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1. The Harappan Culture: Bronze Age Civilization .............................................. 1
2. The Later Vedic Phase...................................................................................... 10
3. Territorial States and the First Magadhan Empire .......................................... 19
4. The Delhi Sultanate ......................................................................................... 28
5. Architecture ..................................................................................................... 35
6. Mughal Empire ................................................................................................ 41
7. Social and Cultural Awakening in the first Half of the 19th Century ............. 52
8. The Revolt of 1857 ........................................................................................... 60
9. Growth of New India-Religious and social reform after 1858 ......................... 69
10. Nationalist Movement ...................................................................................... 84
11. Multiple Choice Questions ............................................................................... 95
The Harappan Culture: Bronze Age Civilization
1 1


THE INDUS or the Harappan culture is Harappan culture is noticeable in its mature
older than the chalcolithic cultures which and flourishing stage at all these six places.
have been treated earlier, but it is far more It is also found in its mature phase in the
developed than these cultures. It arose in the coastal cities of Sutkagendor and Surkotada,
north-western part of the Indian each one of which is marked by a citadel. The
subcontinent. It is called Harappan because later Harappan phase is found in Rangpur and
this civilization was discovered first in 1921 Rojdi in the Kathiawar peninsula in Gujarat.
at the modern site of Harappa situated in the In addition to these, Dholavira lying in the
province of West Punjab in Pakistan. It Kutch area of Gujarat shows Harappan
extended from Jammu in the north to the fortification and all the three phases of the
Naramada estuary in the south, and from the Harappan culture. These phases also appear
Makran coast of Balcuchistan in the west to in Rakhigarhi which is situated on the
Meerut in the north-east. The area formed a Ghaggar in Haryana and is much bigger than
triangle and accounted for about 1,299,600 Dholavira.
square kilometers. Town Planning and Structures
Nearly 1500 Harappan sites are known The Harappan culture was
so far in the subcontinent. Of these, the two distinguished by its system of town planning.
most important cities were Harappa in Punjab Harappa and Mohenjo-daro each had its own
and Mohenjodaro (literally the mound of the citadel in each city lay a lower town
dead) in Sindh, both forming parts of containing brick houses, which were
Pakistan. Situated at a distance of 483 inhabited by the common people. The
kilometres they were linked together by the remarkable thing about the arrangement of
Indus. A third city lay at Chanhu daro about the houses in the cities is that they followed
130 km south of Mohenjodaro in Sindh, and the grid system. According to it, roads cut
a fourth at Lothal in Gujarat at the head of across one another alomost at right angles,
the Gulf of Cambay. A fifth city lay at and the city was divided into so many blocks.
Kalibangan, which means black bangles, in This is true of almost all Indus settlements.
northern Rajasthan. A sixth called Banawali
The most important public place of
is situated in Hissar district in Haryana. It Mohenjo-daro seems to be the Great Bath,
saw two cultural phases, pre-Harappan and comprising the tank which is situated in the
Harappan, similar to that of Kalibangan. The citadel mound. It is an example of beautiful
2 Gist of NCERT (History)

brickwork. It measures 11.88 7.01 metres were covered with bricks and sometimes
and 2.43 metres deep. Flights of steps at ei- with stone slabs. The street drains were
ther end lead to the surface. There are side equipped with manholes. Perhaps no other
rooms for changing clothes. The floor of the Bronze Age civilization gave so much
Batch was made of burnt bricks. It is sug- attention to health and cleanliness as the
gested that the Great Bath served ritual bath- Harappan did.
ing, which has been so vital to any religious Agriculture
ceremony in India.
The Indus people produced wheat,
In Mohenjodaro the largest building is
barley, rai, peas, etc. They produced two
a granary, which is 45.71 metres long and
types of wheat and barley. A good quantity
15.23 metres wide. But in the citadel of
of barley has been discovered at Banawali.
Harappa we find as many as six granaries.
In addition to this they produced sesamum
We come across a series of brick platforms
and mustard. As 1800 B.C., the people of
which formed the basis for two rows of six
Lothal used rice whose remains have been
granaries. Each granary measured 15.23 6.03
found. Foodgrains were stored in huge
metres and lay within a few metres of the
granaries in both Mohenjo-daro and Harappa
river bank. The combined floor space of the
and possibly in Kalibangan. Probably, cereals
twelve units would be about 838 square
were received as taxes from peasants and
metres. Approximately it had the same area
stored in granaries for the payment of wages
as the Great Granary at Mohenjo-daro.
as well as for use during emergencies. This
Harappa also shows two-roomed barracks,
can be said on the analogy of Mesopotamian
which possibly accommodated laboures.
cities where wages were paid in barley. The
At Kalibangan also we notice in the indus people were the earliest people to
southen part brick platforms, which may have produce cotton. Because cotton was first
been used for granaries. Thus, it would peoduced in this are Greeks called it sindon,
appear that granaries constituted an which is derived from Sindh.
important part of the Harappan cities.
Domestication of Animals
The use of burnt bricks in the Hrappan
cities is remarkable, because in the Although the Harappans practised
contemporary buildings of Egypt mainly agriculture, animals were kept on a large
dried bricks were used. We find the use of scale. Ox, buffaloes, goats, sheep and pigs
baked bricks in contemporary Mesopotamia, were domesticated. The humped bulls were
but they were used to a much larger extent favoured by the Harappans. From the very
in the Harappan cities. The drainage system beginning dogs were regarded as pets. Cats
of Mohenjo-daro was very impressive. In were also domesticated, and signs of the feet
almost all cities every big or small house had of both dogs and cats have been noticed.
its own courtyard and bathroom. In They also kept asses and camels, which were
Kalibangan many houses had their wells. obviously used as beasts of burden. Evidence
Water flowed from the house to the streets of the horse comes from a superficial level of
which had drains. Sometimes these drains Mohenjo-daro and from a doubtful terracotta
figuring from Lothal. The remains of the horse
The Harappan Culture: Bronze Age Civilization 3

are reported from Sutkotada, situated in west from south India. The Harappans were also
Gujarat, and belong to around B.C. but it is experts in bead-making. The potters wheel
doubtful. In any case the Harappan culture was in full use, and the Harappans produced
was not horse-centred. Neither the bones of their own characteristic pottery, which was
horse nor its representations appear in early made glossly and shinning.
and mature Harappan culture. Elephants were Trade
well known to the Harappans, who were also
Trade was important in the life os the
acquainted with the rhinoceros. Indus people. The Harappans carried on con-
Technology and Carafts siderable trade in stone, metal, shell, etc,
The Harappan culture belongs to the within the Indus culture zone. However, their
Bronze Age. The people of Harappa used cities did not possess the necessary raw ma-
many tools and implements of stone, but they terial for the commodities they produced.
were well acquainted with the manufacture They did not use metal money. Most prob-
and use of bronze. Ordinarily bronze was ably they carried on all exchanges through
made by the smiths by mixing tin with copper barter. In return for finished goods and pos-
mines of Rajasthan, although it could also be sibly foodgrains, they procured metals from
brought from Baluchistan. Tin was possibly the neighbouring area sby boats and bullock-
brought with difficulty from Afghanistan. carts. They practised navigation of the coast
The bronze tools and weapons recovered of the Arabian Sea. They knew the use of
from the Harappan sites; contain a smaller wheel, and carts with solid wheels were in
percentage of tin. However, the kit of bronze use in Harappa. The Harappa had commecial
goods left by the Harappans is cosiderable, links with one area of Rajasthan, and also
which suggests that the bronzesmiths with Afghanistan and Iran. They had set up
constituted an important group of artisans a trading colony in northern Afghanistan
which evidently facilitated trade with Cen-
in the Harappan society. They produced not
tral Asia. Their cities also carried commerce
only images and utensils but also various tools
with those in the land of the Tigris and the
and weapons such as axes, saws, knives and
Euphrates. Many Harappan seals have been
spears. Several other important crafts
discovered in Mesopotania, and it seems that
flourished in the Harappan towns. A piece of
the Harappans imitated some consmetics used
woven cotton has been recovered from
by the urban people of Mesopotamia.
Mohenjo-daro, and textile) impressions found
The Mesopotamia records from about
on several objects. Spindle whorls were used
2350 B.C. onwards refer to trade relations
for spinning. Weavers wove cloth of wool and
with Meluha, which was the ancient name
cotton. Huge brick structures suggest that
given to the Indus region. The Mesopotamian
brick-laying was an important craft. They
texts speaks of two intermediate trading sta-
also attest the existence of a class of masons.
tions called Dilmun and Makan, which lay
The Harappans also practised boat-making. between Mesopotamia and Meluha. Dilmun
The goldsmiths made jewellery of silver, gold can probably be identified with Bahrain on
and precious stones; the first two may have the Persian Gulf.
been obtained from Afghanistan and the last
4 Gist of NCERT (History)

Political Organization Harappan writing on stone seals and other

We have no clear idea about the political objects. Unlike the Egyptians and
organization of the Harappans. But if we take Mesopotamians, the Harappans did not write
into account the cultural homegeneity of the long inscriptions. Most inscriptions were
Indus civilization it can be said that this recorded on seals, and contain only a few
cultural homogeneity would not have been words. Altogether we have about 250 to 400
possible to achieve without a central pictographs, and in the form of a picture each
authority. letter stands for some sound, idea or object.
If the Harappan cultural zone is the Harappan script is not alphabetical but
considered identical with the political zone, mainly pictographic.
the subcontinent did not witness such a large Weights and Measures
political unit until the rise of the Maurya Numerous articles used for weights
empire; the remarkable stability of this unit have been found. They show that in weighing
is demonstrated by its continuity for nearly mostly 16 or its multiples were used; for
600 years. instance, 16, 64, 160, 320 and 640.
Religions Practices Interestingly the tradition of 16 has continued
In Harappa numerous terracotta figures in India till modern times and till recently 16
of women have been found. Probably the annas made one rupee. The harappans also
image represents the goddess of earth. The knew the art of measurement. We have come
Harappans, looked upon the earth as a across sticks inscribed with measure marks;
fertility goddess and worshipped her. one of these is made of bronze.
The Male Deity in the Indus Valley Harappan Pottery
The male deity is represented on a seal. The Harappans were great experts in the
This god has three horned heads. He is use of the potters wheel. We come across
represented in the sitting postrure of a yogi, numerous pots painted in various designs.
placing one foot on the other. This god is Harappan pots were generally decorated with
surrounded by an elephant, a tiger, a the designs of trees and circles. The images
rhinoceros, and has a buffalo below his of men also appear on some pottery
throne. At his feet appear two deer. The fragments.
depicted god is identified as Pushupati Seals: The greatest artistic creations of
Mahadeva. the Harappan culture are the seals. About
The Harappan Script 2000 seals have been found, and of these a
great majority carry short in-scriptions with
The Harappan invented the art of pictures of the one-horned bull, the buffalo,
writing like the people of ancient the tiger, the rhinocreros, the goat and the
Mesopotamia. Although the earliest specimen elephant.
of Harappan script was noticed in 1853 and
Images: The Harappan artisans made
the complete script discovered by 1923, it has
beautiful images of metal. A woman dancer
not been deciphered so far.
made of bronze is the best specimen. Except
There are nearly 4,000 specimens of for a necklac she is naked. We get a few pieces
The Harappan Culture: Bronze Age Civilization 5

of Harappan stone sculptures. One steatite sudden subsidence or uplift of the land which
statue wears an ornamented robe over the caused floods. Earthquakes caused changes
left shoulder under the right arm, and its in the course of the Indus which led to the
short locks at the back of the head are kept inundation of fee hinterland of Mohenjo-
tidy by a woven fillet. daro. And still others point out that the
Origin, Maturity and End Harappan culture was destroyed by the
Aryans, but there is very little evidence for
The mature Harappan culture, broadly
speaking, existed between 2550 B.C. and 1900
B.C. Throughout the period of its existence The consequences of the disintegration
it seems to have retained the same kind of of the largest Bronze Age cultural entity are
tools, weapons and houses. The whole style still to be clarified. We do not know whether
of life appears to be uniform. We notice the the urban eclipse led to the migration of
same town-planning, the same seals, the same merchants and craftsmen, and the
terracotta works, and the same long chet dissemination of the elements of Harappan
blades. But the view stressing changelessness technology and way of life in the countryside.
cannot be pushed too far. We do notice Something is known about the post-urban
changelessness cannot be pushed too far. We situation in Sindh, Punjab and Haryana. We
do notice changes in the pottery of Mohenjo- find agricultural settlements inside the Indus
daro over a period of time. By the region, but their connection with the
nieneteenth century B.C., the two important preceding culture is not clear. We need clear
cities of the Harappan culture, Harappa and and adequate information.
Mohenjo-daro, disappeared but the Harappan ADVENT OF THE ARYANS AND
culture at other sites faded out gradually and THE AGE OF THE RIG VEDA
continued in its degenerate phase in the Original Home and Identity
outlying fringes in Gujarat, Rajasthan, It Difficult to say that all the earliest
Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh. Aryans belonged to one race, but their culture
While the ancient cutlures of was more or less of the same type. They were
Mesopotamia continued to exist even after distinguished by their common language.
1900 B.C., the urban Harappan culture They spoke the indo-European languages,
disappeared at Bout that thime. Various which are current in changed forms all over
causes have been suggested. It is held that Europe, Iran and the greater part of the
the amount of rainfall in the Indus region Indian subcontinent Originally the Aryans
slightly increased around 3000 B.C. and then seem to have lives somewhere in the steppes
decreased in the earlier part of the second stretching from southern Russia to Central
millennium B.C. This may have adversely Asia. Their earlist life seems to have been
affected agriculture and stockbreeding. Some mainly postoral, agriculture being a
describe the decline to the decreasing fertility secondary occupation. Although the Aryans
on account of the increasing salinity of the used several animals, the horse played the
soil caused by the expansion of the most significant role in their life. Its swiftness
neighbouring desert. Others attribute it to a enabled them and some allied people to make
6 Gist of NCERT (History)

successful inroads on West. Asia from about called naditama or the best of the rivers in
2000 B.C. onwards. the Rig Veda. The whole region in which the
On their way to India to Aryans first Aryans first settled in Indian subcontinent is
appeared in Central Asia and Iran, where the called the Land of the Seven Rivers.
Indo-Iranians lived for a long time. We know Tribal Conflicts
about the Aryans in India from the Rig Veda. We hear of many defeats inflicted by
The term Arya occurs 36 times in this text, Indra on the enemies of the Aryans. In the
and generally indicates a cultural community. Rig Veda Indra is called Purandara which
The Rig Veda is the earliest text of the Indo- means that he was the breaker of forts. The
European languages. It is a collection of Aryans succeeded everywhere because they
prayers offered to Agni, Indra, Mitra, Verun possessed chariots driven by horses, and
and others gods by various families of poets intorduced them for the first time into West
or sages. It consists of ten mandalas or books, Asia and India. The Aryan soldiers were
of which Books II to VII form its earlies probably equiped also with coats of mail
portions. Books I and X seem to have been (vaiman) and better arms.
the latest additions. According to tradition, the Aryans were
The Rig Veda has many things in divided into five tribed panchajana but there
common with the Avesta, which is the holdest might have been other tribes also. The
text in the Iranian language. The two texts Bharatas and the Tritsu were the ruling Aryan
use the same names for several gods and even clans, and they were supported by priest
for social classes. But the earliest specimen Vasisththa. The country Bharatavarsha was
of the Indo-European language is found in eventually named after the tribe Bharata,
an inscription of about 2200 B.C. from Iraq which apperas first in the Rig Veda. The
Later such specimens occur in Hittite Bharata ruling clan was opposed by a host of
inscriptions in Anatolia (Turkey) from the ten chiefs, five of whom were heads of Aryan
nineteenth to the seventeenth centuries B.C. tribes and the remaining five of non-Aryan
Aryan names appeal in Kassijte inscriptions people. The battle that was fought between
of about about 1600 B.C. from Iraq and in the Bharatas on the one hand, and the host
Mitanni inscriptions of the fourteenth century of ten chiefs on the other is known as the
B.C. from the Aryans appeared in India. The Battle of Ten Kings. This battle was fought
earliest Aryans lived in the geographical area on the river Parushni, identical with the river
covered by eastern Afghanistan, North-West Ravi and it gave victory to Sudas and estab-
Frontier Province, Punjab and fringes of lished the supremacy of the Bharatas. Of the
western Uttar Pradesh. Some rivers of defeated tribes, the most Important was that
Afghanistan such as the river Kubha, and the of the Purus. Subequently the Bharatas joined
river Indus and its five branches, are hands with the Purus and formed a new rul-
mentioned in the Rig Veda. The Sindhu, ing tribe called the Kurus. The Kurus com-
identical with the Indus, is the river par bined with the Panchalas, and they together
excellence of the Aryans, and it is repeatedly established their rule in the upper Gangetic
mentioned. Another river, the Saraswati, is basin where they played an important part
in later Vedic times.
The Harappan Culture: Bronze Age Civilization 7

Material Life Several tribal or the clan-based

The Rig Vedic people possessed better assemblies such as the sabha, samiti, vidatha,
knowledge of agriculture. Ploughshare is gana are mentioned in the Rig Veda. They
mentioned in the earliest part of the Rig Veda exercised deliberative, military and religious
though some consider it an interpolation. functions. Even women attended the sabha
Possibly this ploughshare was made of wood. and vidatha in Rig Vedic times. But the two
They were acquainted with sowing, harvest- most important assemblies were the sabha
ing and threshing, and knew about the dif- and the samiti. These two were so important
ferent seasons. that the chiefs or the kings showed eagerness
In spite of all this there are so many ref- to win their-support.
erences to the cow and the bull in the Rig In the day-to-day administration, the
Veda that the Rig Vedic Aryans can be called king was assisted by a few functionaries. The
predominantly a pastoral people. Most of most important functionary seems to have
their wars were fought for the sake of cows. been the purohita. The two priests who
The terms for war in the Rig Veda is gavishthi played a major part in the time of Rig Veda
or search for cows. The cow seems to have are Vasishtha and Vishvamitra. Vishvamitra
been the most important form, of wealth. The composed the gayatri mantra to widen the
Rig Veda, mentions such artisans as the car- Aryan world. The next important function-
penter, the chariot-maker, the weaver, the ary seems to be the senani, who used spears,
leather worker, the potter, etc. axes, swords, etc. We do not come across any
This indicates that they practised all officer concerned with the collection of taxes.
these crafts. The term aryas used for copper Probably the chiefs received from the people
or bronze show that metal-working was voluntary offerings called bnali. Presents and
known. But we have no clear evidence of the spoils of war were perhaps distributed in
existence of regular trade. The Aryans or the some Vedic assemblies. The Rig Veda does
Vedic people were acquainted more with land not mention any officer for administering
routes because the word samudra mentioned justice. Spies were employed to keep an eye
in the Rig Veda mainly denotes a collection on such unsocial activities.
of water. We may, therefore, this of a pre- The officer who enjoyed authority over
iron phase of the PGW which coincided with a large land or pasture ground is called
the Rig Vedic phase. Vrajapati. He led heads of the families called
Tribal Polity kulapas, or the heads of the fighting hordes
The administrative machinery of the called gramanis, to battle. In the beginning,
Aryans in the Rig period worked with the the gramani was just the head of a small tribal
tribal chief in the centre, because of his suc- fighting unit. But when the unit settled, the
cessful leadership in war. He was called rajan. gramani became the head of the village, and
It seems that in the Rig Vedic period the kings in course of time he became identical with
post had become hereditary. We have traces the Vrajapati. The king did not maintain any
of election of the king by the tribal assembly regular or standing army, but in times of war
called the samiti. The king was called the he mustered a militia whose military
protector of his tribe. functions were performed by different tribal
8 Gist of NCERT (History)

groups called vrata, gana, grama, sardlia. By assemblies. They could offer sacrifices along
and large it was a tribal system of with their husbands. We have an instance of
government in which the military element five women who composed hymns although
was strong. the later texts mention 20 such women.
Tribe and Family We also notice the practice of levirate
Kinship was the basis of social structure, and widow remarriage in the Rig Veda. There
and a man was identified by the clan to which are no examples of child-marriage, and the
he belonged. People gave their primary loy- marriageable age in the Rig Veda seems to
alty to the tribe, which was called jana. The have been 16 to 17
term jana occurs at about 275 places in the Social Divisions
Rig Veda, and the term janapada or territory The Rig Veda mentions arya varna and
is not used even once. The people were at- dasa varna. The tribal chiefs and the priests
tached to the tribe, since the territory or the acquired a larger share of the booty, and they
kingdom, was not yet established. naturally grew at the cost of their kinsmen,
Another important term which stands which created social inequalities in the tribe.
for the tribe in the Rig Veda is vis; it is Gradually the tribal society was divided into
mentioned 170 times in that text. Probably three groups - warriors, priests and the
the vis was divided into grama or smaller people - on the same pattern as in Iran. The
tribal units meant for fighting. When the fourth division called the schudras appeared
gramas clashed with one another it caused towards the end of the Rig Vedic period,
samgrama. The most numerous varna of because it is mentioned for the first time in
varishya arose out of the vis or the mass of the tenth Book of the Rig Veda, which is the
the tribal people. latest addition.
The term for family (kula) is mentioned In the age of the Rig Veda differentiation
rarely in the Rig Veda. It comprised not only based on occupations had started. Bat this
mother, father, sons, slaves, etc., but many division was not very sharp. We hear of a
more people also. It seems that family in early family in which a member says: I am a poet,
Vedic phase was indicated by the term griha, my father is a physician, and my mother is a
which frequently occurs in this text. In the grinder. Earning livelihood through different
earliest Indo-European languages one word means we live together... We hear of gifts
is used for nephew, grandson, cousin, etc. It of cattle, chariots, horses, slaves, tec. Unequal
seems that several generations of the family distribution of the sopils of war created social
lived under the same roof. Because it was a inequalities, and this helped the rise of princes
patriarchal society, the birth of a son was and priests at the cost of the common tribal
desired again and again, and especially people. But since economy was mainly
people prayed to the gods for brave sons to pastoral and not food-producing, the scope
fight the wars. In the Rig Veda no desire is for collecting regular tributes from the people
expressed for daughters, though the desire was very limited. We do not find gifts of land
for children and cattle is a recurrent theme and even those of cereals are rare. We find
in the hymns. Women could attend domestic slaves but not the wage-earners.
The Harappan Culture: Bronze Age Civilization 9

Tribal elements in society were stronger and to be the god of plants and intoxi-cating drink
social divisions based on collection of taxes is named after him. The maruts personify the
or accumulation of landed property were storm.
absent. The society was still tribal and largely This we have a large number of gods.,
egalitarian. who represent the different forces of nature
Rig Vedic Gods in one form or another, but are also assigned
The most important divinity in the Rig human activities.We also find some female
Veda is Indra, who is called Purandara or divinites such as Aditi, and Ushas who
breaker of forts. Indra played the role of a represented the appearance of the dawn. But
varlord, leading the Aryan solidies to victory they were not prominent in the time of the
against the demons. Two hundred and fifty Rig Veda; in the set-up of the period the male
hymns are devoted to him. He is considered gods were far more imp[ortant than the
to be the rain god and thought to be female.
responsbile for causing rainfall. The dominant mode of worshipping the
The second position is held by Agni (fire dos was through the recitation of prayers and
god) to whom 200 hymns are devoted. Fire offering of sacrifices. Prayers played an
played a significant part in the life of primitive important part in Rig Vedic times. Both
people because of its use in burning forests, collective and individual prayers were made.
cooking, etc. Originally every tribe or clan was the votary
of a special god. It seems that prayers were
The cult of fire occupied a central place
not only in India but also in Iran, It Vedic offered to gods in chorus by the members of
a whole tribe. This also happened in the case
times Agni acted as a king of intermediary
between the gods on the one hand, and the of sacrifices. Agni and Indra were invited to
people on the other. The third important partake of sacrifices made by the whole tribe
(jana). Offerings of vevetables, barely, etc.
position is occupied by Varuna who
personified water. Varuna was supposed to were made to gods. But in Rig Vedic times
the process was not accompanied by any ritual
uphold the natural order, and whatever
happened in the world was thought to be the or sacrificial formulae. They asked mainly for
praja (children), pashu (cattle), food, wealth,
reflection of his desires. Soma was considered
health, etc.
Gist of NCERT (History)


EXPANSION IN THE life of the people in the first half of the first
LATER VEDIC PERIOD (C. 1000-500 B.C.) millennium B.C. in western Uttar Pradesh
THE HISTORY of the later Vedic period and adjoining areas of Punjab, Haryana and
is based mainly on the Vedic texts which were Rajasthan.
compiled after the age of the Rig Veda. The The texts show that the Aryans
collections of the Vedic hymns or mantras expanded from Punjab over the whole of
were known as the Samhitas. For purposes western Uttar Pradesh covered by the
of recitation, the prayers of the Rig Veda were Ganga-Yamuna doab. The Bharatas and
set to tune, and this modified collection was Purus, the two major tribes, combined and
known as the Sama Veda Samhita. In addition thus formed the Rum people. In the beginning
to the Sama Veda. in post-Rig Vedic times two they lived between the Sarasvati and the
other collections were: composed. These were Drishadvati just on the fringe of the doab.
- the Yajur Veda Samhita and the Atharva Soon the Kurus occupied Delhi and the upper
Veda Samhita. The Yajur Veda contains not portion of the doab, the area called
only hymns but also rituasls which have to Kurukshetra or the land of the Kurus.
accompany their recitation. The Atharva Veda Gradually they coalesced with a people called
contains charms and spells to ward off evils the Panchalas, who occupied the middle
and diseases. The Vedic Samhitas were portion of the doab. The authority of the
followed by the composition of a series of Kuru-Panchala people spread over Delhi, and
texts known as the Brahmanas. These are full the upper and middle portion of the doab.
of ritualistic formulae and explain the social The authority of the Kuru-Panchala people
and religious meaning of rituals. spread over Delhi, and the upper and middle
All these later Vedic texts were complied parts of the doab. They set up their capital at
in the upper Gangetic basin in circa 1000-500 Hastinapur situated in the district of Meerut.
B.C. These are called Painted Grey Ware The history of the Kuru tribe is important
(PGW) sites because they were inhabited by for the battle of Bharata, which is the main
people who used earthern bowls and dishes theme of the great epic called the
made of painted grey pottery. They also used Mahabharata. This war is supposed to have
iron weapons. With the combined evidence been fought around 950 B.C. between, the
from the later Vedic texts and PGW iron- Kauravas and the Pandavas, although both
phase archaeology we can fom an idea of the of them belonged to the Kuru clan. As a result
The Later Vedic Phase 11

practically the whole of the kuru clan was in Punjab and western Uttar Pradesh. For the
wiped out. first time the Vedic people came to be
Towards the end of the later Vedic acquainted with rice in the doab. It is called
period, around 600 B.C. the Vedic people vrihi in the Vedic texts, and its remains
spread from the board further east of Koshala recovered from Hastinapur belong to the
in eastern Uttar Pradesh and videha in north eighth century B.C. The use of rice is
Bihar. Although Koshala is associated with recommended in Vedic rituals, but that of
the story of Rama, it is not mentioned in Vedic wheat only rarely.
literature. Agriculture and various crafts enabled
The UGW-Iron Phase the later Vedic people to lead a settled life.
Culture and Later Vedic Economy Excavations and explorations give us some
Around 1000 B.C. iron appears in idea about settlements in later Vedic times.
Dharwar district in Karnataka. Excavations Widespread Painted Grey Ware sites are
show that iron weapons such as arrow-heads found not only in western Uttar Pradesh and
and spear-heads came to be commonly used Delhi, which was the Kuru-Panchala area but
in western Uttar Pradesh from about 800 B.C. also in the adjoining paras of Punjab and
onwards. With iron weapons the Vedic people Haryana, which was the Madras area and in
may have defeated the few adversaries that those of Rajasthan, which was the Matsya
may have faced them in the upper portion of area. Also we can court nearly 700 sites,
the doab. Towards the end of the Vedic mostly belonging to the upper Gangetic basin.
period kjowledge of iron spread in eastern Althoug the term nagara is used in later
Uttar Pradesh and Videha. The earliest iron Vedic texts we can trace only the faint
implements discovered in this area belong to beginnings of towns towards the end of the
the seventh Century B.C., and the metal itself later Vedic period. Hastinapur and
is called shyama or krishna ayas in the later Kaushambi near Allahabad) can be regarded
Vedic texts. as primitive towns belonging to the end of
Although very few agricultural tools the Vedic period. They may be called
made of iron have been found, undoubtedly protourban sites.
agriculture was the chief means of livelibood Political Organization
of the later Vedic people. The Shatapatha In later Vedic times Rig Vedic popular
Brahmana speaks at length about the assemblies lost importance, and royal power
ploughing rituals. According to ancient increased at their cost The vidatha completely
legends, janaka, the king of Videha and father disappeared. The sabha and samiti continued
of Sita, lent his hand to the plought. In later to hold the ground, but their character
times ploughing came to be prohibited, for changed. They came to be dominated by
the members of the upper vernas. chiefs and rich nobles. Women were no longer
The Vedic people continued to produce permitted to sit on the sabha, and it was now
barly, but during this period rice and wheat dominated by nobles and brahmanas.
became their chief crops. In subsequent times The formation of bigger kingdoms made
wheat became the staple food of the people the chief or the king more powerful. Tribal
12 Gist of NCERT (History)

authority tended to become territorial. the administration was possibly carried on

Princes or chiefs ruled over tribes, but the the village assemblies, which may have been
dominant tribes gave their names to controlled by the chiefs of the dominant
territories, which might be inhabited by clans.
tribes other than their own. In the beginning Social Organization
each area was named after the tribe which The later Vedic society came to be
settled there first. At first Panchala was the
divided into four vernas called the
name of a people, and then it became the
brahmans, rajanyas or kahatriyas, vaishyas
name of a region. The term rashtra, which and shudras. The growing cult of sacrificed
indicates territory, first appears in this
enormously added to the power of the
period. brahmanas.
Traces of the election of the chief or the
The vaishyas constituted the common
king appear In later Vedic texts. Other
people, and they were assigned to do the
qualities was elected raja. He received producing functions such as agriculture,
voluntary presents called bali from his
cattle-breeding, etc. Some of them also
ordinary kinsmen or the common people worked as artisans. Towerds the end of the
called the vis. But the chief tried to perpetuate
Vedic period they began to engage in trade.
the right to receive presents and enjoy other The vaishyas appear to be the only tribute-
privileges pertaining to his office by making ayers in later Vedic times, and the brahmanas
it hereditary in his family; the post generally
and kahatriyas are represented as living on
went to the eledest son. However, this the tributes collected from the vaishyas. This
succession was not always smooth.
was done with, the help of the priests who
The kings influence was strengthened also fattened at the cost of people or the
by rituals. He performed the rajasuya vaishyas. All the three higher varnas shared
sancrifice, which was supposed to confer su- one common feature: they were entitled to
preme power on him. He performed the upanayana or investiture with the sacred
ashvamedha, which meant unquestioned con- thread according to the Vedic mantras. The
trol over an are in which the royal horse ran fourth varna was deprived of the sacred
uninterrupted. He also performed the
thread ceremony and the recitation of the
vajapeya or the chariot race, in which the
gayatri mantra and with this began the
royal chariot was made to win the race
imposition of disabilities on the shudra.
against his kinsmen. All these rituals im-
pressed the people with the increasing power Generally the later Vedic texts draw a
and prestige of the king. line of demarcation between the three higher
orders on the one hand, and the shudras on
During this period collection of taxes
the other. There were, nevertheless several
and tributes seems to have become common.
public rituals connected with the coronation
They were probably deposited with an officer
of the king in which the shudras participated,
called sangrihitri. In the discharge of his
presumably as survivors of the original Aryan
duties the king was assisted by the priest,
people. Certain sections of artisans such as
the commander, the chief queen and a few-
rathakara or chariotmaker enjoyed a high
other high functionaries. At the lower level,
The Later Vedic Phase 13

status, and were entitled to the sacred thread creator, came to occupy the supreme position
ceremony. Therefore, even in later Vedic times in the later Vedic pantheon. Some of the other
varna distinctions had not advanced very far. minor gods of the Rig Vedic period also came
In the family we notice the increasing to the forefront. Rudra, the god of animals,
power of the father, who could even became important in later Vedic times, and
disinherit his son. In princely families the Vishnu came to be conceived as the preserver
right of primogeniture was getting stronger. and protector of the people. In addition, some
Male ancestors came to be worshipped. objects began to be worshipped as symbols
Women were generally given a lower of vidinity; signs of idolatry appear in later
position. Althoug some women theologians Vedic times. Pushan, who was supposed to
tookpart in philosophic discussion and some look after cattle, came to be regarded as the
queens participated in coronation rituals, god of the shudras.
ordinarily women were thought to be People worshiped gods for the same
inferior and subordinate to men. material reasons in this period as they did in
The institution of gotra appeared in later earlier times. However, the mode of worship
Vedic times. Literally it means the cow-pen changed considerably. Prayers continued to
or the place where cattle belonging to the be recited. Sacrifices became far more
whole clan are kept, but in course of time it important, and they assumed both public and
signified descent from a common ancestor. domestic character.
People began to practise gotra exogamy. No Sacrifices involved the killing of animals
marriage could take place between persons on a large scale and, especially the
belonging to the same gotra or having the desctruction of cattle wealth. The guest was
same lineage. known as goghna or one who was fed on
Ashramas or four stages of life were not cattle. Sacrifices were accompanied by
well established in Vedic times. In the post- formulae which had to be carefully
Vedic texts we hear of four ashramas-that of pronounced by the sacrificer. The sacrificer
Brahmachari or student, grihastha or was known as the yajamana, the performer,
householder, vanaprastha or hermit and of yajna, and much of his success depended
sannyasin or ascetic who completely on the magical power of words uttered
renounced the worldly life. Only the first correctly in the sacrifices.
three are mentioned in the later Vedic texts; In addition to cows, which were usually
the last or the fourth stage had not been well given as sacrificial gifts, gold, cloth and horses
established in later Vedic times though ascetic were also given. Sometimes the priests
life was not unknown. Even in post-Vedic claimed poetions of territory as dakshina,
times only the stage of the housholder was The Shatapatha brahmana states that in the
commonly practised by all the varnas. ashvamedha, north, south, east and west all
Good, Rituals said Philosophy should be given to the priest.
The two outstanding Rig Vedic gods, Towards the end of the Veclie period
Indra and Agni, lost thieir former began a strong reaction against priestly
Importance. On the other hand, Prajapati the domination, against cults and rituals,
14 Gist of NCERT (History)

especially in the land of the Panchalas and attached to birth in the varna system. The
Videha where, around 600 B.C., the kshatriya reaction against the domination of
Upanishads were compiled. These the priestly class called brahmanas, who
philosophical texts criticized the rituals and claimed various privileges, was one of the
laid stress on the value of right belief and causes of the origin of new religions.
knowledge. They emphasised that the Vardhamana Mahavira, who founded
knowledge of the self or atman should be Jainism, and Gautama Budha, who founded
acquired and the relation of atman with Buddhism belonged to the kshatriya clan, and
Brahma should be properly understood. both disputed the authority of the
NUMEROUS religious, sects arose in the But the real cause of the rise of these
middle Gangetic plains in the second half of new religions lay in the spread of a new
the sixth century B.C. Of these sects Jainism agricultural economy in north-eastern India.
and Buddhism were the most important, and In the middle Gangeic plains, large-scale
they emerged as the most potent religious habitations began in about 600 B.C., when
reform movements. iron came to be used in this area. The use of
iron tools made possible clearance,
Causes of Origin
agriculture and large settlements. The
In post-Vedic times society was clearly agricultural economy based on the iron
divided into four varnas: brahmanas, ploughshare required the use of bullocks, and
kshtriyas, vaishyas and shudras. Each varna it could not flourish without animal
was assigned well-defined functions, husbandry. But the Vedic practice of killing
although it was emphasised that varna was cattle indiscriminately in sacrifices stood in
based on birth. The brahmanas, who were the way of the progress of new agriculture.
given the functions of priests and and But if the new agrarian economy had to be
teachers, claimed the highest status in society. stable, this killing had to be stopped.
The kshatriyas ranked second in the varna The period saw the rise of a large
heiracrchy. The vaishyas were engagerd in
number of cities in north-eastern India. We
agriculture, cattle-rearing and trade. may refer, for example, to Kaushambi near
They appear as principal taxpayers. The Allahabad, Kusinagar (in Deoria district of
shudras were meant for servint the three Uttar Pradesh).
higher varnas, and along with women were Banaras, Vaishali (in the newly created
barred from taking to Vedic studies. district of the same name in north Bihar),
Naturally the varna-divided society Chirand (in Saran district) and Rajgir
seems to have generated tensions. We have (situated at a distance of about 100 km south-
no means to find out the reactions of the east of Patna). Besides others these cities had
vaishyas and the shudras. But the kshatriyas, many artisans and traders, who began to use
who functioned as rulers, reacted strongly coins for the first time. The earliest coins
against the ritualistic domination of the belong to the fifth century B.C., and they are
brahmanas, and seem to have led a kind of called punch-marked coins. They circulated
protest movement against the importance
The Later Vedic Phase 15

for the first time in eastern Uttar Pradesh and became an ascetic. In the thirteenth year,
Bihar. The use of coins naturally facilitated when he had reached the age of 42, he
trade and commerce, which added to the attained kaivalya.
importance of the vaishyas. In the Through kaivalyahe conquered misery
brahmanical society the vaishyas ranked and happiness. Because of this conquest he is
third, the first two being brahmanas and known as Mahavira or the great hero or jina,
kshatriyas. Naturally they looked for some i.e. the conqueror, and his followers are
religion which would improve their position. known as Jainas. He propagated his religion
Vardhmana Mahavira and Jainism for 30 years, and his mission took him to
According to the Jainas, the origin of Koshala, Magadha, Mithila, Champa, etc. He
Jainism goes back to very ancient times. They passed away at the age of 72 in 468 B.C. at a
believe in twenty-four tirthankaras or great place called Pavapuri near modern Rajgir.
teachers or leaders of their religion. The first According to another tradition, he was born
tirthankara is believed to be Rishabhadev in 599 B.C. and passed away in 527 B.C.
who was born in Ayodhya. He is said to have Doctrines of Jainism
laid the foundations for orderly human Jainism taught five doctrines: (i) do not
society. The last, twenty-fourth, tirthankara, commit violence, (ii) do not speak a lie, (ii)
was Vardhamana Mahavira who was a do not steal, (iv) do not acquire property, and
contem-porary of Gautama Buddha. The (v) observe continence (brahmacharya. It is
twenty-third tirthankara was Parshvanath said that only the fifth doctrine was added
who was born in Varanasi. He gave up royal by Mahavira: the other four were taken over
life and became an ascetic. Many teachings by him from previous teachers. Jainism
of Jainism are attributed to him. According attached the utmost importance to ahmsa or
to Jaina tradition, he lived two hundred years non-injury to living beings in later times,
before Mahavira. Mahavir is said to be the Jainism was divided into two sects:
twenty-fourth. shvetambaras or those who put on white
According to one tradition, dress, and digmbaras or those who keep
Vardhamana Mahavira was born is 540 B.C. them-selves naked.
in a village called Kundagrama near Vaishali, Jainism mainly aims at the attainment
which is identical with Basarh in the district of freedom from worldly bonds. No ritual is
of Vaishali, in north Bihar. His father required for acquiring such liberation. It can
Siddhartha was the head of a famous be obtained through right knowledge, right
kshatriya clan called Jnatrika and the ruler faith and right action. These three are
of his own area. Mahaviras mother was considered to be the Three Jewels or triratna
named Trishala, sister of the Lichchhavi chief of Jainism.
Chetaka, whose daughter was wedded to Jainnism prohibited the practice of war
Bimbisara. and even agriculture for its followers because
In the biginning, Mahavira led the life both involve the killing of living beings.
of a householder, but in the search for truth Eventually the Jainas mainly confined
he abandoned the world at the age of 30 and themselves to trade and mercantile activities.
16 Gist of NCERT (History)

