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Lecture07

ARMATUREWINDING

Thearmaturewindingcanbroadlybeclassifiedasconcentratedanddistributedwinding.
Incaseofaconcentratedwinding,alltheconductors/poleishousedinoneslot.Sincethe
conductors/slotismore,quantityofinsulationintheslotismore,heatdissipationisless,
temperatureriseismoreandtheefficiencyofoperationwillbeless.Alsoemfinducedinthe
armatureconductorswillnotbesinusoidal.Therefore
a. design calculations become complicated (because of the complicated expression of non
sinusoidalwave).
b. Core loss increases (because of the fundamental and harmonic components of the non
sinusoidalwave)andefficiencyreduces.
c. Communicationinterferencemayoccur(becauseofthehigherfrequencycomponentsofthe
nonsinusoidalwave).

HencenoconcentratedwindingisusedinpracticeforaDCmachinearmature.

Inadistributedwinding(usedtoovercomethedisadvantagesoftheconcentratedwinding),
conductors / pole is distributed in more number of slots. The distributed winding can be
classifiedassinglelayerwindinganddoublelayerwinding.

Inasinglelayerwinding,therewillbeonlyonecoilsideintheslothavinganynumberof
conductors,oddorevenintegerdependingonthenumberofturnsofthecoil.Inadoublelayer
winding,therewillbe2ormultipleof2coilsidesintheslotarrangedintwolayers.Obviously
conductors/slotinadoublelayerwindingmustbeaneveninteger.

Sinceforagivennumberofconductors,polesandslots,asinglelayerwindingcallsforless
2
numberofcoilsofmorenumberofturns,reactancevoltageproportionalto(turn) ishigh.This
decreasesthequalityofcommutationorleadstosparkingcommutation.Henceasinglelayer
windingisnotgenerallyusedinDCmachines.Howeveritismuchusedinalternatorsand
inductionmotorswherethereisnocommutationinvolved.

Sinceadoublelayerwindingcallsformorenumberofcoilsoflessnumberofturns/coil,
2
reactancevoltageproportionalto(turn) islessandthequalityofcommutationisgood.Hence
doublelayerwindingsaremuchusedinDCmachines.
UnlessotherwisespecifiedallDCmachinesareassumedtobehavingadoublelayerwinding.
Adoublelayerwindingcanfurtherbeclassifiedassimplexormultiplexandlaporwave
winding.
CHOICEBETWEENALAPANDWAVEWINDING

ZNP
SinceemfinducedorbackemfE= ,numberofarmatureconductorsZ60A
60EA
= =KAforgivenvalueofE,NandP.Kisaconstant.ThereforeZlap=KP,Zwave=NP

P
K2andZlap= Zwave.Itisclearthatthenumberofconductors,coilsandcommutator2
segmentsinalapwindingismorethanthatofawavewindingforthesamenumberofturns
/coilinbothcases.Alsosincealapwindingisgenerallyequippedwithequalizerrings,costof
alapwindingismorethanthatofawavewinding.

Since a lap winding provides more number of parallel paths, it is generally used for low
voltageandhighcurrentmachines(Ex:machinesusedforelectroplating,batterychargingetc).
Awavewindingisgenerallyusedforhighvoltageandlowcurrentmachines.
Note:
a. Alapwindingcanbeusedforanycapacitymachine.Butawavewindingistobeusedonlyfor
low capacity machines. As the cost of the wave winding is less, almost all low capacity
machinesemploywavewinding.

b. Whileselectingthetypeofwindingthefollowingconditionsmustalsobeconsideredasforas
possible.
i) Commutator segment pitch c = ( x diameter of the commutator Dc) / number of
commutator segments should not be less than 4mm. Otherwise the segments becomes
mechanicallyweek.(Thevalue4mmisapplicabletomediumcapacitymachinesandmust
onlybetakenasaguidingvalueandneednotbestrictlyfollowed).

ii)Voltage between the commutator segments Eb on open circuit


emfinducedxP
shouldnotbemorethan20V.Otherwisearcingbetweenthe
numberof segments
segmentsmightresult.Obviouslyvoltage/conductorshouldnotbegreaterthan10Von
opencircuit.
Sketchshowingthecoilendconnectiontocommutatorsegments

