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Layers in Word Count: Art

2807

Madingley Moravia 300 69559


Abbs 0

1
In my study, I am intending to explore and
contrast the different techniques artists use
to create layers and the ideas and concepts
behind their work. I have chosen this as my
title as currently in my practical work I am
experimenting with how building up layers
can hide whats underneath. However I have
found my work so far has had few strong
concepts and ideas behind it, and it has been
focusing purely on the aesthetics, and
techniques used to achieve these.

I have chosen these three artists, Shin-Young


Park, Jackson Pollock and Ben Quilty for this
essay as their work presents concepts which I
feel are very similar; their perceptions of the
world around them; and their own emotions
relating to this123. However, all three artists
also take a different approach in representing
what they perceive, using different mediums
and techniques4567. I am interested to see
1 -, Saatchi Gallery, Ben Quilty, [website], 2014, http://www.saatchigallery.com/current/ben_quilty.htm,
(accessed 4 November 2015)

2A. Remer, The Art Story, Jackson Pollock, [website], -, http://www.theartstory.org/artist-pollock-jackson.htm,


(accessed 4 November 2015)

3 S. Park , shinyoungpark.com, [website], -,


http://www.shinyoungpark.com/new/sub/gallery_sub.php?
sort=surface&page=0105, (accessed 4 November 2015)

4 R. Alley, Catalogue of the Tate Gallery's Collection of Modern Art other than Works by British Artists, Tate
Gallery and Sotheby Parke-Bernet, London 1981, pp.616-17

5 -, Collection online, Jackson Pollock-Guggenheim Museum, [website] ,


-,http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-online/artists/bios/963/Jackson
%20Pollock?gclid=CN-Cl_e19sgCFecSwwodqnAA4w , (accessed on 4 November 2015)

6 Photograph: S. Park, Surface no1, 2009, http://www.shinyoungpark.com/new/sub/gallery_sub.php?


sort=surface&page=0105, (accessed on 10 January 2016)

7 Photograph: B. Quilty, Private Cary Adams, 7RAR, 69-70, 2014,


http://www.benquilty.com/artwork_item.php?artwork=20150311135250&y=20140522104459,
(accessed 4 November 2015)

2
how much this influenced their technique and
style and how the ideas behind the work is
translated into a visual form.
Photograph: S. Park, Heritage Remix #09,
http://www.saatchiart.com/art/Printmaking-
Heritage-Remix-09/657845/2163899/view,
By studying Park, Pollock and Quilty, I hope to
(accessed 10 January 2016)
incorporate stronger concepts and ideas into my
practical work, to force the viewers to think about
what they are seeing in my work, instead of just
admiring the aesthetics. I am aiming for this
approach to also influence the techniques I use
myself, as I would like to take the viewers on a
thought provoking journey, instead of a journey
involving only their eyes.

In this essay I will I will firstly draw out the meaning


and understanding of layering, both technical and
conceptual, within art. This will be followed by an analysis of
Photograph: J. Pollock, Enchanted Forest, 1947,
A-level coursework
three piece createdartists
different using Lino
and how they use layering techniques
http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-
printing and acrylic paint
to convey online/artwork/3483,
their ideas. The use of specific
(accessed art pieces
4 November 2015) will then
be used to offer in depth
comparison and analysis
of their styles. I will then
conclude with a
comparative analysis of
how this study informs
and affects my practical
work.

When studying
conceptual art for myself,
I have often found the
longer one analyses it, the more the psychological contained density increases.
This is due to ones perception of it changing, one begins to think in a certain way
and understand the cerebral and emotional layers the artist has put in place. My
understanding is that, before the development of modernism at around 1850 8,
layering was usually only used as a physical technique used to achieve the desired
aesthetics. Seventeenth century painters began with the drawing and
underpainting stage9 before building up the rest of the paint. According to
Jonathan Janson, terminology used by these painters reveals three or four main
stages, inventing, dead colouring, working up, followed by retouching. However
as modernism developed artist strived to reject traditional techniques, becoming

8 -, Modernism, Tate, [website], -, http://www.tate.org.uk/learn/online-


resources/glossary/m/modernism, ( accessed on 10 January 2016)

3
more wayward with their experiments in an attempt
Photograph: B. Quilty, Private Cary to create an un-tinted reflection of modern society,
Adams, 7RAR, 69-70, 2014,
http://www.benquilty.com/artwork_item
therefore creating a path into art that more
.php? thoroughly toyed with concepts and ideas. 8 This I
artwork=20150311135250&y=201405 believe, has allowed layers to evolve away from
22104459, (accessed 4 November being purely aesthetic. Although layering has been
used as a technique to achieve the desired look and feeling in art, in my opinion,
the layering in some artists work (e.g. Park) 10 is as much about the
conceptualisation of the piece as the technical process of its production. This view
of technical and conceptual layering is best understood by exploring in greater
detail the works of Quilty, Pollock and Park.