Spread of Jaiaism Jaina monastic establishments called basadis

In order to spread the teachings of sprang up in Karnataka and were granted
Jainism, Mahavira organized an order of his land by the king for their support.
followers which admitted both men and Jainism spread to Kalinga in Orissa in
women. According to a late tradition, the the fourth century B.C., and in the first cenury
spread of Jainism in Karnataka is attributed B.C. it enjoyed the patronage of the Kalinga
to Chandragupta Maurya (322-298 B.C.). The king Kharavela who had defeated the princes
emperor became a Jaina, gave up his throne of Andhra and Magadha.
and spent the last years of his life in Karnataka Contribution of Jainism
as a Jaina ascetic. The second cause of the Jainism made the first serious attempt
spread of Jainism in south India is said to be to mitigate the evils of the varna order and
the great famine that took place in Magadha the ritualistic Vedic religion. The early Jainas
200 years after the death of Mahavira. The discarded Sanskrit language mainly
faminie lasted for twelve years, and in order patronized by the brahmanas. They adopted
to protect themselves many a Jaina went to Prakrit language of the common people to
the south under the leadership of preach their doctrines. Their religious
Bhadrabahu, but the rest of them stayed back literature was written in Ardhamagadhi, and
in Magadha under the leadership of texts were finally compiled in the sixth
Sthalabahu. century A.D. in Gujarat at a place called
The emigrant Jainas spread Jainism in Valabhi, a great centre of Education. The
south India. At the end of the famine they adoption of Prakrit by the Jainas heed the
came back to Magadha, where they growth of this language and its literature.
developed differences with the local Jainas. Many regional languages developed out of
Those who came back from the south claimed Pakrit languages, particularly Shauraseni, out
that even during the famine they had strictly of which grew of Marathi language. They
observed the religious rules; on the other contributed to the growth of Kananads, in
hand, they alleged, the Jaina ascetics living which they wrote extensively.
in Magadha had violated those rules and had Gautam Budhda and Buddhism
become lax. In order to sort out these
differences and to compile the main teachings Gautama Buddha or Siddhartha was a
of Jainism a council was convened in contrmporary of Mahavira. According to
Pataliputra, modern Patna, but the southern tradition he was born in 563 B.C. in a Shakya
Jainas boycotted the council and refused to kshatriya family in Lumbini in Nepal near
accept its decisions. From now onwards, the Kapilvastu, which is a identified with
southerns began to be called digambaras, and Piprahwa in Basti district and close to the
the Magadhans shvetambaras. However, foothills of Nepal. Gautamas father seems
epigraphic evidence for the spread of Jainism to have been the elected ruler of Kapilvastu,
in karnataka is not earlier than the third and headed the republican clan of the
century A.D. In subsequent centuries, Shakyas. His mother was a princess from the
especially after the fifth century, numerous Koshala dynasty. Thus, like Mahavira,
Gautama also belonged to a noble family.At
The Later Vedic Phase 17

the age of 29, like Mahavira again, he left be taken as a kind of reovlution in the history
home. He kept on wandering for about seven of Indian religions. It particularly won trie
years and then attained knowledge at the age support of the lower orders as it attacked
of 35 at Bodh Gaya under a pipel tree. From the varna system. People were taken into the
this time onwards he began to be called the Buddhist order without any consideration of
Buddha or the enlightened, Gautam Buddha caste. Women also were admitted to the
delivered his first sermons at Sarnath in sangha and thus brought on par with men.
Banaras, passed away at the age of 80 in 483 In comparison with Brahmanism, Buddhism
B.C. at a place called Kusinagar, identical with was liberal and democratic.
the village called Kasia in the district of Deoria The use of Pali, the language of the
in eastern Uttar Pradesh. peopel, also contributed to the spread of
Doctrines of Buddhism Buddhism. It facilitated the spread of
Gautama Buddha recommended an Buddhist doctrines among the common
eight-fold path (ashtangika marga) for the people. Gautama Buddha also organized the
elimination of human misery. This path is sangha or the religious order, whose doors
attributed to him in a text of about the third were kept open to every body, irrespective
century B.C. It comprised right observation, of caste and sex. The only condition required
right determination, right speech, right of the the monks was that they would
action, right livelibood, right execise, right faithfully observe the rules and regulations
memory and right meditation. If a person of the sangha. Once they were enrolled as
follows this eight fold path he would not members of the Buddhist Church they had
depend on the machinations of the priests, to take the vow of continence, poverty and
and will be able to reach his destination. faith. So there are three main elements in
Gautama taught than a person should avoide Buddhism: Buddha, sangha and dhamma.
the excess of both luxury and a austerity. He The monarchies of Magadha, Koshala and
prescribed the middle path. Kaushambi and several republican states and
their people adopted this religion.
The Buddha also laid down a code of
conduct for his followers on the same lines Two hundred years after the death of
as was done by the Jaina teachers. The main the Buddha, the famous Maurya king Ashoka
items in these social conduct are: (i) do not embraced Buddhism. This was an epoch-
cover the propert of others, (ii) do not com- making event. Through his agents Ashoka
mit violence, (iii) do not use intoxicants, (iv) spred Buddhism into Central Asia, West Asia
do not speak a lie, and (v) do not indulge in and Sri Lanka, and thus transformed it into
corrupt practices. These techining are com- a world religion. Even today Sri Lanka,
mon to the social conduct ordinend by al- Burma (Myanmar), Tibet and parts of China
most all religons. and Japan, profess Buddhism Although.
Special Features of Importance and Influence of Buddhism
Buddhism and the Causes of Its Spread Despite its ultimate disppearance as an
Buddhism does not recognize the organized religion, Buddhism left its abiding
existence of god and soul (atman). This can mark on the history of India. The Buddhist
18 Gist of NCERT (History)

showed a keen awareness of the problems Buddha, the second deals with the rules to
that faced the people of north-east India in be observed by members of thesangha, and
the the sixxth century B.C. the third presents the philosophical exposition
Undoubtedly the objective of the of the dhamma. In the first three centuries of
Buddhist teaching was to secure the salvation the Charistian era, by mixing Pali with San-
of the individual or nirvana. skrit the Buddhists created a new language
Buddhism made an important impact on which is called Hybrid Sanskrit. The literary
society by keeping its doors open to women activities of the Buddhist monks continued
and shudras. Since both women and shudras even in the Middle Ages, and some famous
were placed in the same category by Apabhrams writing in east India were
Brahmanism, they were neither given scred composed by them. The Buddhist
thread nor allowed to read the Vedas. Their monasteries developed as great centres of
conversion to Buddhism freed them from such learning, and can be called-residential
marks of inferiority. universities. Mention may be made of
With its emphasis on non-violence and Nalanda and Vikramashila in Bihar, and
the sanctity of animal life, Buddhism boosted Valabhi in Gujrat.
the cattle wealth of the country. The earliest Buddhism left its mark on the art of
Buddhist text Suttanipata declares the cattle ancient India. The first human statues
to be givers of food, beauty and happiness worshipped in India were probably those of
(annada, Vannada, sukhada), and thus pleads the Buddha. From the first century A.D.
for their protection. This teaching came onwards the panel images of Gautama
significantly at a time when the non-Aryans Buddha began to be made. The Greek and
slaughtered animals for food, and the Aryans the Indian sculptors worked together to
in tghe name of religion. create a new kind of art on the north-west
Buddhism created and developed a new frontier of India, which is known as the
awareness in the field of intellect and culture. Gandhara art. For the residence of the monks
They enormously enriched Pali by their rooms were hewn out of the rocks, and thus
writings. The early Pali literature can be began the cave archtecture in the Barabar hills
divided into three categories. The first in Gaya and in western India acround Nasik.
contains the sayings and teachings of the Buddhist art flourished in the Krishna delta
in the south and in Mathura in the north.
The Later Vedic Phase
3 19


The Mahajanapadas eastern Uttar Pradesh and had its capital at

In the age of the Buddha we find 16 Shravasti, which is identical with Sahet-Mahet
large states called Mahajanapadas, They were on the borders of Gonda and Bahraich
mostly situated north of the Vindhyas and districts in Uttar Pradesh. But we see the
extended from the north-west frontier to beginnings of a mud fort. Koshala contained
Bihar. Of these Magadha, Koshala, Vatsa and an important city called Ayodhya, which is
Avanti seem to have been considerably associated with the story in the Ramayana.
powerful. Beginning from the east we hear Koshala also included the tribal republican
of the kingdom of Anga which covered the territory of the Shaky as of Kapilvastu. The
modern districts of Monghyr and Bhagalpur. capital of Kapilavastu has been identified
It had its capital at Champa, Eventually the with Piprahwa in Basti district. Lumbini,
kingdom, of Anga was swallowed by its which lies at a distance of 15 km from
powerful neighbour Magadha. Piprahwa in Nepal served as another capital
Magadha embraced the former districts of the Shakyas. In an Ashokan inscription it
of patna, Gaya and parts of Shahbad, and is called the birthplace of Gautama Buddha
grew to be the leading state of the time. and it was here that he was brought up.
North of the Ganga in the division of Tirhut In the neighbourhood of Koshala lay the
was the state of the Vajjis which included republican clan of the Mallas, One of the capi-
eight clans. But the most powerful were the tals of the Mallas lay at Kushinara where
Lichchhavis with their capital at Vaishali Gautama Buddha passed away. Kushinara is
which is identical with the village of Basarh identical with Kasia in Deoria district. Fur-
in the district of Vaishali. The Purnas push ther west lay the kingdom of the Vatsas,
the antiquity of Vaishali to a much earlier along the bank of the Yamuna, with its capi-
period, but archaeologically Basarh was not tal at Kaushambi near Allahabad. The Vatsas
settled until the sixth century B.C. were a Kuru clan who had shifted from
Further west we find the kingdom of Hastinapur and settled down at Kaushambi.
Kashi with its capital at Varanasi. In the Kaushambi was chosen because of its loca-
beginning Kashi appears to be the most tion near, the confluence of the Ganga and
powerful of the states, but eventually it had the Yamuna. We also hear of the older states
to submit to the power of Koshala. of the Kurus and the Panchalas which were
situated in western Uttar Pradesh, but they
Koshala embraced the area occupied by
no longer enjoyed the political importance
20 Gist of NCERT (History)

which they had attained in the later Veidc 544 B.C. to 492 B.C. He was succeeded by
period. his son Ajatashatru (492-460 B.C.). Ajatashatru
In central Malwa and the adjoining parts killed his father and seized the throne for
of Madhya Pradesh lay the state of the himself. Throughout his reign he pursued an
Avantis. It was divided into two parts. The aggressive policy of expansion. This
northern part had its capital at Uggain, and provoked against him a combination of Kashi
the southern part at Mahishamati. and Koshala. There began a prolonged
Rise and Growth of the Magadha Empire conflict between Magadha and Koshala.
Ultimately Ajatashatru got the best of the
Magadha came into prominence under
war, and the Koshalan king was compelled
the leadership of Bimbisara, who belonged
to purchase peace by giving his daughter in
to the Haryanka dynasty. He was a
marriage to Ajatashatru and leaving him in
contemporary of the Buddha. He started the
sole possession of Kashi.
policy of conquest and aggression which
ended with the Kalinga war of Ashoka. Although his mother was a Lichchhavi
Bimbisara acquired Anga and placed it under princess, this did not prevent him from
the viceroyaity of his son Ajatashatru at making war against Vaishli. He created
Champa. He also strengthened his position dissensions in the ranks of the Lichchhavis
by marriage alliances. He took three wives. and finally destroyed their independence by
His first wife was the daughter of the king invading their territory and by defeating
of Koshala and the sister of Parsenajit. His them in battle. It took him full 16 years to
second wife Chellana was a Lichchhavi destroy Vaishali. Eventually he succeeded in
princess from Vaishali who gave birth to doing so because of a war engine which was
Ajatashatru and his third wife was the used to throw stones like catapults. He also
daughter of the chief of the Madra clan of possessed a chariot to which a mace was
Punjab. attahced, and it facilitated mass killings. The
Magadhan empire was thus enlarged with the
Magadhas most serious rival was
addition of Kashi and Vaishali.
Avanti with its capital at Ujjain. Its king
Chanda Pradyota Mahasena fought Ajatashatru faced a stronger rival in the
Bimbisara, but ultimately the two thought it ruler of Avanti. Avanti had defeated the
wise to become friends. Later when Pradyota Vatsas of Kaushambi and now threatened an
was attacked by jaundice, at the Avanti kings invasion of Magadha. To meet this danger
request Bimbisara sent the royal physician Ajatashatru began the fortification of Rajgir.
Jivaka to Ujjain. The remins of the walls can be still seen.
However, trie invasion did not materialize
The earliest capital of Magadha was at
in his lifetime.
Rajgir, which was called Girivraja at that time.
If was surrounded by five hills, the openings Ajatashatru was succeeded by Udayin
in which were closed by stone-walls on all (460-444 B.C.) His reign is important because
sides. This made Rajgir impregnable. he built the fort upon the confluence of the
According to the Buddhist chronicles, Ganga and Son at Patna. This was done
Bimbisara ruled for 52 years. roughly from because Patna lay in the centre of the
Territorial States and the First Magadhan Empire 21

Magadhan kingdom, which now extended speaks of the existence of a kshatriya clan
from the Himalayas in the north to the hills called Mauryas living in the region of
of Chotanagpur in the south. Gorakhpur adjoining the Nepalese terai. In
Udayin was succeeded by the dynasty all likelihood, Chandragupta was a member
of Shishunagas, who temporarily shifted the of this clan. He took advantage of the
capital to Vaishali. Their greatest achievement growing weakness and unpopularity of the
was the destruction of the power of Avanti Nandas in the last days of their rule. With
with its capital at Ujjain. This brought to an the help of Chanakya, who is known as
end the 100 year old rivalry between Kautilya, he overthrew the Nandas and
Magadha and Avanti. From now onwards established the rule of the Maurya dynasty.
Avanti became a part of the Magadhan empire The machinations of Chanakya against
and continued to be so till the end of the Chandraguptas enemies are described in
Maurya rule. detail in the Mudrarakshasa, a drama written
The Shishunagas were succeeded by the by Vishakhadatta in the ninth century. Several
Nandas, who proved to be the most powerful plays have been based on it in modern times.
rulers of Magadha. So great was their power Justin, a Greek writer, says that
that Alexander, who invaded Punjab at that Chandragupta overran the whole of India
time, did not dare to move towards the east. with an army of 600,000. But Chandragupta
The nandas added to the Magadhan power liberated north-western India from the
by conquering Kalinga from where they thraldom of Selucus, Chandragupta thus built
brought an image of the Jina as a victory up a vast empire which included not only
trophy. All this took place in the reign of Bihar and good portions of Orissa and Bengal
Mahapadma Nanda. He claimed to be ekarat, but also western and northwestern India, and
the sole sovereign who destroyed all the the Deccan. Leaving Kerala, Tamil nadu and
other ruling princes. It seems that he acquired parts of north-easrtern India the Mauryas
not only Kalinga but also Koshala which had ruled over the whole of the subcontinent. In
probably rebelled against him. the north-west they held sway over certain
The later Nandas turned out to be weak areas which were not included even in the
and unpopular. Their rule in Magadha was British empire.
supplanted by that of the Maurya dynasty Imperial Organization
under which the Magadhan empire reached The Mauryas organized a very elaborate
the apex of glory. system of administration. We know about it
THE AGE OF THE MAURYAS from the account of Megasthenes and the
Chandragupta Maurya Arthashastra of Kautilya. Megasthenes was
a Greek ambassador sent by Seleucus to the
THE MAURYA dynasty was founded by
court of Chandragupta Maurya. He lived in
Chandragupta Maurya, who seems to have
the Maurya capital of Pataliputra and wrote
belonged to some ordinary family. According
an account not only of the administration of
to the brahmanical tradition he was born of
the city of Pataliputra but also of the Maurya
Mura, a shudra woman in the court of the
empire as a whole. The account of
Nandas. But an earlier Buddhist tradition
22 Gist of NCERT (History)

Megasthenes have been published in the form Ashoka (273-232 B.C.)

of a book called Indika, which throws Chandragupta Maurya was succeeded
valuable light on the administration, society by Bindusara, whose reign is important for
and economy of Maurya times. The account continued links with the Greek princes. His
of Megasthenes can be supplemented by the son, Ashoka, is the greatest of the Maurya
Arthashastra of Kautilya. Arthashastra gives rulers. According to Buddhist tradition he
authentic information about the Maurya was so cruel in his early life that he killed his
administration and economy. On the basis of 99 brothers to get the throne. But since the
these two sources we can draw a picture of statement is based on a legend, it may well
the administrative system of Chandra-gupta be wrong. His biography, prepared by
Maurya. If we believe in a statement of the Buddhist writerters, is so full of finction that
Arthashastra, the king had set a high ideal it cannot be taken seriously.
the happiness of his subjects lay his happiness Ashokan Inscriptions
and in their troubles lay his troubles.
The history of Ashoka is reconstructed
According to Megasthenes the king was
on the basis of his inscriptions. These
assisted by a council.
incriptions, numbering 39, are classified into
The empire was divided into a number
Major Rock Edicts, Minor Rock Edicts,
of provinces, and each province was placed
Separate Rock Edicts, Major Pillar Edicts and
under a prince who was a scion of the royal
Minor Pillar Edicts. The name of Ashoka
dynasty. The provinces were divided into
occurs only in copies of Minor Rock Edict
still smaller units, and arrangements were
found at three places in Karnataka and at one
made for both rural and urban administration.
in Madhya Pradesh.
Excavations The administration Pataliputra,
which was the capital of the Mauryas, was All the other inscriptions mention only
devanamptya piyadasi, dear to gods, and
carried on by six committees, each committee
leave out the word Ashoka. The Ashokan
consisting of five members. These committees
were entrusted with sanitation, care of inscriptions are found in India, Nepal,
Pakistan and Afghanistan. Altogether they
foreigners, registration of birth and death,
regulation of weights and measures and appear at 47 places, and their total versions
number 182. They were generally placed on
similar other functions.
ancient highways. Composed in Prakrit, they
The most striking feature of Chandra-
were writtne in Brahmi script in the greater
guptas administration is the maintenance of
part of the subcontinent. But in its north-
a Huge army. According to the account of a
western part they appeared in Aramaic
Roman writer called Poiny, Chandragupta
language and Kharoshthi script, and in the
maintained 600,000 foot-soldiers, 30,000 cav-
alry and 9000 elephants the Mauryas also Afghanistan they were written in both
maintained a navy. The administration of the Aramaic and Greek scripts and languages. He
armed forces, according to Megasthenes, was is the first Indian king to speak directly to
carried on by a board of 30 officers divided the people through his inscriptions which
into six committees, consisting of five mem- carry royal orders. The inscriptions throw
bers. light on the career of Ashoka, his external
Territorial States and the First Magadhan Empire 23

and domestic polices, and the extent of his appointed a class of officers known as the
empire. rajukas, who were vested with the authority
Impact of the Kalinga War of not only rewarding people but also
The ideology of Buddhism guided punishing them, wherever necessary.
Ashokas state policy at home and abroad. Internal Policy and Buddhism
After his accession to the throne, Ashoka Ashoka was converted to Buddhism as
fought only one major war called the Kalinga a result of the Kalinga war. According to
War. According to him, 100,000 people were tradition hs became a monk, made huge gifts
killed in this war, several lakhs perished, and to the Buddhists and undertook pilgrimages
150,000 were taken prisoners. At any rate it to the Buddhist shrines. The fact of his visiting
seems that the king war moved by the the Buddhist shrines is also suggested by the
massacre in this war. So he abandoned the dhamma yatras mentioned in his inscriptions.
policyof physical occupation in favour of According to tradition the Buddhist council
policy of cultural conquest. In other words, (Sangiti) was held by Ashoka and missionaries
bherighosha was replaced with dhamma- were sent not only to south India but also to
ghosha. We quote below the worlds of Sri Lanka, Burma and other countries to
Ashoka from his Thirteenth Major Rock covert the people there. Brahmi inscriptions
Edict: of the second and first centuries B.C. have
Ashoka no longer treated foreign been found Sri Lanka.
dominions as legitimate areas for military Ashoka set a very high ideal for himself,
conquest. He tried to conquer them and this was the ideal of paternal kingship.
ideologically. He took steps for the welfare He repeatedly asked his officials to tell the
of men and animals in foreigh lands, which subjects that the king looked upon them as
was a new thing considering the condition his children. As agents of the king, the official
of those days. He sent ambassadors of peace were also asked to take care of the people.
to the Greek kingdoms in West Asia and Ashoka appointed Dhammama-hamatras for
Greece. He sent mission-aries for the propagating dharma among various social
propagation of Buddhism to Sri Lanka and groups including women. He also appointed
Central Asia. As an enlightened ruler Ashoka rajukas for the administration of justice in his
tiled to enlarge his area of political influence empire.
through propaganda. He disapporved of rituals, especially
It would be wrong to think that the those observed by women. He forbade
Kalinga war made Ashoka an extreme killing certain birds and animals, and
pacifist. On the other hand he adopted a completely prohibited the slaughter of
practical policy of consolidating his empire. animals in the capital. He interdicted gay
He retained Kalinga after its conquest and social functions in which people indulged in
incorporated it into his empire. There is also revelries.
nothing to show that he disbanded the huge Ashokas Place in History
army maintained from the time of It is said that the pacific policy of
Chandragupta Maurya. Within the empire he
Ashoka rained the Maury a empire, but this
24 Gist of NCERT (History)

is not true. On the country Ashoka has a independent in their respective areas after
number of achievements to his credit. He was the retrirement of the king in 232 B.C.
certainly a great missionary ruler in the Similarly, the policy could not convert his
history of the ancient world. He worked neighbours, who swooped on the north-
with great zeal and devotion to his mission western frontier of his empire within 30 years
and achieved a lot, both at home and abroad. of Ashokas exit from power in 232 B.C.
Ashoka brought about the political THE RISE AND GROWTH OF
unification of the country. He bound it further THE GUPTA EMPIRE
by one dharma, one language and practically Background
one script called Brahmi which was used in
AFTER THE break-up of the Maurya
most of his inscriptions. In unifying the
empire, the Satavahanas and the Kushans
country he respected such scripts as Brashmi,
emerged as two large political powers. The
Kharoshthi, Aramaci and Greek. Evidently
Satavahanas acted as a stablizing factor in the
he also accommodated such languages as
Deccan and south to which they gave political
Greek, Prakrit and Sanskrit and various
unity and economic prosperity on the
religious sects. Ashoka follwed a tolerant
strength of their trade with the Roman
religious policy. He did not try to foist his
empire. The Kushans performed the same role
buddhist faith on his subjects. On the other
in the north. Both these empires came to an
hand he made gifts to non-Buddhist and even
end in the middle of the third, century A.D.
anti-Buddhist sects. Ashoka was fired with
zeal for missionary activities. He deputed On the ruins of the Kushan empire arose
officials in the far-flung parts of the empire. a new empire, whiclvestablished its sway
This helped the cause of ad-ministration and over a good part of the former dominious of
also promoted cultural contacts between the both the Kushans and Satavahanas. This was
developed Gangetic basin and the backward the empire of the Guptas, who may have been
distant provinces. The material culture, of vaishya origin. Although the Gupta empire
typical of the heart of the empire, spread to was not as large as the Maurya empire, it kept
Kalinga and the lower Deccan and norther north India politically united for more than
Bengal. Above all ashoka is important in a century from A.D. 335 to 455. The original
history for his policy of peace, non- kingdom of the Guptas comprised Uttar
aggression and cultural conquest. He had no Pradesh and Bihar at the end of the third
model in early Indian history for pursuing century A.D. Uttar Pradesh seems to have
such a policy; nor did such an example exist been a more important province for the
in any country except Egypt where Akhnaton Guptas than Bihar, because early Gupta coins
had pursued a pacific policy in the fourteenth and inscriptions have been mainly found in
century B.C. But it is obvious that Ashoka that state. If we leave out some feudatories
was not aware for his Egyptian predecessor. and private individuals, whose inscriptions
have been mostly found in Madhya Pradesh,
However, Ashokas policy did not make
Uttar Pradesh will stand out as the most
any lasting impression on his viceroys and
important area in respect of the finds of the
vassals, who declared themselves
Gupta antiquitiews. Hence Uttar Pradesh
Territorial States and the First Magadhan Empire 25

seems to have been the place from where the end around A.D. 230 and then a good part of
Guptas operated and fanned out in different central India fell under the rule of the
directions. Probably with their centre of Murundas, who were possibly the kinsmen
power at Prayag they spread in the of the Kushans. The Murundas continued to
neighbouring regions. rule till A.D. 250. Twenty-five years later, in
The Guptas were possibly the about A.D. 275, they dynasty of the Gupta
feudatories of the Kushans in Uttar Pradesh came to power.
and seems to have succeeded them without Chandragupta I (A.D. 319-334)
any wide time-lag. At many places in Uttar The first important king of the Gupta
Pradesh and Bihar the Kushan antiquities are dynasty was Chandragupta I. He married a
immediately followed by the Gupta Lichchhavi princess most probably from Ne-
antiquities. It is likely that the Guptas learnt pal, which strengthened his position. The
the use of saddle, reins, but-toned-coats, Guptas were possibly vaishyas, and hence
trousers and boots from the Kushans. All marriage in a kshtriya family gave them pres-
these gave them mobility and made them tige. Chandragupta I seems to have been a
excellent horsemen. In the Kushan scheme of ruler of considerable importance because he
things, horse-chariots and elephants had started the Gupta era in A.D. 319-20, which
ceased to be important. Horsemen played the marked the date of his accession. Later many
main part. This also seems to have been the inscriptions came to be dated in the Gupta
case with the Gupta on whose coins horsemen era.
are represented. Although some Gupta kings Samudragupta (A.D. 335-380)
are described as excellent and unrivailed
The Gupta kingdom was enlarged
chariot warriors, their basic strength lay in
enormously by Chandragupta Is son and
the use of horses.
successor Samudragupta (A.D. 335-380). He
The Guptas enjoyed certain material was the opposite of Ashoka. Ashoka believed
advantages. The centre of their operations in a policy of peace and son-aggression, but
lay in the fertile land of Madhyadesha Samudragupta delighted in violence and
covering Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. They could conquest. His court poet Harishena wrote a
exploit the iron ores of central India and glowing account of the military exploits of
south Bihar. Further, they took advantage of his patron. In a long inscription the poet
their proximity to the areas in north India enumerates the peoples and countries that
which carried on silk trade with the Eastern were conquered by Samudragupta. The
Roman empire, also known as the Byzantine inscription is engraved at Allahabad on the
empire. On account of these favourable same pillar which carries the inscriptions of
factors the Guptas set up their rule over the peace-loving Ashoka. The places and the
Anuganga (the middle Gangetic basin), countries conquered by Samudragupta can be
Prayag (modern Allahabad), Saketa (modern divided into five groups. Group one includes
Ayodhya) and Magadha. In course of time princes of the Ganga-Yamuna doab who
this kingdom became an all-India empire. were defeated and whose kingdoms were
The Kushan power in north India came to an incorporated into the Gupta empire. Group
26 Gist of NCERT (History)

two includes the rulers of the eastern Chandragupta II (A.D. 380-412)

Himalayan states and some frontier states The reign of Chandragupta II saw the
such as princes of Nepal, Assam, Bengal, etc., high watermark of the Gupta empire. He
who were made to feel states and some extended the limits of the empire by marriage
frontier states such as princes of Nepal, alliance and conquests. Chandragupta
Assam, Bengal, etc., who were made to feel married his daughter Prabhavati with a
the weight of Samudraguptas arms. It also Vakataka prince who belonged to the
covers some republics of Punjab, The brahmana caste and ruled in central India.
republic, which flickered on the ruins of the The prince died, and was succeeded by his
Maurya empire, were finally destroyed by young son. So Prabhavati became the virtual
Samudragupta. Group three includes the paler. As shown by some of her land charters,
forest kingdoms situated in the Vindhya which betray the influence of the eastern
region and known as Atavika raiyas; they Gupta writing, she promoted the interests of
were brought under the control of her father Chandragupta. Thus
Samudragupta. Group four includes twelve Chandragupta exercised indirect control over
rulers of the eastern. Deccan and south India, the Vakataka kingdom in central India. This
who were conquered and liberated. afforded a-great advantage to him. With this
Samudraguptas arms reached as far as great influence in this area, Chandragupta II
Kanchi in Tamil Nadu, where the Pallavas conquered western Malwa and Gujarat,
were compelled to recognize his suzerainty. which had been under the rule of the Shaka
Group five includes the names of the Sankas Kshtraps for about four centuries by that time.
and Kushans, some of them ruling in The conquest gave Chandragupta the wester
Afghanistan. It is said that Samudragupta sea coast, famous for trade and commerce.
swept them out of power and received the This contributed to the prosperity of Malwa,
submission of the rulers of distant lands. The and its chief city Ujjain. Ujjain seems to have
prestige and influence of Samudragupa been made the second capital by
spread even outside India. According to a Chandragupta II.
Chinese source, Meghavarman, the ruler of Chandragupta II adopted the title of
Sri Lanka, sent a missionary to Samudragupta Vikramaditya, which had been first used by
for permission to build a Buddhist temple at an Ujjain ruler in 57 B.C. as a mark of victory
Gaya This was granted, and the temple was over the Shaka Kshatrapas of western. India
developed into a huge monastic The court of Chandragupta II at Ujjain was
establishement. If we believe the eulogistic adorned by numerous scholars including
inscription from Allahabad, it would appear Kalidasa and Anairasimlia. It was in
that Samudragupta never knew any defeat, Chandraguptas time that the chinese pilgrim
and because of his bravery and generalship Fahsien (399-414) visited India and wrote an
he is called the Napoleon of India. There is elaborate account of the life of its people.
no doubt that Samudragupta forcibly unified Fall of the Empire
the greater part of India under him, and his
The successors of Chandragupta II had
power was felt in a much larger area.
to face an invashion by the Hunas from
Territorial States and the First Magadhan Empire 27

Central Asia in the second half of the fifth Alongside them the Maukharis rose to power
century A.D. Although in the be-ginning the in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, and had their
Gupta king Skandragupta tried effectively to capital at Kanauj. It seems that by 550 Bihar
stem the march of the Hunas into India, his and Uttar Pradesh had passed out of Gupta
successors proved to be weak and could not hands. By the beginning of the sixth century
cope with the Huna invaders, who excelled we find independent princes issuing land
in horsemanship and possibly used strrups grants in their own rights in northern Madhya
made of metal. They could move quickly and Pradesh, although they use the Gupta era in
being excellent archiers they seem to have dating their charaters. The rulers of Valabhi
attained considerable successor not only in established their authority in Gujarat and
Iran but also in India. western Malwa. After the reign of
By 485 the Hunas occupied eastern Skandagupta, i.e. A.D. 467, hardly any Gupta
Malwa and a good portion of central India coin or inscription has been found in western
where their inscriptions have been found. The Malwa and Saurashtra.
inter-mediate regions such as Punjab and The Gupta state may have found it
Rajasthan also passed under their possession. difficulut to maintain a large professional
This must have drastically reduced the extent army on account of the growing practice of
of the Gupta empire at the beginning of the land grants for religious and other purposes,
sixth century. Although the Huna power was which was bound to reduce their revenues.
soon overthrown by Yashodharaman of Their income may have further been affected
Malwa who belonged to the Aulikara by the decline of foreign trade. The
feaudatory family, the Malwas prince migration of a guild of silk-weavers from
successfully chanllenged the authority of the Gujarat to Malwa in A.D. 473 and their
Gupta snd set up in 532, pillars of victory adoption of nonproductive professions show
commemorating his conquest of almost the that there was not much demand for cloth
whole of northern India, Yashodharmans produced by them. The advantages from
rule was shortlived, but it meant a severe Gujarat trade gradually disappeared. After
blow to the Gupta empire. the middle of the fifth century the Gupta
The Gupta empire was further kings made desperate attempts to maintain
undermined by the rise of the feudatories. their gold currency by reducing the content
The governors appointed by the Gupta kings of pure gold in it. But this proved of no avail.
in north. Bengal and their feudatories in Although the rule of the Imperial Guptas
Samatata or south-east Bengal tended to lingered till the middle of the sixth century
become independent. The late Guptas of A.D., the imperial glory had vanished a
Magadha established their power in Bihar.. century earlier.
4 Gist of NCERT (History)


Struggle for the Gwalior and the entire eastern Rajasthan,

Establishment of a Strong Monarchy including Ajmer and Bayana, threw off the
Muizzuddin (Muhammad Ghori) was Turkish Yoke. During the early year of his
suceeded (1206) by Qutbuddin Aibak, Turk- reign, Iltutmishs attention was concentrated
ish slave who had played an important part on the north-west. A new danger to his posi-
in the expansion of the Turkish Sultanat in tion arose with the conquest of Ghazni by
India after the battle of Tarain. Another slave Khwarizm Shah. In order to avert this dan-
of Muizzuddin, Yalduz, succeeded at Ghazni. ger, Iltutmish marched to Lahore and occu-
As the ruler of Ghazni, Yalduz claimed to rue pied it. In 1220, the Khwarizmi Empire was
over Delhi as well. This, however was not destroyed by the Mongols who founded one
accepted by Aibak and from this time, the of the strongest empires in History, which at
Delhi Sultanat severed its helped to Prevent its height extended from China to the shores
India being drawn into central Asian politics. of the Mediterranean sea, and from the Cas-
Illtutamis (1210-36) pian sea to the river Jaxartes. The danger it
posed to India and its effects on the Delhi
In 1210, Aibak died of injuries received Sultanat will be discussed in a subsequent
in a fall from his horse while playing Chaugan section. While the Mongols were busy else-
(polo). He was succeeded by Iltutmish who where, Iltutmish also ousted Qubacha from
was the son-in-law of Aibak. But before he Multan and Uchch.
could do so, he had to fight and defeat the
Secure in the west, Iltutmish was able
son of Aibak.
to turn his attention elsewhere. In Bengal
Iltutmish must be regarded as the real and Bihar, a person called Iwaz who had
consolidator of the Turkish conquests in taken the title of sultan Ghiyasuddin had as-
North India. At the time of his accession, Ali sumed independence. While he made raids
Mardan Khan had declared himself the king on the territory of his neighbours, the Sena
of Bengal and Bihar, while Qubacha, a fel- rulers of East Bengal, and the Hindu rulers
low slave of Aibak had declared himself an of Orissa and Kamrup (Assam) continued
independent ruler of Multan and seized La- their sway. In 1226-27, Iwaz was defeated and
hore and parts of the Punjab. At first, even killed in a battle with Iltutmishs on son near
some of the fellow officers of Iltutmish near Lakhanauti. Bengal and Bihar passed under
Delhi were reluctant to accept his authority. the Suzerainty of Delhi once again. But they
The Rajputs took advantage of the situation were a difficult charge, and repeatedly chal-
to assert their independence. Thus, Kalinjar,
The Delhi Sultanate 29

lenged the authority of Delhi. At about the out at Lahore and sirhind. She personnaly
same time, Iltutmish took step s to recover led an expedition against Lahore, and com-
Gwalior and Bayana. Ajmer and Negor re- pelled the governor to Submit. On the way
mained under his control. He sent expedi- to Sirhind, internal rebellion broke out in
tions against Ranthambhor and Jalor to reas- which Yaqut Khan was killed, an Raziya im-
sert his suzerainty. He also attacked Nagda, prisoned at Tabarhinda (Bhatinda). However,
the capitals of Mewar (about 22 Km from Raziya won over her captor, Altunia, and af-
Udaipur), but had to beat a retreat at the ar- ter marrying him made a renewed attempt
rival of the Gujarat armies, which had come on Delhi. Raziya fought valiantly, but was
to aid the Rana. As a revenge, Iltutmish dis- defeated and killed in fight by bandits.
patched an expedition against the Chalukyas Era of Balban (1246-87)
of Gujarat, but it was repulsed with Losses.
The struggle between the monarchy and
Raziya (1236-39) the Turkish chiefs continued, till one of the
After anxious consideration, Iltutmish Turkish chiefs, Ulugh Khan, Known in his-
finally decided to nominate his daughter, tory by his later title of Balban, gradually
Raziya, to the throne, and induced the nobles arrogated all power to himself, and finally
and the theologians (Ulama) to agree to the ascended the throne in 1265 during the ear-
nomnation the nomination of a woman in lier period, Balban held the positon of Naib
preference to sons was a novel step. In order or deputy of Nasiruddin Mahmud, a younger
to asset brothers as well as against powerful son of Iltutmish, whom Balban had helped
Turkish nobles, and could rule only for three in securing the throne in 1246. Balban fur-
years. Though brief, her rule had a number ther strengthened his positon by marrying
of interesting features. it marked the monar- one of his daughters to the young sultan. The
chy and the Turkish chiefs, sometimes called growing authority of Balban alienated many
the forty or the Chahalgani. Iltutmish had of the Turkish chiefs who had hoped to con-
shown great deference to these Turkish tinue their former power and influence in the
chiefs. After his death, these chiefs, drunk affairs of government, since Nasiruddin
with power and arrogance, wanted to install Mahmud was young and inexperienced.
on the throne a puppet whom they could con- They, therefore, hatched a conspiracy (1250)
trol. They soon discovered that though a and outsted Balban from his position. Balban
woman, Raziya was not prepared to play their was replaced by Imadduddin Raihan who
game. She discarded the female apparel and was an Indian Muslim. Balban agreed to step
started holding court with her face unveiled. aside, but carefully continued to build his own
She even hunted, and led army in war. The group. Within one and a half years of his dis-
Wazir, Nizam-ul-Mulk Junaidi, who had op- missal, he managed to win over some of his
posed her elevation to the throne, and backed opponents. Sultan Mahmud bowed to the
to supported a rebellion of nobles against superior strength of Balbans group and dis-
her, was defeated successfully established missed Raihan. After some time, Raihan was
law and order in the length and breath of defeated and killed. Balban got rid of many
her Kingdom. But the attempt to create a of his other rivals by fair or foul means. He
party of noble, Yaqut Khan. Rebellions broke even went so far as to assume the royal in-
30 Gist of NCERT (History)

signia, the Chhatr. But he did not assume the THE DELHI SULTANATE-II
throne himself, probably due to the senti- (Circa 1200-1400)
ments of the Turkish, chiefs. In 1265, Sultan
AFTER THE death of Balban in 1286,
Mahmud died. Some historians are of the
there was again confusion in Delhi for some
opinion that Balban poisoned the young king,
time. Balbans chosen successor. Prince
and also did away to the throne.
Muhammad, had died earlier in a battle with
While Claiming to act as a champion of
the Mongols. A second son, Bughra Khan,
the Turkish nobility, Balban was not prepared
preferred to rule over Bengal and Bihar
to share power with anyone, not even with
members of his own family. His desporters. although he was invited by the nobles at Delhi
Balban was determined to finally break the to assume the throne. Hence, a grandson of
power of the Chahalgani, i.e., the Turkish Balban was installed in Delhi. But he was too
nobles, and to exalt the power and prestige young and inexperienced to cope with the
of the monarchy. He did not hesitate even to situated.
poison his cousin, Sher Khan, to achieve this The Khaljis (1290-1320)
objective. For these reasons, a group of Khalji
At the same time, in order to win the nobles led by Jalaluddin Khalji, who had been
confidence of the public, he administered the warden of the marchese in the north-west
highest in the land were to be spared if they and had fought many successful engagements
transgressed his authority. To keep himself against the Mongols, overthrew the incom-
well informed, Balban appointed strong cen- petent successful engagements against the
tralized army, both to dela with internal Mongols, overthrew the incompetent succes-
enterenched themselves in the Punjab and sors of Balban in 1290. The Khalji rebellion
posed a serious danger to the Delhi Sultanat. was welcomed by the non-Turkish sections
For the purpose, he reorganized them mili- in the nobility. Jalaluddin Khalji ruled only
tary department (Diwan-I-arz), and pen- for a brief peiod of six years. He tried to
sioned off those soldiers and troopers who mitigate some of the harsh aspects of Baibans
were no longer fit for service. Since many of rule. He was the first ruler of the Delhi
the troopers were Turks who had come to Sultanat to clearly put forward the view that
India in the time of Iltutmish, they raised a the state should be based on the willing sup-
hue and cry against this decision, but Balban port of the governed, and that since the large
was not moved. The law and order situation majority of the people in India were Hindus,
in the area around Delhi and in the doab had the state in India could not be truly Islamic
deteriorated. In the Ganga-Jamuna doab and state. Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316) came to the
Awadh, roads were, poor and were infested throne by treacherously muraenng his uncle
with robbers and Dacoits, The Mewatis had and father-in-law, Jalaluddin Khalji. As the
become so bold as to plunder people upto governor of Awadh, Alauddin had accumu-
the outskirts of Delhi. To deal with these el- lated a vast treasure by invading Deogir in
ements, Balban adopted a policy of Blood the Deccan. Alauddin framed a series of regu-
and Iron. Robbers were mercilessy pursued lations to prevent the nobles from conspir-
and put to Death. ing against him. They were forbidden to hold
The Delhi Sultanate 31

banquest or festivities, or to form marriage against Gurajat by the way of Rajasthan. On

alliances without the permission of the sul- their way, they raided and captured Jaisalmer
tan. To discourage festive parties, he banned also. The Gujarat ruler, Rai Karan, was taken
the use of wines and intoxicants. He also in- by surprise, and fled without offering a fight.
stituted a spy service to inform the sultan of The famous temple of Somnath was plun-
all that the nobles said and did. dered and saked. It was here that Malik Kafur,
By these harsh methods, Alauddin Khalji who later led the invasions of south India,
cowed down the nobles, and made them was captured. He was presented to Alauddin,
completely subservient to the crown. The old and soon rose in his estamation.
noblity was destroyed, and the new nobility Rajasthan
was taught to accept anyone who could as- After the conquest of Gujarat, Alauddin
cend the throne of Delhi. This becarrn ap- turned his attention to the consolidation of
parent after Alauddin Khaljis death in 1316. his rule over Rajasthan. The first to invite his
His favourite, Malik Kafur, raised a minor attention was Ranthambhor which was be-
son of Alauddin to the throne and irr ing ruled by the Chauhan successors of
prisoned or blinded his other sons, without Prithviraj. Its ruler, Hamirdeva, had em-
encountering any opposition from the nobles. barked on a series of war like expeditions
Soon after this, Kafur was killed against his neightbours. Alauddin despatched
The Tughlaqs (1320-1412) an army commanded by one of his reputed
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq established a new generals but it was repulsed with losses by
dynasty which ruled till 1412. The Tughlaqs Hamirdeva. Finally, Alauddin himself had to
provided three competent rulers: march against Ranthambhor. The famous
Ghiyasuddin, his son Muhammad bin Tuglaq poet, Amir Khusrau, who went along with
(1324-51) , and his nephew Firoz Shah Alauddin, has given a graphic description of
Tughlaq (1351-88). The first two of these sul- the fort and its investment. After three
tanas ruled over an empire which comprised months of close seige, the fear jauhar cer-
almost the entire country. The Turkish rulers emony took place: the women mounted the
had strong reasons for coveting Malwas and funeral pyre, and all the men came out to fight
Gujarat. Not only were these areas fertile and to the last. This is the first description we
populous, they controlled the western sea- have of the jauhar in Persian. All the Mon-
ports and the trade routes connecting them gols, too, died fighting with the Rajputs. This
with the Ganga valley. Another reasons for event took place in 1301.
the sultans of Delhi to establish their rule over Alauddin, next, turned his attention to-
Gujarat was that it would secure them a bet- wards Chittor which, after Ranthambhor, was
ter control over the supply of horses to their the most powerful state in Rajasthan. It was,
armies. The import of Arabi, Iraqi and Turki therefore necessary for Alauddin to subdue
horses to India from the western seaports it. Apart from this, its ruler Ratan Singh had
had been an important item of trade since annoyed him by refusing permission to his
the eight century. armies to march to this, its ruler Ratan Singh
Early in 1299, an army under two of had annoyed him by refusing permission to
Alauddin Khaljis noted generals marched his armies to march to Gujarat through Mewar
32 Gist of NCERT (History)

territories. There is a popular legend that gujarat. One of his daughters was married
Alauddin attached Chittor because he cov- to Alauddin. The Alliance with Rai
eted Padmini, the beautiful queen of Ratan Ramachandra was to prove to be of great
Singh. However, many modern historians do value to Alauddin in his further aggrandise-
not accept this legnd because its mentioned ment in the Deccan.
for the first time more than a hundred years Between 1309 and 1311, Malik Kafur led
later. In this story, Padmini is the princess of two campaigns in south India - the firstagainst
Singhal dvipa and Ratan Singh crosses the Warangal in the Telegana area and the other
seven seas to reach her and brings her back against Dwar Samudra and Mabar (modern
to Chittor after many adventures which ap- Karnataka) and Madurai (Tamil Nadu). The
pear improbable. The Padmini legend is a part court poet, Amir Khusrau made them the
of this account. subject of a book. For the first time, Muslim
Alauddin closely invested Chittor Af- armies penetrated as far south as Madurai,
ter a resistance by Mewar besieged for sev- and brought back untold wealth. The trade
eral months Alauddin stormed the fort routes to south India were well known and
(1303). The Rajputs performed jauhar and when Kafurs armies reached Paintan in
most of the warriors died fighting. Alauddin Mabar, they found a colony of Muslim mer-
also overran Jalor which lay on the route to chants settled there. The ruler even had a
Gujarat. contingent of Muslim tropps in his army.
Deccan and South India These expeditions greatly raised Kafur in
public estimation and Alauddin appointed
In 1306-7, Alauddin planned two cam-
him malik-naib or vice-gegent of the empire.
paigns. The first was against Rai Karan who
Following the accession of Ghiyasuddin
after his expulsion from Gujarat, had been
Tughlaq in 1320, a sustained and vigorous
holding Baglana on the border of Malwa. Rai
forward policy was embarked upon. After
Karan fought bravely, but he could not resist
reorganizing his armies, the attacked again
for long. The second expedition was aimed
and this time no quarter was given to the
against Rai Ramachandra, the ruler of Deogir,
Rai. This was followed by the conquest of
who had been in alliance with Rai Karan. In
Mabar which was also annexed. Muhammad
an earlier campaign, Rai Ramchandra had
bin Tughlaq them raided Orissa, and returned
agreed to pay an yearly tribute to Delhi. This
to Delhi with rich plunder. Next year, he sub-
had failled into arrers. The command of the
dued Bengal which had been independent
second army was entrusted to Alauddins
since the death of Balban. Thus, by 1324, the
slave, Malik Kafur. Rai Ramchandra who sur-
territories of the Delhi Sultanat reached up
rendered to Kafur, was honourably treated
to Madurai. The last Hindu principality in the
and carried to Delhi where, after some time,
area, Kampili in South Karnataka, was an-
he was restored to his dominaions with the
nexed in 1328. A cousin of Muhammad bin
title of Rai Rayan. A gidt of one lakh tonkas
Tughlaq, who had rebelled, had been given
was given to him along with a gloden col-
shelter there, thous providing a convenient
oured canopy which was a symbol of
excus for attacking it.
rulership. he was also given a district of
The Delhi Sultanate
5 33