NUMBEROFARMATURECONDUCTORS

Sincethe emfinduced orbackemfE= ZNP ,numberofarmatureconductors


60A
60EA where= B av DL
Z= Wb.Forapreliminarydesignemfinducedcanbetakenasthe
NP P
terminalvoltageincaseofageneratorandbackemfcanbetakenastheappliedvoltageincase
ofamotor.
Thenumberofarmatureconductorscanalsobecalculatedbyconsideringthespecificelectric
qA D
loading.InthatcaseZ= .Thenumberofconductorsmustbeaneveninteger.I a

CROSSSECTIONALAREAOFTHEARMATURECONDUCTORS

Since the armature conductors are connected in series in any of the parallel paths of dc
machine,maximumvalueofthecurrenttobecarriedbytheconductorisI a/Aandthecross
2
sectionalareaoftheconductora=Ia/Amm .Thecurrentdensityliesbetween4.5and7.0
2
A/mm inpractice.
Note:
Asthecurrentdensityincreases,crosssectionalareadecreases,resistanceoftheconductor
2
increases,I Rlossincreasesandtemperatureofthemachineincreases.Ifthecoolingfacilityis
notgood,temperaturerisewillunnecessarilybehigh.Hencehighervalueofcurrentdensity
shouldbeusedinmachineswheretheperipheralvelocityorspeedofoperationishighor
wherecoolingfacilityisgood.

Forthe calculated area a,around,squareorrectangular section conductor canbeused.


(Trapezoidal section conductor is also used but only in case of squirrel cage rotor of an
inductionmotorforincreasingthestartingtorque).
CHOICEBETWEENAROUNDANDRECTANGULARCONDUCTOR

By considering the coil space factor, what type of conductor section is preferable can be
decided.
CoilspacefactorSfisdefinedastheratiooftheareaofcopperinthecoiltotheareaofthe
coil.Thatis,

S= AreaofcopperinthecoilafTf <1.0
f
Overallareaofthecoilhfdf
where
afcrosssectionalareaofcopperorconductor
Tfnumberofcoppersections(orturns)inthe
coildfdepthofthecoilandhfheightofthecoil.

Ifdisthediameterofthebareconductorandd iisthediameterwithinsulation,thenincaseof
roundconductor
(d2 /4)xT )2
S f
0.785(d/d
f
d2 xT i
i f

and is always less than 0.785. In practice Sf lies between 0.3 and 0.65 in case of round
conductors.

Ifdandtarethedepthandwidthoftherectangular/squareconductorwithoutinsulationand
diandtiarethedepthandwidthwithinsulation,thenincaseofarectangular/squareconductor
dt xT dt
Sf =Sf = f
= andliesbetween0.7and0.85.
di tixTf di ti
[Note:
Sincetherectangularconductorscanbewoundcloselywithoutwastinganyspaceinbetween
conductors,Sf incaseofarectangularconductorismorethanthatofaroundconductorof
samecrosssectionalarea.]
2
Ifaf=100mm andTf=48,thenareaofthecoil,
hd = afTf = 100x48 =8000mm2,incaseofroundconductorswiththe
f f
Sf 0.6
assumptionthatSf=0.6.
100x48 6000mm2,incaseofarectangularconductorswiththe
0.8
assumption thatSf=0.8

Itisclearthatrectangularconductorscallforlessspaceascomparedtoroundconductorof
samecrosssectionalarea.Thougharectangularconductorispreferabletoroundconductor,it
iscostlierthantheroundconductors.(Quantityofinsulationrequiredincaseofarectangular
conductorismorethanthatoftheroundconductor.Hencethecostismore).Hencerectangular
2
conductorsareusedwhentheconductorcrosssectionalareaismorethanabout10mm .

DETAILSOFINSULATION

Desirablepropertiesofagoodinsulator:

1. Shouldhaveahighdielectricstrength
2. Shouldwithstandahightemperature
3. Shouldhaveahighresistivity
4. Shouldnotabsorbmoisture
5. Shouldhavealowdielectrichysteresisloss
6. Shouldwithstandvibration,abrasion,bending
7. Shouldbeflexibleandcheap.