Firstly I will offer an overview of these artists work. Australian painter, Ben Quilty 11
was slow to be recognised in the art world, but despite this, his signature Impasto
style of painting has made him widely recognised today. 12 The rich application of
paint that he has embellished on his work is said to be inspired by his reckless 12
years before adulthood. The inconsistency of his perspective and proportions
between his pieces, which may be due to the quick speed he works at, 13 leaves me
feeling uneasy when I view more than one piece of work at a time. I believe this is
due to our minds subconscious desire to establish what is right and wrong, so
when confronted with a body of work like Quiltys, where the technique is ever
evolving and contrasting, we struggle to process the constituent elements he
utilizes, and how each time they have developed. 13 My view on his work his quite
fitting with his reputation, as Quilty is becoming widely known for both his
unsettling subject matter and quick working method 13. Quiltys Impasto
9J. Janson, Vermeers Painting Technique: A Five Part Study,[website], -,
http://www.essentialvermeer.com/technique/technique_overview.html, (accessed 11 November
2015)

10 S. Park , shinyoungpark.com, [website], -,


http://www.shinyoungpark.com/new/sub/gallery_sub.php?sort=surface&page=0105, (accessed 10
January 2016)

11 -, Saatchi Gallery, Ben Quilty, [website], 2014,


http://www.saatchigallery.com/current/ben_quilty.htm, (accessed 18 November 2015)

12-, Biography- Ben Quilty, [website], -, http://iartistbenquilty.weebly.com/biography.html, (accessed


18 November 2015)

13 -, Saatchi Gallery, Ben Quilty, [website], 2014,


http://www.saatchigallery.com/current/ben_quilty.htm, (accessed 18 November 2015)

4
technique incorporates layers strongly as an
element of this technique, building up smears,
smudges and almost three-dimensional brush
marks13. I believe he uses built up layers as a
technique, to create an overall piece of finished
work that depicts12 a bold and unsettling
object12, and it is that object that demonstrates
the ideas behind his work.

American action painter14 Jackson Pollock is


widely considered to be one of the most
influential and provocative American artists of
the twentieth century14. He is considered to be
one of the most prominent fathers of abstract
Photograph: B. Quilty, Self portrait impressionism, due to his revolutionary
with, 2014, technique of drip style, utilizing various tools
http://www.benquilty.com/artwork_it
such as sticks, trowels or knives to drip ,
em.php?
artwork=20140917161650&y=201 splatter, or pour paint (often directly from the
40522104459, (accessed 10 can) to produce his individualistic effect. 15
January 2016) When I view Pollocks body of work my
immediate thought is probably like anyone elses, that I cannot comprehend where
his ideas come from, and his expressive technique looks incredibly fulfilling to
practice with. However, after more prolonged exposure to his body of work,
although I still do not know what ideas are behind the pieces, the emotional
integrity of his work seems to radiate and seep out of the pieces.

Viewing his work , to me, has the ambience of being abandoned in his mind, so I
cannot understand what emotions and sentiment he is feeling, but I can never the
less decipher their existence. Pollock once said:

14-, Jackson Pollock: Blind Spots, Tate, [website], -, http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-


liverpool/exhibition/jackson-pollock-blind-spots?gclid=CPa14KmzmskCFarpwgodeOYDaA, ( accessed
18 November 2015

15 -, Collection online, Jackson Pollock-Guggenheim Museum, [website] ,


-,http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-online/artists/bios/963/Jackson
%20Pollock?gclid=CN-Cl_e19sgCFecSwwodqnAA4w , (accessed on 18 November 2015)

5
It doesn't make much difference how the paint is put on as long as
something has been said. Technique is just a means of arriving at a

Artist transcript: Photograph: J. Pollock, Summertime: Number 9A,


1948, http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/pollock-summertime-number-
9a-t03977, (accessed 25 November 2015), created using poster
paint.

statement."16

In my opinion, this
statement accurately
describes his works
relationship
with layers and
concepts. The poetic
dance Pollock creates
between movement of
the paint and the
emotions and ideas he is
portraying is
almost coincidental,
the layering in his
work being equally
coincidental. It feels as if his painting technique is just the bare instrument used
to reveal his ideas and emotions.