One of the first requirements of the new tar in their buildings. Thus, new architectural
rulers was houses to live in, and places of forms and mortar of a superior kind became
worship. They at first converted temples and widespread in north India, with the arrival
other existing buildings into mosques. Exam- of the Turks.
ples of this are the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque The arch and the dome were known to
near the Quatab Minar in Delhi and the build- the Indians earlier, but they were not used
ing at Ajmer called Arhai Din ka Jhonpra. The on a large scale. The Turkish rulers used both
only new construction in Delhi was a facade the dome and arch method as well as the slab
of three elaborately carved arches in front and beam method as well as slab and beam
of the deity room (garbha griha) which was method in their buildings. In the sphere of
demolished. In their buildings, the Turks decoration, the Turks eschewed representa-
used the arch and the dome on a wide scale. tion of human and animal figures in the build-
Neither the arch nor the dome was a Turk- ings. Instead, they used geometrical and flo-
ish or Muslim invention. The Arabs borrowed ral designs, combining them with panels of
them from Rome through the Byzantine em- inscriptions containing verses from the
pire, developed them and made them their Quran. Thus, the Arabic script itself became
own. a work of a art. The combination of these
The use of the arch and the dome had a decorative devices was called Arabesque.
number of advantages. The dome rose They also freely borrowed Hindu motifs such
higher. Many experiments were made in as the bell motif, the bel motif, swastika, lo-
putting a round dome on a square building tus, etc.
and in raising the dome higher and higher. The most magnificent building con-
In this way, many lofty and impressive build- structed by the Turks in the thirteenth cen-
ing were constructed. The arch and the dome tury was the Qutab Minar. This tapering
dispensed with the need for a large number tower, originally 71.4 metre high, build by
of pillars to support the roof and enabled the Iltutmish, was dedicated to the Sufi saint,
construction of large halls with a clear view. Qutab-ud-Din Bakhtiyar Kaki, who was
Such places of assembly were useful in greatly venerated by all the people of Delhi.
mosques as well as in palaces. Howeever, the Although traditions of building towers are
arch and the dome needed a strong cement, to be found both in India and West Asia, the
otherwise the stones could not be held in Qutab Minar is unique in many ways.
place. The Turks used fine quality light mor- The Khalji period saw a lot of building
34 Gist of NCERT (History)

activity. Alauddin built his capital at Siri, a chitecture was the deliberate attempt to com-
few kilometres away from the site around bine the principles of the arch, and the lintel
the Qutab. But he added an entrance door to and beam in their buildings. This is found in
the Qutab This door, which is called the Alai a marked manner in the buildings of Firoz
Darwaza, has arches of very pleasing Tughlaq. In the Hauz Khas, which was a pleas-
proportions. It also contains a dome which, ure resort and had a huge lake around it, al-
for the first time was built on correct scientific ternate stories have arches, and the lintel and
lines. Thus, the art of building the arch and beam. The same is and had a huge lake
the dome on scientific lines had been around it, alternate stories have arches, the
mastered by the Indian craftsmen by this lintel and beam. The same is to be found in
time. Ghiyasuddin and Muhammad Tughlaq some buildings of Firuz Shahs new fort
built the huge place-fortress complex called which is now called the Kotla. The Tughlaqs
Tughlaqabad. By blocking the passage of the did not generally use the costly red sand-
Jamuna, a huge artificial lake was created stone in their buildings but the cheaper and
around it. The tomb of Ghiyasuddin marks a more easily available greystone. Another de-
new trend in architecture. To have a good vice used by the Lodis was placing their
skyline, the building was put upon a high buildings, especially tombs, on a high plat-
platform. Its beauty was heightened by a form, thus giving the Building a feeling of
marble dome. size as well as a better skyline. Some of the
tombs were placed in the midst of gardens.
A striking feature of the Tughlaq archi-
The Lodi Garden in Delhi is a fine example
tecture was the sloping, walls. This is called
of this. Some of the tombs were of an oc-
better and gives the effect of strength and
tagonal shap[e. Many of these features were
solidity to the building. However, we do not
adopted by the Mughlas later on and then
find any batter in the buildings of Firoz
culmination is to be found in the Taj Mahal
Tughlaq. A second feature of the Tughlaq ar-
built by Shah Jahan.
6 35


The Sufi Movement penanee, fasting and holding the breath are
Mystics, who are called Sufis, had risen sometimws traced to the, Buddhist and
in Islam at a very early stage these saints Hindu yogic influence. Buddhism was widely
wanted to have nothing to do with the state prevalent in Central Asia before the advent
- a tradition which continued later on. Some of Islam, and the legend of the Buddha as a
of the early Sufis, such as the woman mystic saintly man had passed into the Islamic leg-
Rabia and Mansur bin Hallj laid great em- end. Yogis continued to visit West Asia even
phasis on love as the bond between God and after the advent of Islam and the yogic book,
the individual soul. But their pantheistic ap- Amrit-kund, had been translated into Per-
proach led them into conflict with the ortho- sian from Sanskrit.
dox elements who had Mansur executed for The Sufi orders are broadly divided into
heresy Despite this setback, mystic ideas con- two: Ba-shara, that is, those which followed
tinued to spread among the Muslim masses. the Islamic Law (shara) and be-shara, that is,
Al-Ghazzaili (1112), who is venerated those which were not bound by it Both types
both by the orthodox elements and the Sufis, of orders prevailed in India, the latter being
tried to reconcile mysticism with Islamic or- followed more by wandering saints. Although
thodoxy. This he was able to do in a large these saints did not establish an order, some
measure. He gave a further blow to the ra- of them became figures of popular venera-
tionalist philosophy by arguing that positive tion, often for the Muslims and Hindus alike.
knowledge of God and his qualities cannot The Chishti and Suharwardi Silsilahs
be gained by reason, but only by revelation. Of the bashara movements, only two
Thus, the revealed book, Quaran, was vital acquired significant influence and following
for a mystic. Around this time, the Sufis were in north India during the thirteenth and four-
organised in 12 orders or silsilahs. The teenth centuries. These were the Chisti and
silsilahs were generally led by a prominent Suharwardi silsilahs. The Chisti order was
mystic who lived in a khanqah or hospice established in India by Khwaja Muinuddin
along with his disciples. The like between the Chishti who came to India around 1192,
teacher or pir and his disciples or mufids was shortly after the defeat and death of Prithvi
a vital part of the Sufi system. Every pir Raj Chauhan. After staying for some time in
nominated a successor or wali to carry on Lahore and Delhi he finally shfted to Ajmer
his work. The monastic organisation of the which was an important political centre and
Sufis, and some of their practices such as already had a sizable Muslim population.
36 Gist of NCERT (History)

Among the disciples of Shaikh Muinuddin the seventh and the twelfth century. As has
were Bakhtiyar Kaki and his disciple Farid- been noticed earlier, the Shaiva nayanars and
ud-Din Ganj-j-Shakar. Farid-ud-Din confined the Vaishnavite alvarsh disregarded the
his activities to Hansi and Ajodhan (in mod- austerities preached by the Jains and the
ern Haryana and the Punjab, respectively). Buddhists and preached personal devotion
He was deeply respected in Delhi, so much to God as a means of salvation. They
so that streams of people would throng disregarded the rigidities of the caste system
around him whenever he visited Delhi. His and carried their message of love and
outlook was so broad and humane that some personal devotion to God to various parts of
of his verses are later found quoted in the south India by using the local languages.
Adi-Granth of the Sikhs. Although these were many points of contact
The most famous of the Chisti saints, between south and north India, the
however, were Nizamuddin Auliya and transmission of the ideas of the Bhakti saints
Nasiruddin Charigh-i-Delhi. These early Sufis from south to north India was a slow and
mingled frely with people of the lower classes, long drawn-out process. The ideas of Bhakti
including the Hindus. They led an austere, were carried to the north by scholars as well
simple life, and conversed with people in as by saints. Among these, mention may be
their dialect, Hindawi or Hindi. Nizamuddin made of the Maharashtrian saint, Namadeva,
Auliya adopted yogic breathing exercises, so who flourished in the first part of the
much so that the yogis called him a sidh or fourteenth century, and Ramananda who is
perfect. After the death of Nasiruddin placed in the second half of the fourteenth
Chiragh-i-Delhi in the middle of the four- and the first quarter of the fifteenth century.
teenth century, the Chishtis did not have a
Namadeva was a tailor who had taken
commanding figure in Delhi.
to banditry before he became a saint. His
The Suharwardi order entered India at
poetry which was written in Marathi
about the same time, as the Chistis, but its
breathes a spirit of intense love and devotion
activities were confined largely to the Pun-
to God. Namadeva is said to have travelled
jab and and Multan. The most well-known
far and wide and engaged in discussions with
saints of the order were Shaikh Shihabuddin
the Sufi saints in Delhi. Ramanda, who was a
Suharwardi and Hamid-ud-Din Nagore.
follower of Ramanuja, was born at Prayag
Unlike the Chistis, the Suharwardi saints did
not believe in leading a life of poverty. They (Allahabad) and lived there and at Banaras.
accepted the service of the state, and some He substituted the worship of Rama in place
of them-held important posts in the ecclesi- of Vishnu. He enrolled disciples from all
astical department. The Chistis, on the other castes, including the low castes. Thus his
hand, preferred to keep aloof from state poli- disciples included Ravidas, who was a
tics and shunned the company of rulers and cobbler by caste; Kabir, who was a weaver;
nobles. Sena, who was a barber; and Sadhana, who
The Bhakti Movement
was a butcher. Namadeva was equally broad-
minded in enrolling his disciples. The seeds
However, the real development of scattered by these saints fell on fertile soil.
Bhakti took place in south Indian between The brahmanas had lost both in prestige and
Literature Literature 37

power following the defeat of the Rajput ings, whether on the basis of castes or reli-
rulers and the establishment of the Turkish gion, race, family or wealth.
Sultanat. As a result, movements, such as the Guru Nanak, from whose teachings the
Nath Panthi movement challenging the caste sikh religion was derived, was born in a
system and the superiority of the brahmanas, Khatri household in the village of Talwandi
had gained great popularity. (now called Nankana) on the bank of the
These concided with the Islamic ideas river Ravi in 1469. Sometime later, he had a
of equality and brotherhood which had been mystic vision and forsook the world. He com-
preached by the Sufi saints. People were no posed hymns and sang them to the accompa-
longer satisfied with the old religion; they niment of the rabab, a stringed instrument
wanted a religion which could satisfy both played by his faithful attendant, Mardana. It
their reason and emotions. It was due to is said that Nanak undertook wide tours all
these factors that the Bhakti movement be- over India and even beyond it, to Sri Lanka
came a popular movement in north India in the south and Mecca and Medina in the
during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. west. He attracted a large number of people
Among those who were most critical of towards him and his name and fame spread
the existing social order and made a strong far and wide before his death in 1538. Like
plea for Hindu-Muslim unity, the names of Kabir, Nanak laid emphasis on the one God,
Kabir and Nanak stand out. These is a good by repeating whose name and dwelling on it
deal of undertainty about the dates and early with love and devotion one could get salva-
life of Kabir. Legend has it that he was the tion without distinction of caste, creed or
son of a brahmana widow who abandoned sect. However, Nanak laid great emphasis on
him after his birth and that he was brought the purity on character and conduct as the
up in the house of a Muslim weaver. first condition of approaching God, and the
He learned the profession of his need of a guru for guidance. Like Kabir, he
adopted father, but while living at Kashi, he strongly denounced idol worship, pilgrim-
came in contact with both the Hindu and ages and other formal observances of the
Muslim saints. Kabir, who is generally placed various faiths. He advocated a middle path
in the fifteenth century, emphasised the unity in which spritual life could be combned with
of God whom he calls by several names, such the duties of the householder.
as Rama, Hari, Govinda, Allah, Sain, Sahib, Nanak had no intention of founding a
etc. He strongly denounced idol-worship, pil- new religion. His catholic approach aimed at
grimages, bathing in holy rivers or taking bridging distinctions between the Hindus and
part in formal worship, such as namaz. Nor the Muslims, in order to create an atmosphere
did he consider it necessary to abandon the of peace, goodwill and mutual give and take.
life of a normal householder for the sake of a This was also the aim of Kabir.
saintly life Kabirstrongly denounced the The Vaishnavite Movement
caste system, especially the practice of Apart from the non-sectarian movement
untouchability, and emphasized the funda- led by Kabir and Nanak, the Bhakti
mental unity of man. He was opposed to all movement in north India developed around
kinds of discrimination between human be- the worship of Rama and Krishna, two of the
38 Gist of NCERT (History)

incarnations of the god Vishnu. The Bengal and Orissa reached extraordinary
childhood escapades of the boy Krishna and heights of Iyrical fervour and of love which
his dalliance with the milk-maids of Gokul, transcended all boundaries, including those
especially with Radha, became the themes of of caste and creed. this is seen most clearly
a remarkable series of saint-poets who lived in the life of Chaitanya. Born and schooled
and preached during the 15th and early 16th in Nadia which was the centre of Vedantic
centuries. They used the love between Radha rationalism, Chaitanyas tenor of life was
and Krishna in an allegoric manner to depict changed when he visited Gaya at the age of
the relationship of love, in its aspects of the 22 and was initiated into the Krishna cult by
individual soul with the supreme soul. Like a recluse. He became a god-intoxicated devo-
the early Sufis, Chaitanya popularisied tee who incessantly uttered the name of
musical gathering or kirtan as a special form Krishna Chaitanya is said to have travelled
of mystic experience in which the outside all over India, including Vrindavan, when he
world disppeared by dwelling on Gods revived the Krishna cult. But the one who
name. probably influenced the saint poets most was
Vallabha, a Tailang brahmana, who lived in
The writings of Narrsinha Mehta in
the last part of the fifteenth and the early
Gujarat, of Meera in Rajasthan, of Surdas in
part of the sixteenth century.
western Uttar Pradesh and of Chaitanya in
Literature Literature
7 39


Sanskrit Literature was used as the language of literature from

Following the great Sankara, works in Spain to Banghdad, the Turks who came to
the field of Advaita philosophy by Ramanuja, India were deeply influenced by the Persian
Mad-hava, Vallabha, etc., continued to be language which had become the literary and
written in Sanskrit. Besides philosophy, administrative language of Central Asia from
works in the field of kavya (poetical narra- the tenth century onwards. In India, tghe use
tive), drama, fiction, medicine, astronomy, of Arabnic remained largely confined to a
music, etc., continued to be written. A large narrow circle of Islamic scholars and
number of commentaries and digests on the philolophers, most of the original literature
Hindu law (Dharmashastras) were prepared on the subject being written in Arabic. A few
between the twelfth and the sixteenth cen- works on science and astronomy were also
tury. The great Mitakshara of Vijneshwar, translated into Arabic. In course of time, di-
which forms one of the two principal Hindu gests of the Islamic law were prepared in
schools of law, cannot be placed earlier than Persian with the help of Indian scholars. The
the twelfth century. Most of the works were most well-known of these were prepared in
produced in the south, followed by Bengal, the reign of Firuz Tughlaq.
Mithila and western India under the patron- With the arrival of the Turks in India
age of Hindu rulers. The Jains too, contrib- during the tenth century, a new language in
uted to the growth of Sanskrit. Hemachandra Iran and Central Asia from the tenth century
Suri was the most eminent of these. Little onwards and some of the greatest poets of
attempt was made to translate Islamic works the Persian language, such as Firdausi and
of Persian literature into Sanskrit. Possibly, Sadi, lived and composed their works be-
the only exception was the translation of the tween the tenth and fourteenth centuries.
love story of Yusuf and Zulaikha written by From the beginning the Turks adopted Per-
the famous Persian poet, Jami This might be sian as the language of literature and admin-
taken to be an index of the insularity of out- istration in the country. Thus, Lahore
look which had been mentioned by Albaruni emerged as the first centre for the cultiva-
earlier. tion of the Persian language. However, the
Arabic and Persian Literature most notable Persian writer of the period was
Amir Khusrau. Born in 1252 at Patiali (near
Althoug the greatest amount of litera-
Badayun in western Uttar Pradesh), Amir
ture produced by the Muslims was in Arabic
Khusrau took pride in being an Indian. He
which was the language of the Prophet and
40 Gist of NCERT (History)

says: I have praised India for two reasons. Persian into Turkish and into many European
First, because India is the land of tmy birth languages as Well. He also translated the old
and our country. Love of the country is an Indian treatise on sexology, the Kok Shastra,
important obligation... Hindustan is like into Persian. Later, in the time of Firuz Shah,
heaven. Its climate is better than that of Sanksrit books on medicine and music were
Khurasan... it is green and full of flowers all translated into Persian. Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin
the year round... The brahmanas here are as of Kashmir had the famous historical work
learned as Aristotle and there are many schol- Rajatarangini and the Mahabharata translated
ars in various fields... into Persian. Sanskrit works on medicine and
Khusrau has praised the Indian lan- music.
guages, including Hindi (which he calls Regional Languages
Hindavi). He was also an accomplished mu- During this period, literary works of
sician and took part in religious musical gath- high quality were produced in many of the
erings (ama) organised by the famous Sufi regional languages as well. Amir Khusrau had
saint, Nizamuddin Auliya. Khusrau it is said, noted the existence of regional languages and
gave up his life the day after he learnt of the remarked: The use of the common language
death of his pir. Nizamuddin Auliya (1325). by the Bhakti saints was, undoubtedly, an
He was buried in the same compound. important factor in the rise of these lan-
Apart from poetry, a strong school of guages,. In fact, in many parts of the coun-
history writing in Persian developed in In- try, these early saints fashioned these lan-
dia during the period. The most famous his- guages for literary purposes. It seems that in
torians of this period were Ziauddin Barani, many regional kingdoms of the pre-Turkish
Afif and Isami.Through the Persian language, period, regional languages, such as Tamil,
Indian was able to develop close cultural re- Kan-nada, Marathi, etc. were used for ad-
lations with Central Asia and Iran. In course ministrative purposes, in addition to San-
of time, Persian became not only the language skrit. This must have been continued under
of administration and diplomacy, but also the the Turkish rule, for we hear of Hindi know-
language of the upper classes and their ing revenue accountants appointed in the
dependents, at first in north India and later Delhi Sultanat. Later, when, the Delhi
of the entire country with the expansion of Sultanat broke up, local languages, in addi-
the Delhi Sultanat to the south and the es- tion to Persian, continued to be used for ad-
tablishment of Muslim kingdoms in differ- ministrative purpose in many of the regional
ent parts of the country. kingdoms. Thus, literature in Telugu devel-
At first, there was little interchange be- oped in south India under the patronage of
tween the two. Zia Nakhshabi was the first the Vijayanagara rulers. Marathi was one of
to translate into Persian Sanskrit stories the administrative languages in the Bahmani
which were related by a parrot to a woman kingdom, and later, at the court of Bijapur.
whose husband had gone on a journey. The Nusrat Shah of Bengal had the Mahabharata
book Tuti Nama (Book of the Parrot), writ- and the Ramayana translated into Bengali.
ten in the time of Muhammad Tughlaq, Maladhar Basu also translated the Bhagavata
proved very popular and was translated from Gita into Bengali under his partronage.
Literature Literature
8 41


WHEN HUMAYUN was retreating occupied the city. However, Bairam Khan
from Bikaner, he was gallantly offered shelter took energetic steps to meet the situation. His
and help by the Rana of Amarkot. It was at bold stand put new heart into battle between
Amarkot, in 1542, that Akbar, the greatest of the Mughals and the Afghan forces led by
the Mughal rulers, was born. When Humayun Hemu, took place once again at Panipat (5
died, Akbar was at Kalangaur in the Punjab, November 1556). Although Hemus artillery
commanding operations against the Afghan had been captured earlier by a Mughal
rebels there. He was crowned at Kalanaur in detachment, the tide of battle was in favour
1556 at the young age of thirteen years and of Hemu when an arrow hit him in the eye
four months. and he fainted, the leaderless Afghan army
Akbar succeeded to a difficult position. was defeated, Hemu was captured and
The Afghans were still strong beyond Agra, executed.
and were regrouping their forces under the Early Phase -
leadership of Hemu for a final showdown. Contest with the Nobility (1556-67)
Kabul had been attacked and besieged. Bairam Khan remained at the helm of
Sikandar Sur, the defeated Afghan ruler, was affairs of the empire for almost four years.
loitering in the Siwalik Hills, However, During the period, he kept the nobility fully
Bairam Khan, the turor of the prince and a under control. Meanwhile, Akbar was
loyal and favourite officer of Humayun, rose approaching the age of maturity. Bairam
to the occasion. He became the wakil of the Khan had offended many powerful persons
kingdom, with the title of Khan-i-Khanan and while he held supreme power. There was
rallied the Mughal forces. The threat from friction on small points which made Akbar
the side of Hemu was considered the most realise that he could not leave the affiars of
serious. Adil Shah had appointed him the the state in someone elses hands for any
wazir with the title of Vikramajit, and length of time.
entrusted him with the task of expelling the Akbar played his cards deftly. He left
Mughals. Hemu captured Agra, and with an Agra on the pretext of hunting, and reached
army of 50,000 cavalry, 500 elephants and a Delhi. From Delhi he issued a farman
strong park of artillery marched upon Delhi. dismissing Bairam Khan from his office, and
In a well-contested battle, Hemu calling upon all the nobles to come and
defeated the Mughals near Delhi and submit to him personally. Once Bairam Khan
42 Gist of NCERT (History)

realised that Akbar wanted to take power in till he had rooted them out. Meanwhile, a
his own hands, he was prepared to submit, rebellion by the Mirzas, who were Timurids
but his opponents were keen to ruin him. and were related to Akbar by marriage, there
They heaped humiliation upon him till fie was the areas west of modern Uttar Pradesh into
goaded to rebel. Finally, Bairam Khan was confusion. Encouraged by these rebellions,
forced to submit Akbar received him Akbars half- brother, Mirza Hakim, who
cordially, and gave him the option of serving had seized control of Kabul, advanced into
at the court or anywhere outside it or retiring the Punjab, and besieged Lahore. The Uzbek
to Mecca. rebels formally proclaimed him their ruler.
Bairam Khan chose to go to Mecca. Early Expansion of the Empire (1560-76)
However, on his way, he was assassinated at Following Bairam Khans regency, the
Patau near Ahmedabad by an Afghan who territories of the Mughal empire had been
bore him a personal grudge. Bairams wife expanded rapidly. Apart from Ajmer,
and a young child were brought to Akbar at important conquests during this period
Agra. Akbar married Bairam Khans widow captured earlier were that of Malwa and
who was his cousin, and brought up the child Gharh-Katanga. Malwa was being ruled, at
as his own son. This child later became that time, by a young prince, Baz Bahadur.
famous as Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan and The expedition against Malwa was led by
held some of the most important offices and Admam Khan, son of Akbars foster-mother,
commands in the empire. During Bairam Maham Anaga. Baz Bahadur was badly
Khans rebellion, groups and individuals in defeated (1561) and the Mughals took
the nobility had become politically active. valuable sopils, including Rupm-ati.
They included Akbars foster-mother, Maham However, she preferred to commit suicide
Anaga, and her relations. to being dragged to Adham Khans karem.
Though Maham Anaga soon withdrew Due to the senseless cruelties of Adham Khan
from politics, her son, Adham Khan was an and his succeessor, there was a reaction
impetuous young man who assumed against the mughals which enabled Baz
independent airs when sent to command an Bahadur to recover Malwa.
expedition against Malwa. Removed from the After dealing with Bairam Khans
command, he laid claim to the post of the rebellion, akbar sent another expedition to
wazir, and when this was not conceded, he Malwa. Baz Bahadur had to flee, and for
stabbed the acting wazir in his office. Akbar some time he took shelter with the Rana of
was enraged and had him thrown down from Mewar. After wandering about from one area
the parapet of the fort so that he died (1561). to another, he finally repaired to Akbasrs
Between 1561 and 1567 they broke out in court and was enrolled as a Mughal
rebellion several times, forcing Akbar to take mansabdar. The extensive country of Malwa
the field against them. Each time Akbar was thus came under Mughal rule. At about the
induced to pardon them. When they again same time, mughal arms overran the
rebelled in 1565, Akbar was so exasperated kingdom of Gharh-Katanga. The kingdom of
that he vowed to make Jaunpur his cpiatal Garh-Katanga included the Naramada valley
Mughal Empire 43

and the northern portions, of present Khan to disgorge his illegal gains. He
Madhya Pradesh. It had been welded restored the kingdom of Garh-Katanga to
together by one Aman Das who flourished Chandra Shah, the younger son of Sangram
in the second half of the fifteenth century. Shah, after taking ten forts to round off the
Aman Das had helped Bahadur Shah of kingdom of Malwa.
Gujarat in the conquest of Raisen and had During the next ten years, Akbar
received from him the title of Sangram Shah. brought the major part of Rajasthan under
The kingdom of Ghar-Kartanga his control and also conquered Gujarat and
included a number of Gond and Rajput Bengal. A major step in his campaign against
principalities. It was the most powerful the Rajpur states was the siege of Chittor.
kingdom set up by the Gonds. We do not Chittor fell (1568) after a gallant siege of six
know, however, to what extend these figures months. At the advice of his nobles, Rana
are dependable. Sangram Shah had further Udai Singh had retired to the hills leaving
strengthened his position by marrying off his the famous warriors, Jaimal and Patta, in
son to a princess of the famous Chandella charge of the fort. The rajput warriors died
rulers of Mahoba. This princess, who is after extracting as much vengeance as
famous as Durgavati, became a widow soon possible. In honour of the gallant Jaimal and
afterwards. But she installed her minor son Patta, Akbar ordered that two stone statues
on the throne and ruled the country with of these warriors, seated on elephants, be
great vigour and courage. Meanwhile, the erected outside the chief gate of the fort at
cupidity of Asaf Khan, the Mughal governor Agra.
of Allahabad, was roused by the stories of The fall of Chittor was followed by the
the fabulous wealth and the beauty of the conquest of Ranthambhor reputed to be the
Rani. Asaf Khan advanced with 10,000 cavalry most powerful forteress in Rajasthan. Jodhpur
from the side of Bundeikhand. Some of the had been conquered earlier. As a result of
semi-independent rulers of Garha found it a these victories, most of the Rajpur rajas,
convenient moment to throw off the Gond including those of Bikaner and Jaisalmer,
yoke. The Rani was thus left with a small force. submitted to Akbar. Only Mewar continued
Though wounded, she fought on gallantly. to resist.
Finding that the battle was lost and that she In 1572, Akbar advanced on Ahmedabad
was in danger of being captured, she stabbed via Ajmer. Ahmedabad surrendered without
herself to death. Asaf Khan then stormed the a fight. Akbar then turned his attention to
capital, Chauragarh, near modern Jabalpur. the Mirzas who held Broach, Baroda and
Out of all the plunder Asaf Khan sent only Surat. At Cambay, Akbar saw the sea for the
two hundred elephants to the court, and first time and rode on it in boat. A group of
retained all the rest for himself. Kamaladevi, Portuguese merchants also came and met him
the younger sister of Rani, was sent to the for the first time. The Portuguese dominated
court. the Indian seas by this time, and had ambition
When Akbar had dealt with the of establishing an empire in India. Akbars
rebellion of the Uzbek nobles he forced Asaf conquest of Gujarat frustrated these designs.
44 Gist of NCERT (History)

While Akhars armies were besieging on the basis of the productivity of land.
Surat, Akbar crossed the river Mahi and Akbar adopted Sher Shahs system. But it was
assaulted the Mirzas with a small body of soon found that the fixing of central sched-
200 men which included Man Singh and ule of prices often led to considerable delyas,
Bhagwan Das of Amber. For some time, and resulted in great hardships to the peas-
Akbars life was in danger. But the antry.
impetuosity of his charge routed the Mirzas. Akbar, therefore, reverted to a system-
Thus, Gujarat came under Mughal control. of Annual assessment. The quangos, who
However, as soon as Akbar had turned his were hereditary holders of land as well as
back, rebellions broke out all over Gujarat. local officials conversant with local
Hearing the news, Akbar marched out of conditions, were ordered to report on the
Agra aride traversed across Rajasthan in nine actual produce, state of cultivation, local
days by means of camels, horses and carts. prices, etc. After returning from Gujarat
On the eleventh day, he reched Ahmedabad. (1573), Akbar paid-personal attention to the
In this journey, which normally took six land revenue system, Officials called karoris
weeks, only 3000 soldiers were able to keep were appointed all over north India. They
up with Akbar. With these he defeated an were responsible for the collection of a crore
enemy force of 20,000 (1573). of dams (Rs 2,50,000), and also checked the
After this, Akbar turned his attention facts and figures supplied by the quangos.
to Bengal. The Afghans had continued to On the basis of the information provided by
dominate Bengal and Bihar. Internal fights theist regarding the actual produce, local
among the Afhans, and the declaration of prices, productivity, etc., in 1580, Akbar
independence by the new ruler, Daud Khan, instituted a new system called the dahsala.
gave Akbar the opportunity he was seeking. Under this system, the average produce of
In a stiff battle in Bihar in 1576, Daud Khan different crops as well as the average prices
was defeated and executed on the spot. prevailing over the last ten year were
Thus ended the last Afghan kingdom in calculated. One third of the average produce
northern India. It also brought to an end the was the state share. The slate demand was,
first phase of Akbars expansion of the however, stated in cash. This was done by
empire. converting the state share into money on the
basis of a schedule of avberage prices over
the past ten years. Thus, the produce of a
During the decade following the con- bigha of land under share was given in
quest of Gujarat, Akbar found time to look manunds. But on the basis of average prices,
at the administrative problems of the empire. the state demand was fixed in rupees per
One of the most important problems bigha.
facing Akbar was the system of land revenue
There were number of advanteges of
administration. Sher Shah had instituted a
this system. As soon as the area sown by the
system by which the cultivated area was
peasant had been measured by means of the
menasured and a crop rate (ray) was drawn
bamboos linked with iron rings, the peasants
up, fixing the dues of the peasant crop-wise
as well as the state knew what the dues were.
Mughal Empire 45

The peasant was given remission in the land had first served under Sher Shah. But he was
revenue if crops failed on account of drought, only one of a team of brilliant revenue officials
floods, etc. The system of measurement and who came to the forefront under Akbar.
the assessment based upon it is called the zabti Organisation of Government
system. Akbar introduced this system in the
Hardly any changes were made by
area from Lahore to Allahabad, and in Malwa Akbar in the organisation of local government
and Gujarat. The dahsala wsystem was a
The pargana and the sarkar continued as
further development of the zabti system.
before. The chief officers of the sarkar were
A number of other systems of the faujdar and the amalguzar, the former
assessment were also followed under Akbar. being in charge of law and order, and the
The most common and, perhaps, the oldest latter responsbile for the assessement and
was called batai or ghalla-bakhshi. In this collection of the land revenue. The territories
system, the produce was divided between of the empire were divided into jagir, khalisa
the peasants and the state in fixed proportion. and inam. Income from khalisa villages went
The crop was divided after it had been directly to the royal exchequer. The inam
thrashed, or when it had been cut and tied lands were those which were allotted to
in stacks, or while it was standing in the field. learned and religious men. The amalguzar
A third system which was widely used was required to exercise a general
in Akbars time was nasaq. It seems that it supervision over all types of holdings so that
meant a rough calculation of the amount the imperial rules and regulations for the
payable by the peasant on the basis of what assessment and collection of land revenue
he had been paying in the past. It is also called were followed uniformly. Even there, Akbar
kankut. encouraged them to follow the imperial
Land which remained under cultivation system.
almost every year was called polaj. When it Akbar paid great attention to the
remained uncultivated it was called parati organisation of the central and provincial
(fellow). Parati land paid at the full (polaj) governments. His system of central
rate when it was cultivated. Land which had government was based on the structure of
been fallow for two to three years was called government which had eveolved under the
chachar, and if longer than that, banjar. Delhi Sultanat, but the functions of the
The dahsala was not a ten-year vbarious departments were carefully
settlment. Nor was it a permanent one, the reorganised, and menticulous rules and
state retaining the right to modify it. regulations were laid down for the conduct
However, with some changes, Akbars of affairs. Thus, he gave a new shape to the
settlement remained the basis of the land system and breathed new life into it.
revenue system of the Mughal empire till the The Central Asian and Timurid tradition
end of the seventeenth century. The zabti was of having an all-powerful wazir under
system is associated with Raja Todar Mal and whom various heads of departments
is sometimws called Todar mals bandobast. cunfctions. He was the principal link between
Todar Mal was a brilliant revenue officer who the ruler and the administration. In course
46 Gist of NCERT (History)

of time, a separate department, the military The mir bakhshi was also the head of
department, had come into being. The the intelligence and information agenceies of
judiciary had always been separate. Thus, in the empire. Intelligence officers (barids) and
practice, the concept of an all-powerful wazir news reporters (waqia-navis) were posted to
had been given up. However, in his capacity all parts of the empire. There reports were
as wakil, Bairam khan had exefcised the presented to the emperor at the court
power of an all-powerful wazir. through the mir bakhshi.
Akbar reogganised the central It will thus be seen that the diwan and
machinery of administration on the basis of the mir bakhshi were almost on a par with,
the division of power between various and supported and checked, each other.
departments, and of checks and balances. The third important officer was the mir
While the post of wakil was not abolished, it saman. He was in charge of the imperial
was stripped of all power and became largely houshold, including the supply of all the
decorative. The head of the revenue provisions and articles for the use of the
department continued to be the wazir. He inmates of the harem or the female
was not generally a person who held a high apartments. The maintenance of etiquette at
position in the nobility. Many nobles held the court, the control of the royal bodyguard,
mansabs which were higher than his./ Thus, etc, were all under the overall supervision of
he was no longer the principal adviser to the this officer.
ruler, but an expert in revenue affairs. To The fourth important department was
emphasise this point, Akbar generally used the judicial department headed by the chief
the title of diwan or divan-i-ala in preference qazi. It fell into bad odoour due to the
to the word wazir. Sometimes, several corruption and venality of Akbars chief qazi,
persons were asked to discharge the duties Abdun Nabi.
of diwan jointly. The diwan was responsible CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENTS
for all income and expenditure, and held
control over kahlisa, jagir and inam lands. THERE WAS an outburst of many-sided
cultural activity in India under the Mughal
The head of the military department was
rule. The traditions in the field of
called the mir bakhshi. It was the mir bakhshi
archietecture, painting, literature and music
and not the diwan who was considered the
created during this period set a norm and
head of the nobility. Therefore, only the
deeply influenced the succeeding
leading grandees were appointed to this post.
generations. It his sense, the Mughal period
Recommendations for appointment to
can be called a second classical age following
mansabs or for promotions, etc. were made
the Gupta age in northern India. In this
to the emperor through the mir bakhshi.
cultural development, Indian traditions were
Once the emperor had accepted a
amalgamated with the Turko-Iranian culture
recommendation, it was sent to the diwan
brought to the country by the Mughals. The
for confirmation and for assigning a jagir to
Timurid court at Samarqand had developed
the appointee. The same procedure was
as the cultural centre of West and Central
followed in case of promotions.
Asia. Babur was conscious of this cultural
Mughal Empire 47

heritage. He was critical of many of the at Agra. Built in red sandstone, this massive
cultural forms existing in India and was fort had many magnificent gates. The climax
determined to set proper standards. The of fort building was reached at Delhi where
development of art and culture in various Shah Jahan built his famous Red Fort.
regiosns of India during the fourteenth and In 1572, Akbar commenced a palace-
fifteenth centuries had led to a rich and cum-fort complex at Fatehpur Sikri, 36
varied development from which it was kilometers from Agra, which he completed
possible to draw upon. But for this, the in eight years. Built atop a hill, along with a
cultural efflorescence of the Mughal age large artificial lake, it included many
would hardly have been possible. Peoples buildings in the style of Gujarat and Bengal.
from different areas of India, as well as These included deep eaves, balconies, and
peoples belonging to different faiths and fanciful kiosks. In the Panch Mahal built for
races contributed to this cultural taking the air, all the types of pillars uded in
development in various ways. In this sense, various temples were employed to support
the culture developed during the period was flat roofs. The Gujarat style of architecture
tending towards a truly national culture. is used most widely in the palace built
Architecture probably his Rajput wife of ow wives.
The Mughals built magnificent forts, Buildings of a similar type were also built in
palaces, gates, public buildings, mosques, the fort at Agra, though only a few of them
baolis (water tank or well), etc. They also laid have survived. Akbar took a close personal
out many formal gardens with running water. interest in the work of construction both at
In facts, use of running water even in their Agra and Fatehpur Sikri. Persian or Central
palaces and pleasure resorts was a special Asian influence can be seen in the glazed blue
feature of the Mughals. Babur was very fond tiles used for decoration in the walls or for
of gardens and laid out a few in the tiling the roofs. But the most magnificent
neighbourhood of agra and Lahore. Some of building was the mosque and the gateway
the Mughal gardens, such as the Nishat Bagh to it called the Buland Darwaza or the Lofty
in Kashmir, the Shalimar at Lahore, the Pinjor Gate, built to commemorate Akbars victory
garden in the Punjab foothilas, tec. have in Gujarat. The gage is in the style of what is
survived to this day. A new impetus to called a half-dome portal. What was done was
architecture was given by Sher Shah. His to slice a dome into hald. The sliced portion
famous mauoleum at Sasaram (Bihar) and his provided the massive outward facade of the
mosque in the old fort at Delhi are considered gate, while smaller doors could be made in
architectur\al marvels. They form the climax the rear wall where the dome and the floor
of the pre-Mughal style of architecture, and meet. This devise, borrowed from Iran,
the starting point for the new. became feature in Mughal buildings later.
Akbar was the first Mughal ruler who With the consolidation of the empire,
had the time and means to undertake the Mughal architecture reached its climax.
construction on a large scale. He built a series Towards the end of Jahangirs reign began
of forts, the most famous of which is the fort the practice of putting up buildings, entirely
48 Gist of NCERT (History)

of marble and decorating the walls with floral Golden, Temple at Amritsar which was re-
designs made of semi-precious stones. This built several times during the period was
method of decoration, called pietradura built on the arch and dome principle and in-
became even more popular under Shah Jahjan corporated many features of the Mughal tra-
who used it on a large scale in the Taj Mahal, ditions of architecture.
justly regarded as a jewel of the builders art. Painting
The Taj Mahal brought together in a pleasing The Mughals made distinctive
manner all the archietectural forms contribution in the field fo painting. They
developed by the Mughals. Humauyuns introduced new themes depicting the court,
tomb built at Delhi towards the beginning of battle scenes and the chase, and added new
Akbars reign, and which had a massive dome colours and new forms. They created a living
of marble, may be considered a precursor of tradition of painting which continued to
the Taj. The double dome was another feature work in different parts of the country long
of this building. This devise enabled a blgger after the glory of the Mughals had
dome to be built with a smaller one inside. disappeared. The richness of the style, again,
the chief glory of the Taj is the massive dome was due to the fact that India had an old
and the four slender minarets linking the tradition of painting. The wall-paintings of
platform to the main building. The Ajanta are an eloquent indication of its vigour.
decorations are kept to a minimum, delicate After the eighth century, the tradition seems
marble screens, pietra dura inlay work and to have decayed, but palm-leaf manuscripts
kiosks (chahatris) adding to the effect. The and illustrated Jain texts from the thirteenth
building gains by being placed in the mindst century onwards show that the tradition had
of a formal garden. not died.
Mosque-building also reached its climax Aprt from the Jains, some of the
under Shah Jahan, the two most noteworthy provincial kingdoms, such as Malwa and
ones being the Moti Masjid in the Agra fort Gujarat extended their patronage to painting
built like the Taj entirely in marble, and the during the fifteenth century. But a vigorous
other the Jama Masjid at Delhi build tin red revival began only under Akbar. While at the
sandstone. A lofty gate tall, slender minarets, court the court of the Shah of Iran, Humayun
and a series of domes are a feature of the had taken into his service two master painters
Jama Masjid. who accompanied him to India. Under therir
Although not many buildings were leadership, during the reign of Akbar,
build up by Aurangzeb who was economy- painting was organised in one of the imperial
minded, the Mughal archietctural traditions establishments (karkhanas). A large number
based on a combination of Hindu and Turko- of painters from different parts of the
Iranian forms and decorative designs, con- country were invited, many of them form
tinued without a break into the eighteenth lowly castes. From the beginning, both
and early nineteenth centuries. Thus, Mughal Hindus and Muslims joined in the work. Thus
traditions influenced the palaces and torts of Daswant and Basawan were two of the
many provincial and local kingdoms. Even famous painters of Akbars court. the scholl
the Harmandir of the Sikhs, called the
Mughal Empire 49

developed rapidly, and soon became a Barahmasa, that is, the seasons Ragas
celebrated centre of production. Apart from (melodies). The Pahari school continued these
illustrating Persian books of fables, the traditions.
painters were soon assigned the task of Language, Literature and Music
illustrating the Persian text of the
The important rule of Persian and
Mahabharata, the historical work Akbar Sanskrit as vehicles of thought and
Nama, and others Indian themes and Indian
government at the all India level, and the
scenes and landscapes, thus, came in vogue
development of regional languages, largely
and helped to free the school from Persian as a result of the growth of the Bhakti
influence. Indian colours, such as peacock
Movement, have already been mentioned.
blue, the Indian red, etc. began to be used. Regional languages also developed due to the
Above all, the somewhat flat effect of the
patronage extended to them by local and
Persian style began to be replaced by the regional rulers.
foundedness of the Indian brush, giving the
These trends continued during the
pictures a three-dimensional effect.
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. By the
Mughal painting hunting, battle and time of Akbar, knowledge of Persian had
court scenes, under Jahangir, special progress
become so widespread in north India that he
was made in portrait painting and painting dispensed with the tradition of keeping
of animals. Mansur was the great name in revenue records in the local language
this field. Portrait painting also became
(Hindawi) in addition to Persian. However,
fashionable. the tradition of keeping revenue records in
Under Akbar, European painting was the local language continued in the Deccani
introduced at the court by the Portuguese states till their extinction in the last quarter
priests. Under their influence, the principles of the seventeenth century.
of foreshortening, whereby near and distant
Persian prose and poetry reached a
people and things could be placed in climax under Akbars reign. Abul Fazl who
perspective was quietly adopted.
was a great scholar and a stylist, as well as
While the tradition continued under the leading historian of the age, set a style of
Shah Jahan, Aurangzebs lack of interest in prose-writing which was memulated for
painting led to a dispersal of the artists to many generations. The leading poet of the
different places of the country. This helped age was his brother Faizi who also helped in
in the development of painting in the states Akbars translation department. The
of Rajasthan and the Punjab hills. translation of the Mahabharata was carried
The Rajasthan style of painting out under his supervision. Utbi and Naziri
combined the themes and earlier traditions were the two other leading Persian poets.
of western India or Jain school of painting Though born in Persia, they were among the
with Mughal forms and styles. Thus, in many poets and scholars who migrated from
addition to hunting and court scenes, it had Iran to India during the period and made the
paintings on mythological themes, such as the Mughal court one of the cultural centres of
dalliance of Krishna with Radha, or the the Islamic world. Hindus also contributed
50 Gist of NCERT (History)

to the growth of Persian literature. Apart of Akbar, Hindi poets began to be attached
from literary and historical works a number to the Mughal court. A leading Mughal noble,
of famous dictionaries of the Persian Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan, produced a
language were also compiled during the fine blend of Bhakti poetry with Persian ideas
period. of life and human relations. Thus, the Persian
Although not much significant and and the Hindi literary traditiona began to
original work was done in Sanskrit during influence each other. But the most influential
the period, the number of Sanskrit works Hindi poet was Tulsidas whose hero was
produced during the period is quite Rama and who used a dialect of Hindi spoken
impressive. As befor, most of the works were in the eastern parts of Uttar Pradesh. Pleading
produced in south and east India under the for a modified caste system based not on
patronage of local rulers, though a few were birth but on individual qualities, Tulsi was
produced by brahmanas employed in the essentially humanistic poet who upheld
translation department of the emperors. family ideals and complete devotion to Rama
Regional languages acquired stability as a way of salvation open to all, irrespective
and maturity and some of the finest lyrical of caste.
poetry was produced during this period. The In south India, Malyalam started its
dalliance of Krishna with Radha and the literary career as a separate language in its
milkmaids, pranks of the child Krishna and own right. Marathi reached its apogee at the
stories from Bhagawat figure Iargely in hands of Eknath and Tukaram. Asserting the
Iyrical poetry in Bengali Oriya, Hindi, importance of Marath, Eknath exclaims. If
Rajasthani and Gujarat! during this period. Sanskrit was made by God, was Prakrit bom
Many devotional hymns to Rama were also of thieves and knaves? Let these errings of
composed and the Mahabharata translated vanity along. God is no partisan of tongues.
into the regional languages, especially if they To Him Prakrit and Sanskrit are alike. My
had not been translated earlier. A few language Marathi is worthy of expressing the
translations and adaptations from Persian highest sentiments and is rich laden with the
were also made Both Hindus and Muslims fruits of divine knowledge.
contributed in this. Thus, Also composed in This undoubtedly expresses the
Bengal and also translated from Persian. In sentiments of all those writing in local
Hindi, the Padmavat, the story written by language. It also shows the confidence and
the Sufi saint, Malik muhammad Jaisi, used the status acquired by these languages. Due
the attack of Alauddin Khalji on Chittor as to the writings of the Sikh Gurus, Punjabi
an allegory to expound Sufi ideas on the received a new life.
relations of soul with God, along with Hidu Music
ideas about maya. Another branch of cultural life in which
Medieval Hindi in the Brij form, mat is Hindus and Muslims cooperated was music.
the diaalect sopken in the neighbourhood of Akbar patronize Tansen of Gwalior who is
Agra, was also patronised by the Mughal credited with composing many new melodies
emporors and Hindu rulers. From the time (ragas). Jahangir and Shah Jahan as well as
Mughal Empire 51

many Mughal nobles followed this example. harem and by the noble. That is why the
There are many apocryphal stories about the larges number of books on classical Indian
burial of music by the orthodox Aurangzeb. music in Persian were written during
Recent research shows the Aurangzeb Aurangzebs reign. But some of the most
banished singing from his court, but not important development in the field of music
playing of musical instruments. In fact, took place later on in the eighteenth century
Aurangzeb himself was an accomplished during the reign of Muhammad Shah
veena player. Music in all forms continued to (1719-48).
be patronized by Aurangzebs queens in the

