, a mineral that aids
vegetable and plant growth. Coffee grounds are particularly good for tomato plants,
which thrive on nitrogen. What is more, the grounds when used for planting, create a
natural acidic form of bacteria, which boosts the growth of acid-loving plants like
tomatoes, roses, blueberries and evergreens. According to The Composting Council of
Canada, adding coffee to soil not only increases the nutritional value, but also betters the
texture and fertility of the soil and aids in attracting earthworms. Most organic gardeners
agree that adding coffee ground to your plants is a "good thing, according to Paul
Rodman, President Emeritus of the Western Wayne County Master Gardener Association
in Wayne County, Michigan. There is little published information as to how the ground
should be applied. Coffee grounds are organic and will break down just as compost does.
When a living thing dies, it gives back the nutrients is has stored during its lifetime.

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Coffee grounds contain 2% nitrogen and less than 1% each of phosphorus and potassium.
Researchers have discovered that these little bits of organic material can indeed affect
plants. In fact coffee ground can affect different plants in very different ways. For
example lettuce seems to benefit from coffee grounds. It seemed to have little effect on
alfalfa. Tomato plants were negatively affected by application of grounds. This effect
seemed to be due to an ingredient in coffee grounds that acts as an allelopathic chemical,
which inhibits the growth of some plants. Fresh coffee grounds can tie up nitrogen that
the plant might otherwise take up.

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Chapter III

METHODOLOGY

A. Materials

3 pcs 5-gal plastic container, cut parts, with inch hole at the bottom
10 pcs treated okra seed (treated seeds are those pre-coated with fungicide
(thiram) to avoid problem like damping off)
4 kg loam soil
50 grams egg shells, washed and cleaned of residue and crushed
50 grams ground coffee

B. Procedures

First, soak the okra seeds overnight for 12 hours in tepid water to help speed
up germination. Second, prepare soil and fertilizer mixture by adding 50
grams of crushed egg shells and 1 kg of loam soil in Pot#1. Then prepare
another mixture by adding 50 grams of ground coffee and 1 kg of loam soil on
Pot#2. Last, prepare Pot#3 by adding 25 grams of egg shell and 25 grams of
coffee ground at 1 kg of loam soil. Label each pot accordingly. Next, plant 2-3
seeds near the center of the pot, spacing each seed 1 to 2 inches apart and
cover them with inch of the potting mixture. Planting multiple seeds
increases the chance that at least one (1) seed will germinate. Then, water the
soil of each pot with equal amount to keep the soil moist until seedlings
emerges. Do this every morning.
Fifth, place the 3 pots of the same area away from pest. The pots should be
placed on the area that receives at least six (6) hours of direct sunlight. Sixth,
record the time and amount of water used. Use the table below. (You can have
separate monitoring sheet). Indicate observations if any.

For Pot# 1: With crushed egg shells

Day Time Amount of water Observations


(in mL)
1
2
3
4
So on

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For Pot# 2: With ground coffee

Day Time Amount of water Observations


(in mL)
1
2
3
4
So on

For Pot# 3: With egg shells and ground coffee

Day Time Amount of water Observations


(in mL)
1
2
3
4
So on

Next, when the seeds you planted have sprouted and grown to 3 inches high,
thin the smaller seedlings and leave the stronger ones standing. Thin them so
that the remaining seedlings are spaced equal.
Lastly, record the growth by measuring the height in weekly basis. Use the table below.
(You can have separate monitoring sheet). Indicate observations if any.
Pot # Week Date Time Height Observations
Sample measured (in inches)
measured
1
2 1
3
1
2 2
3
1
2 3
3
..
so on
Note: The duration of sample observation will depend on the scope of the projects.

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Chapter IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This table represents the growth of the Okra plants with the help of the fertilizer

Day Pot Amount of Observations


Water (in
mL)

A 50 ml The seeds have been planted.


1
B 50 ml

C 50 ml

A 50 ml
2 Nothing has sprouted yet.
B 50 ml

C 50 ml

A 50 ml Nothing has sprouted yet


4
B 50 ml

C 50 ml

A 50 ml Nothing has sprouted yet


6
B 50 ml A 1 centimeter tall yellowish sprout has emerged from the
soil.

C 50 ml Nothing has sprouted yet.

A 50 ml Nothing has sprouted yet.

B 50 ml The plant has grown to 13.7 centimeters and has two


9 leaves: the longer one measuring 1.7 centimeters and the
shorter one measuring 1.5 centimeters.

C 50 ml Nothing has sprouted yet.


in the span of 10 days.

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A 50 ml Nothing has sprouted.

10 B 50 ml The plants height is now 16 centimeters.

C 50 ml Nothing has sprouted.

On the 1st day, the seeds were planted in their individual containers. On days 2-5,

the plants were watered daily but none of them had sprouted yet. On day 6, a plant has

finally sprouted in Pot B; the sprout was still very small being only 1 centimeter tall

because it had just emerged. Despite having same conditions as Pot B in terms of quality

of soil and amount of water & sunlight, Pot A and C appear to have no visible signs of the

plant rising from above the soil. On 9th day, the Okra plant shot up to be 13.7 centimeters

taller than its original height from appearing from the soil. On The last day, the Okra

plant grew 2.3 centimeters from its height on day 9 but despite the development of the

plant in Pot B, Pot A and C are still devoid of plant life.

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Chapter V

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusion

In the growth stage of Abelmoschus esculentus (okra plant), the use of fertilizers which

are mixed with coffee grounds and eggshells are much helpful than other inorganic

fertilizers. Among the groups set-ups, Set-Up B which has coffee grounds mixed in the

fertilizer was the only one successful in growing a small bud of plant with a height of

13.7 cm within a span of 5 days. The two other set-ups weren't as successful as we

predicted. Although, this only proves that in using a fertilizer with mixed coffee grounds

has a big effect in the speed of growth of Abelmoschus esculentus (okra plant) of course,

when it comes with daily watering and care of the plant.

Recommendation

The group is recommending the following:

1. To continue further the evaluation to determine the extent of the growth primarily

to establish feasibility to market or propose this into a large scale. If found

feasible, the group may consider collaboration with coffee ground waste generator

to use this as a fertilizer in okra planting.


2. If to replicate the experiment, the group might want to test the coffee ground to

soil ratio to see if more or less coffee ground has an effect in the growth of the

plant.
3. May consider testing to different plants to discover if coffee grounds help or

hinder the growth of a specific plant.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Background of the Study

14 Genius Ways to Recycle Used Coffee Grounds (2014)

30+ Things to Do With Eggshells (Winger)

Review of Related Literature

1st Paragraph (Thompson, 1949; Schipper, 2000)

1st Paragraph (Shukla and Naik, 1993)

2nd Paragraph (Powrie, 1972)

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