16 A. Remer, The Art Story, Jackson Pollock, [website], -, http://www.theartstory.org/artist-pollock-


jackson.htm, (accessed 18 November 2015)

6
Photograph: J. Pollock, Yellow Islands, 1952, http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-
on/tate-liverpool/exhibition/jackson-pollock-blind-spots?
gclid=CPa14KmzmskCFarpwgodeOYDaA, (accessed 10 January 2016)

Comparing the work of Pollock and Quilty, the most


obvious feature to me, is the fluidity of their piece.
The thick Impasto of Quiltys work almost looks still
wet; the fluidity of Pollocks work lies in the
movement of the drips he has created. Both artists employ layers in a similar way.
The layers are not an intentional part of the idea; however they are an extremely
important factor in the technique, being essential to achieve the aesthetics so
eloquently, but yet subtly display the notions behind their work.

Korean-born New Zealand printmaker Shin-Young Park 17 is less well-known than the
two previous artists discussed. Interestingly her body of work incorporates layers
in a way that is in contrast to Pollock and Quilty. Parks work is reflective of her
life, quite often looking at Singapore, and its many aspects of society 1819 Park
says her slow method of working is in contrast to the quickly changing society of
Singapore. 20Park incorporates layers into her metal prints, similarly to Pollock and
Quilty, as a technique. But, in contrast to their work, I feel, when looking at her
pieces that her method is much more carefully planned, less spontaneous, as she
slowly builds up print over print, to convey her ideas on society. 19, 20 At this point, I
17-, Shin-Young Park- Art Loft, [website],-, https://artloftasia.com/artists/shin-young-park, (accessed
18 November 2016)

18 S. Park, shinyoungpark.com,[website], -,
http://www.shinyoungpark.com/new/sub/gallery_sub.php?sort=pearl_of_the_orient&page=0101,
(accessed 10 January 2016)

19 S. Park , shinyoungpark.com, [website], -,


http://www.shinyoungpark.com/new/sub/gallery_sub.php?sort=surface&page=0105, (accessed 10
January 2016)

20 S. Park, Saatchi Art Artist: Shin-young Park; Screenprinting 2014 Printmaking 072014,
http://www.saatchiart.com/art/Printmaking-072014/657845/2163864/view, (accessed 18 November
2015)

7
feel, Quilty and Pollocks work diverges from Parks, as their work feels more spur
of the moment, fueled by emotion in a small concentrated time period, compared
with Parks planned pieces.

Having given a general overview of three artists, the differences in their


incorporation of layers, I will now focus on specific pieces of art from these artists
and analysing their work by comparing and contrasting the varying techniques
and approaches.

Photograph: S. Park, Surface


#6, 2013,
http://www.saatchiart.com/art
/Printmaking-Surface-
6/657845/1799606/view,
(accessed 10 January 2016)

8
The following is a descriptive review of
the artists work. There are very few
clues of descriptive text to hint at what
the essence of Quiltys painting
painting for a rug about my dad21,
apart from the title, is about. I think it is
therefore left entirely up to the viewer to
decide how this artwork is related to its
title. The most prominent part of the
painting for me is how Quilty uses a
slightly different technique for the outer
section of the rug compared with the
four heads. The outer section of the rug
uses much more simple mark making
and layering, only placing the bare
essentials of colour. Conversely the four
heads contain much more variation in
Photograph: B. Quilty, Painting for a rug about the quality of brush stroke and tone.
my Dad, 2014, This continuous layering of colour after
http://www.benquilty.com/artwork_item.php?
colour gives the four heads much more
artwork=20150311131803&y=201405221044
59, (accessed 25 November 2015) depth than the rest of the piece. This
feels, to me as if Quilty finds the heads
the most important part of his composition and the rest of the rug design is an
immaterial consequence, hence the increasing concentration of detail in the four
heads compared with the rest of the rug. What feels to me, like a trivial addition
of the rug design leads me to believe that although Quilty was originally intent on
painting a rug, his underlying emotions are truly screaming of his father. This
paternally orientated sentiment is extended by the placing of the four heads in the
middle of the frame, indicating that his father is yet again the most important
conceptual aspect of this piece. Quiltys use of layers is not in great contrast with
his techniques for many other of his paintings, layering being a coincidental
technique that I believe increases our perception of Quiltys thoughts. However,
due to the lack of contextual knowledge I have found on this piece, I begin to feel
as if there is an unintentional psychological layering to it. As we do not know the
definite meaning of the piece we form our own understanding of it, layering idea
after idea.