Gist of NCERT

Indian History
ISBN: 9789382732785
Book Code: F16
Gist of NCERT (History)


IMMENSE intellectual and cultural regeneration. He was pained by the
strirings characterised 19th century India. The stagnation and corruption of contemporary
impact of modern Western culture and Indian society which was at that time
consciousness of defeat by a foreign power dominated by caste and convention. Popular
gave birth to a new awakening. There was religion was full of superstitions and was
an awareness that a vast country like India exploited by ignorant and corrupt priests.
had been colonised by a handful of foreigners The upper classes were selfish and often
because of internal weaknesses of Indian sacrificed social interest to their own narrow
social structure and culture. Thoughful interests. to their own narrow interests.
Indians began to look for the strengths arid Rammohan Roy possessed great love and
weaknesses of their society and for ways and respect for the traditional philosophic
means of removing the weaknesses. While a systems of the East; but, at the same time, he
large number of Indian refused to come to culture alone would Indian society. In
terms with the West and still put their faith particular, he wanted his countrymen to
in traditional Indian ideas and institutions, accept the rational and scientific approach and
others gradually came to hold that elements the principle of human dignity and social
of modern Western though bad to imbibed equality of all men and women. He also
for the regeneration of their society. They wanted the introduction of Modern capitalsm
were impressed in particular by modern and industry in the country.
science and the doctrines of reason and Rammohan Roy represented a synthesis
humanism. While differeing on the nature and of the though of East and West. He was a
extent of reforms, nearly all 19th century scholar who knew over a dozen languages
intellectuals shared the conviction that social including Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, English,
and religious reform was urgently needed. French, Latin , Greek-and Hebrew. As a
Rommohan Roy young man he had studied Sanskrit literature
The central figure in this awakening was and Hindu philosophy at Varansi and the
Rammohan Roy, who is rightly regarded as Quaran and Persian and Arabic literature at
the first leader of modern India. Rammohan Patna. He was also well-acquianted with
Roy was moved by deep love for his people Jainism and other religious movements and
and country and worked hard all his life for sects of India. Later he made an intensive
their social, religous, intellectual and political study of Western thought and culture. To
Social and Cultural Awakening in the First Half of the 19th Century 53

study the Bible in the original he learnt Greek Hinduism would lead him to embrace
and Hebrew. In 1809 he wrote in Persian his Christianity, Rammohan Roy insisted on
famous work Gift to Monotheists in which applying rationalism to Chirstianity too,
he put forward weighty arguments against particularly to the elements of blind faith in
belief in many gods and for the worship of a it. In 1820, he published his Precepts of Jesus
single God. in which he tried to separate the moral and
He settled in Calcutta in 1814 and soon philosophic meassage of the New Testament,
attracted a band of young men with whose which he praised, from its miracle stories. He
cooperation he started the Atmiya Sabha. wanted the high moral message of Christ to
From now on he carried on a persistent be incorporated in Hinduism. This earned for
struggle against the religious and social evils him the hostility of the missionaries.
which were widely prevalent among the Thus, as far as Rammohan was con-
Hindus in Bengal, In particular he vigorously cerned there was to be so blind reliance on
opposed the worship of idols, the rigidity of Indias own past or blind aping of the West.
caste, and the prevalence of meaningless On the other hand, he put forward the idea
religious rituals. He condemned the priestly that new India, guided few reasons should
class for encouraging these practices. He held acquire and treasure all that was best in the
that all the principal ancient texts of the East and the West, Thus he w-anted India to
Hindus preached monotheism or worship of learn from the West; but this learning was to
one God. He published the Bengali translation be an intellectual and creative process
of the Vedas and of five of the principal through which India culture and thought
Upanishads to prove his point. He also wrote were to be renovated; it was not to be an
a series of trans and pamphlets in defence of imposition of Western culture on India. He,
monotheism. threfore, stood for the reform of Hinduism
While citing ancient authority for his and opposed its supresession Christianity. He
vigorously defended Hindu religion and
philosophical views, Rammohan Roy relied
philosophy from the ignorant attacks of the
ultimately on the power of human reason
missionaries at the same time. He adopted
which was in his view the final touchstone of
an extremely friendly attitude towards other
the truth of any doctrine, Eastern or Western.
relgions. He believed that basically all
He believed that the philosophy of Vedanta
regligions prereach a common message and
was based on this principle of reason. In any
that their followers are all brothers under the
case, one should not hesitate to depart from
holy books, scriptures and inherited
All his life Rammohan Roy paid heavily
traditions if human reason so dictates and if
for his daring religious outlook. The
such traditions are proving harmful to the
orthodox condemned him for criticizing
society, But Rammohan Roy did not confine
idolatry and for his philosophic aminiration
his application of the rational approach to
of Christianity and Islam. They organized a
Indian religions and traditions alone. In this
social boycott against him in which even his
he disappointed his many missionary friends
mother joined. He was branded a heretic and
who had hoped that his rational critique of
an outcaste.
54 Gist of NCERT (History)

In 1828 he founded a new religious women and opposed the prevailing idea that
society, the Brahma Sabha, later known as the women were inferior to men in intellect or
Brahmo Samaj, whose purpose was to be in a moral sense. He attacked polygamy and
based on the twin pillars of reason, and the the degraded state to which widows were
Vadas and Upanishads. It was also to often reduced. To raise the status of women
incorporate the teachings of other religions. he demanded that they be given the right of
The Brahmo Samaaj laid emphasis on human inheritance and property.
dignity, opposed idolatry, and criticized such Rammohan Roy was one of the earliest
social evils as the practice of sati. propagators of modern education which he
Rammohan Roy was great thinker. he looked upon as a major instrument for the
was also a man of action. There was hardly spread of modern ideas in the country. In
any aspect of nation-building which he left 1817, David hare, who had come out to India
untouched. In fact, just as he began the reform in 1800 as a watchmaker but who spent his
of Indian society. The best example of his life- entire life in the promotion of modern
long crusade against social evils was the education in the country founded the famous
historic agitation he organized against the Hindu College. Rammohhun Roy gave most
inhuman custom of women becoming sati. enthusiastic assistance to Hare in this and his
Beginning in 1818 he set out to rouse public other educational projects. In addition, he
opinion on the question. On the one hand he maintained at his own cost an English school
showed by citing the authority of the oldest in Calcutta from 1817 in which, among other
sacred books that the Hindu religion at its subjects, mechanics and the philosophy of
best was opposed to the practice; on the other, Voltaire were taught. In 1825 he established
he appealed to the reason and humanity and a Vedanta College in which courses both in
compassion of the people. He visited the India learning and in Western social and
burning ghats at Calcutta to try to persuad physical sciences were offered.
the relatives of widows to give up their plan Rammohan Roy was equally keen on
of self-immolation. He organized groups of making Bengali the vehicle of intellectual
like minded the relatives of widows to give intercourse in Bengal. He compiled a Bengali
up their plan of self-immolation. He grammar. Through his translations,
organized groups of like-minded people to pamphlets and journals he helped evolve a
keep a strict check on such, performances and modern and elegant prose style for that
to prevent any attempt to force the widows language. Rammohan represented the first
to become sati. When the orthodox Hindus glimmerings of the rise of national
petitioned to Parliament to withhold its consciousness in India.
approval of Benticks action of banning the The vision of an independent and
rite of sati, he organized a counter-petition resurgent India guided his thoughts and
of enlightened Hindus in favour of Benticks actions. He believed that by trying to weed
action. out corrupt elements form Indian religions
He was a stout champion of womens and society and by preaching the Vedantic
rights. He condemned the subjugation of message of worship of one God he was laying
Social and Cultural Awakening in the First Half of the 19th Century 55

the foundations for the unity of Indian society has rightly remarked: Rammohan was the
which was divided into divergent groups. In only person in his time, in the whole world
particular he opposed the rigidities of the of man, to realize completely the significance
caste system which he declared, has been of the Modern Age. He knew that the ideal
source of want of unity among us. He of human civilization does not lie in the
believed that the caste system was doubly isolation of Independence, but in the
evil: it created inequality and it divided brotherhood of interdendence of individuals
people and deprived them of patriotic as wail as nations in all spheres of thought
feeling. Thus, according to him one of the and activity. Rammohan Roy took a keen
aims of religious reform was political uplift. interest in international events and
Rammohan Roy was a pioneer of Indian everywhere he supported the cause of liberty
journalism. He brought out journals in democracy, and nationalism and opposed
Bengali, Persian, Hindi and English to spread injustices oppression and tyranny in every
scientific; literary and political knowledge form. The new of the failure of the Revolution
among the people, to educate public opinon in Naples in 1821 made him so sad that fee
on topics of current interest, and to represent cancelled all his social engagements on the
popular demands and grievances before the other hand he celebrated the success of the
Government. Revolution in Spanish America in 1823 by
He was also the initiator of public giving a public dinner. He condemned the
agitation on political question in the country. miserable condition of Ireland under the
He condemned the oppressive practices of oppressive regime of absentee English
the Bengal zamindars which had reduced the landlordism. He publicly declared that the
peasants to a miserable condition. He would emigrate from the British Empire if
demanded that the maximum rents paid by Parliament failed to pass the Reform Bill.
the actual cultivators of land should be Rammohan was fearless as a lion. He
permanently fixed so that they too would did not hesitate to support a just cause. All
enjoy the benefits of the Permanent his life he fought against social injustice and
Settlement of 1793. He also protested against inequality even at great personal loss and
the attempts to impose taxes on taxes on tax- hardship. In his life of service to society he
free lands. He demanded the abolition of the often clashed with his family, with rich
Companys trading rifht and the removal of zamindars and powerful missionaries, and
heavy export duties on Indian goods. He also with high officials and foreign, authorities.
raised the demands for the Indianization of Yet he never showed fear nor sharank from
the superior services; separation of the his chosen course.
executive and the judiciary, trial by jury, and Rammohan was the brightest star in the
judicial equality between Indians and Indian sky during the first falf of the 19th
Europeans. century, but he was not a lone star. He had
Rammohan was a firm believer in many distinguished associates, followers and
internationalism and in free cooperation successors. In the field of education he was
between nations. Feet Rabindranath Tagore greatly helped by the Dutch watchmaker
56 Gist of NCERT (History)

David Hare and the Scottish missionary no other class or group in Indian society at
Alexander Duff. Dwarkanath Tagore was the the time which could support their advanced
foremost of his Indian associates. He other ideas. Moreover they foregot to maintain
prominent followers were Prasanna Kumar their links with the people. In fact, their
Tagore, Chandrashekhar Deb and Tarachand radicalism was bookish; they failed to come
Chakravarti, the first secretary of the Brahma to grips with the Indian reality. Even so, the
Sahha. Derozians carried forward Rammohans
Derozio and Young Bengal tradition of educating the people in social,
A radical trend arose among the Bengali economic and political questions through
intellectuals during the late 1820s and the newspapers, pamphlets and public
1830s. This trend was more modern than even associations. They carried on public agitation
Rammohan Roys and was known as the on public questions such as the revision of
Young Bengal movement. Its leader and in- the Companys Charter, the freedom of the
spirer was the young Anglo-Indian. Henry Press, better treatment for Indian labour in
Vivian Derozio who was born in 1809 and British colonies abroad, trial by fury,
who taught at Hindu College from 1826 to protection of the Press, better treatment for
1831. Derozio possessed a dazzling intellect Indian labour in British colonies abroad, trial
and followed the most radical views of the by fury, protection of the ryots from
time drawing his inspiration from the great oppressive zamindars, and employment of
French Revolution. He was a brillinat teacher Indians in the higher grades of government
who, in spite of his youth, attached to him- services. Surendranath Banerjee, the famous
self a host of bright and droing students. He leader of the nationalist movement, described
inspired these students to think rationally and the Derozians as the pioneeers of the modern
freely, to question all authority, to love lib- civilization of Bengal, the conscript fathers
erty, equality and freedom, and to worship of our race whose virtues will excite
truth. Derozio and his famous followers, veneration and whose failings will be treated
known as the Derozians and Young Bengal, with gentlest cosideration.
were fiery patriots. Derozio was perhaps the Debendranath
first nationalist poet of modern India. Tagore and Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
Derozio was removed from the Hindu The Branhamo Samaj had in the
College in 1831 because of his radicalism and meanwhile continued to exist but without
died to cholera soon after at the young age much life till Debendranath Tagore, father of
of 22. The Derozians attacked old and Rabindranath Tagore, revitalized it.
decadent customs, rites and traditions. They Debendranath was a product of the best in
were passionate advocates of womens rights the traditional Indian learning and the new
and demanded education for them. They did thought of the West. In 1839 he founded the
not, howeever, succeed in creating a Tatvabodhini Sabha to propagate Rammohan
movement because social conditions were not Roys ideas. In time it came to include most
yet ripe for their ideas to flourish. They did of the prominent followers of Rammohan and
not take up the peasants cause and there was Derozio and other independent thinkers like
Social and Cultural Awakening in the First Half of the 19th Century 57

Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar and Akshay He seldom possessed a warm coat for he
Kumar Dutt. The Tatvabodhini Sabha and its inviriably gave it to the first naked beggar
organ the Tatvabodhini Patrika promoted a he met on the street.
systematic study of Indias past in the Bengali Vidyasagars contribution to the mak-
language. It also helped spread a rational ing of modern India is many sided. He
outlook among the intellectuals of Bengal. In evolved a new methodology of teaching San-
1843 Debendranath Tagore reorganised the skrit. He wrote a Bengali primer whiche is
Brahmo Samaj and put new life into it. The used till this day. By his writings he helped
samaj actively supported the movement for in the evolution of a modern prose style in
widow remarriage, abolition of polygamy Bengali. He opened the gates of the Sanskrit
womens education improvement of the college to non-brahmin students for he was
ryots condition and temperance. opposed to the monopoly of Sanskrit studies
The next towering personality to appear that the priestly caste was enjoy at the time.
on the Indian scene was Pandit Ishwar He was determined to break the priestly
Chandra Vidyasagar, the great scholar and monoploy of scriptural knowledge. To free
reformer. Vidyasagar dedicated his entire life Sanskrit studies from the harmful effects of
to the cause of social reform. Born in 1820 in self-imposed isolation, he introduced the
a very poor family, he struggled through study of Wester though in the Sanskrit Col-
hardship to educate himself and in the end lege. He also helped found a college which is
rose in 1851 to the position of the principal now named after him.
ship of the Sanskrit College Though he was a Above all Vidyasagar is remembered
great Sanskrit scholar, his mind was open to gratefully by his countrymen for his
the best in Western thought, and he came to contribution to the uplift of Indias down
represent a happy blend of Indian and trodden womanhood. Here he proved a
Western culture. His greatness lay above all worthy successor to Rammohun Roy. He
in his streling character and shining intellect. waged a long struggle in favour of widow
Possessed of immense courage and a fearless remarriage. His humanism was aroused to
mind he practised what he believed. There the full by the sufferings of the Hindu
was no lag between his beliefs and his action, widows. To improve their lot he gave his all
between his thought and his practice. He was and virtually ruined himself. In 1855, he raifed
simple in dress and habits and direct in his his powerful voice, backed by the weight of
manner. He was a great humanist who immense traditional learning in favour of
possessed immense sympathy for the poor, widow remarriage. Soon a powerful
the unfortunate and the oppressed. movement in favour of widow remarriage
In Bengal, innumerable strories was started which continues till this day.
regarding his high character, moral qualities Later in the year 1855, a large number of
and deep humanism are related till this day. petitions from Bengal, Madras, Bombay,
He resigned from government service for he Nagpur and other cities of India were
would not tolerate undue official interference. presented to the Government asking it to
His generosity to the poor was fabuulous. pass an act legalising the remarriage of
widows. This agitation was successful and
58 Gist of NCERT (History)

such a law was enacted. The first lawful Pioneers of Reform in Western India
Hindu widow remarriage among the upper The impact of Western ideas was felt
castes in our country was celebrated in much earlier in Bengal than in Western India
Calcutta on 7 December 1856 under the which was brought under effective British
inspiration and superivision of Vidyasagar. control as late as 1818, Bal Shastri Jambekar
Widows of many other castes in different was one of the first reformers in Bombay. He
parts of the country already enjoyed this right attacked Brahmanical orthodoxy and tried to
under customary law. An observer has reform popular Hinduism. In 1832, he started
described the ceremony in the following a weekly, the Darpan, whith the objective of
words: chasing away the mist of effor and ignorance
For his advocacy of widow re-marriage, which clouded mens minds, and shedding
Vidyasagar had to face the bitter enmity of over them the light of knowledge, in which
the orthodox Hindus, At times even his life the people of Europe have advanced so far
was threatened. But he fearlessly pursued his before the other nations of the world. 1849,
chosen course. Through his efforts, which the the Praramahansa Madali was founjded
included the grant of monetary help to needy in Maharashta. Its founders believed in one
couples twenty-five widow-remarriages God and were primarily interested in
were performed between 1855 and 1880. breaking caster rules. At its meetings
In 1850, Vidyasagar protested against members took food cooked by low-caste
child-marriage. All his life he campaigned people.
against polygamy. He was also deeply They also believed its permitting widow
interested in the education of women. As a remarriage and in the education of women.
Government Inspector of Schools, he Branches of the Mandalis influence on young
organised thirty-five girls schools, many of people, R.G. Bhandarkar, the famous
which he ran at his own expense. As Secretary historian, later recalled: When we went for
to the Bethune School he was one of the long wals in the evening. we talked about
pioneers of higher education for women. the evils of caste distinctions, how much
Some even believed that educated damage was done by this division between
women would lose their husband. The first high and low, and how true progess for this
steps in giving a modern education to girls country could never be acieved without
were taken by the missionaries in 1821, but removing these distrinctions. In 1848, several
these efforts were marred by the emphasis educated young men formed the Students
on Christian religious education. The Literary and Scientific Society, which had two
Bethune School had great difficulty in branches, the Gujarat and the Marathi Dnyan
securing students. The young students were Prasarak Mandalis. The Society organised
shouted at and abuded and sometimes even lectures on popular science and social
their parents were subjected to social boycott. questions. One of the aims of the society was
Many believed that girls who had received to start shcool at Poona and soon many other
Western education would make slave of their scholls came up. Among the active promoters
husbands. of the these schools were Jagannath Shankar
Social and Cultural Awakening in the First Half of the 19th Century 59

Seth and Bhau Daji. Phule was also a pioneer association to reform the Zoroastrian religion
of the widow remarriage movement in and the Parsi Law Association which agitated
Maharashtra. Vishnu Shastri Pundit founded for the grant of a legal status to women and
the Widow Remarriage Association in the for uniform laws of inheritance and marriage
1850s Another prominent worker in this field for the Parsis. From the very beginning, it
was Karsondas Mulji who started the Saiya was, in the main, through the Indian
Prakash m Gujarati in 1852 to advocate language press and literature that the
widow remarriage. reformers, carried on their straggle. To
An outstanding champion of new enable. To enable Indian languages to play
learning and social reform in Maharashtra this role successfully, they undertook such
was Gopal Hari Deshmukh, who became humdrum tasks as preparation of language
famous by the pen-name Lokahitawadi. He primers, etc. For example, both Ishwar
advocated fee reorganisation of the Indian Chandra Vidyasagar and Rabindranath
society on rational principles m & modern Tagore wrote Bengali primers which are
humanistic and secular values. Jotiba Phule, being used till this day. In fact, the spread of
born in a low caste Mali family, was also modern and reformist ideas among the mass
acutely aware of the socially degraded of people occurred primarily through Indian
position of non-Brahmins and untouchables languages.We should also remember that the
in Maharashtra. All his life he carried on a signiciance of the 19th century reformers lay
campaign against upper caste domination and not in their number but in the fact that they
Brahmanical, supremacy.Dadabhai Naoroji were the trend, setters-it was their thought
was another leading social reformer of and activity that were to have decisive impact
Bombay. He was one of the founders of an on the making of a new India.

Gist of NCERT

ISBN: 9789382732761
Book Code: F17
Gist of NCERT (History)


The Revolt of 1857 rule in another chapter. Other general causes

A MIGHTY popular revolt broke out in were the British land and land revenue
Northern and Central India in 1857 and policies and the systems of law and
nearly swept away the British rule. It began administration. In particular, a large number
with a mutiny of the sepoys or the Indian of peasant proprietors, subjected to
soldiers of the Companys army but soon exorbitant land revenue demand, lost their
engulfed wide regions and involved the lands to traders and money lenders and
masses. found themselves hopelessly involved in
General Causes debt. The new landlords, lacking ties of
tradition that had linked the old zamindars
The Revolt of 1857 was much more than to peasants, pushed up rents to ruinous
a mere product of sepoy discontent. It was heights and evicted them in case of non-
in reality a product of the character and payments. The economic decline of the
policies of colonial rule, of the accumulated peasantry found expression in twelve major
grievances of the people against the and numerous minor-famines from 1770 to
Companys administration and of their 1857. Similarly, many zamindars were
dislike for the foreign regime. For over a harassed by demands for higher land revenue
century, as the British had been conquering and threatened with forfeiture of their
the country bit by bit, popular discontent and zamindari lands and rights and loss of their
hatred against foreign, rule had been gaining status in the villages. They resented their loss
strength among the different sections of even more when they were replaced by rank
Indian society. It was this discontent that outsiders officials. merchants and money-
burst forth into a mighty popular revolt. lenders. In addition, common people were
Perhaps the most important cause of the hard hit by the prevalence of corruption at
popular discontent was the economic the lower levels of administration. The police,
exploitation of the country by the British and petty officials and lower law courts were
the complete destruction of its traditional notoriously corrupt. William Edwards, a
economic fabric; both impoverished the vast British official, wrote in 1859 while discussing
mass of peasants, artisans and handicrafts- the causes of the Revolt that the police were
men as also a large number of traditional a scourge to the people and that their
zamindars and chiefs. We have traced the oppressions and exactions form one of the
disastrous economic impact of early British
The Revolt of 1857 61

chief grounds of dissatisfaction with our these sepoys had helped the British conquer
government. The petty officials lost no the rest of India. But they did possess regional
opportunity of enriching themselves at the and local patriotism and did not like that their
cost of the ryots and the zamindars. The homelands should come under the
complex judicial system enabled the rich to foreigners- sway. Moreover, the annexation
oppress the poor. Flogging, torture and of Awadh adversely affected the sepoys
jailing of the cultivators for arrears of rent purse. He had to pay higher taxes on the land
or land revenue or interest on debt were his family held in Awadh.
quite common. Thus the growing poverty of The excuse Dalhousie had advanced for
the people made them desperate and led them annexing Awadh was that he wanted to free
to join a general revolt in the hope of the people from the Nawabs
improving their lot. mismanagement and taluqdars oppression,
Another basic cause of the unpopularity but,, in practice, the people got no relief.
of British rule was its very foreignness. The Indeed, the common man had now to pay
British remained perpetual foreigners in the higher land revenue and additional taxes on
country. They had a feeling of racial articles of food, houses, ferries, opium, and
superiority and treated Indians with justice. The dissolution of the Nawabs
contempt and arrogance. As Sayyid Ahmad administration and army threw out of jobs
Khan wrote later: Even natives of the highest thousands of nobles, gentlemen and officials
rank never came into the presence of officials together with their retainers and officers and
but with an inward fear and trembling. Their soldiers, and created unemploy-ment in
main aim was to enrich themselves and then almost every peasants home. These
go back to Britain along with their wealth. dispossessed taluqdars, numbering nearly
The people of India were aware of this 21,000, anxious to regain their lost estates and
basically foreign character of the new rulers. position, became the most dangerous
They refused to recognize the British as their opponents of the British rule. The annexation
benefactors and looked with suspicion upon of Awadh, along with the other annexations
every act of theirs. They had thus a vague of Dalhousie, created panic among rulers of
sort of anti-British feeling which had found the native states. This policy of annexation
expression even earlier than the Revolt in and subordination was, for example, directly
numerous popular uprisings against the responsible for making Nana Sahib, the Rani
British. of Jhansi and Bahadur Shah their staunch
The annexation of Awadh by Lord enemies. Nana Sahib was the adopted son of
Daihousie in 1856 was widely resented in Baji Rao II, the last Peshwa. The British
India iii general and in Awadh in particular, refused to grant for Nana Sahib the pension
More specifically, it created an atmosphere they were paying to Baji Rao II, the last
of rebellion in Awadh and in the Companys Peshwa, and forced him to live at Kanpur,
army. Daihousies action angered the far away from his family seat at Poona.
Companys sepoys, 75,000 of whom came Similarly, the British insistence on the
from Awadh. Lacking an all-India feeling, annexation of Jhansi -incensed the proud Rani
62 Gist of NCERT (History)

Lakshmibai who wanted her adopted son to Government had undertaken on the advice
succeed her deceased husband. The house of of Indian reformers. They believed that an
the Mughals was humbled when Dalhousie alien Christian government had no right to
announced in 1849 that the successor to interfere in their religion and customs. The
Bahadur Shah would have to abandon the abolition of the custom of Sati, the legalisation
historic Red Fort and move to a humbler of widow remarriage, and the opening of
residence at the Qutab on the outskirts in Western education to girls appeared to them
1856, Canning announced that after Bahadus as examples of such undue interference. The
Shahs death the Mughals would lose the title Revolt of 1857 started with the mutiny of the
of kings and would be known as mere Companys sepoys. The sepovs were after all
princes. a part of Indian society and, therefore, felt
An important factor in turning the and suffered to some extent what other
people against British rule was their fear that Indians did. The hopes, -sires, and, despairs
it endangered their religion. This fear was of the other sections of society, especially the
largely due to the activities of the Christian peasantry, were reflected in them. an Act was
missionaries who were to be seen passed under which every new recruit under
everywhere in the schools, in the hospitals, took to serve even oversas. if required. This
in the prisons and at the market places. hurt the sepoys sentiments as, according to
These missionaries tried to convert people the current religious beliefs of the Hindus,
and made violent and vulgar public attacks travel across the sea was forbidden and led
on Hinduism and Islam. The actual to loss of caste. The sepoys also had
conversions made by them appeared to the numerous other grievances. A wide gulf had
people as living proofs of the threat to their come .into existence between the officers and
religion. Popular suspicion that the alien the sepoys who were often treated with
Government supported the activities of the contempt by their British officers. A more
missionaries was strengthened by certain acts immediate cause of the sepoys dissatisfaction
of the Government and the actions of some was the recent order that they would not be
of its officials. In 1850, the Government given the foreign sendee allowance (baita)
enacted a law which enabled a convert to when serving in Sindh or in the Punjab. This
Christianity to inherit his ancestra1property. order resulted in a big cut in the salaries of a
Moreover, the Government maintained at its large number of them. The annexation of
cost chaplains or Christian priests in the army. Awadh, the home of many sepoys, further
Many officials, civil as well as military, inflamed their feelings.
considered it their religious duty to The Immediate Cause
encourage missionary propaganda and to By 1857, the material for a mass up-
provide instruction in Christianity in heaval was ready, only a spark was needed
government schools and even in jails. to set it afire, The episode of the greased car-
The conservative religious and social tridges provided this spark for the sepoys
sentiments of many people were also hurt by and their mutiny provided the general popu-
some of the humanitarian measures which the lace the occasion to revolt. The new Enfield
The Revolt of 1857 63

rifle had been first introduced in the army. European officers, and seized the city.
Its cartridges had a greased paper cover The rebellious soldiers now proclaimed
whose end had to be bitten off before the the aged and powerless Bahadur Shah the
cartridge was loaded into the rifle. The grease Emperor of India Delhi was soon to become
was in some instances composed of beef and the centre of the Great Revolt and Bahadur
pig fat. The sepoys, Hindu as well as Mus- Shah its great symbol. This spontaneous
lim, were enraged. The use of the greased raising of the last Mughal king to the
cartridges would endanger their religion. leadership of the country was recognition of
Many of them believed that the Government the fact that the long reign of the Mughal
was deliberately trying to destroy their reli- dynasty had made it the tracliti6nal symbol
gion and convert them to Christianity. The of Indias political unity. With this single act,
time to rebel had come. the sepoys had trans-formed a mutiny of
The Beginning and Course of the Revolt soldiers into a revolutionary. This is why
The Revolt began at Meerut, 58 km from rebellious sepoys from all over the country
Delhi, on 10 May 1857 and then, gathering automatically turned their steps towards
force rapidly it cut across Northern India as Delhi and all Indian chiefs who took part in
if like sword, It soon embraced a vast area the Revolt hastened to proclaim their loyalty
form the Punjab in the north and the Narmada to the Mughal Emperor. Bahadur Shah, in
in the south to Bihar in the east and Rajputana turn, under the instigation and perhaps the
in the west. pressure of the sepoys, and alter initial
Even before the outbreak at Meerut, vacillation wrote letters to all the chiefs and
Mangal Pande had become a martyr at rulers of India urging them to organize a
Barrackpore. Mangal Pande, a young soldier, confederacy of Indian states to fight and
was hanged on 29 March 1857 for revolting replace the British regime.
single-handed and attacking his superior The entire Bengal Army soon rose in
officers. And then came the explosion at revolt which spread quickly. Awadh,
Meerut. On 24 April, ninety men of the 3rd Rohilkhand, the Doab, the Bundelkhand,
Native Cavalry refused to accept the greased Central India, large parts of Bihar, and the
cartridges. On 9 May, eighty-five of them East Punjab all shook off British authority. In
were dismissed, sentenced to 10 years many of the princely states, rulers remained
imprisonment and put into fetters. This loyal to their British overlord but the soldiers
sparked off a general mutiny among the revolted or remained on the brink of revolt.
Indian soldiers, stationed at Meerut. The Many of Indores troops rebelled and joined
very next day, on 10 May, they released their the sepoys. Similarly over 20,000 of Gwaliors
imprisoned comrades, killed their officers, troops went over to Tantia Tope and the Rant
and unfurled the banner of revolt. As if of Jhansi. Many small chiefs of Rajasthan and
drawn by a magnet, they set off for Delhi Maharashtra revolted with the support of the
after sunset. When the Meerut soldiers people who were quite hostile to the British.
appeared in Delhi the next morning, the local Local rebellions also occurred in Hyderabad
infantry joined them, killed their own and Bengal.
64 Gist of NCERT (History)

The tremendous sweep and breadth of orders were immediately issued banning
the Revolt was matched by its depth. cow-slaughter out of respect for Hindu
Everywhere in Northern and Central India, sentiments. Moreover, Hindus and Muslims
the mutiny of the sepoys triggered popular were. equally well represented at all levels
revolts of the civilian population. After the of the leadership. The role of Hindu-Muslim
sepoys had destroyed British authority, the unity in the Revolt was indirectly
common people rose up in arms often fighting acknowledge later by Aitchison, a senior
with spears and axes, bows and arrows, lathis British official, complained: In this instance
and sickles, arid crude muskets. They took we could not play off the Mohammedans
advantage of the Revolt to destroy the against the Hindus. In fact the events of 1857
money-lenders account books and records clearly bring cut that the people and politics
of debts. They also attacked the British- of India were basically not communal in
established law courts, revenue offices medieval times and before 1858.
(tehsils) and revenue records, and thanas. It The storm-centres of the Revolt of 1857
is of some importance to note that in many were at Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Bareilly,
of the battles commoners far surpassed the Jhansi, and Arrah in Bihar. At Delhi the
sepoys in numbers. According to one nominal and symbolic leadership belonged
estimate, of the total number of about 150.000 to the Emperor Bahadur Shah, but the real
men who died fighting the English in Awadh, command lay with a Court of Soldiers headed
over 100,000 were civilians. by General Bakht Khan who had led the
The popular character of the Revolt of revolt of the Bareilly troops and brought
1857 also became evident when the British them to Delhi. In the British army he had
ferried to crush it. They had to wage a been an ordinary subedar of artillery. Bakht-
vigorous and ruthless war not only against Khan represented the popular and plebeian
the rebellious sepoys but also against- the element at the headquarters of the Revolt.
people of Delhi Awadh, North-Western The Emperor Bahadur Shah was perhaps the
Provinces and Agra, Central lndias arid weakest link in the chain of leadership of the
Western Bihar, burning entire villages and Revolt. His weak personality, old age and
massacring villagers and urban people. lack of qualities of leadership, ctreated
Much of the strength of the Revolt of political weakness at the nerve centre of the
1857 lay in Hindu-Muslim unify Among the Revolt and did incalculable damage to it.
soldiers and the people as well as among the At Kanpur the Revolt was led by Nana
leaders there was complete cooperation as Sahib, the adopted son of Baji Rao II, the last
between Hindus and Muslims. All the rebels Peshwa. Nana Sahib expelled the English
recognized Bahadur Shah, a Muslim, as their from help of the sepoys and proclaimed
Emperor. Also the first thoughts of the Hindu himself the Peshwa. At the same time he
sepoys at Meerut was to march straight to acknowledged Bahadur Shah as the Emperor
Delhi. The Hindu and Muslim rebels and of India and declared himself to be his
sepoys respected each others sentiments. For Governor. The chief burden of fighting on
example, wherever the Revolt was successful, behalf of Revolt was Nana Sahib fell on the
The Revolt of 1857 65

shoulders of Tantia Tope, one of his most the oath to her followers that with our own
loyal servants, Tantia Tope has won immortal hands we shall not our Azadshahi
fame by his patriotism, determined lighting, (independent rule) bury. She captured
and skillful guerrilla operations. Azimullah Gwalior with the help of Tantia Tope and her
was another loyal servant of Nana Sahib. He trusted Afghan guards Maharaja Sindhia,
was an expert in political propaganda loyal to the British, made an attempt to fight
Unfortunately, Nana Sahib tarnished his the Rani but most of his troops deserted to
brave record by deceitfully killing the British her. Sindhia sought refuge with the English
garrison at Kanpur after he had agreed to at Agra. The brave Rani died fighting on 17
give them safe conduct. June 1858, clad in the battle dress of a soldier
The revolt at Lucknow was led by and mounted on a companion, a Muslim girl.
Hazrat Mahal, the Begum of Awadh, who had Kunwar Singh, a ruined and
proclaimed her young son, Birjis Kadir, as the discontented zamindar of Jagdishpur near
Nawab of Awadh. Helped by the sepoys at Arrah, was the chief organizer of the Revolt
Lucknow, and by the zamindars and peasants in Bihar. Though nearly 80 years old, he as
of Awadh, the Begum, organized an. all-out perhaps the most Outstanding military leader
attack on the British, Compelled to give up and strategist of the Revolt. Maulavi
the city, the latter entrenched themselves in Ahmudullah of Faizabad was another
the Residency building. In the end, the siege outstanding leader of the Revolt. He was a
of the Residency failed, as the small British native of Madras where he had started
garrison fought back with exemplary preaching armed rebellion. In January 1857
fortitude and valour. he moved towards the north to Faizabad
One of the great leaders of the Revolt where he fought a large-scale battle against
of l957s and perhaps one of the greatest a company of British troops sent to stop him
heroines of Indian history, was the young from preaching sedition When the general
Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi. The young Rani revolt broke cut in May, he emerged as one
joined the rebels when the British refused to of its acknowledged leaders in Awadh. The
acknowledge right to adopt an heir to the greatest heroes of the Revolt were, however,
Jhansis gaddi, annexed her state, and the sepoys, many of whom displayed great
threatened to treat her as an instigator of the courage in the field of battle and thousands
rebellion of the sepoys at Jhansi- The Rani of whom unselfishly laid down their lives.
vacillated for some time. But once she had More than anything else, it was their
decided to throw in her lot with the rebels, determination and sacrifice that nearly led
she fought valiantly at the head of her troops. to the expulsion of the British from India In
Tales of her bravery and courage and this patriotic struggle, they sacrificed even
military skill have inspired her countrymen their deep religious prejudices They had
ever since. Driven out of Jhansi by the British revolted on the question of the greased
forces after a fierce battle in which even cartridges but now to expel the hated
women were seen working the batteries and foreigner they freely used the same
distributing ammunition, she administered cartridges in their battles.
66 Gist of NCERT (History)