Noinsulatingmaterialin practicesatisfies all thedesirableproperties.Thereforematerials


whichsatisfymostofthedesirableproperties mustbeselected.Basedonthetemperature
withstandingability,theinsulatingmaterialshavebeenclassifiedasindicatedbelowaccording
toISI(nowBIS)1271,1985,firstrevision.

ClassofinsulationY A E B F H C
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maximumtemperature C 90 C 105 C 120 C 135 C 155 C 180 C>180

ClassY:Cotton,silk,paper,wood,cellulose,fiberetc.,withoutimpregnationoroil
immersed.

ClassA:ThematerialofclassYimpregnatedwithnaturalresins,cellulose
esters,insulatingoilsetc.,andalsolaminatedwood,varnishedpaperetc.

ClassE:Syntheticresinenamelsofvinylacetateornylontapes,cottonandpaper
laminateswithformaldehydebondingetc.,

ClassB:Mica,glassfiber,asbestosetc.,withsuitablebondingsubstances,builtup
mica,glassfiberandasbestoslaminates.
ClassF:ThematerialsofClassBwithmorethermalresistancebondingmaterials.

ClassH:Glassfiberandasbestosmaterialsandbuiltupmicawithappropriatesilicone
resins.

ClassC:Mica,ceramics,glass,quartzandasbestoswithbindersorresinsofsuper
thermalstability.

Insulationonconductors:
Inpractice,themostimportantfactorinfluencingthestructureoftheinsulationis therated
voltageofthemachine.Basedontheratedvoltage,electricalmachinescanbedividedintohigh
voltageandlowvoltagemachines.Alowvoltagemachineisamachinetheratedvoltageof
whichisbelow1000V.

Insulationontheconductorsservesasaninterturninsulationandmaybeenamel,cotton(single
cottoncoveredSCCordoublecottoncoveredDCC),rayon,silk,glassfiber,asbestosetc.

Additionofinsulationto
a. Roundwiresorconductors(0.015to0.075)mmforenamelcovering
(0.2to0.35)mmfordcc
b. Striporrectangularconductors(0.06to0.15)mmforenamelcovering
(0.45to0.5)mmfordcc

Forcommercialvoltages(upto1000V)enameledwiresaregenerallyused.
Forfurtherdetailschapter.3,ElectricalMachineDesignDataBook,A.Shanmugasundaramcan
bereferred.

TYPESOFSLOTS

Theslotscanbeopen,semiclosedorclosedtype.Slotsmaybeparallelsidedortapered(varying
width).Thetoothmayalsobeofparallelsidedortapered.Wheneveradoublelayerwindingis
used,slotsofparallelsided(orofconstantslotwidth)aretobeused.

Plainunnotchedslotsorslotswithoutwedgeportionareusedonlyforlowcapacitymachines.
Inthiscasethecoilsarerestrictedfromcomingoutoftheslotbytheuseofsteelbindingwires.
Thistypeofslotsisusedonlyinmachineswheretheperipheralvelocityisnotmorethanabout
25m/s.Formachinesofhigherperipheralvelocityearnotchedslotsorslotswithlipandwedge
portionsareused.
Sincewideopenslotsincreasesthereluctanceoftheairgapandcausesthefluxtopulsatein
comparisonwiththeclosedorsemiclosedslots,openslotsarenotpreferable.Butopenslots
offerstheadvantageofplacingthecoilsintotheslotsandremovingthemfromtheslotseasilyfor
repair.Alsocoilscanbefullyinsulatedortappedbeforebeingplacedintotheslots.

Withsemiclosedslots,thecoilsaretobeplacedintotheslots,turnbyturnandthereforeitis
timeconsumingandexpensive.

Withclosedslots,preformedcoilplacementandremovalisverydifficultandhencenoclosed
slots areusedinpracticeforDCmachinearmature,statorofalternatororinductionmotor.
Howeverclosedslotsareusedincaseofsquirrelcagerotorofaninductionmotor.

Ingeneralopentypeofslotsisusedincaseofhighcapacitymachinesandsemiclosedslotsin
caseofmediumandlowcapacitymachines.