21 -, Ben Quilty Artwork, [website], -, http://www.benquilty.com/artwork_item.php?


artwork=20150311131803&y=20140522104459, (accessed 25 November 2015)

9
Comparing Pollocks Summertime: Number 9A, my immediate thought is, unlike
Quiltys painting, there is some contextual knowledge provided with the painting 22.
This allows us to form at least a remote idea of Pollocks conceptual intentions
when he created this piece. The general idea behind this painting
Summertime22 is it reflects a modern artists emotions22. Not too much is given
away in the description, most of the painting is still left to our own personal
analysis, some artists believing that a frieze of figures lies under the abstract web
of paint in this work.22 Pollocks intentions for this piece were to show how The
modern artist ... is working and expressing an inner world - in other words
expressing the energy, the motion, and other inner forces. 22 I think it is the
subtle combination of movement and layering that assist the demonstration of
these ideals. The fluidity of the drips he has created exudes strong forces of
spontaneity to the viewer, so we feel encased in his work.

Photograph: J. Pollock, Summertime: Number 9A, 1948,


http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/pollock-summertime-number-9a-t03977, (accessed 25
November 2015)
The sincerity of his paint work feels to me as if it leaks and oozes of the canvas
consuming everything near it with the notions it beholds. Despite the fact that
this is two dimensional, Pollocks use of layering, drip after drip makes me feel
shrouded in his ideas, making it feel as if this piece is almost three dimensional,
with no proper rules to its orientation. I believe Pollocks layering technique
reinforces his ideas of the many inner forces which are acting inside and artist 22.
My analysis of the layers has led me to think there is almost a certain amount of
symbolism to them; all the different layers are signifying a different emotion
present in his mind. Pollocks amalgamation of layering, along with other
techniques he has used in this painting, is similar to Quiltys in painting for a rug
about my dad23. They have both used layering as simply a technique that is not
the main pinnacle of the work; however it is still important to ensure that the
desired aesthetics are achieved so the concept is still communicated.
Nevertheless, through personal analysis, I believe both paintings can also show a
certain amount of symbolism behind their layering.

22 -, Summertime: Number 9A, Jackson Pollock, Tate, [website], November 2005,


http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/pollock-summertime-number-9a-t03977, (accessed 25 November
2015)

23 -, Ben Quilty Artwork, [website], -, http://www.benquilty.com/artwork_item.php?


artwork=20150311131803&y=20140522104459, (accessed 25 November 2015)

10
I believe Surface by Shin-Young Park24 is more in
contrast to Quilty and Pollocks paintings. It feels as
if more planning has gone into these pieces, they
seem less spontaneous than Quilty and Pollocks
work. They also contain Parks intended symbolism of
Singapores society24, unlike Quilty and Pollocks work
where I have drawn the conclusion of symbolism
from my own personal interpretation. This series of 6
prints represents Parks fascination with Singapore
and the actuality, that despite its society being high-
tech, there are still many cultural superstitions
present24. Park represents this by using the
individual prints to demonstrate the high tech society
she sees from the surface of Singapore, whereas the
overall print represents the cultural superstitions,
shown in the form of the preference for number
eight.24 (this number being seen as lucky)24. I think
Photograph: S. Park, Surface
no1, 2009,
this physical layering also presents different layers of
http://www.shinyoungpark.com/ her impressions of Singapore, the high tech layer,
new/sub/gallery_sub.php? and the superstitious layer.24 I find after reading
sort=surface&page=0105, Parks description of her work the ideas behind it are
(accessed 10 January 2016)
easy to understand and obvious when viewing. This
draws a distinction between Surface and Quilty and Pollocks pieces, as the latter
required a greater length of time to interpret the pieces in their
entirety and subsequently understand the tangle of emotions and
ideas presented. In this way, there is less to analyse about
Surface and its conceptual intent as Parks description makes this
openly obvious. Her ingenious use of layering in Surface again
causes it too diverge from Quilty and Pollocks paintings and their
consequential layering. Her layers of prints seem almost directly
representational to a layer of a two layer society: the individual
prints, the high tech surface, and the overall piece, the
unapparent superstition. 24