The Weaknesses of of Awadh to Sustain a prolonged guerrilla

the Revolt and its Suppression campaign.
Even though spread over a vast territory The money-lenders were the chief
and widely popular among the people, the targets of the villagers attacks. They were,
Revolt of 1857 could not embrace the entire therefore, naturally hostile to the Revolt. The
country or all the groups and classes of Indian merchants, too, gradually became unfriendly.
society- It did not spread to South India and The rebels were compelled to impose heavy
most of Eastern and Western India because taxation on them in order to finance the war
these regions had repeatedly rebelled earlier. or to seize their stocks of foodstuffs to feed
Most rulers of the Indian states arid the big the army. The merchants often hide their
zamindars selfish to the core and fearful of wealth and goods and refused to give free
British might, refused to join in. On the supplies to the rebels. The zamindars of
contrary, the Sindhia of Gwalior, the Holkar Bengal also remained loyal to the British.
of Indore, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Raja They were after all a creation of the British.
of Jodhpur and other Rajput rulers, the Moreover, the hostility of Bihar peasants
Nawab of Bhopal, the rulers of Patiala, towards their zamindars frightened the
Nabha, Jind, and other Sikh chieftains of Bengal zamindars. Similarly, the big
Punjab, the Maharaja of Kashmir, the Ranas merchants of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras
of Nepal, and many other ruling chiefs, and supported the British because their main
a large number of big zamindars gave active profits came from foreign trade and
help to the British in suppressing the Revolt. economic connections with the British
In fact, no more than one per cent of the chiefs merchants.
of India joined the Revolt. Governor General The modern educated Indians also did
Canning later remarked that these rulers and not support the Revolt. They were repelled
chiefs acted- as the breakwaters to the storm by the rebels appeals to superstitions and
which would have otherwise swept us in one their opposition to progressive social
great wave. Madras, Bombay Bengal and measures. As we have seen, the educated
the Western Punjab remained undisturbed, Indians wanted to end the backwardness of
even though the popular feeling inthese their country. They mistakenly believed that
provinces favoured the rebels. Moreover, the British rule would help them accomplish
except for the discon-tented and the these tasks of moderni-zation while rebels,
dispossessed zamiridars, the middle and led by zamindars, old rulers and chieftains
upper classes were mostly critical of the and other feudal elements, would take the
rebels; most of the propertied classes were country backward. Only later did the
either cool towards them or actively hostile educated Indians learn from experience that
to them. Even many of the taluqdars (big foreign rule was incapable of modernizing
zamindars) of Awadh, who had joined the the country and that it would instead
Revolt, abandoned it once the Government impoverish it and keep it backward. The
gave them an assurance that their estates revolutionaries of 857 proved to be more far-
would be returned to them, This made it sighted in this respect; they had a better,
very difficult for the peasants and soldiers
The Revolt of 1857 67

instinctive understanding of the evils of quarrels. Similarly, the peasantry having

foreign rule and of the necessity to get rid of destroyed revenue records and money
it. On the other hand, they did not realise, as lenders books, and overthrown the new
did the educated intelligentsia, that the zamindars, became passive, not knowing
country had fallen prey to foreigners what to do next.
precisely because it had stuck to rotten and In fact, the weakness of the Revolt went
outmoded customs, traditions and deeper than the failings of individuals. The
institutions. They failed to; see that national movement had little understanding of
salvation lay not in going back to feudal colonialism, which had overpowered India,
monarchy hut in going forward to a modern or of the modern world. It lacked a forward-
society, a modern economy, scientific looking programme, coherent ideology, a
education and modern political institutions. political perspective or a vision of the future
In any case, it cannot be said that the society and economy. The Revolt represented
educated Indians were anti-national or loyal no societal alternative to be implemented
to a foreign regime. As events after 1858 were after the capture of power. The diverse
to show, they were soon to lead a powerful elements which took part in the Revolt were
and modern national movement against united only by their hatred of British rule,
British rule. but each of them had different grievances and
Whatever the reasons for the disunity differing conceptions of the politics of free
of Indians, it was to prove fatal to the Revolt. India. This absence of a modern and
But this was not the only weakness from progressive programme enabled the
which the cause of the rebels suffered. They reactionary princes and zamindars to seize
were short of modern weapons and other the levers of power of the revolutionary
materials of var. Most of them fought with movement. But the feudal character of the
such ancient weapons as pikes and swords. Revolt should not be stressed over much.
They were also poorly organised. The sepoys Gradually the soldiers and the people were
were brave and selfless but they were also beginning to evolve a different type of
ill- disciplined. Sometimes they behaved leadership. The very effort to make the
more like a riotous mob than a disciplined Revolt a success was compelling them to
army. The rebel units did not have common create new types of organisation. For
plans of military action, or authoritative example, at Delhi, a court of administrators,
heads, or centralized leadership. The consisting of ten members, six army men and
uprisings in different parts of the country four civilians, was established. All its
were completely uncoordinated. The leaders decisions were taken by a majority vote. The
were joined together by a common feeling court took all military and administrative
of hatred for the alien rule but by nothing decisions in the name of the Emperor. Similar
else. Once they overthrew British power from efforts to create new organisational
an area, they did not know what sort of structures were made in other centres of the
political power or institutions to create in its rebellion. As Benjamin Disraeli warned the
place. They were suspicious and jealous of British Government at the time, if they did
one another and often indulged in suicidal not suppress the Revolt in time, they would
68 Gist of NCERT (History)

find other characters on the stage, with Nana Sahib was defeated at Kanpur. Defiant
whom to contend, besides the princes of to the very end and refusing to surrender,
India. he escaped to Nepal early in 1859, never to
In the end, British imperialism, with a be heard of again. Tantia Tope escaped into
developing capitalist economy and at the the jungles of Central India where he carried
height of its power the world over, and OR bitter and brilliant guerrilla warfare until
supported by most of the Indian princes and April 1859 when he was betrayed by a
chiefs, proved militarily too strong for the zamindar friend and captured while asleep-
rebels. The British Government poured He was put to death after a hurried trial on
immense supplies of men, money and arms 15 April 1859. The Rani of Jhansi had died on
into the country, though Indians had later to the field of battle earlier on 17 June 1858. By
repay the entire cost of their own 1859, Kunwar Singh, Bakht Khan, Khan
suppression. The Revolt was suppressed. Bahadur Khan of Bareilly, Rao Sahib, brother
Sheer courage could not win against a of Nana Sahib, and Maulavi Ahmadullah were
powerful and determined enemy who all dead, while the Begum of Awadh was
planned its every step. The rebels were dealt compelled to hide in Nepal.
an early blow when the British captured Delhi By the end of 1859, Bntish authority
on 20 September 1857 after prolonged and over India was fully re-established, but the
bitter fighting. The aged Emperor Bahadur Revolt had not been in vain. It is a glorious
Shah was taken prisoner. The Royal Princes landmark in our history. Though it was a
were captured and butchered on the spot. desperate effort to save India in the old way
The Emperor was tried and exiled to and under traditional leadership, it was the
Rangoon where he died in 1862, lamenting first great struggle of the Indian people for
bitterly the fate which had buried him Tar freedom from British imperialism, it paved
away from the city of his birth. Thus the great the way for the rise of the modern national
House of the Mughals was finally and movement. The heroic and patriotic struggle
completely extinguished. of 1857, and the series of rebellions preceding
With the fall of Delhi the focal point of it, left an unforgettable impression on the
the Revolt disappeared. The other leaders of minds of the Indian people, established
the Revolt carried on the brave but unequal valuable local traditions of resistance to
struggle, with the British mounting a British rule, and served as a perennial source
powerful offensive against them. John of inspiration in their later struggle for
Lawrence, Outram, Have lock, Neil, freedom. The heroes of the Revolt soon
Campbell, and Hugh Rose were some of the became household names in the country, even
British commanders who earned military though the very mention of their names was
fame in the course of this campaign. One by frowned upon, by the rulers.
one, all the great leaders of the Revolt fell.
The Revolt of 1857
9 69


THE RISING tide of nationalism and there could be little social reform without
democracy, which led to the struggle for religious reform. While trying to remain true
freedom, also found expression in movements to the foundations of their religions, they
to reform and democratise the social remodeled them to suit the new needs of the
institutions and religious outlook of the Indian people.
Indian people. Many Indians realised that Brahmo Samaj
social and religious reformation was an
The Brahmo tradition of Raja Rammohan
essential condition for the all-round
Roy was carried forward after 1843 by
development of the country on modern lines
Devendranath Tagore, who also repudiated
and for the growth of national unity and
the doctrine that the Vedic scriptures were
solidarity. The growth of nationalist
infallible, and after 1866 by Keshub Chandra
sentiments, emergence of new economic
Sen. The Brahmo Samaj made an effort to
forces, spread of education, impact of modern
reform Hindu religion by removing abuses
western ideas and culture, and increased
and by basing it on the worship of one God
awareness of the world not only heightened
and on the teachings of the Vedas and
the consciousness of the backwardness and
Upanishads even though it repudiated the
degeneration of Indian society but further
doctrine of the infallibility of the Vedas. It
strengthened the resolve to reform.
also tried to incorporate the best aspects of
After 1858, the earlier reforming ten- modern western thought.
dency was broadened. The work of earlier
Most of all it based itself on human
reformers, like Raja Rammohan Roy and Pan-
reason which was to be the ultimate criterion
dit Vidyasagar, was carried further by major
for deciding what was worthwhile and what
movements of religious and social reforms
was useless in the past or present religious
Religious Reform principles and practices. For that reason, the
Filled with the desire to adapt their Brahmo Samaj denied the need for a priestly
society to the requirements of the modern class for interpreting religious writings.
world of science, democracy and nationalism, Every individual had the right and the
and determined to let no obstacle stand in capacity to decide with the help of his own
the way, thoughtful Indians set out to reform intellect what was right and what was wrong
their traditional religions, for religion was in a religious book or principle. Thus the
in those times a basic part of peoples life and Brahmos were basically opposed to idolatry
70 Gist of NCERT (History)

and superstitious practices and rituals, in fact Mahadev Govind Ranade (1842-1901). It was
to the entire Brahmanical system. They could powerfully influenced by the Brahmo Samaj.
worship one God without the mediation of Its activities also spread to south India as a
the priests. The Brahmos were also great result of the efforts of the Telugu reformer,
social reformers. They actively opposed the Viresalingam. One of the greatest rationalist
caste system and child-marriage and thinkers of modern India, Gopal Ganesh
supported the general uplift of women, Agarkar, also lived and worked in
including widow remarriage, and the spread Maharashtra at this time. Agarkar was an
of modern education to men and women. advocate of the power of human reason. He
The Brahmo Samaj was weakened by sharply criticised any blind dependence on
internal dimensions in the second half of the tradition or false glorification of Indias past.
19th century. Moreover, its influence was Ramakrishna and Vivekananda
confined mostly to urban educated groups. Ramakrishna Parmahamsa (1834-86 was
Yet it had a decisive influence on the a saintly person who sought religious
intellectual, social, cultural and political life salvation in the traditional ways of
of Bengal, and the rest of India in the 19th renunciation, meditation and devotion
and 20th centuries. (bhakti). In his search for religious truth or
Religious Reform in Maharashtra the realisation of God, he lived with mystics
Religious reform was begun in Bombay of other faiths, Muslims and Christians. He
in 1840 by the Parmahans Mandali which again and again emphasised that there were
aimed at fighting idolatry and the caste many roads to God and salvation and that
system. Perhaps the earliest religious service of men was service of God, for man
reformer in western India was Gopal Hari was the embodiment of God.
Deshmukh, known popularly as Lokahit It was his great disciple, Swami Viveka-
wadi, who wrote in Marathi, made powerful nanda (1863-1902), who popularised his
rationalist attacks on hindu orthodoxy. and religious message and who tried to put it in
preached religious anti social equality. a form that would suit the needs of
He also said that if religion did not contemporary Indian society. Abode all,
sanction social reforms then religion should Vivekananda stressed social action.
be changed, for after all religion was made Knowledge unaccompanied by action in the
by human beings and scriptures, written long actual world in which we live was useless,
ago. might not remain relevant to later times. he said. He too, like his guru, proclaimed the
Later the Prarthana Samaj was started with essential oneness of all religions and
the aim of reforming hindu religious thought condemned any narrowness in religious
and practice in the light of modern matters. Thus, he wrote in 1898; For our
knowledge. It preached the worship of one own motherland a junction of the two great
God and tried to free religion of caste systems, Hinduism and Islam is the only
orthodoxy and priestly domination. Two of hope. At the same time, he was convinced
its great leaders were R G. Bhandarkar, the of the superior approach of the Indian
famous Sanskrit scholar and historian, and philosophical tradition. He himself
Growth of New India - Religious and Social Reform After 1858 71

subscribed to Vedanta which he declared to inspiration, Swami Dayanand went to the

be a fully rational system. Vedas which he regarded as infallible, being-
Vivekananda criticised Indians for the inspired word of God, and as the fount
having lost touch with the rest of the world of all knowledge. He rejected such later
and become stagnant and mummified. He religious thought as conflicted with the
wrote: The fact of our isolation from all other Vedas. This total dependence on the Vedas
nations of the world is the cause of our and their infallibility gave his teachings an
degeneration and its only remedy is getting orthodox colouring, for infallibility meant that
back into the current of the rest of the world. human reason was not to be the final deciding
Motion is the sign of life. factor. However, his approach had a
Vivekananda condemned the caste rationalist aspects because the Vedas, though
system and the current Hindu emphasis on revealed were to be rationally interpreted by
rituals and superstitions, and urged the himself and others, who were human beings.
people to imbibe the spirit of liberty, equality Thus individual reason was the decisive
and free-thinking. factor.
Like his guru, Vivekananda was also a He believed that every person had the
great humanist. Shocked by the poverty, right of direct access to God. Moreover,
misery and suffering of the common people instead of supporting Hindu orthodoxy, he
of the country. attacked it and led a revolt against it. The
The only God in whom I believe, the teachings he derived from his own
sum total of all souls, and above all, my God interpretation of the Vedas were
the wicked, my Cod the afflicted, my God consequently similar to the religious and
the poor of all races. social reforms that other Indian reformers
were advocating. He was opposed to idolatry,
In 1897 Vivekanand founded the Rama-
ritual and priesthood, and particularly to the
krishna Mission to carry on humanitarian
prevalent caste practices and popular
relief and social work. The Mission had many
Hinduism as preached by brahmins. He also
branches in different parts of the country had
directed attention towards problems of men
carried on social service by opening schools,
as they lived in this real world and away
hospitals and dispensaries, orphanages.,
from the traditional belief in the other world.
libraries, etc. It thus laid emphasis not on
He also favoured the study of western
personal salvation but on social good or social
sciences. Interestingly enough, Swami
Dayanand had met and had discussions with
Swami Dayanand and the Arya Samaj
Keshab Chandra Sen, Vidyasagar, Justice
The Arya Samaj undertook the task of Ranade, Gopal Hari Deshmukh and other
reforming Hindu religion in north India. It modern religious and social reformers. In
was founded in 1875 by Swami (1824-83). fact, the ideas of the Arya Samaj with its
Swami Dayannd believed that selfish and Sunday meeting resembled the practices of
ignorant priests had perverted Hindu religion the Brahmo Samaj and the Prarthana Samaj
with the aid of the Puranas which, he said, in this respect.
were full of false teachings. For his own
72 Gist of NCERT (History)

Some of Swami Dayanands followers Theosophist movement soon grew in India

later started a network of schools and colleges as a result of the leadership given to it by
in the country to impart education on Mrs. Annie Besant who had come to India in
western lines. Lala Hansraj played a leading 1893. The Theosophists advocated the revival
part in this effort. On the other hand, in 1902, and strengthening ancient religious of Hin-
Swami Shradhananda started the Gurukul duism Zoroastrianism and Buddhism. They
near Hardwar to propagate the more recognised the doctrine of the transmigra-
traditional ideals of education. tion of the soul. They also preached the uni-
The Arya Samajists were vigorotts versal brotherhood of man. As religious re-
advocates of social reform and worked vivalists, the Theoso-phists were not very
actively to improve the condition of women, successful. But they made a peculiar contri-
and to spread education among them. They bution to developments in modern India. It
fought untouchability and the rigidities of the was a movement led by westerners, who glo-
rified Indian religious and theosophical tra-
hereditary caste system. They were thus
ditions. This helped Indians recover their self-
advocates of social equality and promoted
confidence, even though it tended to give
social solidarity and consolidation. They
them a sense of false pride in their past great-
also inculcated a spirit of self-respect and self-
reliance among the people. This promoted
One of Mrs. Besants many achievements
nationalism. At the same time, one of the
Arya Samajs objectives was to prevent the in India was the establishment of the Central
Hindu School at Benaras which was later
conversion of Hindus to other religions.
developed by Madan Mohan Malaviya into
This led it to start a crusade against
the Benaras Hindu University.
other religions. This crusade became a
contributory factor in the growth of Syed Ahmad-Khan and the Aligarh School
communalism in India in the 20th century. Movements for religious reform were
While the Arya Samajs reformist work late in emerging among the Muslims. The
tended to remove social ills and to unite Muslim upper classes had tended to avoid
people, its religious work tended, though contact with western education and culture,
perhaps unconsciously, to divide the growing and it was mainly after the Revolt of 1857
national unity among Hindus, Muslims, that modern ideas of religious reform began
Parsis, Sikhs and Christians. It was not seen to appear. A beginning in this direction was
clearly that in India national unity had to be made when the Muhammedan Literary
secular and above religion so that it would Society was founded at Calcutta in 1863. This
embrace the people of all religions. Society promoted discussion of religious,
The Theosophical Society social and political questions in the light of
modern ideas and encouraged upper and
The Theosophical Society was founded
middle class Muslims to take to western
in the United States by Madam H.P. Blavatsky
education. The most important reformer
and Colonel H.S. Olcott, who later came to
among die Muslims was Syed Ahmad Khan
India and founded the headquarters of the
(1817-98). He was tremendously impressed
Society at Adyar near Madras in 1886. The
Growth of New India - Religious and Social Reform After 1858 73

by .modern scientific thought and worked Hindu and 285 Muslim students in the
all his life to reconcile it with Islam. This he college. Out of the seven Indian teachers, two
did, first of all, by declaring that the Quran were Hindu, one of them being a Professor
alone was the authoritative work for Islam of Sanskrit. However, towards the end of his
and all other Islamic writings were secondary. life, he been to talk of Hindu domination to
Even the Quran he interpreted in the light of prevent his followers from joining the rising
contemporary rationalism and science. In his national movement. This was unfortunate,
view any interpretation of the Quran that though basically he was not a communalist.
conflicted with human reason science or He only wanted the backwardness of the
nature was in reality a misister-pretation. Nor Muslim middle and upper classes to go. His
were religious tenets immutable, he said. If politics were the result of his firm belief that
religion tenets change with time, it would immediate political progress was not possible
become fossilised as had happened in India. because the British.
All his life he struggled against blind Government could not be easily
obedience to tradition, dependence on dislodged. On the other hand, any hostility
custom, ignorance and irrationalism. He by the officials might prove dangerous to the
urged the people to develop a critical educational effort which he saw as the need
approach and freedom of thought So long as of the hour. He believed that only when
freedom of thought is not developed, there Indians had become as modern in their
can be no civilised life, he declared. He also thinking and actions as the English were,
warned against fanaticism, narrow could they hope to successfully challenge
mindedness, and exclusiveness, and urged foreign rule. He, therefore, advised all
students and others to be broadminded and Indians and particularly the educationally
tolerant. A closed mind, he said, was the backward Muslims to remain aloof from
hallmark of social and intellectual politics for some time to come. The time for
backwardness. politics, he said, had not yet come. In fact, he
Sayyid Ahmad Khan was a great had become so committed to his college and
believer in religious toleration. He believed the cause of education that he was willing to
that all religions had a certain underlying sacrifice all other interests to them.
unity which could be called practical Consequently, to prevent the orthodox
morality. Believing that a persons religion was Muslims from opposing his college, he
his or her private affair, he roundly virtually gave up his agitation in favour of
condemned any sign of religious bigotry in religious reform. For the same reason, he
personal relations. He was also opposed to would not do anything to offend the
communal friction. Appealing to Hindus and government and, on the other hand,
Muslims to unite. encouraged communalism and separatism.
Moreover, Hindus, Parsis and Christians This was, of course, a serious political error,
had freely contributed to the funds of his which was to have harmful consequences in
college whose doors were also open to all later years. Moreover, some of his followers
Indians. For example, in 1898, there were 64 deviated from his broad-mindedness and
74 Gist of NCERT (History)

tended later to glorify Islam and its past patriotism, though later he encouraged
while criticizing other religions. Muslim separatism.
Sayyid Ahmads reformist zeal also Religious Reform among the Parsis
embraced the social sphere. He urged Religious reform was begun among the
Muslims to give up medieval customs ways Parsis in Bombay in the middle of the 19th
of thought and behaviour. In particular he century. In 1851, the Rehnumai Mazdayasan
wrote in favour of raising womens status in Sabha or Religious Reform Association was
society and advocated removal of purdah started by Naoroji Furdonji, Dadabhai
and spread of education among women. He Naoroji, S.S. Bengalee, and others. It
also condemned the customs of polygamy and campaigned against the entrenched
easy divorce. orthodoxy in the religious field and initiated
Sayyid Ahmad Khan was helped by a the modernization of Parsi social customs
band of Joyal followers who are collectively regarding the education of women, marriage
describe as the Aligarh School. Chiragh Au, and the social position of women in general.
the Urdu poet Altaf Husain Hali, Nazir In course of time, the Parsis became socially
Ahmad and Maulana Shibli Nomani were the most westernized section of Indian society.
some of the other distinguished leaders of Religious Reform among the Sikhs
the Aligarh School.
Religious reform among the Sikhs was
Muhammad Iqbal
begun at the end of the 19th century when
One of the greatest poets of modern the Khalsa College was started at Amritsar.
India, Muhammad Iqbal (1876-1938) also But the reform effort gained momentum after
profoundly influenced through his poetry the 1920 when the Akali Movement rose in the
philosophical and religious outlook of the Punjab. The main aim of the Akalis was to
younger generation of Muslims as well as of purify the management of the gurudwaras
Hindus. Like Swami Vivekananda, he or Sikh shrines. These gurudwara had been
emphasised the need for constant change and heavily endowed with land and money by
ceaseless activity and condemned resignation devout Sikhs But they had come to be
contemplation, and quiet contentment. He managed autocratically by Corrupt and
urged the adoption of a dynamic outlook that selfish mahants. The Sikh masses led by the
would help change the world. He was Akalis started in 1921 a powerful satyagraha
basically a humanist. In fact, be raised human against the mahants and the Government
action to the status of a prime virtue. Man which aided them.
should not submit to nature or powers that The Akalis soon forced the Government
be, he said, but should control this world to pass a new Gurudwara Act in 1922 which
through constant activity. Nothing was more was later amended in 1925. Sometimes with
sinful in his eyes than the passive acceptance to aid of the Act, but often through direct
of things as they were. Condemning ritualism action, the Sikhs gradually turned out of the
and other-worldly attitude, he urged men to gurudwaras the corrupt mahants, even
work for and achieve happiness in this world though hundreds of lives had to be sacrificed
of the living. In his earlier poetry, he extolled in the process.
Growth of New India - Religious and Social Reform After 1858 75

Apart from the reform movements and intercourse?... Shall we revive the hacatombs
individual reformers discussed above, there of animals sacrificed from years end to
were numerous other similar movements and years end, in which even human beings were
individuals during the 19th and 20th not spared as propitiatory offering to God?
centuries. ... Shall we revive the sati, and infanticide
The religious reform movements of customs?
modern tines had an underlying unity -most And he came to the conclusion that the
of them were based on the twin doctrines of society as a living organism is constantly
Reason (Rationalism) and Humanism, though changing and can never go back to the past.
they also sometimes tended to appeal to faith The dead and-the buried or burnt are dead,
and ancient authority to bolster their appeal. buried, and burnt once for all, and the dead
Moreover, it was to the rising middle classes past cannot, therefore, be revived. he wrote.
and the modem educated intellectuals that Every reformer, who appealed to the past,
they appealed most. They tried to free from so interpreted it as to make it appear to agree
anti-intellectual religious dogmas and blind with the reforms he was suggesting. Often
faith the human intellects capacity to think the reforms and the outlook were new, only
and reason They opposed the ritualistic, su- their justification was based on an appeal to
perstitious, irrational and obscurantist ele- the past. Many of the ideas which conflicted
ments in Indian religions. Many of them aban- with, modern scientific knowledge were
doned, though to varying degrees, the prin- usually declared to be a later accretion or
ciple of authority in religion and evaluated misinter-pretation. And since the orthodox
truth in any religion and its holy books by could not accept this view, the religious
its conformity to logic reasons, are science. reformers came into conflict with the
Some of these religious reformers orthodox sections and became, at least in the
appealed to tradition and claimed that they beginning, religious and social rebels.
were merely reviving the pure doctrines,
Similarly, Sayyid Ahmed Khan aroused
beliefs and practices of the past. But, in fact,
the anger of the traditionalists. They abused
the past could not be revived. Often there
him, issued fatwas (religious decrees) against
was no agreed picture of the past. The
him and even threatened his life.
problems that an appeal to the past often
The humanist aspect of the religious
created were posed by Justice Ranade, who
reform movements was expressed in the
has himself often asked the people to revive
general attack on priesthood and rituals, and
the best tradition of the past, in the following:
the emphasis on the individuals right to
What shall we revive? Shall we revive the
interpret religious scriptures in the light of
old habits of our people when the most sacred
human reason and human welfare. A
of our castes indulged in all the abominations,
significant feature of humanism was
as we now understand them, of animal food
expressed in a new humanitarian morality
and intoxicating drink? Shall we revive the
which include the notion that humanity can
twelve forms of sons, or eight forms of
progress and has progressed and that moral
marriage, which included capture, and
values are, ultimately, those which favour
recogised mixed and illegitimate
76 Gist of NCERT (History)

human progress. The social reform Indians began to acquire a modern, this-
movements were an embodiment of this new worldly, secular and national outlook in place
humanitarian morality. of a narrow outlook dominated by
Though the reformers tried to reform considerations of caste and religion, though
their religions, their general outlook was the latter tendency by no means came to an
universalistic. Rammohan Roy saw different end. Moreover, more and more people began
religions as particular expression of a to think in terms of promoting their physical
universal God and religious truth. Sayyid and cultural welfare in this world in place of
Ahmad Khan said that prophets had the same passively accepting their lot and waiting for
faith or din and every people had been sent improvement in life after death. These
prophets by God. Keshab Chandra Sen movements also-to some extent ended
expressed the same idea as follows: Our Indias cultural and intellectual isolation from
position is not that truths are to be found in the rest of the world and enabled Indians to
all religions, but all established religions are share in the stream of world ideas. At the
true. same time, they were no longer bewitched
Apart from purely religious by everything in the West; those who copied
considerations, these religious reform the West blindly were increasingly looked
movements fostered among Indians greater down upon. In fact, while adopting a critical
self-respect, self-confidence, and pride in their attitude towards backward elements of
country. By interpreting their religious past traditional religions and culture and
in modern rational terms and by weeding out welcoming positive elements of modern
many of the corrupting and irrational Culture, most of the religious reformers
elements from the 19th century religious opposed blind imitation of the West and
beliefs and practices, the reformers enabled waged an ideological struggle against the
their followers to meet the official taunt that colonialisation of Indian culture and thought.
their religions and society were decadent and The problem here was to maintain a balance
inferior. between the two aspects. Some went too far
The religious reform movements helped in modernisation and tended to encourage
many Indians to come to terms with the colonialisation of culture; others defended
modern world. In fact they arose to recast traditional thought, culture and institutions
the old religions into a new modern mould to the extent of glorifying them and opposing
to suit the needs of new social groups of any introduction of modern ideas and
society. Thus pride in the past did not prevent culture. The best of reformers argued that
Indians from accepting the essential - modern ideas and culture could be best
superiority of the modern world in general imbibed by integrating them into Indian
and modern science in particular. Of course, cultural streams.
some people insisted that they were merely Two negative aspects of the religious
going back to the original, most ancient reform movements may also be noted. Firstly,
scriptures which were suitably interpreted. all of them catered to the needs of a small
As a result of the reformed outlook, many percentage of the population -the urban
middle and upper classes. None of them could
Growth of New India - Religious and Social Reform After 1858 77

reach the vast masses of the peasantry and minded man like Swami Vivekananda talked
the urban poor, who continued by and large of the Indian spirit or Indias past
to lead their lives in the traditional, custom- achievements in this sense alone. These
ridden ways. This was because they basically reformers looked upon the medieval period
gave voice to the urges of the educated and of Indian history as essentially an era of
urban strata of Indian society. decadence. This was not only unhistorical but
The second limitation, which later also socially and politically harmful. It tended
became a major negative factor, was the to create the notion of two separate peoples.
tendency to look backward, appeal to past Similarly an uncritical praise of the ancient
greatness, and to rely on scriptural authority, period and religions could not be fully
these tended to go against the positive acceptable to the persons coming from lower
teachings f the reform movements castes who -had for centuries suffered under
themselves. They undermined to some extent the most destructive caste oppression which
the supremacy of human reason and scientific had developed precisely during the ancient
outlook. period. The result of all these factors was that
They encouraged mysticism in new instead of all Indians taking an equal pride
garbs, and fostered pseudo-scientific in their past material and cultural
thinking. Appeals to past greatness created achievements and deriving inspiration from
false pride and smugness, while the habit of them, the past became a heritage of the few.
finding a Golden Age in the past acted as a Moreover the past itself tended to be torn
check on the full acceptance of modern science into compartments on a partisan basis. Man
and hampered the effort to improve the in the Muslim middle classes went to the
present. But, most of all, there tendencies extent of turning to the history of West Asia
tended to divide Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, and for their traditions and moments of pride.
Parsis as also high caste Hindus from low Increasingly, Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and
caste Hindus. Any over-emphasis on religion Parsis, and later on lower-caste Hindus who
in a country containing many religions was had been influenced by the reform
bound to have a divisive effect. Moreover, movements tended to be different from one
the reformers put a one-sided emphasis on another. On the other hand, the Hindu and
the religious and philosophical aspects of the Muslim masses who followed traditional
cultural heritage. These aspects were, ways untouched by the reform movements
moreover, not a common heritage of all still lived in harmony, practising their
people. On the other hand, art and different religious rituals. To some extent the
architecture, literature, music, science and process of the evolution of a composite
technology, etc., in which all sections of culture that had been going on for centuries
people had played an equal role, were not was arrested; though in other spheres
sufficiently emphasised. national unification of the Indian people was
In addition, the Hindu reformers accelerated. The evil aspects of this
invariably confined their praise of the Indian phenomenon became apparent when it was
past to its ancient period. Even a broad- found that, along with a rapid rise of national
consciousness, another conscious-ness
78 Gist of NCERT (History)

communal consciousness - had begun to rise While social reform was linked with
among the middle classes. Many other factors religious reform in some cases during the
were certainly responsible for the birth of 19th century, in later years it was increasingly
communalism in modern times; but, secular in approach. Moreover, many people
undoubtedly, the nature of the religious who were orthodox in their religious
reform movements also contributed to it. approach participated in it. Similarly, in the
Social Reform beginning social reform had largely been the
effort of newly educated Indians belonging
The major effect of national awakening
in the 19th century was seen in the field of to higher castes to adjust their social
behaviour to the requirements of modem
social reform. The newly educated persons
increasingly revolted against rigid social western culture and values. But gradually it
penetrated down to the lower strata of
conventions and outdated customs. They
could no longer tolerate irrational and society and began to revolutions strata of
dehumanizing social practices. in their revolt society and began to revolutionize and
reconstruct the social sphere. In time the ideas
they were inspired by the humanistic ideals
of social equality and the equal worth of all and ideals of the reformers won almost
universal acceptance and are today enshrined
in the Indian Constitution.
Nearly all the religious reformers con-
tributed to the social reform movement. This The social reform movements tried in
was because the backward features of Indian the main to achieve two objectives: (a) eman-
society, such as the caste system or inequal- cipation of women and extension of equal
ity of the sexes, had religious sanctions in the rights to them; and (b) removal of caste
past. In addition, certain other organisations rigidities and in particular the abolition of
like the Social Conference, Servants of India untouchability.
Society, an, the Christian missionaries worked Emancipation of Women
actively for social reform. Many prominent For countless centuries women in India
persons Jotiba Govind Phule, Gopal Han had been subordinated to men and socially
Deshmukh, Justice Ranade. K T. Telang. B.M. oppressed. The various religions practised in
Malabari. O.K Karve, Sasipada Banerjee, B.C. India as well as the personal laws based on
Pal. Viresalingam, Sri Narayn Guru. E.V. them consigned women to a status inferior
Ramaswami Naiker and B.R. Ambedkar, and to that of men. The condition of upper class
many others - also played an important role. women was in this respect worse than that
In the 20th century, and especially after 1919. of peasant women. Since the latter worked
the national movement became the main actively in the fields alongside men, they
propagator of social reform. Increasingly, the enjoyed relatively greater freedom of
reformers took recourse to propaganda in the movement and in some respects a better
Indian language to reach the masses. They status in the family than the upper class
also used novels, dramas, poetry, short sto- women. For example, they seldom observed
ries, the Press and, in the thirties, the cinema purdah and many of them had the right to
to spread their views. remarry. The traditional view often praised
Growth of New India - Religious and Social Reform After 1858 79

the role of women as wives and mothers but pattern, and do not in any way change the
as individuals, they were assigned a very picture.
lowly social position. They were supposed Moved by the humanitarian and
to have no personality of their own apart egalitarian impulses of the 19th century, the
from their ties to their husbands. They could social reformers started a powerful
not find any other expression to their inborn movement to improve the position of women.
talents or desires except as housewives. In While some reformers appealed to doctrines
fact, they were seen as just adjuncts to men. of individua-lism and equality, others
For example, a woman could only marry once declared that true Hinduism or islam or
among Hindus, a man was permitted to have Zoroastrianism did not sanction the infe-rior
more than one wife. Among Muslims too this status of women and that true religion
custom of polygamy prevailed. In large parts assigned them a high social position.
of the country women had to live behind the Numerous individuals, reform societies;
purdah. and religious organizations worked hard to
The custom of early marriage prevailed, spread education among women, to
and even children of eight or nine were encourage widow remarriage, to improve the
married Widows could not remarry and had living conditions of widows, to prevent
to lead an ascetic and new life. In many parts marriage of young children, to bring women
of the country, the horrifying custom of Bati out of the purdah, to enforce- girl They were
or self-immolation of widows prevailed. bound to assert their monogamy, and to
Hindu women had no right to inherit enable middle class rights as human beings
property, nor did they enjoy the right to women to take up professions or public.
terminate an undesirable marriage. Muslim Another Important development was
women could inherit property but only half employment. After the l880s, when the birth
as much as a man could; and in the matter of of a womens movement in the Dufferin
divorce even theoretically there was no hospitals (named after Lady country. Up to
equality between husband and wife. In fact, the l920s enlightened men Dufferin the wife
Muslim women dreaded divorce. of the Viceroy) were started, efforts were
The social position of Hindu and Muslim made to make modern medicine and child
women as well as their values were similar. delivery techniques available to Indian
Moreover, in both cases they were women.
economically and socially totally dependent The movement for the liberation of the
on men. Lastly, the benefit of education was most outstanding of women received a great
denied to most of them. In addition, women stimulus from the rise of the militant national
were taught to accept their subjection and movement in the 20th century. Women played
even to welcome it as a badge of honour. It an active and important role in the struggle
is true that occasionally women of the for freedom. They participated in large
character and personality of Razia Sultana, numbers in the agitation against the partition
Chand Bibi or Ahilya Bai Holkar arose in of Bengal and in the Home Rule movement.
India. But the were exceptions to the general After 1918, they marched in political
80 Gist of NCERT (History)

processions, picketed shops selling foreign Hindu Succession Act of 1956 made the
cloth and liquor, spun and propagated khadi. daughter an equal co-heir with the son. The
went to jail in the non-cooperation Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 permitted
movements, faced lathis is, tear gas and dissolution of marriage on specific grounds.
bullets during public demonstrations, Monogamy was also made mandatory on
participated actively in the evolutionary men as well as women. But the evil custom
terrorist movement, and voted in elections of dowry still continues even though the
to legislatures and even stood as candidates. demanding of dowry has been banned. The
Sarojini Naidu, the famous poetess, became Constitution gives women equal right to
the president of the National Congress. work and to get employment in state
Several women became ministers or agencies. The Directive Principles of the
parliamentary secretaries in the popular Constitution lay down the principle of equal
ministries of 1937. Hundreds of them became pay for equal work for both men and women.
members of municipalities and other organs Of course many visible and invisible obstacles
of local government. When the trade union still remain in putting the principle of the
and kisan movements arose in the 1920s, equality of sexes into practice. A proper social
women were often found in their forefront. climate has still to be created. But the social
More than any other factor, participation in reform movements, the freedom struggle,
the national movement contributed to the womens own movement, and the
awakening of Indian women and their Constitution of free India have made a big
emancipation. For how could those who had contribution in this direction.
braved British jails and bullets be declared Struggle Against Caste
inferior. And how could they any longer be The caste system was another major
confined to the home and be satisfied with
target of attack for the social reform
the life of a doll or a slave girl? They were
movement. The Hindus were at this time
bound to assert their rights as human beings. divided into numerous castes (jatis). The
Another important development was caste into which a man was born determined
the birth of a womens movement in the large areas of his life. It determined whom
country. Up to the 1920s enlightened men had he would marry and with whom he would
worked for the uplift of women. Now aware dine. It largely determined his profession as
and self-confident women under-took the also his social loyalties. Moreover, the castes
task. They started many organisations and were carefully graded into a hierarchy of
institutions for the purpose, the most status. At the bottom of the ladder came the
outstanding of which was the All India untouchables or scheduled castes as they
Womens Conference founded in 1927. came to be called later, who formed about 20
Womens struggle for equality took a per cent of the Hindu population. The
big step forward with the coming of untouchables suffered from numerous and
independence. Articles 14 and 15 of the severe disabilities and restrictions, which of
Indian Constitution (1950) guaranteed the course varied from place to place. Their touch
complete equality of men and women. The was considered impure and was a source of
Growth of New India - Religious and Social Reform After 1858 81

pollution. In some parts of the country, railways and buses and growing urbanisation
particularly in the south, their very shadow made it difficult to prevent mass contact
was to be avoided, so that they had to move among persons of different castes, especially
away if a brahrnin was seen or heard coming. in the cities. Modern commerce and industry
An untouchables dress, food, place of opened new fields of economic activity to all.
residence, all were carefully regulated. He For example, a brahmin or upper caste
could not draw water from wells and tanks merchant could hardly miss the opportunity
used by the higher castes; he could do so only of trading in skins or shoes nor would he
from wells and tanks specially reserved for agree to deny himself the opportunity of
untouchables. Where no such well or tank becoming a doctor or a soldier. Free sale of
existed, he had to drink dirty water from land upset the caste balance in many villages.
ponds and irrigation canals. He could not The close connection between caste and
enter the Hindu temples or study the vocation could hardly continue, in a modern
shastras. Often his children could not attend industrial society in which the profit motive
a school in which the children of caste Hindus was increasingly becoming dominant.
studied. Public services such as the police and In administration, the British intro-
the army were closed to him. The duced equality before law, took away the
untouchables were forced to take up menial judicial functions of caste panchayats, and
and other such jobs which were considered gradually opened the doors of administrative
unclean, for example, scavenging, shoe- services to all castes. Moreover, the new
making, removing dead bodies, skinning educational system was wholly secular and,
dead animals, tanning hides and, skins. therefore, basically opposed to caste
Usually denied ownership of land, many of distinctions and .caste outlook.As modern
them worked even as tenants-at-will and democratic and rationalist ideas spread
field labourers. among Indians, they began to raise their voice
The caste system was an evil in another against the caste system. The Brahmo Samaj,
respect. Not only was it humiliating and the Prarthana Samaj, Arya Samaj the
inhuman and based on the anti-democratic Ramakrishna Mission, the Theosophists, the
principle of inequality by birth, it was a cause Social Conference, and nearly all the great
of social disintegration. It splintered people reformers of the 19th century, attacked it.
into numerous groups. In modern times it Even though many of them defended the
became a major obstacle in the growth of a system of four varnas, they were critical of
united national feeling and the spread of the caste (Jan) system. In particular they
democracy. It may also be noted that caste condemned the inhuman practice of
consciousness particularly with regard to untouchability. They also realised that
marriage prevailed also among Muslims, national unity and national progress in
Christians, and Sikhs, who practised political, social and economic fields could not
untouchability though in a less virulent form. be achieved so long as millions were
British rule released many forces which deprived of their right to live with dignity
gradually undermined the caste system. The and honour.
introduction of modern industries and
82 Gist of NCERT (History)

The growth of the national movement As education and awakening spread,

played a significant role in weakening the the lower castes themselves began to stir.
caste system. The national movement was They became conscious of their basic human
opposed to all those institutions which rights and began to rise in defence of these
tended to divide Indian people. Common rights. They gradually built up a powerful
participation in public demonstrations, giant movement against the tradi-tional oppression
public meetings, and satyagraha struggles by the higher castes. In Maharashtra, in the
weakened caste consciousness. In any case second half of the 19th century, Jyotiba Phule,
those who were fighting for freedom from born in a lower caste family, led a lifelong
foreign rule in the name of liberty and movement against Brahmanical religious
equality could hardly support the caste authority as part of his struggle against upper
system which was totally opposed to these caste domination. He regarded modern
principles. Thus, from the beginning, the education as the most important weapon for
Indian National Congress and in fact the the liberation of the lower castes He was the
entire national movement opposed. caste first to open several schools for girls of the
privileges and fought for equal civic rights lower castes. Dr; B.R. Ambedkar, who
and equal freedom for the development of belonged to one of the scheduled castes,
the individual without distinctions of caste, devoted his entire life to fighting against caste
sex or religion. tyranny. He organised the All India Scheduled
All his life Gandhiji kept the abolition Castes Federation for the purpose. Several
of untouchability in the forefront of his public other scheduled caste leaders founded the
activities. In 1932, he founded the All India All India Depressed Classes Association. In
Harijan Sangh for the purpose. His campaign Kerala, Sri Narayan Guru organised a life
for the root and removal ounrnuchability long struggle against the caste system. He
was on the grounds of humanism and reason. coined the famous slogan: One religion, one
He argued that there was no sanction for caste and one God for mankind. In south
untouchability in Hindu shastras. But, if any India, the nonbrahmins organised during the
shastra approved of untouchability, it should 1920s the Self-Respect Movement to fight the
be ignored for it would then .be going against disabilities which brahmins had imposed
human dignity. Truth, he said, could not be upon them. Numerous sat agraha movements
confined within the covers of a book. were organised all over India jointly by the
Since the middle of the 19th century, upper and depressed castes against the ban
numerous individuals and organizations on the latters entry into temples and other
worked to spread education among the such restrictions.
untouchables (or depressed classes and The struggle against untouchability
scheduled castes as they came to be called could not, however, be fully successful under
later), to open the doors of schools and tem- alien rule. The foreign government was afraid
ples to them, to enable them to use public of arousing the hostility of the orthodox
wells and tanks, and to remove other social sections of society. Only the government of a
disabilities and distinctions from which they free India could under-take a radical reform
suffered. of society. Moreover, the problem of social
Growth of New India - Religious and Social Reform After 1858 83

uplift was closely related to the problem of further forbids any restriction the use of
political and economic uplift. for example, wells, tanks, and bathing ghats, or on the
economic progress was essential for raising access to shops, restaurants, hotels and
the social status of the depressed castes; so cinemas. Furthermore, one of the Directive
also were the spread of education and Principles it has laid down for the guidance
political rights. This was fully recognised by of the government says: The State shall
Indian leaders. strive to promote the welfare of the people
The Constitution of 1950 has provided by securing and protecting as effectively as
the legal framework for the final abolition of it may a social order in which justice, social,
untouchability. It has declared that economic and political, shall inform all the
untouchability is abolished and its practice institutions of the national life. The struggle
in any form is forbidden. The endorsement against the evils of the caste system, however,
of any disability arising out of still remains an urgent task before the Indian
untouchability shall be an offence punishable people, especially in the rural areas.
in accordance with law. The Constitution

Gist of NCERT

Indian Economy
ISBN: 9789351720256
Book Code: F22
Gist of NCERT (History)


The Partition of Bengal pointed out that administrative efficiency

The conditions for the emergence of could have been better secured by separating
militant nationalism had thus developed the Hindi speaking Bihar and the Oriya
when in 1905 the partition of Bengal was speaking Orissa from the Bengali speaking
announced and the Indian national movement part of the province. Moreover the official
entered its second stage. On Curzon issued step had been taken in utter disregard of
an order dividing the province of Bengal into public opinion. Thus the vehemence of
two parts: Eastern Bengal and Assam with a Bengals protest against the partition is
population of 31 million and the rest of Bengal explained by the fact that it was a blow to
with a population of 54 million, of whom 18 the sentiments of a very sensitive and
million were Bengalis and 36 million Biharis courageous people.
and Oriyas. It was said that the existing The Anti-Partition Movement
province of Bengal was-too big to be The Anti-Partition Movement was the
efficiently administered by a single provincial work of the entire national leadership of
government. However, the officials who Bengal and not of any one section of the
worked out the plan had also other political movement. Its most prominent leaders at the
ends in view. They hoped to stem the rising initial stage were moderate leaders like
tide of nation-alism in Bengal, considered at Surendranath Banerjea and Krishna Kumar
the time to be the nerve centre of Indian Mitra; militant and revolutionary nationalists
nation-alism. took over in the later stages. In fact both the
The nationalists saw the act of partition moderate and militant The Anti-Partition
as a challenge to Indian nationalism and not Movement was initiated on 7 August 1905.
merely an adminis-trative measure. They saw On that day a massive demonstration against
that it was a deliberate attempt to divide the the partition was organised in the Town Hall
Bengalis territorially and on religious in Calcutta. From this meeting delegates
grounds for in the Eastern part Muslims dispersed to spread the movement to the rest
would be in a big majority and in the Western of the province.
part Hindus and thus to disrupt and weaken The partition took effect on 16 October
nationalism in Bengal. 1905. The leaders of the protest movement
It would also be a big blow to the declared it to be a day of national mourning
growth of Bengali language and culture. They throughout Bengal. It was observed as a day
Nationalist Movement 85

of fasting. There was a hartal in Calcutta. reliance or Atmasakti. Self-reliance meant