Artists Transcript: S. Park, Surface


no1, 2009,
http://www.shinyoungpark.com/ne
w/sub/gallery_sub.php?
sort=surface&page=0105,
(accessed 10 January 2016),

24 S. Park , shinyoungpark.com, [website], -,


http://www.shinyoungpark.com/new/sub/gallery_sub.php?sort=surface&page=0105, (accessed 10
January 2016)

11
In conclusion, my essay has focused on comparing and contrasting artists Pollock,
Quilty and Park, who use layers in their work, and how the use of layers was
influenced by the individual ideas and concepts. I have learnt that layers can
often be the underdog of some artwork; a deep analysis is needed to understand
whether the layers are physical, or the piece contains more of a psychological
layering. On some occasions, the layering of a piece is intended; I think it often
directly correlates with my understanding of the specific concepts associated with
each art piece. However, often layering is part of a technique for the piece and it
is the technique, that layers are an important contributing factor of, that produces
the appearance of a piece that so eloquently publicises the ideas.

During my study I explored the work of three artists; Jackson Pollock, Ben Quilty
and Shin-Young Park. From their work I have concluded that layering can be one of
the most relatable parts of a technique to emotions, concepts and ideas. In
Jackson Pollocks and Ben Quiltys work, the passion of the pieces feels more
spontaneous. The layers they build up feel more fluid and indefinitely less
planned. In contrast to this, Parks work appears to me to be more conceptual
than emotional, and she has integrated the layers as a well thought out plan,
utilized to demonstrate the ideas she is trying to represent. From my comparison
of these artists, I have learnt to appreciate just how important layers can be to a
conceptual piece. Even though this importance may not be intended by the artist,
I feel that, to me, if all the artists work I have studied was not layered I would
have a much more difficult time analysing their meaning, understanding the art,
and feeling absorbed by the piece.

From this study, I feel as if I have found the most inspiration in Shin Young-Parks
technique for displaying her ideas through layers. In my practical work I am
layering prints of fish and paintings of nebulae, and the whole concept behind it is
that the viewer is not always sure if they are seeing what they are seeing, is that a
fish in that Nebula? This is where I feel as if I have learnt a lot from Parks
technique, of a well thought out plan of structured, carefully placed layers instead
of just free flowing, spontaneous marks. This planned technique for my piece is
essential if I want to draw my viewers in, making them think about the complexity
of the layers, therefore removing them from a superficial stance to a place of
deeper admiration of aesthetics of the art piece.

12
Photograph Reference List

Photograph: S. Park, Heritage Remix #09, http://www.saatchiart.com/art/Printmaking-Heritage-


Remix-09/657845/2163899/view, (accessed 10 January 2016)

Photograph: J. Pollock, Enchanted Forest, 1947,


http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-online/artwork/3483, (accessed 4
November 2015)

13
Photograph: B. Quilty, Private Cary Adams, 7RAR, 69-70, 2014,
http://www.benquilty.com/artwork_item.php?artwork=20150311135250&y=20140522104459,
(accessed 4 November 2015)

Photograph: B. Quilty, Self portrait with, 2014, http://www.benquilty.com/artwork_item.php?


artwork=20140917161650&y=20140522104459, (accessed 10 January 2016)

14
Photograph: J. Pollock, Yellow Islands, 1952, http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-
liverpool/exhibition/jackson-pollock-blind-spots?gclid=CPa14KmzmskCFarpwgodeOYDaA, (accessed
10 January 2016)

Photograph: S. Park, Surface #6, 2013, http://www.saatchiart.com/art/Printmaking-Surface-


6/657845/1799606/view, (accessed 10 January 2016)

15
Photograph: B. Quilty, Painting for a rug about my Dad, 2014,
http://www.benquilty.com/artwork_item.php?artwork=20150311131803&y=20140522104459,
(accessed 25 November 2015)

Photograph: J. Pollock, Summertime: Number 9A, 1948, http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/pollock-


summertime-number-9a-t03977, (accessed 25 November 2015)