People walked barefooted and bathed in the assertion of national dignity, honour and self
Ganga in the early morning hours. confidence. In the eco-nomic field, it meant
Rabindranath Tagore composed the national fostering indigenous industrial and other
song, Amar Sonar Bangla, for the occasion enterprises. Many textile mills, soap and
which was sung by huge crowds parading match factories, handloom weaving concerns,
the streets. This song was adopted as its national banks, and insurance companies
national anthem by Bangladesh in 1971 after were opened. Acharya P.C. Ray organised his
liberation. The streets of Calcutta were full famous Bengal Chemical Swadeshi Stores.
of the cries of Bande Mataram which Even the great poet Rabindranath Tagore
overnight became the national song of Bengal helped to open a Swadeshi store.
and which was soon to become the theme The Swadeshi Movement had several
song of the national movement. The consequences in the realm of culture. There
ceremony of Raksha Bandhan was utilised in was a flowering of nationalist poetry, prose
a new way. Hindu and Muslims tied the rakhi and journalism. The patriotic songs written
on one anothers wrists as a symbol of the at the time by poets like Rabindranath
unbreakable unity of the Bengalis and of the Tagore, Rajani Kant Sen. Syed Abu Moham-
two halves of Bengal. med and Mukunda Das are sung in Bengal
to this day. Another self-reliant, constructive
In the afternoon, there was a great
activity undertaken at the time was that of
demonstration when the veteran leader
National Education. National educational
Ananda Mohan Bose laid the foundation of
institutions where literary, technical, or physi-
a Federation Hall to mark the indestructible
cal education was imparted were opened by
unity of Bengal. He addressed a crowd of
nationalists who regarded the existing sys-
over 50,000.
tem of education as denation-alising and, in
The Swadeshi and Boycott any case, inadequate. On 15 August 1906, a
The Bengal leaders felt that mere National Council of Education was set up. A
demonstrations, public meetings and National College with Aurobindo Ghose as
resolutions were not likely to have much Principal was started in Calcutta.
effect on the rulers. More positive action that The Role of Students,
would reveal the intensity of popular feelings Women, Muslims and the Masses
and exhibit them at their best was needed. A prominent part in the Swadeshi
The answer was Swadeshi and Boycott. Mass agitation was played by the students of
meetings were held all over Bengal where Bengal. They practised and propagated
Swadeshi or the use of Indian goods and the Swadeshi and took the lead in organising
boycott of British goods were proclaimed and picketing of shops selling foreign cloth. The
pledged. in many places public burning of government made every attempt to suppress
foreign cloth were organised and shops the students. Orders were issued to penalise
selling foreign cloth were picketed. those schools and colleges whose students
An important aspect of the Swadeshi took an active part in the Swadeshi agitation;
Movement was the emphasis placed on self their grants-in-aid and other privileges were
86 Gist of NCERT (History)

to be with-drawn, they were to be All India Aspect of the Movement

disaffiliated, their students were not to he The cry of Swadeshi and Swaraj was
permitted to compete for scholarships and soon taken up by other provinces of India.
were to be barred from all service under the Movements in support of Bengals unity and
government. boycott of foreign goods were organized in
Disciplinary action was taken against Bombay, Madras and northern India. The
students found guilty of anticipating in the leading role in spreading the Swadeshi Move-
nationalist agitation. Many of them were ment to the rest of the country was played
fined, expelled from schools and colleges, by Tilak. Tilak quickly saw that with the in-
arrested, and sometimes beaten by the police auguration of this movement in Bengal, a new
with lathis. chapter in the history of Indian nationalism
The students, however, refused to be had opened. Here was a challenge and an
cowed down. A remarkable aspect of the opportunity to lead ? popular struggle against
Swadeshi agitation was the active the British Raj and to unite the entire coun-
participation of women in the movement. The try in one bond of common sympathy.
traditionally home-centred women of the Growth of Militancy
urban middle classes joined processions and The leadership of the Anti-Partition
picketing. From then on they were to take Movement soon passed to militant
an active part in the nationalist movement. nationalists like Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and
Many prominent Muslims joined the Aurobindo Ghose. This was due to many
Swadeshi Movement including Abdul Rasul, factors.
the famous barrister, Liaquat Hussain, the Firstly, the early movement of protest
popular agitator, and Guznavi, the led by the Moderates failed to yield results.
businessman. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Even the Liberal Secretary of State, John
joined one of the revolutionary terrorist Morley, from whom much was expected by
groups. Many other middle and upper class the moderate nationalists, declared the
Muslims, however, remained neutral or, led Partition to be a settled fact which would not
by the Nawab of Dhaka, (who was given a be changed. Secondly, the Governments of
loan of Rs. 14 lakh by the Government of the two Bengals, parti-cularly of hast Bengal,
India), even supported Partition on the plea made active efforts to divide Hindus and
that East Bengal would have a Muslim Muslims. Seeds of Hindu-Muslim disunity in
majority. In this communal attitude, the Bengal politics were perhaps sown at this
Nawab of Dhaka and others were encouraged time. This embittered the nationalists. But,
by the officials. In a speech at Dhaka, Lord most of all, it was the repressive policy of
Curzon declared that one of the reasons for the government which led people to militant
the partition was to invest the and revolutionary politics. The Government
Mohammedans in Eastern Bengal with a of East Bengal, in particular, tried to crush
unity which they have not enjoyed since the the nationalist movement. Official attempts
days of the old Mussalman Viceroys and at preventing student participation in the
Kings. Swadeshi agitation have already been
Nationalist Movement 87

mentioned above. The singing of Bande condition impossible. The militant nationalist
Mataram in public streets in East Bengal was tried to transform the Swadeshi and Anti
banned. Public meetings were restricted and Partition agitation into a mass movement and
sometimes forbidden. Laws controlling the gave the slogan of independence from foreign
Press were enacted. Swadeshi workers were rule. Aurobindo Ghose openly declared:
prosecuted and imprisoned for long periods. Political freedom is the life breath of a nation.
Many students were awarded even corporal Thus, the question of partition of Bengal
punishment. From 1906 to 1909, more than became a secondary one and the question of
550 political cases came up before Bengal India s freedom became the central question
courts. Prosecutions against a large number of Indian politics. The militant nationalists
of nationalist newspapers were launched and also gave the call for self-sacrifice without
freedom of the Press was completely which no great aim could be achieved.
suppressed Military police was stationed in It should be remembered, however, that
many towns where it clashed with the the militant nationalists also failed in giving
people. One of the most notorious examples a positive lead to the people. They were not
of repression was the police assault on the able to give effective leadership or to create
peaceful delegates of the Bengal Provincial an effective organisation to guide their
Conference at Barisal in April 1906. Many of movement. They aroused the people but did
the young volunteers were severely beaten not know how to harness or utilise the newly
up and the Conference itself was forcibly released energies of the people or to find new
dispersed. In December 1908, nine Bengal forms of political struggle. Passive resistance
leader, including the venerable Krishna and non-cooperation -remained mere ideas.
Kumar Mitra and Ashwini Kumar Dutt, were They also failed to reach the real masses of
deported. Earlier, in 1907, Lala Lajpat Rai and the country, the peasants. Their movement
Ajit Singh had been deported following riots remained confined to the urban lower and
in the canal colonies of the Punjab. In 1908, middle classes and zamindars. They had come
the great Tilak was again arrested and given to a political dead end by the beginning of
the savage sentence of 6 years imprisonment. 1908. Consequently, the government
Chidambaram Pillai in Madras and succeeded to a large extent in suppressing
Harisarvottam Rao and other in Andhrawere them.
put behind bars. Their movement could not survive the
As the militant nationalists came to the arrest of their main leader, Tilak and the
fore, they gave the call for passive resistance retirement from active politics of Bipin
in addition to Swadeshi and Boycott. They Chandra Pal and Aurobind Ghose.
asked the people to refuse to cooperate with But the upsurge of nationalist sentiments
the Government and to boycott government could not die. People had been aroused from
service, the courts, government school and their slumber of centuries; they had learned
colleges and municipalities and legislative to take a bold and fearless attitude in politics.
councils, and thus, as Aurobindo Ghose put They had acquired self-confidence and self-
it, to make the administration under present reliance and learnt to participate in new
88 Gist of NCERT (History)

forms of mass mobilization and political society of revolutionaries. After 1905, several
action. They now waited for a new newspapers had begun to advocate
movement to arise. Moreover, they were able revolutionary terrorism. The Sandhya the
to learn valuable lessons from their Yugantar in Bengal and the Kal in
experience. Gandhiji wrote later that after Maharashtra were the most prominent
the Partition, people saw that petitions must among them.
be backed up by force and that they must be In December 1907 an attempt was made
capable of suffering. The Anti-Partition to the life of the Lieutenant Governor of
agitation in fact marked a great Bengal, and in April 1908 Khudiram Bose and
revolutionary leap forward for Indian Prafulla Chaki threw a bomb at a carriage
nationalism. The later national movement which they believed was occupied by
was to draw heavily on its legacy. Kingsford, the unpopular Judge at
Growth of Revolutionary Nationalism Muzaffarpur. Prafulla Chaki shot himself
Government repression and frustration dead while Khudi Boss tried and hanged. The
caused by the failure of the leadership to era or revolutionary terrorism had begun.
provide a positive lead to the people Many secret societies of terrorist youth came
ultimately resulted in revolutionary into existence. The most famous of these were
terrorism. The youth of Bengal found all the Anushilan Samiti whose Dhaka Section
avenues of peaceful protest and political alone had 500 branches, and soon
action blocked and out of desperation they revolutionary terrorist societies became I
fell back upon individual heroic action and active in the rest of the country also. They
the cult of the bomb. They no longer believed became so bold as to throw a bomb at the
that passive resistance could achieve Viceroy Lord Hardinge, while he was riding
nationalist aims. The British must, therefore, on an elephant m a state procession at Delhi.
be physically expelled. As the Yugantar wrote The Viceroy was wounded.
on 22 April 1906 after the Barisal Conference: The revolutionaries also established cen-
The remedy lies with the people themselves. tres of activity abroad. In London, the lead
The 30 crores of people inhabiting India must was taken by Shri Krisbnavarma, V.D.
raise their 60 crores of hands to stop this curse Savarkar, and Har Dayal, while in Europe
of oppression. Force must be stopped by Madame Cama and Ajit Singh were the
force. But the revolutionary young men did prominent leaders. Terrorism too gradually
not try to generate a mass revolution. Instead, petered out. In fact, terrorism as a political
they decided to copy the methods of the Irish weapon was bound to fail It could not mobi-
terrorists and the Russian Nihilists, that is, lize the masses; in fact it had no base among
to assassinate unpopular officials. A the people. But the terrorist did- make a valu-
able contribution growth of nationalism in
beginning had been made in this direction
India. As historian has put it, they gave us
when, in 1897, the Chapekar brothers
back the pride of our manhood. Because of
assassinated two unpopular British officials
their heroism, the terrorists became im-
at Poona. In 1904, V.D. Savarkar had
mensely popular among their compatriots
organized the Abhinava Bharat a secret
even though most of the politically conscious
Nationalist Movement 89

people did not agree with their political ap- pew stage of the national movement. The
proach. militant nationalists, on the other hand, were
The Indian National Congress 1905-1914 not willing to be held back. The split between
The agitation against the partition of the two came at the Surat accession of the
Bengal made a deep impact on the Indian National Congress in December 1907. The
National Congress. All sections of the moderate leaders having captured the
National Congress united in opposing the machinery of the Congress excluded the
Partition. its session of 1905, Gokhale the militant elements from it.
President of the Congress, roundly But, in the long run, the split did not
condemned the Partition as well as the prove useful to either party. The moderate
National Congress also supported the leaders lost touch with the younger
Swadeshi and Boycott Movement of Bengal. generation of nationalists. The British
There was much public debate and Government played the game of Divide and
disagreement between the moderate and the Rule. While suppressing the militant
militant nationalists. The latter wanted to nationalists, it tried to win over moderate
extend the Swadeshi and Boycott movement nationalist opinion so that the militant
from Bengal to the rest of the country and to nationalists could be isolated and suppressed.
extend the Boycott to every form of To placate the moderate nationalists: it
association with the colonial government. The announced constitutional concessions
Moderates wanted to confine the Boycott through the Indian Councils Act of 1909
movement to Bengal and even there to limit which are known as the Morle Minto Reforms
it to the boycott of foreign goods. There was of 1909. In 1911, the Government also
a tussle between the two groups for the announced the annulment of the Partition of
president ship of the National Congress for Bengal. Western and Eastern Bengals were
that year (1906). In the end, Dadabhai to be reunited while a new province
Naoroji, respected by all nationalists as a great consisting of Bihar and Orissa was to be
patriot, was chosen as a compromise. created at the same time the seat of the
Dadabhai electrified the nationalist ranks by Central Government was shifted from
openly declaring in his presidential address Calcutta to Delhi.
that the goal of the Indian national movement The Morley-Minto Reforms increased
was self-government or Swaraj like that of the number of elected members in the
the United Kingdom or the Colonies. Imperial Legislative Council and the
But the differences dividing the two provincial councils. But most of the elected
wings of the nationalist movement could not members were elected indirectly, by the
be kept in check for long. Many of the provincial councils in the case of the Imperial
moderate nationalists did not keep pace with Council and by municipal committees and
events. They were not able to see that their district boards in the case of provincial
outlook and methods, which had served a councils. Some of the elected seats were
real purpose in the past, were no longer reserved for landlords and British capitalists
adequate. They had failed to advance to the in India. For instance, of the 68 members of
90 Gist of NCERT (History)

the Imperial Legislative Council, 36 were cannot be the basis of political and economic
officials and 5 were nominated non officials. interests or of political groupings. What is
Of the 27 elected members, 6 were to even more important, this system proved
represent the big landlords and 2 the British extremely harmful in practice. It checked the
capitalists. Moreover, the reformed councils progress of Indias unification which had
still enjoyed no real power, being merely been a, continuous historical process. It
advisory bodies. The reforms in no way became a potent factor in the growth of
changed the undemocratic and foreign communalism -both Muslim and Hindu- in
character of British rule or the fact of foreign the country. Instead of removing the
economic exploitation of the country. They educational and economic backwardness of
were, in fact, not designed to democratize the middle class Muslims and thus integrating
Indian adminis-tration. Morley openly them into the mainstream of Indian
declared at the, time: If it could be said that nationalism, the system of separate
this chapter of reforms led directly or electorates ended to perpetuate their
necessarily to the establishment of a isolation from the developing nationalist
parliamentary system in India, I for one movement. It encouraged separatist
would have nothing at all to do with it. His tendencies. It prevented people from
successor as the Secretary of Sate, Lord concentrating on economic and political
Crewe, further clarified the position in 1912. problems which were common to all Indians,
There is a certain section in India which Hindu or Muslim.
looks forward to a measure of self- The moderate nationalists did not fully
government approaching that which has been support the Morley-Minto Reforms. They
granted in the dominions. I see no future for soon realised that the Reforms had not really
India on those lines. The real purpose of the granted much. But they decided to cooperate
Reforms of 1909 was to confuse the moderate with the government in working the reforms.
nationalists to divide the nationalist ranks, This cooperation with the government and
and to check the growth of unity among their opposition to the programme of the
Indians. militant nationalists proved very costly to
The Reforms also introduced the system them. They gradually lost the respect and
of separate electorates under which all support of the public and were reduced to a
Muslims were grouped in separate small political group.
constituencies from which Muslims alone The Nationalist and the First World War
could be elected. This was done in the name In June 1914, the First World War broke
of protecting the Muslim minority. Bi in
out between Great Britain, France, Russia and
reality this was a part of the policy of dividing Japan on one side (joined later by Italy and
Hindus and Muslims and thus maintaining
USA), and Germany, Austria-Hungary, and
British supremacy in India. The system of
Turkey on the other. In India the years of the
separate electorates was based on the notion War marked the maturing of nationalism.
that the political and economic interests of
In the beginning, the Indian nationalist
Hindus and Muslims were separate. This
leaders, including Lokamanya Tilak, who had
notion wasunscientific because religions
Nationalist Movement 91

been released in June 1914, decided to Indian people, and S. Subramaniya Iyer. The
support the way effort of the government in two Home Rule Leagues worked in
the mistaken belief that grateful Britain cooperation and carried out intense
would repay Indias loyalty with gratitude propaganda all over the country in favour of
and enable India to take a long step forward the demand for the grant of Home Rule or
on the road to self-government. They did not self-government to India after the War. It was
realise fully that the different powers were during this agitation that Tilak gave the
fighting the First World War precisely to popular slogan: Home Rule is my birthright
safeguard their existing colonies. and I will have it. The two Leagues made
The Home Rule Leagues rapid progress and the cry of Home Rule
At the same time, many Indian leaders resounded throughout the length and
breadth of India. Many moderate nation-
saw clearly that the Government was not
likely to give any real concessions unless alists, who were dissatisfied with the
popular pressure was brought to bear upon Congress inactivity, joined the Home Rule
agitation. The Home Rule Leagues soon
it. Hence, a real mass political movement was
necessary. Some other factors were leading attracted the governments anger. In June
1917, Annie Besant was arrested. Popular
the nationalist movement in the same
direction. The World War, involving mutual protest forced the govern-ment to release her
in September 1917.
struggle between the imperialist powers of
Europe, destroyed the myth of the racial The war period also witnessed the
superiority of western nations over the Asian growth of the revolutionary movement. The
peoples. Moreover the War led to increased terrorist, groups spread from Bengal and
misery among the poorer classes of Indians. Maharashtra to the whole of northern India.
For them the War had meant heavy taxation Moreover, man Indians began to plan a
and soaring prices of the daily necessities of violent rebellion to overthrow British rule.
life. They were getting ready to join any Indian revolutionaries in the United States
militant movement of protest. Consequently, of America and Canada had established the.
the war years were years of intense Ghadar (Rebellion) Party in 1913. Most of the
nationalist political agitation. members of the party were Punjabi Sikh
But this mass agitation could not be peasants and ex-soldiers, who had migrated
carried out under the leadership of the there in search of livelihood, and who faced
the fun brunt of racial and economic
Indian National Congress, which had
become, under Moderate leadership, a discrimination. Lala Har Dayal, Mohammed
Barkatullah, Bhagwan Singh, Ram Chandra
passive and inert political organisation with
no political work among the people to its and Sohan, Singh Bhakna were some of the
prominent leaders of the Ghadar Party. The
credit. Therefore, two Home Rule Leagues
party was built around the weekly paper the
were started in 1915 16, one under the
leadership of Lokamanya Tilak and the other Ghadar which, carried the caption on the
masthead: Angrezi Ka Dushman (An Enemy
under the leadership of Annie Besant, an
English admirer of Indian culture and the of British Rule). Wanted brave soldiers, the
Ghadar declared, to Stir up Rebellion in
92 Gist of NCERT (History)

India. Pay death; Price -martyrdom Pension Gurmukh Singh, Kartar Singh Saraba, Sohan
liberty; Field of Battle India. The ideology Singh Bhakna, Rahmat Ali Shah, Bhai
of the party was strongly secular. In the Parmanand, and Mohammad Barkatullah.
words of Sohan Singh Bhakna, who later Inspired by the Ghadar Party, 700 men
became a major peasant leader of Punjab: We of the 5th Light Infantry at Singapore
were not Sikhs or Punjabis. Our religion was revolted under the leadership of Jamadar
patriotism. The party had active members Chisti Khan and Subedar Dundey Khan. They
in other countries such as Mexico, Japan, were crushed after a bitter battle in which
China, Philippines, Malaya, Singapore, many died. Thirty-seven other were publicly
Thailand, Indo-China and East and South executed, while 41 were transported for life.
Africa. Other revolutionaries were active in
The Ghadar Party was pledged to wage India and abroad. In 191 during an unsuc-
revolutionary war against the British in India. cessful revolutionary attempt Jatin Mukherjee
As soon at the First World War broke out in popularly known as Bagha Jatin gave his life
1914, the Ghadarites decided to send arms fighting a battle with the police at Balasore.
and men to India to start an uprising with Rash Bihari Bose, Raja Mahendra Pratap, Lala
the help of soldiers and local revolutionaries. Hardayal, Abdu1 Rahim, Maulana
Several thousand men volunteered to go back Obaidullah Sindhi, Champa-karaman Pillai,
to India. Millions of dollars were contributed Sardar Singh Rana, and Madame Cama were
to pay for their expenses. Many gave their some of the prominent Indians who carried
life-long savings and sold lands and other on revolution-ary activities and propaganda
property. The Ghadarites also contacted outside India where they gathered the sup-
Indian soldiers in the Far East, South-East port of socialists and other anti-imperialists.
Asia and all over India and per-suaded Lucknow Session of the Congress (1916).
several regiments to rebel. Finally, 21 The nationalists soon saw that disunity
February 1915 was fixed as the date for an in their ranks was injuring their cause and
armed revolt in the Punjab. Unfortunately, that they must put up a united front before
the authorities came to know of these plans the Government. The growing nationalist
and took immediate action. The rebellious feeling in the country and the urge for
regiments were disbanded and their leaders national unity produced two historic
were either imprisoned or hanged. For developments at the Lucknow session of the
example, 12 men of the 23rd Cavalry were Indian National Congress in 1916. Firstly, the
executed. The leaders and members of the two wings of the Congress were reunited.
Ghadar Party in the Punjab were arrested on The old contro-versies had lost their meaning
a mass scale and tried. Forty-two of them and the split in the Congress had led to
were hanged, 114 were transported for life, political inactivity. Tilak, released from jail in
and 93 were sentenced to long terms of 1914, immediately saw the change in the
imprisonment. Many of them after their situation and set out to unify the two streams
release founded the Kirti and Communist of Congressmen. To conciliate the moderate
movements in the Punjab. Some of the nationalists, he declared:
prominent Ghadar leaders were: Baba
Nationalist Movement 93

I may state once for all that we are members. It gradually began to outgrow the
trying in India, as the Irish Home rulers have limited political outlook of the Aligarh school
been all along doing in Ireland, for a reform of thought and moved nearer to the policies
of the system of administration and not for of the Congress.
the Over throw of Government; and I have The Unity between the congress and the
no hesitation in saying that the acts of league was brought about by the singing of
violence which have been committed in the the Congress-league pact, known popularly
different parts of India are not only as the Lucknow pact. An important role in
repugnant to me, but have, in my opinion, bringing the two together was played by
only unfortunately retarded to a great extent, Lokamanya Tilak and Mohammed Au Jinnah
the pace of our political progress. because the two believed that India could win
On the other hand, the rising tide of self- government only through Hindu-
nationalism compelled the old leaders to Muslim unity. Tilak declared at the time It
welcome back into the Congress Lokamanya has been said, gentlemen, by some that we
Tilak and other militant nationalists. The Hindus have yielded too much to our
Lucknow Congress was the first united Mohammedan brethren. I am Sure I
Congress since 1907. It demanded further represent the sense of the Hindu community
constitutional reforms as a step towards self- all over India when I say that we could not
government. have yielded to much. I would not care if
Secondly, at Lucknow, the Congress and the rights of self- government are granted to
the All India Muslim League sank their old the Mohammedan community only- ... I
differences and put up common political would not care if they are granted to the
demands before the Government While the lower and the lowest classes of the Hindu
War and the two Home Rule Leagues were population. ... When we have to fight, against
creating a new sentiment in the country and a third party, it is a very important thing that
changing the character of the Congress, the we stand on this platform united, united in
Muslim League had also been undergoing race, united In religion, as regard all different
gradual changes. We have already noted shades of political creed.
earlier that the younger section of the The two organisations passed the same
educated Muslims was turning to bolder resolutions at their sessions, put forward a
nationalist politics. The War period witnessed joint scheme of political reforms based on
further developments in that direction. separate electorates, and demanded that the
Consequently, in 1914, the government British Government should make a
suppressed the publication of the Al-Hilal of declaration that it would confer self-
Abul Kalam Azad and the Comrade of government on India at an early date. The
Maulana Mohamed Ali. It also interned the Lucknow Pact marked an important step
Ali Brothers Maulanas Mohamed Ali and forward in Hindu-Muslim unity.
Shaukat Ali and Hasrat Mohani and Abul Unfortunately, it did not involve the Hindu
Kalam Azad. The League reflected, a least and Muslim masses and it accepted the
partially, the political militancy of its younger pernicious principle of separate electorates.
94 Gist of NCERT (History)

It was based on the notion of bringing Large number of radicial nationalist and
together the educated Hindus and Muslims revolutionaries had been jailed or interned
as separate political entities; in other words, under the notorious Defence of India Act and
without secularization of their political other similar regulations. The government
outlook which would make them realize that now decided to appease nationalist opinion
in politics they had no separate interests as and announced on 20 August 1917 that its
Hindus or Muslims. The Lucknow Pact, policy in India was the gradual development
therefore, left the way open to future of self-governing institutions with a view to
resurgence of communalism in India politics. the progressive realization of Responsible
But the immediate effect of the Government of India as an integral part of
developments at Lucknow was tremendous. the British Empire. And in July 1918 the
The unity between the moderate nationalist Montague Chelmsford Reforms were
and between the National Congress and the announced. But Indian nationalism was n
Muslim League aroused great political appeared. Infact, the Indian national
enthusiasm in the country. Even the British movement was soon to enter its third and
Government felt it necessary to placate the last phase- the era of mass struggle or the
nationalists. Hitherto it had relied heavily on Ghandian Era.
repression to quieten the nationalist agitation.

Gist of NCERT

General Science
ISBN: 9789351720188
Book Code: F20
Nationalist Movement 95


1. Consider the following statements and been found in Mundaka

mark the option which is correct. Upanishada.
(i) The last 11 hymns are known as (ii) Gaytri Mantra is dedicated to
Balakhilya which are considered as Soma, who was deity of Sun family.
the oldest part of Rigveda. (iii) Veda means knowledge.
(ii) Mandalas are further divided into (iv) Rigveda is divided into 10
Astakas and upanishadas. Mandalas.
(iii) Rigveda comprises of 1028 hymns. (a) i, ii, iii & iv (b) iii only
(iv) Third Mandala of Rigveda is (c) i, iv (d) iii & iv
composed by Manu. 4. Consider the following statements and
(a) i, ii & iii (b) ii, iii & iv mark the option which is correct.
(c) i & iii (d) all of the above. (i) Atharvaveda is related to some
2. Consider the following statements and Non-Aryan traditions like magical
mark the option which is correct. charm & spell.
(i) The third Mandala of Rigveda (ii) Somaveda is an elaborate
comprises of Gayatri Mantra, elucidation of Rituals.
composed by Viswamitra. (iii) Aitreya and Kausilaki Brahmanas
(ii) Fourth Mandala depicts the word are related with Rigveda.
Haryupia which has been related (iv) Satpath Brahamana, related with
with Harappa. Yajurveda, describes about Aryans
(iii) Ninth Mandal is dedicated to extention in Gangeticvalley.
Soma. (a) ii & iv (b) ii only
(iv) Tenth Mandala describes about the (c) i, iii & iv (d) all of the above.
four varnas. 5. Consider the following statements and
(a) i, iii & iv mark the option which is correct.
(b) i, ii & iv (i) Aryankas are philosophical in
(c) i, ii, iii & iv (d) i only content.
3. Consider the following statements and (ii) Rituals related to agriculture have
mark the option which is correct. also been described in Satpath
(i) First type Krishnas description has Brahman related with Yajurveda.
96 Gist of NCERT (History)

(iii) Upanishadas are called Vedanta. (iii) Tenth Mandal is dedicated to

(iv) Total number of Upanishadas are Soma.
108, but according to (iv) Philosophy about unity of Atma &
Shankracharya number of Parmatma has been described in
Upanishadas is 15. Upanishadas.
(a) i & iii (a) all of the above
(b) all of the above. (b) iii only (c) i, ii & iv
(c) none of the above (d) none of the above.
(d) i, ii & iii 9. Consider the following statements and
6. Which of the following is not correct mark the option which is correct.
regarding the Upanishadas? (i) The second to seventh Mandala of
(i) Upanishadas mainly revolves Rigveda are known as family text.
around South and Brahma. (ii) Except 78 hymns all other hymns
(ii) Chandogya Upanishad depicts of Samveda have been taken from
Satyamev Jayte. Rigveda.
(iii) Upanishadas are called Vedanta. (iii) Tenth Mandala is also known as
(iv) Katha Upanishad give reference to Purusha Sukta.
first type Krishna. (iv) Fourth Mandala consists of
(a) i & iii references of Agricultural work.
(b) i, ii & iv (a) ii & iii (b) i only
(c) all of the above (c) all of the above
(d) ii & iv (d) i & iv
7. Which of the following is not correct. 10. The last 11 hymns, which are considered
as the oldest part of Rig Veda are known
(i) Tenth Mandala describes about the
four varnas known as Brahman, as
Kshtriya, Vaishya & Sudra. (a) Purusha Sukta
(ii) Mundaka Upanishad describes the (b) Trayee
story of Yama & Nachiketa. (c) Aryankas (d) Balakhilya
(iii) Atharva veda, Samveda and 11. Who was the greatest author on
Yajurveda are collectively known Chhanda Shastra
as Trayee. (a) Panini (b) Valmiki
(iv) Krishna-Yajurveda comprises the (c) Pingal (d) Yaska
description in prose. 12. Consider the following statements and
(a) ii & iii (b) i & iv mark the option which is correct.
(c) i & iii (d) iii & iv
(i) Yaska is the first known writers on
8. Which of the following is correct. Sikha.
(i) Rig means Hymns. (ii) There are three Sutra related to
(ii) Third Mandal of Rigveda is rituals namely Dharma, Sraut and
composed by Viswamitra. Grihya.
Multiple Choice Question 97

(iii) Valmiki wrote Katyayan Vartika (iv) Yaj nalkya Smriti first described the
and Astadhyayi. origin of Kayasthas.
(iv) Nirukta refers to the Etymology. (a) i, ii & iv (b) i & ii
(a) i, ii & iv (c) iii only (d) all of the above.
(b) ii only 17. Which Smriti describes the classes of
(c) none of the above Brahmanas who were against accepting
(d) i & iii alms.
13. Consider the following statements and (a) Narad Smriti
mark the option which is not correct. (b) Yajnalkya Smriti
(i) Panini was a greatest Grammarian (c) Parasar Smriti
and he wrote Astadhyayi, Patanjali (d) Manu Smriti.
Mahabhasya & Katyayan Vartika. 18. Which is not the feature of Puranas
(ii) Panini for the first time used the (a) Sarg (b) Vansa
word Sanskrit as nomenclature of (c) Chhanda (d) Manvantar
the literacy language.
19. Consider the following statements and
(iii) Harivanshapuran of Mahabharat
mark the option which is not correct.
comprises genealogy of the rulers.
(iv) manu is called Adikavi. (i) Vayu Puran mentions about
Geography of Indian Culture and
(a) i & iii (b) ii & iv
about prominent Indian Dynasties.
(c) ii & iii (d) i, ii & iv
(ii) Sulva Sutra means genealogy.
14. Which is known as Sat Saharsi Samhita?
(iii) Vishnu dharmottara Puran depicts
(a) Manu Smriti about wall paintings and
(b) Yajnalkya Smriti iconometry.
(c) Parasar Smriti (iv) Manu-Smriti describes about
(d) Mahabharat rituals related with Manu Mission
15. Which is the earliest Smriti? of Seth.
(a) Yajnovalkya Smriti (a) i & iii (b) ii & iii
(b) Manu Smriti (c) none of the above
(c) Narad Smriti (d) ii & iv
(d) Parasar Smriti. 20. Match the following
16. Consider the following statements and 1. Ashvini Kumars A. belonged to Kushava
period & wrote
mark the option which is true. charak Samhita
(i) Geeta is a part of Bhisma Parva. 2. Vagbhata B. wrote Astang thidya
(ii) Harivanshapuran of Mahabharat which mentions
about eight Major
compirises of genealogy of the Organs of Human
rulers. Body.
(iii) Mahabharta is also known as 3. Dhanvantri C. were physicians of
Panchasu veda. Celestial world who
got Knowledge of
98 Gist of NCERT (History)

Ayurveda from A B C D
Brahma. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
4. Charaka D. is considered as
(b) (iv) (ii) (i) (iii)
father of Ayurveda.
(c) (iii) (i) (ii) (iv)
(a) 1 2 3 4 (d) (iii) (i) (iv) (ii)
(b) 4 2 1 3 24. Match the following
(i) Sulva Sutra A. described Decimal
(c) 3 4 2 1
system and about
(d) 2 3 1 4 zero.
21. Who wrote Asva Chikitsa (ii) Bhas Kara charya B. describes about vedic
(a) Palkappya
(iii) Aryabhatta C. wrote Lilavati.
(b) Charka (iv) Shilpa Sutra D. Manual of
(c) Dhanvantri Architecture.
(d) Salihanna A B C D
22. Consider the following statements and (a) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)
mark the option which is correct. (b) (iii) (i) (ii) (iv)
(c) (ii) (iv) (i) (iii)
(i) Atharva Veda gives first hand (d) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
information about Ayurveda
25. Consider the following statements and
mark the option which is correct.
(ii) Shshurut wrote Shrshrut Samhita
which also refers to surgical (i) Earliest information about painting
operation. and iconometry is given in
Vishnudharmottara Purana.
(iii) Palkappya wrote on Gaja Chikitsa.
(ii) Sulva Sutra is the earliest text
(iv) Srimad Bhagvat Purana is the
which comprises information on
greatest puran in respect to Bhakti
(iii) Bhasa wrote 8 palys
(a) i & ii
(Sivapanvashaduttam and Pratisna
(b) i & iii
Yangandhanaiyan are his most
(c) none of the above famous plays).
(d) all of the above. (iv) Buddha charitam was written by
23. Match the following Asvagosh.
1. Vriksha Parasa A. is considered as (a) i, ii & iii (b) iii
earliest text on
astrology as well as (c) i, ii & iv (d) ii, iii & iv
astronomy. 26. Match the following
2. Aryabhatta B. describes about (i) Sudraka A. Swapan
numerous. Medicinal Vashaduttam
herbs and plants. (ii) Visakhadutta B. Sutra Lankar
3. Vedang Jyotisha C. wrote Brahmsphuta (iii) Asvagosh C. Devi Chandra
Sidhanta. Guptam
4. Brahm Gupta D. wrote Surya (iv) Bhasa D. Mricheha Katikam
Multiple Choice Question 99

A B C D (iii) Helioderus pillar inscription also

(a) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i) called as Besnagar Garudadhivaj
(b) (iii) (iv) (ii) (i) which describes about the cult of
(c) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i) Panchvrishti Veera.
(d) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (iv) Girnar inscription was first
27. Consider the following statements and inscription of Sanskrit Language
mark the option which is correct. about saka ruler Rudradaman I
(i) Kamandakas - Nitisar describes (a) i & ii (b) i & iv
about Saptang theory of State and (c) all of the above
enlightened despolism of Maurya (d) none of the above.
period. 30. Match the following
(ii) Arthashastra was written during (i) Allahabad A. depicts Sakanda
Gupta period. inscription Guptas victory over
(iii) Sutta pitak provides teachings and hunas
(ii) Aihole B. Belongs to the period
preachings of Lord Buddha.
inscription of Chandra Gupta
(iv) Vinay pitak provides Monastical Vikramditya
rules and discipline & order. (iii) Bhitari C. describes about
(a) i & ii (b) ii & iii inscription Samudra Guptas
(c) all of the above (d) iii & iv (iv) Udaigiri D. Depicts the name of
28. Match the following inscription Kalidasa
(i) Milindpanho A. Monastical discipline A B C D
(ii) Nayadhani B. Bhavat Geeta of (a) (iii) (i) (iv) (ii)
Kathasutra Buddhims (b) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii)
(iii) Acharang Sutra C. Written in Pali by
(c) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(iv) Dhanind Pad D. Gospel of Mahavira. (d) (ii) (iv) (i) (iii)
A B C D 31. Match the following
(a) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii) (i) Indo Bacterians A. coins have trident
(b) (iii) (i) (iv) (ii) symbol of Lord Shiva
(ii) Kushavas B. coins depicts
(c) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii) Buddahs figure.
(d) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (iii) Vim Kedphises C. introduced gold cins
29. Consider the following statements and in India with the
mark the option which is incorrect. figure of King,
Queen & Date
(i) Only two of Ashokas inscription mentioned on them.
were written in Kharosthi script (iv) Kanishka D. issued purest gold
which were found in Mansehsa and coins in India which
were called Dinaras.
(ii) Dhandevas inscription of (a) (iv) (i) (ii) (iii)
Pushyamitra describe about the (b) (iv) (iii) (i) (ii)
Asvamegha Yajur performed by (c) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii)
him. (d) (iii) (iv) (ii) (i)
100 Gist of NCERT (History)

32. Consider the following statements and A B C D

mark the option which is correct. (a) (iv) (iii) (i) (ii)
(i) Kushavas & Kunindas never issued (b) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)
silver coins. (c) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(ii) Chandragupta Vikramaditya was (d) (i) (iii) (ii) (iv)
the first to issue silver coin. 36. Remains of Horse bones have been
(iii) Paper Rupees were first issued by found from.
Lord canning. (a) Lothal (b) Surkotada
(iv) Our earliest coin was made of (c) Kalibangan (d) Dholavira
Gold. 37. A Seal depicting Mother Goddess with
(a) i, ii & iii (b) ii & iv a plant growing form her womb has
(c) all of the above been found from:
(d) none of the above. (a) Harappa (b) Kalibangan
33. Which was the most frequently depicted (c) Daimabad (d) Mohanjodara
animal. 38. There has been an absence of seal in
(a) Elephant (a) Alamgirpur (b) Mohanjodaro
(b) Unicorn (c) Harappa (d) Lothal
(c) Rhino (d) Tiger. 39. A stone cut water Reservoir has been
34. Consider the following statements and discovered from
mark the option which is correct. (a) Surkotada (b) Kalibangan
(i) Pashupati Seal has been forund (c) Dholavira (d) Harappa.
from Lothal. 40. Consider the following statements and
(ii) The Harappan bricks were made mark the option which is correct.
in ratio of 1:2:4. (i) The predominence of Mother
(iii) For small measurement binary Goodess denotes peoples faith in
system and for big measurement fertility cult.
decimal system were used in (ii) Mainly offensive weapons were
harappa. found in Harappa.
(iv) Persian Gulf seals have been found (iii) Six types of pottery have been
in Lothal. discovered from Kalibangan.
(a) i, ii & iii (b) ii & iv (iv) Painting on a jar resembling the
(c) ii, iii & iv story of the cunning for the
(d) all of the above. Panchtantra has been found from
35. Match the following Lothal.
(i) Cemetrics A. Daimabad (a) i, & iv
H & R 37 (b) all of the above.
(ii) Dockyard B. Mohanjodaro
(iii) Pashupati Mahadev C. Harappa (c) none of the above
Seal (d) iii only.
(iv) Copper Chariot D. Lothal
Multiple Choice Question 101

41. Match the following (b) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii)

(i) Harappa A. copper elephant (c) (iii) (i) (iv) (ii)
(ii) Daimabad B. Bronze Dancing girl (d) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)
(iii) Mohanjodaro C. Granary outside
45. Consider the following statements and
(iv) Furrow Marks D. Kalibangan mark the option which is correct.
A B C D (i) Rice Husk has been found from
(a) (ii) (i) (iii) (iv) Lothal & Rangpur.
(b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (ii) Evidence of signage on wall has
(c) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i) been discovered from Dholavira.
(d) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv) (iii) A thirteen roomed house from the
42. Consider the following statements and overlap period has been discovered
mark the option which is correct. from Bhagvanpura.
(i) The first man made port was found (iv) The steatite figure of a bearded
in Harappa. man has been recovered from
(ii) The main crops of Indus Valley Mohanjodaro.
civilization were wheat & Barley. (a) All of the above (b) ii & iii
(iii) The Largest Harappan Settlemtn in (c) none of the above
India is Rakhigarhi in Haryana. (d) i & iv
(iv) The Largest number of settlements 46. Match the following
are in Ghaggar-Hakar Valleys. (i) Mohanjodaro A. Absence of Mother
(a) i & ii Goddess figurines
(ii) Chanhudaro B. Assembly Hall &
(b) all of the above
Collegiate Building
(c) ii, iii & iv (iii) Rangpur C. Bead Making factory
(d) none of the above. (iv) Harappa D. Sandstone Make
43. Match the following
(i) Mohanjodaro A. Daya Ram Sahni
(ii) Chanhudaro B. S.R. Rao (a) (i) (iii) (ii) (iv)
(iii) Harappa C. R.D. Banerjee (b) (iii) (i) (ii) (iv)
(iv) Lothal D. M.G. Majumdar (c) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)
A B C D (d) (ii) (iv) (i) (iii)
(a) (iii) (i) (ii) (iv) 47. Consider the following statements and
(b) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii) mark the option which is correct.
(c) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(i) Broken Ivory were used as a scale
(d) (i) (ii) (iv) (iii)
in Chanhudaro.
44. Match the following
(ii) During Burial bodies were
(i) Ghaggat A. Mohanjodaro
extended in North-South Direction.
(ii) Ravi B. Kalibangan
(iii) Indus C. Lothal (iii) Ganerinkla site is situated in
(iv) Bhogava D. Harappa Bahwalpur, Pakistan.
A B C D (iv) The Great Bath of Mohanjodaro
(a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Measures 12 7 3 mts.
102 Gist of NCERT (History)

(a) i, ii & iii 52. A Seal depicting Mother Goddess with

(b) ii & iii a plant growing form her womb has
(c) ii & iv been found from:
(d) all of the above (a) Harappa (b) Kalibangan
48. Which was the most frequently depicted (c) Daimabad (d) Mohanjodara
animal. 53. There has been an absence of seal in
(a) Elephant (a) Alamgirpur (b) Mohanjodaro
(b) Unicorn (c) Harappa (d) Lothal
(c) Rhino (d) Tiger. 54. A stone cut water Reservoir has been
49. Consider the following statements and discovered from
mark the option which is correct. (a) Surkotada (b) Kalibangan
(i) Pashupati Seal has been forund (c) Dholavira
from Lothal. (d) Harappa.
(ii) The Harappan bricks were made 55. Consider the following statements and
in ratio of 1:2:4. mark the option which is correct.
(iii) For small measurement binary (i) The predominence of Mother
system and for big measurement Goodess denotes peoples faith in
decimal system were used in fertility cult.
(ii) Mainly offensive weapons were
(iv) Persian Gulf seals have been found found in Harappa.
in Lothal.
(iii) Six types of pottery have been
(a) i, ii & iii (b) ii & iv discovered from Kalibangan.
(c) ii, iii & iv (d) all of the above. (iv) Painting on a jar resembling the
50. Match the following story of the cunning for the
(i) Cemetrics A. Daimabad Panchtantra has been found from
H & R 37
(ii) Dockyard B. Mohanjodaro
(iii) Pashupati Mahadev C. Harappa (a) i, & iv (b) all of the above.
Seal (c) none of the above
(iv) Copper Chariot D. Lothal (d) iii only.
56. Match the following
(a) (iv) (iii) (i) (ii)
(i) Harappa A. copper elephant
(b) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i) (ii) Daimabad B. Bronze Dancing girl
(c) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (iii) Mohanjodaro C. Granary outside
(d) (i) (iii) (ii) (iv) citadel
51. Remains of Horse bones have been (iv) Furrow Marks D. Kalibangan
found from. A B C D
(a) (ii) (i) (iii) (iv)
(a) Lothal (b) Surkotada
(b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(c) Kalibangan (c) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)
(d) Dholavira (d) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv)
Multiple Choice Question 103

57. Consider the following statements and overlap period has been discovered
mark the option which is correct. from Bhagvanpura.
(i) The first man made port was found (iv) The steatite figure of a bearded
in Harappa. man has been recovered from
(ii) The main crops of Indus Valley Mohanjodaro.
civilization were wheat & Barley. (a) All of the above
(iii) The Largest Harappan Settlemtn in (b) ii & iii
India is Rakhigarhi in Haryana. (c) none of the above
(iv) The Largest number of settlements (d) i & iv
are in Ghaggar-Hakar Valleys. 61. Match the following
(a) i & ii (i) Mohanjodaro A. Absence of Mother
(b) all of the above Goddess figurines
(ii) Chanhudaro B. Assembly Hall &
(c) ii, iii & iv Collegiate Building
(d) none of the above. (iii) Rangpur C. Bead Making factory
58. Match the following (iv) Harappa D. Sandstone Make
(i) Mohanjodaro A. Daya Ram Sahni
(ii) Chanhudaro B. S.R. Rao A B C D
(iii) Harappa C. R.D. Banerjee (a) (i) (iii) (ii) (iv)
(iv) Lothal D. M.G. Majumdar (b) (iii) (i) (ii) (iv)
A B C D (c) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)
(a) (iii) (i) (ii) (iv) (d) (ii) (iv) (i) (iii)
(b) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii) 62. Consider the following statements and
(c) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) mark the option which is correct.
(d) (i) (ii) (iv) (iii)
(i) Broken Ivory were used as a scale
59. Match the following in Chanhudaro.
(i) Ghaggat A. Mohanjodaro
(ii) During Burial bodies were
(ii) Ravi B. Kalibangan
(iii) Indus C. Lothal extended in North-South Direction.
(iv) Bhogava D. Harappa (iii) Ganerinkla site is situated in
A B C D Bahwalpur, Pakistan.
(a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (iv) The Great Bath of Mohanjodaro
(b) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii) Measures 12 7 3 mts.
(c) (iii) (i) (iv) (ii) (a) i, ii & iii (b) ii & iii
(d) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i) (c) ii & iv (d) all of the above.
60. Consider the following statements and 63. Assertion : Vedas are also known as
mark the option which is correct. Shrutt
(i) Rice Husk has been found from Reason : Vedas have bee passed on from
Lothal & Rangpur. one generation to another through
(ii) Evidence of signage on wall has verbal transmission.
been discovered from Dholavira.
(a) Assertion is correct, Reason is
(iii) A thirteen roomed house from the
104 Gist of NCERT (History)

(b) Assertion is incorrect, Reason is (iv) The Upveda of Samveda is Adh

correct waryu.
(c) Assertion is correct, Reason is (a) i, iii & iv (b) i, ii & iii
correct (c) all of the above
(d) Assertion is incorrect, Reason is (d) none of the above.
incorrect 68. Match the following
64. Consider the following statements and (i) Rigveda A. Dhanurveda
mark the option which is correct. (ii) Yajurveda B. Gandharveda
(iii) Samveda C. Shilpveda
(i) Origin of Indian Music has been
(iv) Atharva veda D. Ajurveda
depicted from Sam Veda. A B C D
(ii) Sabha & Samiti are mentioned as (a) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)
twin daughtrs of Prajapati in Rig (b) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv)
Veda. (c) (i) (iv) (iii) (ii)
(iii) Kshtriyas precedence over (d) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)
Brahamanas is decpited from Ait. 69. In which Upanishad is mentioned
(a) i, & iii (b) i & ii Satyamed Jayate?
(c) all of the above (a) Chandogya Upanishad
(d) none of the above. (b) Prasana Upanishad
65. Which one of the folliwng is the (c) Isa Upanishad
upanishad of Rigveda. (d) Mundaka Upanishad
(a) Katha Upanishad 70. Match the following
(b) Chandogya Upanishad
(i) Satpath A. deals
(c) Mundka Upanishad Brahman with philosophy,
(d) Aitareya Upanishad Meta-physies
66. Which of the following Mandala is (ii) Aryankas B. called Apauru-
completely devoted to the Vedic God sheya Meaning
Soma. not created by
(a) I (b) VIII Humans but
(c) IX (d) X divine.
67. Consider the following statements and (iii) Upanishads C. describes the
mark the option which is correct. story of Videh
Madahu and
(i) The Upveda of Rigveda is
Ajurveda. rituals.
(ii) Satpatha Brahmana related to
(iv) Vedas D. deals with
Yajurveda is lengthiest of all the mysti-cism,
Moral values
(iii) Sam Veda contains Hymns sung by and philo-
particular type of priests known as sophical
udgatori. doctrines.
Multiple Choice Question 105

A B C D (i) Ajit Kesh Kamblin A. Fatalism

(a) (ii) (iv) (i) (iii) (ii) Sanjay Vethali- B. Atomist
(b) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii)
(iii) Pakudh Katya- C. Materialism
(c) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) yam
(d) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv) Puran Kashyap D. Materialism
71. Consider the following statements and Synicism.
mark the whichever is correct. A B C D
(a) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii)
(i) Garbadharna is the ceremony to
(b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
casue onception.
(c) (ii) (i) (iii) (iv)
(ii) Niskramana is the ceremony of
taking the child out of house and 75. Match the following symbols with their
showing the sun. events in Lord Buddhas Life.
(i) Birth A. Stupa
(iii) Diuksharaman ceremony refers to (ii) First Sermon B. Lotus and Bull
learning of Alphabet. (iii) Nirvana C. Dharam Chakra
(iv) Jatakarman ceremony is (iv) Paranirvana D. Bodhi Tree
performed for the new born child. A B C D
(a) i, ii & iv (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(b) none of the above (b) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)
(c) all of the above (c) (iv) (i) (ii) (iii)
(d) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)
(d) iii only
76. Who was the founder Mahayan sect of
72. Match the following schools of
Philosophy with their chief expounders.
(i) Sankhya A. Gautam (a) Vasumitra
(ii) Mimansa B. Patanjali (b) Nagarjuna
(iii) Nyaya C. Kapil (c) Rahul Bhadra
(iv) Yoga D. Jaimini
(d) Asang
(a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 77. Consider the following statements and
(b) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii) mark the option which is true.
(c) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii) (i) Lord Mahavira got Kaivalya at
(d) (iv) (i) (ii) (iii) Jrimbhakgram and his disciples
73. Which school of philosophy is also were called Ganadhara.
known as Lokayat (ii) Gautami was the first woman who
(a) Jaimini joined the Sangha of Buddha.
(b) Buddhism (iii) Dhammapad is known as the
Bhagvatgita of Buddhism.
(c) Charvak
(a) all of the above
(d) Bhagvatism
(b) ii & iii
74. Match the following opponents of Lord
Buddha with their school of Philosophy (c) none of the above
/ Beliefs. (d) only i
106 Gist of NCERT (History)

78. Consider the following statements and (ii) Tirthas B. Highest category of
officials & were
mark the option which is correct.
Eighteen in numbers.
(i) The Sacred literature of Saivas is (iii) Adhyakshya C. functioned in
known ast Saivagama. administrative and
(ii) The collection of the Songs of 63 judicial capacity.
(iv) Mahamattas D. The Arthashastra
Nayanars is known as Sangam. uses this term in the
(iii) Wema Kadphises, the Kushava sense of a Minister.
King adopted Saivism. A B C D
(a) all of the above (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(b) none of the above (b) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)
(c) 1 & iii (d) ii & iii (c) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)
79. Consider the following statements and (d) (iv) (i) (ii) (iii)
mark the option which is correct. 82. Match the following
(i) LakshanandhyokshaA. Mint
(i) Ashoka the great founded the (ii) Sansthadhyasksha B. commerce/ fixed
Mauryana Empire with help of his price
Brahmin Minister Chankya. (iii) Panyadhayaksha C. Market
(ii) Asthashastras is contains 15 A B C
chapters. (a) (ii) (i) (iii)
(iii) Magasthenes in his book Indika (b) (i) (iii) (ii)
gives reference to absence of usury. (c) (iii) (ii) (i)
(a) i, & iii (b) ii & iii 83. Consider the following statements and
(c) i & ii mark the option which is correct.
(d) none of the above. (i) Pulisanj were the public relation
80. Match the following officers who reported public
(i) Junagarh Rock A. Jaluka was the opinion to the King.
inscription of successor of (ii) Vyavharika Mahamatta were the
Rudradaman I Ashoka in judicial officers.
(ii) Rajatarigini B. Construction of
(iii) Gudha - Purusha were the secret
Sudarsana Lake agents mentioned in Arthashastra.
(iii) Jatakas C. Social & Economic (a) all of the above
(b) only ii
(c) none of the above (d) i & iii
(a) (ii) (i) (iii)
(b) (i) (ii) (iii) 84. Which committee was entrusted with
(c) (i) (ii) (iii) the work related to Manufactured
(d) (iii) (i) (ii) goods?
81. Match the following (a) Fifth committee
(i) Amatyas A. concerned with (b) First committee
econo-mic functions (c) Third committee
& some military
duties. (d) Sixth committee.
Multiple Choice Question 107

85. Which among the following was a (i) Chandragupta defeated

voluntary offering? Menander.
(a) Sita (b) Kora (ii) Wima Kadiphises assumed the title
(c) Bali (d) Vivit Deva ______ which was inspired by
the title Swargpulra of the chinese
86. Consider the following statements and
mark the option which is correct.
(iii) Shake Rule was founded by Maso
(i) The Kaushambi Pillar was brought or Moga.
to Allahabad by Jehangir.
(a) ii
(ii) The Topra & Merrut Pillars were
(b) i & iii
brought to Delhi by Firoz Shah
Tughlaq. (c) all of the above
(iii) The Bairat Inscription was brought (d) ii & iii
to Calcutta by cunningham. 90. Which Greek King issued bilingual
(a) ii (b) i & iii coins?
(c) all of the above (a) Allexander (b) Demetrivs
(d) none of the above. (c) Manander (d) Antaaliokus
87. Consider the following statements and 91. Match the following
mark the option which is correct. (i) Shakas A. Parmbhagvat
(ii) Heliodorus B. coins bear the
(i) The Major Rock edicts at Mansheva image of Buddha
& Shahbazgarhi are in Kharoshthi & Shiva
script. (iii) Wima Kadiphises C. was defeated by
(ii) Major rock edicts are fourteen in Pushyamitra
(iv) Demetrivs D. Capital was
(iii) The Queens edict is on Allahbad Purushpur
pillar. (Peshwar)
(a) only i A B C D
(b) only iii (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(c) all of the above (b) (ii) (iv) (i) (iii)
(c) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)
(d) none of the above.
(d) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i)
88. In which of the Edicts is found the
92. Consider the following statements and
mention of Ashokas conversion to
mark the option which is correct.
Buddhism and his reverence for his
religion. (i) Kanishka introduced the Saka era.
(ii) St. Thomas reached India during
(a) Kalinga Edicts
the time of Pahalava King
(b) Bhabru Edicts
(c) Major Pillar Edicts
(iii) The Junagarh / Girnar Inscription
(d) Minor Rock Edicts of Rudraaman is the first
89. Consider the following statements and inscription in chaste Sanskrit.
mark the option which is correct.
108 Gist of NCERT (History)

(a) i & ii (b) all of the above 97. Which of the following term was used
(c) iii for Supreme Court in the Sangam Age?
(d) none of the above (a) Puhar (b) Sangam
93. Who patronised Mathura Art & built a (c) Maharum (d) Korai
stupa at Purushpur? 98. Match the following term of Sangam
(a) Kijula Kadiphises Age?
(b) Rudradaman (i) Panchvaram A. Spies
(ii) Enadi B. Ministerial
(c) Wima Kadiphises
(d) Moga (iii) Orar C. Senapati
94. Consider the following statements and A B C
mark the option which is true. (a) (i) (ii) (iii)
(i) Hathigumpha Inscription of (b) (iii) (i) (ii)
Kharvela of Kalinga is also sources (c) (ii) (iii) (iv)
of Sangam Age. 99. Consider the following statements and
(ii) Wima Kadiplises, inspired by his mark the option which is true.
teacher Parva convened a buddhist (i) Devdana is a single plot of land of
convict at Kandalvana in Kashmir. village to an individual Brahmin or
(iii) Greeks introduced Hellinistic Art group of Brahmins.
into India, the impact of which can (ii) Apad Dharma implies what a man
be seen in the Gandhara Art. may legitimately do when he
(a) ii cannot earn a living by the normal
(b) none of the above deeds performed by his class.
(c) i & iii (d) all of the above (iii) Niyoga was the practice of
95. Match the following allowing a widow to cohabit with
(i) First Sangam A. Madurai
her husbands younger brother till
(ii) Second Sangam B. Tenmadurai the birth of a male child.
(iii) Vird Sangam C. Kavatuparani (a) ii
A B C (b) i & iii
(a) (i) (ii) (iii) (c) all of the above
(b) (iii) (i) (ii)
(d) ii & iii
(c) (iv) (iii) (i)
100. Match the following
96. Match the following
(i) Ghatiyantra A. An imporant guild in
(i) First Sangam A. August & Kerala.
Tolkappiyar (ii) Manigraman B. Irrigation Device
(ii) Second Sangam B. Nakkirar (iii) Shrotriyas C. Learned Brahmins
(iii) Vird Sangam C. August who had the know-
A B C ledge of Vedas.
(a) (ii) (iii) (i) A B C
(b) (i) (ii) (iii) (a) (i) (ii) (iii)
(c) (iii) (ii) (i) (b) (ii) (i) (iii)
(c) (iii) (ii) (i)
Multiple Choice Question 109

101. Match the following (ii) Apasthamba: Sudras and women

(i) Sadbhaga A. Customs & Tolls have right to study the Puranas.
(ii) Bali B. Land Revenue (iii) Yajnavalkya : Women has a right
(iii) Shulka C. A petty cess besides to inheritence.
Kings normal share.
A B C (a) i & ii
(a) (iii) (i) (ii) (b) ii & iii
(b) (i) (ii) (iii) (c) all of the above
(c) (ii) (i) (iii) (d) none of the above.
102. Consider the following statements and 105. Match the following
mark the option which is true. (i) Fahien A. Indians had no
(i) Nandeshi was a guild of teachers sense of History.
having membership from different (ii) Alberuni B. There was no
regions and castes. provision of
(ii) Dvija refers to three upper classes. death sentence.
Brahmans, Kshtriyas and (iii) Hieun Tsang C. India yield more
Vaishayas. than fairness
(iii) Uparika came into vogue during requires.
the Guptas. A B C
(a) none of the above (a) (ii) (i) (iii)
(b) iii (b) (i) (ii) (iii)
(c) i & ii (c) (iii) (ii) (i)
(d) all of the above 106. Consider the following statements and
mark the option which is correct.
103. Consider the following statements and
mark the option which is true. (i) Patanjali wrote Mahabhashya on
the grammar of Panini.
(i) Vishwarup wrote a commentary
known as Balasera on (ii) Panchtantra is the earliest story
Yavjnavalkyas Smriti. collection book of Gupta period.
(ii) Pratipada Panchika a commentary (iii) Hitopadesh, the second famous
on Kautilyas Arthashastra was collection of Indian stories was
written by Bhattaswami. written by Vishnu Sharma.
(iii) Vijananeshwar wrote a (a) i & iii (b) ii
commentary on Manu Smriti. (c) i & ii (d) all of the above.
(a) i & iii (b) all of the above 107. Which of the following contains the
(c) i & ii description of the King Dushyant of
(d) none of the above. Hastinapur?
104. Consider the following statements and (a) Mudra Rakshas
mark the option which is true. (b) Mrichchkatika
(i) Manu : Brahmin can lend to wicked (c) Abhijanashakuntlam
people at low interests. (d) Hitopadesh
110 Gist of NCERT (History)

108. Consider the following statements and (i) Chahamanas (Chauhans) of

mark the option which is true. Sakambhari (Ajmer)
(i) The two famous plays of (ii) Reign of Rajaraja chola.
Vishakhandutta are Mudrarakshas (iii) Reign of Rajendra chola.
and Devichandra Guptam (iv) Gahadvalas of Kannauj.
(ii) Mrichchhatika contains the love (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
story Brahman charudatta & the (b) (iv) (i) (ii) (iii)
famous courtesan Vasantsena. (c) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv)
(iii) The First text of Sanskrit Grammar (d) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii)
is Ashtadhyayi written by Panini. 112. Arrange the following in their
(a) i & ii chronological order.
(b) all of the above (i) Paramaras (Pamars) of Dhar
(c) iii (Malw(a)
(d) none of the above. (ii) Kakatiyas of Warangal.
109. Arrange the following in their (iii) Senas of Bengal.
chronological order. (iv) Solankis of Kathiawar.
(i) Bhoja of Gujar-Pratibara Dynasty (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(ii) Hindushahis of Punjab & Kabul (b) (iv) (iii) (i) (ii)
(c) (i) (iv) (ii) (iii)
(iii) Rashtra Kutas of Deccan.
(d) (ii) (iv) (iii) (i)
(iv) Chalukya Dynasty of Kalyani
113. Arrange the following according to
(a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
their chronological order.
(b) (iv) (i) (ii) (iii)
(c) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv) (i) Construction of Lingaraja Temple
(d) (iii) (i) (ii) (iv) and Jagannath Temple.
110. Arrange the following in their (ii) Construction of Khajuraho
chronological order. Temples.
(i) Capture of Tanjore by Vijayalaya (iii) Construction of Sun Temple at
(ii) Shankracharya & his philosophy of
(a) (i) (ii) (iii)
(b) (iii) (i) (ii)
(iii) Construction of Khajuraho Temples (c) (ii) (i) (iii)
(iv) Establishment of Monastry at 114. Arrange the following according to
Nalanda by King Balaputra of their chronological order.
(a) (i) (ii) (iv) (iii) (i) Mohhamad Bin Tughlaqs
(b) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii) expedition to karachi.
(c) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i) (ii) First Battle of Panipat & defeat of
(d) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Ibrahim Lodhi.
111. Arrange the following in their (iii) Second Battle of Tarain & defeat
chronological order. of Prithviraj.
(iv) Reign of Rana Kumbha in Mewar.
Multiple Choice Question 111

(a) (iii) (i) (iv) (ii) (c) (3) (4) (2) (1)
(b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (d) (2) (3) (4) (1)
(c) (iv) (i) (ii) (iii) 118. Match the following
(d) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i) 1. Pala A. Ajay Raj
115. Arrange the following according to 2. Chandela B. Rao Siha
their chronological order. 3. Chauhan C. Gopal
4. Rathore D. Nanunka
1. Battle of Bilgram and Second & (a) 2 - A 3 - D 1 - C 4 - B
final defeat of Humayun by Sher (b) 1 - C 2 - D 3 - A 4 - B
Shah. (c) 4 - A 3 - B 2 - C 1 - D
2. Battle of Ghagra and Baburs 119. Match the following
defeat of Afghans under Mohd. (i) Kachhavaha A. Rana Kumbha
Lodhi. (ii) Rashtra Kuta B. Bhoja
3. Battle of Dharmat in which Dara (iii) Parmar C. Man Singh
was defeated by Aurangzeb. (iv) Sisodia D. Krishna I
4. Battle of Chausa & first defeat of A B C D
Humayun by Sher Shah. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(a) (1) (2) (3) (4) (b) (ii) (i) (iii) (iv)
(b) (3) (4) (1) (2) (c) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii)
(c) (2) (4) (1) (3) (d) (iv) (iii) (i) (ii)
(d) (3) (2) (1) (4) 120. Consider the following statements and
116. Arrange the following according to mark the option which is correct.
their chronological order. (i) The four class dominated by early
1. Rebellion of Prince Khullan Rajputs arose from the ruins of
older Pratihara Kingdom.
2. Revolt of Jats under Gokla
(ii) The Solankis established their
3. Rebellion of Prince Khusrau
control in Malwa with their capital
4. Revolt of Chatrasal Bundela. at Dhar near Indore.
(a) (1) (3) (4) (2)
(iii) All the four classes of early Rajputs
(b) (3) (1) (2) (4)
claimed their descent from
(c) (4) (3) (2) (1)
Mythical figure who arose out of
(d) (3) (1) (2) (4)
vast sacrificial fire pit near Mt. Abu.
117. Arrange the following according to
(a) i & iii (b) ii
their chronological order.
(c) all of the above
1. Peshwaship of Balaji Baji Rao.
(d) none of the above.
2. Death of Aurangzeb at Aurangzeb.
121. Consider the following statements and
3. Third Battle of Panipat between mark the option which is correct.
Marathas & Afghans.
(i) The Temple Arthitecture or South
4. Peshwaship of Balaji Vishvanath.
Indian style of Architecutre
(a) (2) (4) (1) (3)
reached the pinnacle of glory
(b) (1) (2) (3) (4)
during the cholas reign.
112 Gist of NCERT (History)

(ii) Brihadeshwar temple at A B C

Gangaikonda Cholapuram was (a) (ii) (i) (iii)
built by Rajendra. (b) (i) (ii) (iii)
(iii) The system of canals in South is a (c) (iii) (i) (ii)
contribution of the cholas. 125. Who built the Rajarajjeshwar Temple at
(a) i & iii Tanjore?
(b) all of the above (a) Parantaka I (b) Rajaraja
(c) none of the above (c) Rajendra Chola
(d) ii (d) Vijayalaya
122. Match the following 126. Consider the following statements and
(i) Devdeya A. were famous for mark the option which is correct.
Bronze statue of
(i) Tiruvasakam was the Master piece
(ii) Vijayalaya B. the village granted to of Tamil Literature produced
God. during chola period.
(iii) Cholas C. built the Vijayalaya (ii) The Tanjore temples has Murals on
choleswa temple at Puranas and Scutplunes of Rajaraja
and his Queen Lok Mahadevi.
(a) (iii) (i) (ii) (iii) The cholas continued the Pratiharas
(b) (i) (ii) (iii) architectural style.
(c) (iii) (ii) (i) (a) ii (b) ii & iii
123. Match the following (c) i & ii
(i) Ur. A. its membership was (d) none of the above.
restricted to Brahman 127. Who built the Korangnath Temple at
of the village. Srinivasnattur?
(ii) Nagarani B. a general assem-bly
of village consisting (a) Parantaka I (b) Vijayalaya
of tax paying (c) Rajendra (d) Rajaraja
residents. 128. Consider the following statements and
(iii) Sabha C. was found more
commonly in trade
mark the option which is correct.
centres such as citiex (i) Qutubaddin Aibek was the
& towns. founder of Delhi Sultanate & was
A B C the first independent ruler.
(a) (i) (ii) (iii) (ii) Qutubuddin Aibek built two
(b) (iii) (i) (ii) Mosques. Quwan-ul-Islam Mosque
(c) (ii) (i) (iii) at Delhi and Dhai Din Ka Jonpara
124. Match the following at Amer.
(i) Varium (a) Tank committee (iii) Qutubuddin Aibek laid foundation
(ii) Eri Varium (b) Executive
of Qutub Minar after the name of
Committee of Sabha.
(iii) Nayattar (c) Judicial committee. a Sufi Saint Khwaja Qutubuddin
Bakhtiyar Kaki.
Multiple Choice Question 113

(a) i & iii (b) ii (c) none of the above

(c) all of the above (d) iii
(d) none of the above. 133. Consider the following statements and
129. Who introduced the Silver Tankk & Jital mark the option which is correct.
two principal coins. (i) Firoz Shah Tughlaq creaed Diwan-
(a) Ghaisuddin Balban i-khairat for helping poor Muslim
(b) Qutubuddin Aibek parents in the Marriage of their
(c) Shamsuddin Iltutmish dauther.
(d) Alauddin Khilji (ii) Mohd. bin Tughlaq was known as
a Prince of Moneyers.
130. Match the following
(i) Ghaisuddin Balban A. created Tukan-i-
(iii) Firoz Shah Tughlaq wrote in verses
chanhalgani a in persian under the name of
selected body of Ghirlakhi
Turkish Nobles. (a) i & iii (b) ii & iii
(ii) Shamsuddin B. inscribed-zillah
(c) i & ii
Iltutmish or coins
(iii) Qutubuddin Aibek C. was founder of the (d) none of the above
slave Dynasty. 134. Match the following
A B C (i) Wazir A. Diwan-I-Arz
(a) (i) (ii) (iii)
(ii) Azia-i- B. Diwan-
(b) (iii) (ii) (i)
Mumalik i-Wazirat
(c) (ii) (i) (iii)
(iii) Sarr-ur- C. Diwan-i-Insha
131. Who built the Alai Darwaja and Siri
(iv) Dabir-i- D. Diwan-
(a) Ghiasuddin Tughlaq Mumalik i-Risalat
(b) Firoz Shah Tughlaq A B C D
(c) Alauddin Khilji (a) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)
(d) Mohd. Bin Tughlaq (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
132. Consider the following statements and (c) (iv) (i) (ii) (iii)
mark the option which is true. (d) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii)
(i) Mohd. bin Tughlaq formulated the 135. Consider the following statements and
famine code to provide relief to mark the option which is correct.
famine affected people. (i) Sikandar Bahlol Ibrahim Lodhi was
(ii) Firoz Shah Tughlaq made Iqta founder of city of Agra.
System Hereditary. (ii) Alauddin Khilji started the practice
(iii) Mohd. bin Tughlaq was on bad of old-age pension.
terms with the famous Sufi saint (iii) Mohd. bin Tughlaq was the first
Nizamuddin Auliya. Sultan to advance Loans known as
(a) i & iii sondhar to peasants for digging
(b) all of the above wells to extend cultivation.
114 Gist of NCERT (History)

(a) ii (b) i & iii 139. Match the following

(i) Urdu A. composed verses in
(c) none of the above Hindavi using
(d) all of the above. persian
136. Match the following (ii) Amir Khusro B. Literal meaning of
the word is Army or
(i) Muftis A. Intelligence Agents camp.
(ii) Barid B. Exponder of Law (iii) Sher Shah Suri C. Built old Fort.
(iii) Kotwal C. Minister incharge of A B C
Army. (a) (ii) (i) (iii)
(iv) Arz-i-Mamalik D. Head of city (b) (i) (ii) (iii)
(c) (iii) (i) (ii)
140. Consider the following statements and
(a) (ii) (iv) (i) (ii)
(b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) mark the option which is correct.
(c) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i) (i) Babur founded a new capital city
(d) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii) of Fatehpur Sikri.
137. Consider the following statements and (ii) Babur was a skilled Musicians
mark the option which is correct. played Naqqara.
(i) Dhai-din Ka Jhopsa was originally (iii) The mode of caligraphy favourite
a sanskrit college and temple built to Akbar was Nastaliq.
by the great chauhan emperor (a) i & iii (b) all of the above
Vigrahraja Visaldeva. (c) ii & iii
(ii) Zakat was a religious tax, paid by (d) none of the above.
Muslims as a charity for the 141. Match the following
Welfare of their co-religiones. (i) Jehangir A. established royal
(iii) Amir Khusros real name was Karkhana for
Abdul Hasan.
(ii) Akbar B. was antagonistic
(a) All of the above towards miniature
(b) i & ii (c) iii paintings.
(d) none of the above (iii) Aurangzeb C. sent Bisan Dara to
138. Consider the following statements and A B C
mark the option which is correct. (a) (ii) (iii) (i)
(i) Amir Khusro created a new literary (b) (i) (ii) (iii)
style in Persian which came to be (c) (iii) (i) (ii)
known as Sabaq-i-Hind. 142. Match the following
(ii) Amir Khusro was disciple of (i) Zil-i-ilahi A. Dara Shikoh
Nizammudin Auliya. (ii) Alamgir B. Akbar
(iii) He introduced the perso-arobic (iii) Shah-i-Buland Iqbal C. Aurangzeb
ragas etc. A B C
(a) iii (b) i & ii (a) (i) (ii) (iii)
(b) (iii) (i) (ii)
(c) none of the above
(c) (ii) (iii) (i)
(d) all of the above.
Multiple Choice Question 115

143. Who introduced Du-Aspah & Site- (i) The Revenue official at the level of
Aspah system? Pargana was Amil.
(a) Shahjahan (ii) The village affairs were looked
(b) Aurangzeb after by the Panchayat whose head
(c) Jehangir was called Lambardar.
(d) Akbar (iii) Atharva Veda was translated into
Persian by Haji Ibrahim Sirhindi.
144. Consider the following statements and
(a) i & ii
mark the option which is correct.
(b) none of the above
(i) Aurangzeb confronted a number
(c) all of the above
of rebelluris including Jats under
Rajaram & Chauraman; Sikhs and (d) iii
Rajputs. 148. Match the following:
(ii) Dara Shikoh was a devotee of (i) Nal Damyanti A. translated into
Persian by Mulla
Qadiri order of Sufis. Shah Mohd.
(iii) Shahjahan executed Guru Arjun (ii) Ramayana B. translated into
Dev with charge of giving help of persian by Faizi.
the prince Khusrao after his Revolt (iii) Rajtarangini C. translated into
in 1606. persian by Abdul
Qadir Badayuni.
(a) i & iii (b) i & ii A B C
(c) all of the above (a) (iii) (i) (ii)
(d) none of the above. (b) (i) (ii) (iii)
145. Match the following: (c) (ii) (iii) (i)
(i) Aurangzeb A. built Magnificent 149. Consider the following statements and
edifices like Red Fort, mark the option which is correct.
Jama Masjid.
(ii) Babar B. was ragarded as (i) Akbar established Royal Karhana
Zind Pir for painting.
(iii) Shahjahan C. introduced Gaz-i-ilahi (ii) Shalimar garden was laid out by
of 41 digits a new
yard for land
Measurement. (iii) Jehangir was a painter himself and
A B C loved paintings on animal & Birds.
(a) (i) (ii) (iii) (a) i & iii
(b) (iii) (i) (ii) (b) none of the above
(c) (ii) (iii) (i) (c) all of the above
146. Who among the following is the Head (d) ii
of Royal Household? 150. Which one the following is the actual
(a) Sarkar (b) Subah collection from Land?
(c) Mir Bakshi (d) Khan-i-Saman. (a) Hasil
147. Consider the following statements and (b) Jama
mark the option which is true. (c) Khalisa (d) Dasturs
116 Gist of NCERT (History)

151. Match the following: tried for waging war against the
(i) Al-Tamgha A. efficient troops British.
not under the (a) ii & iii
control of
(b) all of the above
(ii) Amir B. Jagirs given to (c) none of the above
Muslim Nobles. (d) i only
(iii) Ahadis C. Commander of
155. Consider the following statements and
A B C mark the option which is correct.
(a) (i) (ii) (iii) (i) Guru Ramdas was the political
(b) (ii) (iii) (i) guru of Shivaji.
(c) (iii) (i) (ii) (ii) Shivaji adopted the title of
152. Consider the following statements and Chattarpati and Kshtriya
mark the option which is correct. Kulavatamsa.
(i) Sawar was a Mughal rank that (iii) Sivaji belonged to Bhonsle Clan.
determined the number of cavalary (a) all of the above
men. (b) ii
(ii) Watan Jagirs was an area where (c) none of the above
there was objection made by the (d) ii & iii
Zamindars. 156. Match the following
(iii) Waqf was the grants for religious (i) Peshwa A. Baroda
and educational institutions. (ii) Bhonsle B. Indore
(a) i & iii (b) ii (iii) Gackwad C. Poona
(iv) Holkar D. Nagpur
(c) all of the above A B C D
(d) none of the above (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
153. During whose tenure the practice (b) (iv) (i) (ii) (iii)
Revenue farming of Ijara was started. (c) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii)
(a) Bahadur Shah 157. Match the following
(b) Farruk Siyar (i) Peshwa A. Prime Minister
(ii) Sar-i-Naubat B. Royal Corres-
(c) Jahandar Shah
(d) Mohd. Shah (iii) Sachiv C. Chief of Armed
154. Consider the following statements and forces
mark the option which is correct. A B C
(i) Banda Bahadur, the sikh leader was (a) (i) (iii) (ii)
defeated and captured by Farrukh (b) (iii) (ii) (i)
Siyar. (c) (ii) (i) (iii)
(ii) Muhammad Shahs original name 158. Consider the following statements and
was Raushan Akhtar. mark the option which is true.
(iii) Bahadur Shah II was deposed and (i) Shivajis Biography by Sabhasad is
known as Bakhar.
Multiple Choice Question 117

(ii) Watandars were the local lnaded 162. Consider the following statements and
elements in Maratha Kingdom. mark the option which is true.
(iii) The lowest unit of the country was (i) The first Anglo Maratha war fought
termed as Prants in the Maratha due to conflict for power betwen
Kingdom. narayan Rao and Raghunath Rao.
(a) i & ii (b) iii (ii) Mamlatdar was the subedar of
(c) all of the above bigger provinces under the
(d) none of the above. Peshwas.
159. Consider the following statements and (iii) During the invasion of Ahmad Shah
mark the option which is true. Addali nominal Head of the
(i) Balaji Vishwanath introduced Maratha Army was Viswas Rao.
Saranjami System. (a) i & ii
(ii) Baji Rao I campaigned against the (b) i & iii
Sidis of Janjira. (c) all of the above
(iii) Deshmukhs were equivalent to (d) none of the above.
Chandharib of North and Desais 163. Consider the following statements and
of Gujarat. mark the option which is true.
(a) none of the above (i) Baji Rao I propounded concept of
(b) ii & iii (c) all of the above Hindu Pad Padshahi and was also
(d) only i the real architect of Marath Empire.
160. Match the following: (ii) Moksha Mahal were the Land
(i) Barbosa A. Achyutdevaraya grants given during the time of
(ii) Nicolo B. Krishnadeva Marathas.
Saya (iii) During the reign of Baji Rao I the
(iii) Nuniz C. Devaraya I
Maratha Capital shifted from
Satara to Poona.
(a) (i) (ii) (iii)
(b) (iii) (i) (ii) (a) all of the above
(c) (ii) (iii) (i) (b) i & ii
161. Match the following (c) ii & iii
(i) Balaji Visvanath A. Greatest exponent of (d) none of the above.
Guerilla tacties after 164. Arrange the following according to
Shivaji. their charonological order.
(ii) Madhav Rao B. Introduced
Saran-jami (i) Baji Rao I
system. (ii) Narayan Rao
(iii) Baji Rao I C. defeated Haider (iii) Madhav Rao
A B C (iv) Balaji Vishwanath
(a) (iii) (i) (ii) (a) (i) (iii) (ii) (iv)
(b) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (iv) (ii) (i) (iii)
(c) (ii) (iii) (i) (c) (iv) (i) (ii) (iii)
118 Gist of NCERT (History)

165. Match the following (a) Harihar II

(i) Harihar II A. won Orissa for Vijay (b) Dev Raja II
Nagar (c) Krishna Devraya
(ii) Devraya II B. was defeated by
Firoz Shah Bah-mani (d) Rama Raja
also built dam on 170. Who entered into a treaty with the
Tunga-bhadra. Portuguese to obtain the Monopoly of
(iii) Krishna Deva Raya C. inducted a large Horses?
number of Mus-lims
in his Army. (a) Rama Raja
(iv) Dev Ray I D. sent an expedi-tion to (b) Krishna Devaraya
Sri Lanka. (c) Harihar II (d) Devraya I
171. Who allied with the Reddy Kingdom to
(a) (iii) (iv) (ii) (i)
defeat Firoz Shah Bahmani?
(b) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)
(c) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (a) Devraya II (b) Harihar II
(d) (iv) (iii) (ii) (i) (c) Krishna Devaraya
166. Who among the following assumed the (d) Devraya I
title of Abhinav Bhoj. 172. Match the following
(a) Harihar II (b) Rama Raja (i) Shanksacharya A. His commentary on
Vedanta is com-piled
(c) Devraya II
in Sribhashya and
(d) Krishna deva Singh Gita bhashya.
3. Who was responsible for the defeat (ii) Kabir B. admitted to his sect
of Vijaynagar in the Battle of disciples from all
Talikotta in 1565? castes, _____ and
even among the
(a) Krishna deva Singh
(b) Rama Raja (iii) Ramanuja C. gave birth to the
(c) Harihar II philosophy of
(d) Devraya I Ektavad of Vedanta.
(iv) Ramananda D. Representative poet-
167. Which was the most common animal
saint of Nirguna
found in the pillars of the architecture Bhakti sect.
of Vijaynagar Empire? A B C D
(a) Bull (b) Unicorn (a) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)
(c) Horse (d) Elephant (b) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii)
168. Which of the following temples is an (c) (iv) (iii) (i) (ii)
example of Wall inscriptions on which (d) (iii) (i) (ii) (iv)
stories of Ramayana & the Mahabharata 173. Consider the following statements and
are inscribed? mark the option which is correct.
(a) Tadapatri (b) Varadraja (i) Dadu Dayal was a devotee of
(c) Parvati (d) Vithalswami Nirankar Brahma & Staumeh
169. The Political Treatise of supporter of Nirguna school of
Amuktamalyamada in Telugu was Bhakti cult.
written by:
(ii) Guru Nanak started Langar & has
Multiple Choice Question 119

work was compiled in the Adi (a) ii & iii (b) i & ii
Granth. (c) all of the above
(iii) Chaitanya was the most radical (d) none of the above
disciple of Ramananda. 178. Who among the following is also known
(a) ii & iii (b) all as Kabir of the Deccan
(c) 1 & 2 (d) none (a) Basava
174. Who among the following said, God (b) Nimbarkacharya
is the breath of all Breaths (c) Madhvacharya
(a) Shankracharya (d) Tukaram
(b) Kabir (c) Guru Nanak 179. Consider the following statements and
(d) Chaitanya mark the option which is correct.
175. Who among the following is also known (i) Narsi Mehta was exponder of
as crypto - Buddhist? Lingayat Sect and wrote Vachanas.
(a) Ramanuja (ii) Madhvacharya expounded the
(b) Ramananda theory of Dwaitvad (Dualism) &
(c) Shankarcharya was a devotee of Vishnu.
(d) Chaitanya (iii) Eknath was the saint of
176. Match the following Maharashtra Dharma.
(i) Dadu Dayal A. declared that Allah & (a) none of the above
Ram were names of (b) i & ii only (c) all of the above
the same God. (d) ii & iii
(ii) Shankaracharya B. devotee of Nirankar
Brahma & ______ 180. Match the following
supported of (i) Mirabai A. author of Ramcharit
Nirguna School of Manas
Bhakti cult. (ii) Tulsidas B. follower of Krishna
(iii) Kabir C. emphasized True cult of Vaishnavism.
Education (iii) Basava C. composed Marathi
A B C commentary of
(a) (i) (ii) (iii) Bhagvat Gita.
(iv) Jnanadeva D. expounder of
(b) (iii) (i) (ii)
Liagayat Sect.
(c) (ii) (iii) (i) A B C D
177. Consider the following statements and (a) (iii) (iv) (ii) (i)
mark the option which is correct. (b) (i) (iii) (ii) (iv)
(i) Shankar dev is also famous as (c) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)
Chaitanya of Assam. (d) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv)
(ii) Tulsidas depicted Rama as the 181. Consider the following statements and
incarnaton of Vishnu. mark the option which is true.
(iii) Nimbarkacharya published the (i) Mimbarkacharya identified
Theory of Dwaith Advaitvad Brahmana with Krishna. He was a
(Dualism - non dualism). Telugu Brahmin of Andhra
120 Gist of NCERT (History)

Pradesh who spent most of his 184. Match the following

time in Vrindavan. (i) Sheikh Nuruddin A. Qadiriya
(ii) The first great theme of the poetry order
of Surdas constiutes Krishnas Bal (ii) Sheikh Abdul Qadir B. Rishi
Lila. (iii) Sajid Mohd. bin C. Chisti order
(iii) Namdev Said, Hindu is Blind, Yusuf-al Hussaini
then Muslim squint who knows it, (iv) Baba Farid D. Gesu Daraz
is wiser than both, he is the servant A B C D
of that name. (a) (ii) (iv) (i) (iii)
(a) all of the above (b) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)
(b) i & iii (c) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)
(c) none of the above (d) (iv) (ii) (iii) (i)
(d) ii & iii 185. Who among the following was also
known as Sidh or perfect for his
182. Consider the following statements and
Mastery over jogic practices.
mark the option which is correct.
(a) Nizammuddin Auliya
(i) Guru Nanak believed in the
doctrine of Karma and the theory (b) Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti
of transmigration of souls. (c) Baba Farid
(ii) Ramanand was representative of (d) Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki
Sagun Bhakti sect. 186. Which of the following, literally means
(iii) Kabir defeated Buddhist scholastic Wondering Dervishes?
Teachers. (a) Kubrawiyya order
(a) i & iii (b) Qalandariya order
(b) all of the above (c) Chisti order
(c) i & ii (d) Shattariya order
(d) none of the above 187. Consider the following statements and
183. Match the following mark the option which is true.
(i) Nizamuddin Auliya A. Firdausi (i) Sheikh Nuruddin started Rishi
Order Movement and incorporated
(ii) Sheikh Bahauddin B. Chisti Order teachings of Yogi Lalla also called
Zakaria Lal Ded in Kashmir.
(iii) Sheikh Abdulla C. Sushra Wardi (ii) The founder of Shattariya order in
order India & his disciples marched
(iv) Badruddin D. Shattariya wearing soldiers uniform beating
Samarqandi order
(iii) Iltutmish was a devotee of
(a) (ii) (i) (iv) (iii)
Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kak and
(b) (iv) (i) (ii) (iii)
dedicated the Qutub Minar to him.
(c) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii)
(d) (ii) (iii) (i) (iv) (a) i & ii
Multiple Choice Question 121