Photograph: S. Park, Surface no1, 2009, http://www.shinyoungpark.com/new/sub/gallery_sub.php?


sort=surface&page=0105, (accessed 10 January 2016)

16
Bibliography
-, Saatchi Art Artist: Shin-Young Park; Screenprinting 2012 Printmaking Surface
#3 (SOLD), [website], -, http://www.saatchiart.com/art/Printmaking-Surface-3-
SOLD/657845/2493000/view, (accessed 4 November 2015)

-, Conceptual art, Tate, [website], -, http://www.tate.org.uk/learn/online-


resources/glossary/c/conceptual-art, (accessed 11 November 2015)

Park, S., POP UP SHOP- Featuring Shin-Young Park- ARTLOFT, [website], -,


http://artloftasia.com/blog/pop-up-shop-featuring-shin-young-park-2/?
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-, Jackson Pollock Biography, Paintings of Jackson Pollock, [website], -,


http://www.jackson-pollock.org/, (accessed on 18 November 2015)

17
References
Alley, R., Catalogue of the Tate Gallery's Collection of Modern Art other than Works
by British Artists, Tate Gallery and Sotheby Parke-Bernet, London 1981, pp.616-17

-, Ben Quilty Artwork, [website], -, http://www.benquilty.com/artwork_item.php?


artwork=20150311131803&y=20140522104459, (accessed 25 November 2015)

-, Biography- Ben Quilty, [website], -,


http://iartistbenquilty.weebly.com/biography.html, (accessed 18 November 2015)

-, Collection online, Jackson Pollock-Guggenheim Museum, [website] ,


-,http://www.guggenheim.org/new-york/collections/collection-
online/artists/bios/963/Jackson%20Pollock?gclid=CN-Cl_e19sgCFecSwwodqnAA4w ,
(accessed on 4 November 2015)

-, Jackson Pollock: Blind Spots, Tate, [website], -, http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-


on/tate-liverpool/exhibition/jackson-pollock-blind-spots?
gclid=CPa14KmzmskCFarpwgodeOYDaA, ( accessed 18 November 2015

Janson, J., Vermeers Painting Technique: A Five Part Study,[website], -,


http://www.essentialvermeer.com/technique/technique_overview.html, (accessed
11 November 2015)

-, Modernism, Tate, [website], -, http://www.tate.org.uk/learn/online-


resources/glossary/m/modernism, ( accessed on 10 January 2016)

Park, S., Heritage Remix #09, http://www.saatchiart.com/art/Printmaking-Heritage-


Remix-09/657845/2163899/view, (accessed 10 January 2016)

Park, S., Saatchi Art Artist: Shin-young Park; Screenprinting 2014 Printmaking
072014, http://www.saatchiart.com/art/Printmaking-
072014/657845/2163864/view, (accessed 18 November 2015)

Park, S., Surface #6, 2013, http://www.saatchiart.com/art/Printmaking-Surface-


6/657845/1799606/view, (accessed 10 January 2016)

Park, S., Surface no1, 2009,


http://www.shinyoungpark.com/new/sub/gallery_sub.php?
sort=surface&page=0105, (accessed on 10 January 2016)

Park, S., shinyoungpark.com,[website], -,


http://www.shinyoungpark.com/new/sub/gallery_sub.php?
sort=pearl_of_the_orient&page=0101, (accessed 10 January 2016)

Park, S., shinyoungpark.com, [website], -,


http://www.shinyoungpark.com/new/sub/gallery_sub.php?
sort=surface&page=0105, (accessed 4 November 2015)

Pollock, J., Enchanted Forest, 1947, http://www.guggenheim.org/new-


york/collections/collection-online/artwork/3483, (accessed 4 November 2015)

18
Pollock, J., Summertime: Number 9A, 1948,
http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/pollock-summertime-number-9a-t03977,
(accessed 25 November 2015)

Pollock, J., Yellow Islands, 1952, http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-


liverpool/exhibition/jackson-pollock-blind-spots?
gclid=CPa14KmzmskCFarpwgodeOYDaA, (accessed 10 January 2016)

Quilty, B., Painting for a rug about my Dad, 2014,


http://www.benquilty.com/artwork_item.php?
artwork=20150311131803&y=20140522104459, (accessed 25 November 2015)

Quilty, B., Private Cary Adams, 7RAR, 69-70, 2014,


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