(b) none of the above Which of the above statements is /

(c) all of the above are true.
(d) ii & iii (a) 1 & 2 (b) 2 & 3
188. Match the following (c) 1 & 3
(i) Kanqah A. those who followed (d) All of the above
sharia. 192. Consider the following statements.
(ii) Be-shara B. Monastic organisa-
tion of the sufi. (1) Martanda Verma was the founder
(iii) Ba-shara C. those who did not of Travancore.
strictly follow Sharia (2) During Mysorean invasions on
(iv) Furrow Marks D. Kalibangan Travancore Rama Varma was the
A B C D Ruler.
(a) (ii) (i) (iii) (iv)
Which of the above statements is /
(b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
are true.
(c) (iv) (iii) (ii) (iv)
(d) (iii) (i) (ii) (iv) (a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 1 only
(c) 2 only
189. Consider the following statements.
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
(1) Haider Ali was the founder of
193. Consider the following statements.
(2) In the first Anglo Mysore war (1) Treaty of Salabai was the outcome
British defeated Haider Ali. of Second Anglo-Maratha War.
Which of the above statements is / (2) Arthur Wellesley was the main
are true. Architect of Second Anglo-Maratha
(a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 1 only
(c) 2 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Which of the above statements is /
are true.
190. Consider the following statements.
(a) All of the above
(1) Srirangapatnam treaty signed after
(b) 1 only
the Second-Anglo Mysore War.
(c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) 2 only
(2) Tipu Sultan died in 1799.
194. Match the following
Which of the above statements is /
Place Ruler
are true. (1) Nagpur (a) Bhosle
(a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 2 only (2) Baroda (b) Sindia
(c) 1 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2 (3) Indore (c) Gaikwad
(4) Gwalior (d) Holkar
191. Consider the following statements.
(a) 1 - a 2 - b 3 - c 4 - d
(1) Wallesely was the Governor at the (b) 1 - a 2 - c 3 - d 4 - a
time of the fourth Anglo-Mysore. (c) 1 - b 2 - d 3 - a 4 - c
(2) Tipu assumed the title of Sultan in (d) 1 - c 2 - a 3 - b 4 - d
1786. 195. Consider the following statements.
(3) Devaraja & Nanaraja was related (1) Treaty of Rajpurghat with Lord
to Hyderabad. Lake (British) signed with Bhosle.
122 Gist of NCERT (History)

(2) Dalhousie was the Architect of (3) Chin Qulich Khan was the leader
Third Anglo-Maratha War. of the Turani Party.
Which of the above statements is / Which of the above statements is /
are true. are true.
(a) Neither 1 nor 2 (a) 2 & 3 (b) 1 & 3
(b) 1 only (c) All of the above (d) 1 & 2
(c) 2 only (d) Both 1 & 2 200. Consider the following statements.
196. Consider the following statements. (1) British supported Nasir Jung in a
(1) Guru Gobind Singh was the war of succession against Muzaffar
contemporary to Bahadur Shah I. Jung.
(2) Banda Bahadurs revolt was (2) Nizam of Hyderabad was neutral
suppressed by Aurangzeb. in the second Anglo-Mysore War.
Which of the above statements is / Which of the above statements is /
are true. are true.
(a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 2 only (a) 1 & 2 (b) 2 & 3
(c) 1 only (c) All of the above (d) 1 & 3
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 201. Consider the following statements.
197. Consider the following statements. (1) Murshid Kuli Khan was
(1) Jats Revolt against the Mughal contemporary to Jahadar Shah.
authority started from the time of (2) Anwar-ud-din as the Nawab of
Aurengzeb. Carnatic murdered by Chanda
(2) Churaman & Bodan Singh founded Sahib with the help of French.
the Jat State of Bharatpur. Which of the above statements is /
Which of the above statements is / are true.
are true. (a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 2 only
(a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 1 only (c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) 1 only
(c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) 2 only 202. According to their Ruling period
198. In the Later Mughal period there are Arrange the following Bengal Success.
some states were established by the (1) Shuja-ud-din
Mughal provincial governors, which (2) Murshid Kuli Khan
state is not in that list. (3) Alivardi Khan
(a) Awadh (b) Bengal (4) Siraj-ud-daula.
(c) Hyderabad (a) 1, 2, 3, 4
(d) None of these (b) 2, 1, 4, 3
199. Consider the following statements. (c) 2, 1, 3, 4 (d) 4, 3, 1, 2
(1) Ahmad Shah to grant the title of 203. Under the tenure of Siraj-ul-daula a
Burhan-ul-mulk to Saadat Khan. alliance made by some people to
(2) Chin Qulich Khan took the title of dethrone him who was not in that
Nizam-ul-mulk Asaf Khan. alliance.
Multiple Choice Question 123

(a) Jagat Seth (b) Raja Janki Ram 207. Consider the following statements
(c) Manik Chand about Battle of Buxar.
(d) None of these (1) Mir Kasim formed in alliance with
204. Consider the following statements Shah Alam II & Shuja-ud-daula of
about Black hole tragedy. Awadh.
(1) During Black hole tragedy (2) The combined forces defeated
Murshid Kuli Khan was the Britishers.
Nawab of Bengal. Which of the above statements is /
(2) Holwell was one of the Survivor are true.
of this tragedy. (a) Both 1 & 2
Which of the above statements is / (b) 2 only
are true. (c) 1 only
(a) 1 2only (b) 1 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) Both 1 & 2 208. Consider the following statements
205. Consider the following statements about Treaty of Allahabad.
about Battle of Plassey. (1) Treaty of Allahabad was signed in
(1) The English continued fortification 1765.
of Fort Willium dissegarding the (2) Mir Kasim granted the diwani of
orders of Nawab was one of the Bengal, Bihar & Orissa to the
main reasons of Battle. company.
(2) Mir Jafar dethroned Sir-ud-daula (3) Treaty of Allahabad gave the
with the help of Clive. diwani rights from Nawab to the
Which of the above statements is / company.
are true. Which of the above statements is /
(a) 1 only (b) Both 1 & 2 are true.
(c) 2 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2 (a) All of the above
206. Consider the following statements. (b) 1 & 2
(1) British were granted the (c) 1 & 2
Zamindari of Burdwan, (d) 2 & 3 only
Midnapore & Chittagon by Mir 209. Consider the following statements
Jafar. about the Regulating Act of 1773.
(2) As an Nawab of Bengal Mir Kasim (1) Act established the office of
was the replacement of Mir Jafar. Governor-General at Fort William.
Which of the above statements is / (2) Warren Hastings was appointed as
are true. the Governor of Bengal in 1773.
(a) 2 only Which of the above statements is /
(b) 1 only are true.
(c) Both 1 & 2 (a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 (c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) Both 1 & 2
124 Gist of NCERT (History)

210. Match the following 213. Consider the following statements

Year Incidents about permanent settlement.
(1) 1698 (a) Farrukhsiyar
(1) Warren Hastings known as the
granted duty free
trading rights to East father of permanent settlement.
India Company (2) The land revenue under permanent
(2) 1665 (b) Dutch Company settlement was to be fixed.
received exemption (3) The Zamindars were to pay a fixed
from paying tolls
(3) 1717 (c) Britishers got
amount of revenue by the sun-set
Zamindari rights in of a particular day.
Kolikata, Sultanutia Which of the above statements is /
& Gobindapur. are true.
(4) 1652 (d) East India Company
(a) All of the above (b) 1 & 2
granted exemption
for paying toll tax. (c) 1 & 3 (d) 2 & 3
(a) 1 - c 2 - b 3 - a 4 - d 214. Consider the following statements
(b) 1 - c 2 - a 3 - b 4 - d about Ryotwari Settlement.
(c) 1 - c 2 - d 3 - b 4 - a (1) Thomas Munro give the shape to
(d) 1 - d 2 - c 3 - a 4 - b Ryotwari settlement.
211. Consider the following statements. (2) The Ryotwari Settlement
(1) Till the first half of the eighteenth technically created individual
century in terms of trade. India proprietary rights in land which
was superior to any European were vested in peasants.
Country. Which of the above statements is /
(2) The Economic Hisotry of India are true.
written by Dadabhai Naoroji. (a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 1 only
Which of the above statements is / (c) 2 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2
are true. 215. Consider the following statements
(a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 1 only about Mahalwari.
(c) 2 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2 (1) Holt Mackenzie devised the
212. Consider the following statements. Mahalwari system.
(1) The two most important forms of (2) The settlement was to be made
drain of wealth were Home village by village & estate (Mahal)
Charges & Council Bills. by estate.
(2) Council Bills were the actual means (3) The state reserved to itself the right
through which money was of direct management of the
transferred. agricultural economy.
Which of the above statements is / Which of the above statements is /
are true. are true.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only (a) 1 & 2 (b) All of the above
(c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 (c) 2 & 3 (d) 1 & 3
Multiple Choice Question 125

216. Consider the following statements. Rajas thought were Vedantic,

(1) Ramakrishna Mission was Islamic & Christianity.
established by Swami Paramhansa (3) He was the founder of Brahma
in 1896. Samaj.
(2) Sir Sayaid Ahmed Khan founded Which of the above statements is /
the Aligarh Scientific Society. are true.
(3) M.G. Ranade started Vidhawa (a) 1 & 2 (b) 2 & 3
Vivaha uttejaka Mandal Society for (c) 1 & 3 (d) All of the above
Widow remarriage. 220. Consider the following statements
Which of the above statements is / about Brahmo Samaj.
are true. (1) Tattvabodhini Patrika was the
(a) 1 & 2 (b) 2 & 3 mouth piece of Brahmo Samaj.
(c) 1 & 3 (d) All of the above (2) In 1865 there ws asplit when
217. Consider the following statements. Keshav Chand Sen & his followers
(1) Arya Samaj was founded by broke away.
Dayanand Saraswati in 1885. (3) The role of the Brahmo Samaj as
(2) Dayanand Saraswati established the first intellectual movement.
Gaurakshini Sabhas. Which spread the ideas of rational
Which of the above statements is / & enlightment in Modern India.
are true. (a) All of the above (b) 1 & 2 only
(a) 2 only (b) 1 only (c) 2 & 3 only (d) 1 & 3
(c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 221. Consider the following statements
218. Consider the following statements. about Arya Samaj.
(1) A nation in making written by (1) Arya Samaj was founded by
Dadabhai Naoroji. Dayanand Saraswati at Rajkot.
(2) Hindu College was founded in (2) The Samaj does not believe in caste
Calcutta with encouragement from based on birth.
David Hare & Rammohan Roy. Which of the above statements is /
(3) Asiatic Society of Bengal founded are true.
by David Hare. (a) 1 only (b) Both 1 & 2
Which of the above statements is / (c) 2 only
are true. (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(a) 1 & 3 (b) 2 & 3 222. Consider the following statements
(c) 1 & 2 (d) All of the above about Swami Vivekanand.
219. Consider the following statements (1) Vivekanand represent Hinduism to
about Raja Ram Mohan Roy. the parliament of Religious
(1) Raja Saheb viewed British Rule as convened at Chicago in 1893.
beneficial. (2) He was the founder of
(2) The three main influences inthe Ramakrishna Mission.
126 Gist of NCERT (History)

Which of the above statements is / an orthodox organization of

are true. educated Hindus.
(a) 2 only (b) Both 1 & 2 (2) Madras Hindu Social reforms
(c) 1 only Association was founded by
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 Viresalingam Pantulu.
223. Consider the following statements Which of the above statements is /
about Theosophical society. are true.
(1) Society was founded by Madame (a) 1 only (b) 2 only
Blavatsky & Colonel Olkott. (c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(2) Societys headquarter was in Adyar 227. Consider the following statements.
(Madras). (1) Dharma Sabha was founded by
Which of the above statements is / Radhakant Deb.
are true. (2) Gopal Hari Deshmukh was
(a) 1 only popularly known as Lokahi tawadi.
(b) 2 only (3) Radhswami movement was
(c) Neither 1 nor 2 founded by Shiv Dayal Saheb.
(d) Both 1 & 2 Which of the above statements is /
224. Consider the following statements. are true.
(a) 1 & 2 (b) 2 & 3
(1) M.G. Ranade widely accepted as
(c) 1 & 3
the father of renaissance in
western India. (d) All of the above
(2) Prarthana Samaj was founded in 228. Consider the following statements.
1867. (1) The Seva Sadan was founded by
Which of the above statements is / Behram J. Malabari.
are true. (2) The Servants of India Society was
(a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 1 only founded by Tilak.
(c) 2 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Which of the above statements is /
225. Consider the following statements. are true.
(1) Mahima movement was founded (a) 1 only (b) 2 only
in Orissa. (c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(2) Dev Samaj founded by Keshav 229. Consider the following statements.
Chand Sen. (1) Indian National Social conference
Which of the above statements is / was founded by M.G. Ranade.
are true. (2) The Social Service league was
(a) 2 only (b) 1 only founded by Narayan Malhar Joshi.
(c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Which of the above statements is /
226. Consider the following statements. are true.
(1) Bharat Dharma Mahamandala was (a) 1 only (b) Both 1 & 2
(c) 2 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Multiple Choice Question 127

230. Consider the following statements. Which of the above statements is /

(1) Rahanumai Mazdayan Sabha was are true.
a social religious reform of the (a) 1 only (b) Both 1 & 2
Muslim in India. (c) 2 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(2) Syed Ahmed Khan was the first 234. Consider the following statements
Muslim President of congress. about movement.
Which of the above statements is / (1) The movement was founded by
are true. Qasim Nahautavi & Rashid Ahmad
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only Gangohi.
(c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) Both 1 & 2 (2) To coperated with the congress in
231. Consider the following statements its activites was the main objective
about Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. of this movement.
(1) At the time of the Rebellion of 1857 Which of the above statements is /
Syed Ahmad was the Amin of are true.
Bijnor. (a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(2) He founded Muhammandan (c) Both 1 & 2
Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh. (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(3) He was the founding member of 235. Consider the following statements.
India National Congress. (1) Jyotiba Phule was the founder of
Which of the above statements is / Satya Shodhak Samaj.
are true. (2) Aravippuram movement launched
(a) All of the above (b) 2 & 3 by Ramaswami Naikar.
(c) 1 & 2 (d) 1 & 2 (3) Self Respect movement launched
232. Consider the following statements. by Narain Guru.
(1) Faraidi Movement spread in East Which of the above statements is /
Bengal. are true.
(2) Syed Ahmad Barelwi was the (a) All of the above (b) 2 & 3
founder of Wahabi movement. (c) 1 only (d) 1 & 3
Which of the above statements is / 236. Consider the following statements.
are true. (1) Widow Marriage Act passed in
(a) 1 & 2 only (b) 1 only 1856.
(c) 2 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2 (2) D.K. Karve founded Indias first
233. Consider the following statements. Womens University in Bombay.
(1) Mirza Ghulam Ahmad known as (3) The Child Marriage restrint Act
the father of Ahamadiya popularly known as Sarda Act.
movement. Which of the above statements is /
(2) This movement was based on the are true.
principles of a universal religion of (a) 1 & 2 (b) 2 & 3
all humanity. (c) 1 & 3 (d) All of the above
128 Gist of NCERT (History)

237. Consider the following statements 241. Consider the following statements.
about Illbert Bill. (1) Saligram idol eare is related to
(1) Illbert Bill was introduced in Lokmanya Tilak.
Legislative Council during the era (2) Vernacular Press Act passed during
of Lord Ripon. Lord Lyttons tenure.
(2) Bill arrested that the Indian Judges (3) W.C. Banerjee was the first
were not fit to administer Justice president of Indian National
of a white offender. Congress.
(3) The Anglo Indian Community was Which of the above statements is /
in favour to this Bill. are true.
Which of the above statements is / (a) All of the above (b) 1 & 2 only
are true. (c) 1 & 3 only (d) 2 & 3
(a) All of the above (b) 1 & 3 242. Consider the following statements.
(c) 1 & 2 (d) 2 & 3 (1) Lord Curzon known as the father
238. Which Governor General once said that of Indian Nationalism.
Indians are cheats. (2) Muslim League came into existence
(a) Lord Curzon in 1906.
(b) Lyutton Which of the above statements is /
(c) Dalhousie are true.
(d) Minto (a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 1 only
239. Consider the following statements. (c) 2 only
(1) British Indian Association Founded (d) Neither 1 nor 2
in 1851. 243. Consider the following statements
(2) The Indian League was founded by about the provisions of Indian council
Surendranath Banerjee. Act of 1861.
Which of the above statements is / (1) Indians could be nominated to the
are true. Supreme Legislative Council.
(a) 1 only (2) The members were to be
(b) Both 1 & 2 nominated by Governor-General.
(c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) 2 only (3) Local Legislations to be set up in
240. Consider the following statements. Mumbai.
(1) Prarthna Samaj founded in 1867 by Which of the above statements is /
Ranade. are true.
(2) Madras Mahajan Sabha was (a) All of the above (b) 1 & 2 only
founded in 1884. (c) 2 & 3 only (d) 1 & 3
Which of the above statements is / 244. Consider the following statements
are true. about Indian Council Act of 1892.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only (1) The number of members of councils
(c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 of Bengal & North-Western
Multiple Choice Question 129

provinces was to be raised to 20 & (a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 2 only

15 respectively. (c) 1 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(2) The Act allowed the members to 248. Consider the following statements.
discuss the budget & offer (1) During partition of Bengal (1905)
suggestions for its improvement. Gokhale was the congress
Which of the above statements is / president.
are true. (2) In 1907 Surat Congress session the
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only extremist suggest Lajpat Rais
(c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 name for the presidentship.
245. Consider the following statements. (3) British government council
(1) New Lamps for old (Book) written partition of Bengal in 1911.
by Aurbindo Ghosh. Which of the above statements is /
(2) Tilak used the Ganpati Festival to are true.
raise awareness Nationalism. (a) 1 & 2 (b) 2 & 3
(3) Gaorakshini Sabha founded by (c) 1 & 3 (d) All of the above
Tilak. 249. Which Vice-Roys tenure in India known
Which of the above statements is / as the full of missions, omissions &
are true. commissions.
(a) All of the above (b) 1 & 2 (a) Lord Lytton (b) Lord Curzon
(c) 2 & 3 (d) 1 & 3 (c) Lord Irwin (d) Lord Ripon
246. Consider the following statements. 250. Consider the following statements.
(1) Hindu mela or National Mela (1) Bhupendra Datta edited Yugantar
founded by Nabagopal Mitra. during National movement.
(2) The extremists made the demand (2) Aurbindo Ghosh was related to
for Swaraj or Home Rule. Yugantar.
Which of the above statements is / (3) Collector of Nasik Mr. Jackson was
are true. assassinated in 1915.
(a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 1 only Which of the above statements is /
(c) 2 only are true.
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 (a) 1 & 2 (b) 2 & 3
247. Consider the following statements. (c) 1 & 3 (d) All of the above
(1) The Swadeshi-cum Boy cott 251. Consider the following statements.
movement was launched on (1) Savarkar brothers started an
August 7, 1905 at a meeting in association which was called Mitra
Calcutta Town Hall. Mela in 1904.
(2) National College was formed by (2) India House founded by Shyam Ji
Surendranath Banerjee in 1906. Krishna Verma.
Which of the above statements is / (3) Indian War of Independence was
are true. originally written in English.
130 Gist of NCERT (History)

Which of the above statements is / (1) It increased the membership of

are true. non officials in the imperial &
(a) All of the above (b) 2 & 3 provincial legisltive councils.
(c) 1 & 2 only (d) 1 & 3 (2) The Act provided for the
252. Consider the following statements. appointment of an Indian to the
Viceroys executive council.
(1) Curzon Willie was shot dead by
Madan Lal Dhingra. (3) The members could introduce
legislative proposals but could not
(2) Ghadar Party was established in
enact laws.
Which of the above statements is /
Which of the above statements is /
are true.
are true.
(a) 1 & 2 (b) 2 & 3
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) All of the above (d) 1 & 3
(c) Neither 1 nor 2
256. Consider the following statements.
(d) Both 1 & 2
253. Consider the following statements (1) Delhi Darbar was held in 1911
about Kamagata Maru incident. during the viceroyalty of Lord
(1) Kamagata Maru incident hapen in
(2) Amir Chand, Avadh Bihari,
Balmukund & Basanta Kumar
(2) Baba Gurdit Singh was related to Biswas received capital punishment
this incident. in Lahore Bomb case.
Which of the above statements is / Which of the above statements is /
are true. are true.
(a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 2 only (a) 1 only
(c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) 1 only (b) 2 only
254. Consider the following statements (c) Neither 1 nor 2
about Ghadar Party. (d) Both 1 & 2
(1) Lala Har Dayal along with others 257. Consider the following statements
founded Ghadar party. about Lucknow pact (1916).
(2) The party established its branches
(1) In the Central Legislature one third
in Hong Kong, Manila, Bangkok,
of the elected Indian members
Shanghai & Panama.
should be muslims.
Which of the above statements is /
(2) Ras Bihari Bose the congress
are true.
president in 1916.
(a) Both 1 & 2
Which of the above statements is /
(b) 1 only are true.
(c) 2 only (a) 2 only (b) 1 only
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 (c) Both 1 & 2
255. Consider the following statements (d) Neither 1 nor 2
about Morley-Minto reform.
Multiple Choice Question 131

258. Consider the following statements (c) 2 only

about montague - Chelmsford reform. (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(1) Set up dyarchy in provinces. 261. Consider the following statements
(2) The transferred department were about the programme of Non
given to Indian Ministers. cooperation movement.
(3) The Governor was to preside over (1) Surrender of titles & honorary
bothe wings of the executive. offices.
(4) A Second Indian was to be added (2) Withdrawal of children from
to the Governor - Generals schools & colleges
executive council. (3) Boycott of foreign goods.
Which of the above statements is / Which of the above statements is /
are true. are true.
(a) All of the above (b) 1 & 2 (a) 1 & 2 (b) All of the above
(c) 2 & 3 (d) 3 & 4 (c) 2 & 3 (d) 1 & 3
259. Consider the following statements. 262. Consider the following statements.
(1) Lord Irwin appointed the sedition (1) The non cooperation movement
committee or Rowlatt commission. were suspended after the Chauri
(2) Sir Sankaran Nair resigned his Chaura Incident.
membership of the Viceroys (2) Gandhi Ji faced trial (March 192(2)
executive council in the protest of in Mumbai.
Jallianwala Massacre. (3) Gandhi took full responsibility of
(3) Udham Singh shot ded Michael O Chauri Chaura.
Dywer. Which of the above statements is /
Which of the above statements is / are true.
are true. (a) All of the above (b) 1 & 2
(a) All of the above (b) 1 & 2 only (c) 2 & 3 (d) 1 & 3
(c) 2 & 3 (d) 1 & 3 263. Consider the following statements.
260. Consider the following statements.
(1) The founder of the Indian
(1) October 17, 1919 was observed as Communism was M.N. Roy.
the Khilafat day at an all India (2) M.N. Roy founded communist
scale. party of India in Kanpur.
(2) At a special session of the Indian Which of the above statements is /
national congress at Calcutta are true.
(September 1920) passed the (a) 1 only (b) 2 only
resolution to launch the non-
(c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
cooperation movement.
264. Match the following
Which of the above statements is /
Party State
are true.
(1) Labur Swaraj party (A) Madras
(a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 1 only (2) Kirti Kishan party (B) Bengal
132 Gist of NCERT (History)

(3) Congress Labour (C) Punjab 268. Consider the following statements.
(4) Labour Kisan Party(D) Mumbai (1) Hindu Mahasabha founded in 1918
(a) 1 - a 2 - b 3 - c 4 - d under the presidentship of Madan
(b) 1 - b 2 - c 3 - d 4 - a Mohan Malviya.
(c) 1 - c 2 - d 3 - b 4 - a (2) Fazl-i-Husain was related to
(d) 1 - d 2 - a 3 - c 4 - b unionist party of Punjab.
265. Consider the following statements. Which of the above statements is /
are true.
(1) All India trade Union Congress
held its first session in Kanpur. (a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(2) Meerut conspiracy cases accused (c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
were defended by J.L. Nehru, M.A. 269. Consider the following statements.
Ansari & M.C. Chagla. (1) The Nagpur Flag satyagraha was
Which of the above statements is / started in mid-1923.
are true. (2) Vaikom Satyagraha was fought for
(a) 1 only (b) Both 1 & 2 temple entry.
(c) 2 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Which of the above statements is /
266. Consider the following statements are true.
about CSP. (a) 1 only (b) Both 1 & 2
(1) Congress socialist party was (c) 2 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2
formed in 1934. 270. Consider the following statements.
(2) J.L.Nehru & base did not support (1) Simon Commission enumerated
CSP. two features of Indian states,
(3) The Cabinet Mission plan was British territory & not British
rejected by CSP. subjects.
Which of the above statements is / (2) The Government of India Act of
are true. 1935 proposed a system of
(a) All of the above (b) 1 & 2 federation.
(c) 2 & 3 (d) 1 & 3 Which of the above statements is /
267. Consider the following statements. are true.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(1) Under the presidentship of C.R.
Das, Swaraj party formed in 1922. (c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) Both 1 & 2
(2) Swaraj party win 42 out of 101 271. Consider the following statements.
elective seats in the central (1) The Butler Committees report
legislative assembly. (1929) rankly said that the princes
Which of the above statements is / had no sovereign authority.
are true. (2) Gandhi start Salt Satyagraha in
(a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 1 only August 1929.
(c) 2 only Which of the above statements is /
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 are true.
Multiple Choice Question 133

(a) 1 only (b) 2 only (a) Chandra Shekhar Azad.

(c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 (b) Roshan Lal
272. Consider the following statements (c) Rajender Lahiri
about All India states peoples (d) Asfaqullah Khan
conference. 276. Consider the following statements.
(1) It took shape in 1927. (1) Bhagat Singh & Batu Keshwar Dutt
(2) Balwant Rai Mehta, Manilal threw two crude bombs in central
Kothari & G.R. Abhayankar was legislative Assembly.
the leader. (2) Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev & Rajguru
(3) Its headquarter was based in Delhi. were hanged on March 23, 1931.
Which of the above statements is / Which of the above statements is /
are true. are true.
(a) All of the above (a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(b) 1 & 3 only (c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(c) 1 & 2 only (d) 2 & 3 277. Consider the following statements.
273. Consider the following statements (1) Subhas Chandra Bose was related
about Simon Commission. to the Anushilan group.
(1) Indian statutory commission (2) Indian Republican Army was
known as Simon Commission. founded by Surya Sen.
(2) Commission consisted 9 members. Which of the above statements is /
(3) Sir John-Simon was the Chief of are true.
Simon Commission. (a) 1 only
Which of the above statements is / (b) 2 only
are true. (c) Neither 1 nor 2
(a) 1 & 2 (b) 1 & 3 (d) Both 1 & 2
(c) All of the above (d) 2 & 3 278. Consider the following statements
274. Consider the following statements. about Nehru report.
(1) Indian National Congress meet in (1) Nehru report was headed by
Calcutta to boycott Simon Motilal Nehru.
Commission. (2) The list of central & provincial
(2) Muslim League supported Simon subjects shall be provided in the
Commission. schedule.
Which of the above statements is / (3) Universal adult franchise for all
are true. those who have attained the age
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only of 18.
(c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Which of the above statements is /
275. Of the 29, four revolutionaries were are true.
sentenced to death in Kakori case. Which (a) All of the above (b) 1 & 3
is not in the list. (c) 2 & 3 (d) 1 & 2
134 Gist of NCERT (History)

279. Consider the following statements (2) The Hindu Muslim Unity was
about the main points of Jinnahs 14 totally missing in Civil
points Charter. disobedience movement.
(1) In the central legislature muslim Which of the above statements is /
reporesentation shall be 1/3rd of are true.
the total seats. (a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(2) The residuary powers should vert (c) Neither 1 nor 2
in the provinces. (d) Both 1 & 2
(3) Separation of Sindh should be 283. Consider the following statements.
postponed. (1) Muslim League did not participate
Which of the above statements is / in the First Round Table
are true. Conference.
(a) 1 & 2 (b) 1 & 3 (2) Ambedkar participate in all the
(c) 2 & 3 (d) All of the above round table conference.
280. Consider the following statements Which of the above statements is /
about the Lahore session of congress are true.
(1929). (a) 2 only (b) 1 only
(1) Lahore session held under the (c) Both 1 & 2
presidentship of J.L. Nehru. (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(2) The congress issues a call to the 284. Consider the following statements
countrymen to celebrate 26 January about Gandhi-Irwin pact features.
1930 as poorna Swarajya day. (1) Return of confiscated lands not yet
Which of the above statements is / sold to third parties.
are true. (2) Immediate release of all political
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only prisoners.
(c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 (3) Pact was concluded on 5 March
281. Consider the following statements 1931.
about the programmes of civil Which of the above statements is /
disobedience movement. are true.
(1) Picketing of shops dealing in liquor. (a) 1 & 2 only (b) 2 & 3
(2) Ban fire of foreign cloth. (c) All of the above (d) 1 & 3
(3) Boy cott of law courts. 285. Consider the following statements.
Which of the above statements is / (1) Gandhi attended the Second
are true. Round Table Conference.
(a) 1 & 2 (b) All of the above (2) The 2nd Round table conference
(c) 1 only (d) 2 only was meeting in the context of world
282. Consider the following statements. economic crisis.
(1) Abdul Ghaffar Khan formed Which of the above statements is /
Khudai Khidmatgar. are true.
Multiple Choice Question 135

(a) 1 only (b) Both 1 & 2 & the Muslim League formed a
(c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) 2 only coalition government int he
286. Consider the following statements. provincial election of 1937.
(2) H.S. Suhrawardy became premier
(1) Communal award announced on 10
of Sindh.
August 1932.
Which of the above statements is /
(2) The Award gave recognition to the are true.
Harijans as a minority.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(3) Award accepted the demand of (c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) Both 1 & 2
Muslims, Sikhs, Indian for separate
290. I would like to see the Punjab, NWFP,
Sindh & Baluchistan amalgamated into
Which of the above statements is /
a single state.
are true.
Who had given this statement
(a) All of the above
during national movement.
(b) 1 & 2 only
(a) Jinnah (b) Mohammad Ali
(c) 2 & 3 (d) 1 & 3
(c) Md. Iqbal (d) Khali Kujamma
287. Consider the following statements
291. Consider the following statements.
about pund pact.
(1) Agreement was sign on 26 (1) Muslim League appointed a
committee heaed by Raja of Pirpur
September 1932.
to investigate Muslim complaints
(2) 148 seats were reserved against 71
against the congress governments
in the award. & submit a report.
Which of the above statements is /
(2) Asbab-e-Bagawat written by Md.
are true.
Ali Jinnah.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
Which of the above statements is /
(c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 are true.
288. Consider the following statements (a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 1 only
about 3rd round table conference.
(c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) 2 only
(1) The invitation for the conference 292. Consider the following statements.
was sent only to those perons who
were loyal to the government. (1) Muslim League celebrated the day
(2) The Biggest outcome of this December 22, 1939 as the
conference was Government of deliverance day.
India Act 1935. (2) Muslim League at Karachi Session
Which of the above statements is / (1940) passed the in famous
are true. Pakistan Resolution.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only Which of the above statements is /
(c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) Both 1 & 2 are true.
289. Consider the following statements (a) 1 only (b) 2 only
about the provincial elections of 1937. (c) Both 1 & 2
(1) In the Punjab, the Unionist party (d) Neither 1 nor 2
136 Gist of NCERT (History)

293. Consider the following statements. (a) 2 only (b) 1 only

(1) Muslim League supported the (c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) Both 1 & 2
August Offer (1940). 297. Consider the following statements
(2) August offer came in the form of a about Raja Gopalachari Formula.
statement by the Viceroy on 8 (1) Any transfer of population shall
August 1940. only be an abslutely voluntary
Which of the above statements is / basis.
are true. (2) In the event of separation mutual
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only agreement shall be entered.
(c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) Both 1 & 2 (3) Jinnah Supported Formula.
294. Consider the following statements. Which of the above statements is /
(1) Gandhi termed Cripps proposal as are true.
a post-dated cheque on a crashing (a) All of the above
bank. (b) 1 & 2 only
(2) In Satara a parallel government (c) 2 & 3 (d) 1 & 3
was set up during Quit India 298. Consider the following statements
movement. about Wavell plan.
Which of the above statements is / (1) The executive council would work
are true. under the Government of India Act
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only 1935.
(c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 (2) Hindus & Muslims would have
295. Consider the following statements. equal representation in the
(1) Rash Behari Bose was the chairman executive council.
of Indian Independence league. (3) New Government would work like
(2) Subhash Chandra Bose founded a provisional national government.
Azad Hind Fauz. Which of the above statements is /
Which of the above statements is / are true.
are true. (a) 1 & 2 only (b) 2 & 3
(a) 2 only (b) Both 1 & 2 (c) All of the above (d) 1 only
(c) Neither 1 nor 2 299. Consider the following statements
(d) 1 only about Simla Conference.
296. Consider the following statements. (1) Assembled at Simla on 25th June
(1) Subhash Chandra Bose established 1945.
a provisional Government of Free (2) Abul Kalam Azad participate as
India at Germany. Congress President.
(2) Bose acclaimed as Netaja by (3) Gandhi did not attend the
German Women. conference.
Which of the above statements is / Which of the above statements is /
are true. are true.
Multiple Choice Question 137

(a) 1 & 2 only (b) 2 & 3 only (2) The princely states would retain all
(c) 1 & 3 subjects.
(d) All of the above (3) The constituent assembly was to
300. Consider the following statements consist of 209.
about Royal Indian Navy Mutiny. Which of the above statements is /
(1) Royal Indian navy rose in rebellion are true.
on 18 February 1946. (a) 1 & 3 (b) 2 & 3
(2) Talwar (Ship) went on hunger (c) All of the above (d) 1 & 2
strike. 304. Consider the following statements
(3) B.C. Dutt was the leader of this about the elections to the constituent
mutiny. Assembly.
Which of the above statements is / (1) Congress Captured 199 seats.
are true. (2) Out of 78 Muslim seats League got
(a) All of the above 73.
(b) 1 & 2 only (3) 210 general seats alloted to the
(c) 2 & 3 British Indian provision.
(d) 1 & 3 Which of the above statements is /
301. There was three members in the Cabinet are true.
Mission. Which is not in the list. (a) All of the above (b) 1 & 2
(a) Pethick Lawrence (c) 2 & 3 (d) 1 & 3
(b) Sir John Simon 305. Consider the following statements.
(c) A.V. Alexander (1) Direct Action day (Muslim league)
(d) Stafford Cripps. fixed for August 16, 1946.
302. Consider the following statements. (2) Initially League supported the
Cabinet Mission Plan.
(1) Appointment of the cabinet mission
Which of the above statements is /
was a virtual declaration of Indias
are true.
(a) 1 only
(2) Cabinet Mission plan consisted of
a federal government with a (b) Both 1 & 2
limited number of subjects (c) 2 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Which of the above statements is / 306. Consider the following statements
are true. about the Interim Government.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only (1) The Interim Government was
(c) Both 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 sworn in on September 2, 1946.
303. Consider the following statements (2) It was composed of 14 members.
about recommendations of Cabinet (3) Jawahar Lal nehru was nominated
Mission Plan. as its Vice President.
(1) The Unity of India had to be Which of the above statements is /
retained. are true.
138 Gist of NCERT (History)

(a) 1 & 2 Which of the above statements is /

(b) 2 & 3 are true.
(c) 1 & 3 (a) 1 & 2 (b) 2 & 3
(d) All of the above (c) All of the above (d) 1 & 3
307. Consider the following statements. 310. Consider the following statements
(1) Constituent assembly met for the about Indian Independence Act 1947.
first time on December 6, 1946. (1) Passed by British Parliament in July
(2) Muslim League refused to Join 1947.
Constituent Assembly. (2) Congress refused this proposal.
Which of the above statements is / Which of the above statements is /
are true. are true.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only (a) 1 & 2
(c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) Both 1 & 2 (b) 1 only
308. Consider the following statements (c) 2 only
about Mountbatten plan. (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(1) Punjab & Bengal Legislative 311. Consider the following statements.
assembly would be divided into (1) The states reorganisation
two sections. commission came into effect in
(2) The work of the existing November 1953.
constituent assembly was not to be (2) Dar Committee was appointed to
interrupted. examine the demands for the
(3) The district of Sylhet in Assam creation of linguistic states.
would decide its choice by means Which of the above statements is /
of a referendum. are true.
Which of the above statements is / (a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 1 only
are true. (c) 2 only
(a) All of the above (b) 1 & 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
(c) 2 & 3 (d) 1 & 3 312. Consider the following statements.
309. Consider the following statements (1) A Shuddi campaign in the Punjab
about partition council. & United province started by Arya
(1) Partititon committee consisting of Samaj.
Vallabhai Patel & Rajendra Prasad (2) The Lahore session of the League
as congress representative. in 1940 proclaimed muslims as a
(2) Md. Ali Jinnah represented Muslim nation & talked about independent
League. states.
(3) The council functioned through a Which of the above statements is /
steering committee of two senior are true.
officials H.M. Patel for India & (a) 1 only (b) Both 1 & 2
Chaudhri Md. Ali for Pakistan. (c) 2 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Multiple Choice Question 139

313. (1) Annexation of Awadh (3) Lord Canning held a Darbar at

(2) Role of Christian Missionaries New Delhi.
Which of the above statements is /
(3) Military Grievances
are true.
(4) Administrative Cause (a) All of the above (b) 1 & 3
Which of the above causes are the reason (c) 1 & 2 (d) 2 & 3
for revolt of 1857. 316. Consider the following statements.
(a) All of the above (b) 1 & 2 (1) Book the Indian Musalmans
(c) 2 & 3 (d) 2, 3 & 4 written by Sir Benjamin Dissaeli.
314. Consider the following statements. (2) Indian Councils Act passed in 1861.
(1) Lord Canning was the Governor - Which of the above statements is /
General during Revolt of 1857. are true.
(2) The British adopted the policy of (a) Both 1 & 2 (b) 1 only
no prisioners in revolt of 1857. (c) Neither 1 nor 2
(3) Maulvi Ahmad-ullah was the (d) 2 only
leader of Lucknow during 1857 317. The whole insurrection is a great
revolt. Mohanedan conspiracy & the sepoys are
(a) All of the above (b) 1 & 2 only merely the tools of the Musalmans.
(c) 2 & 3 only (d) 1 & 3
Who had given this statement (in
315. Consider the following statements the context of 1857).
about changes of port 1857 revolt. (a) Alfred Lyall
(1) English East India Company rule (b) G.B. Malleson
came to end by the Act of 1858. (c) Disraeli
(2) The Board of Directors & the (d) All of the above
Board of Control were abolished.
140 Gist of NCERT (History)

1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (d) 7. (a) 8. (c) 9. (c) 10. (d)
11. (c) 12. (a) 13. (d) 14. (d) 15. (b) 16. (d) 17. (c) 18. (c) 19. (d) 20. (b)
21. (d) 22. (d) 23. (d) 24. (b) 25. (c) 26. (c) 27. (d) 28. (a) 29. (d) 30. (b)
31. (c) 32. (a) 33. (b) 34. (c) 35. (a) 36. (b) 37. (d) 38. (a) 39. (c) 40. (b)
41. (d) 42. (c) 43. (b) 44. (c) 45. (a) 46. (b) 47. (d) 48. (b) 49. (c) 50. (a)
51. (b) 52. (d) 53. (a) 54. (c) 55. (b) 56. (d) 57. (c) 58. (b) 59. (c) 60. (a)
61. (b) 62. (d) 63. (c) 64. (a) 65. (d) 66. (c) 67. (b) 68. (a) 69. (d) 70. (b)
71. (c) 72. (b) 73. (c) 74. (a) 75. (c) 76. (a) 77. (a) 78. (c) 79. (b) 80. (a)
81. (c) 82. (b) 83. (a) 84. (a) 85. (c) 86. (c) 87. (c) 88. (b) 89. (d) 90. (b)
91. (c) 92. (b) 93. (c) 94. (d) 95. (b) 96. (a) 97. (c) 98. (b) 99. (d) 100. (b)
101. (a) 102. (d) 103. (c) 104. (c) 105. (a) 106. (c) 107. (c) 108. (b) 109. (d) 110. (b)
111. (a) 112. (c) 113. (c) 114. (a) 115. (c) 116. (b) 117. (a) 118. (b) 119. (d) 120. (a)
121. (d) 122. (a) 123. (b) 124. (c) 125. (d) 126. (a) 127. (a) 128. (c) 129. (c) 130. (c)
131. (c) 132. (d) 133. (c) 134. (a) 135. (b) 136. (d) 137. (a) 138. (d) 139. (a) 140. (c)
141. (a) 142. (b) 143. (c) 144. (b) 145. (b) 146. (d) 147. (c) 148. (a) 149. (c) 150. (a)
151. (c) 152. (a) 153. (c) 154. (b) 155. (a) 156. (c) 157. (a) 158. (a) 159. (c) 160. (b)
161. (a) 162. (c) 163. (b) 164. (c) 165. (a) 166. (c) 167. (b) 168. (c) 169. (d) 170. (c)
171. (a) 172. (b) 173. (c) 174. (b) 175. (c) 176. (b) 177. (c) 178. (d) 179. (d) 180. (c)
181. (a) 182. (c) 183. (b) 184. (c) 185. (a) 186. (b) 187. (c) 188. (d) 189. (d) 190. (b)
191. (a) 192. (c) 193. (d) 194. (b) 195. (a) 196. (c) 197. (d) 188. (d) 199. (a) 200. (c)
201. (b) 202. (c) 203. (d) 204. (a) 205. (b) 206. (a) 207. (c) 208. (b) 209. (d) 210. (a)
211. (b) 212. (c) 213. (d) 214. (a) 215. (b) 216. (a) 217. (b) 218. (c) 219. (d) 220. (a)
221. (b) 222. (c) 223. (d) 224. (a) 225. (b) 226. (c) 227. (d) 228. (a) 229. (b) 230. (c)
231. (d) 232. (a) 233. (b) 234. (c) 235. (c) 236. (d) 237. (d) 238. (a) 239. (b) 240. (c)
241. (d) 242. (a) 243. (b) 244. (c) 245. (b) 246. (a) 247. (c) 248. (d) 249. (b) 250. (a)
251. (c) 252. (d) 253. (b) 254. (a) 255. (c) 256. (d) 257. (b) 258. (a) 259. (c) 260. (a)
261. (b) 262. (d) 263. (a) 264. (b) 265. (c) 266. (d) 267. (a) 268. (c) 269. (b) 270. (d)
271. (a) 272. (c) 273. (b) 274. (d) 275. (a) 276. (c) 277. (b) 278. (d) 279. (a) 280. (c)
281. (b) 282. (d) 293. (a) 284. (c) 285. (b) 286. (a) 287. (c) 288. (d) 289. (a) 290. (c)
291. (b) 292. (a) 293. (b) 294. (c) 295. (d) 296. (a) 297. (b) 298. (c) 299. (d) 300. (a)
301. (b) 302. (c) 303. (d) 304. (a) 305. (b) 306. (c) 307. (d) 308. (a) 309. (c) 310. (a)
311. (a) 312. (b) 313. (a) 314. (b) 315. (c) 316. (d) 317. (a)