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Adminstrative

LawArellano Univeristy
School of Lawaiza
ebina/2015
PELAE vs AU!"#$
% &E'E%AL15
S(%A 5)*
Delegation to
Administrative
Agencies
+A(#S,
During the period
from September 4 to O
ctober 29, 1964
the President of the
Philippines,purporting
to act pursuant
to Section 68 of
the Reised !
dministratie "ode,
issued #$ecutie
Orders %os&9' to 121,
124 and 126 to
129( creating
thirt)*three +''
municipalities
enumerated in the
margin& Soonafter the
date last mentioned, or
on %oember 1-,
1964 petitioner
#mmanuel Pelae., as
/ice President of the
Philippines and as
ta$pa)er, instituted the
present special ciil
action, for a 0rit of
prohibition
0ithpreliminar)
inunction, against the !
uditor eneral, to
restrain him, as 0ell as
his representaties
andagents, from
passing in audit an)
e$penditure of public
funds in implementation
of said e$ecutie
ordersand3or an)
disbursement b) said
municipalities&Petitioner
alleges that said
e$ecutie orders are
null and oid, upon the
ground that said
Section 68 hasbeen
impliedl) repealed b) R
epublic !ct %o&
2'- and
constitutes an undue d
elegation of legislatie
po0er&Said Section 68
of the Reised !
dministratie "ode
empo0ers the President
of the Philippines b)
e$ecutieorder to de5n
e the boundar), or bou
ndaries,
of an) proince, subpro
ince, municipalit), to
0nship7municipal
district, or other political
subdiision, and
increase or diminish the
territor) comprised
therein,ma) diide an)
proince into
one or more subproin
ces, separate
an) political
diision other than
aproince, into such
portions as ma)
be reuired, merge an)
of such subdiisions or
portions 0ith
another,name an) ne0
subdiision so created,
and ma) change the
seat of goernment
0ithin an) subdiision
tosuch place therein as
the public 0elfare ma)
reuire&
"SSUE,
hether or not the
proision in uestion
constitute an undue
delegation of legislatie
po0er
%UL"'&,
:es& ;he authorit) to cre
ate municipal corporatio
ns is essentiall) legislati
e in nature& !
s theSupreme "ourt of
ashington has put it
<municipal corporations
are purel) the creatures
of statutes&< =t
isobious, ho0eer,
that, 0hereas the po0er
to 5$ such common
boundar), in order to
aoid or
settlecon>icts of urisd
iction bet0een adoinin
g municipalities, ma) p
arta?e of an
administratie nature
@in ol ing, as it does
, the
adoption of means an
d
0a)s to carr) into eAec
t the la0 creating
saidmunicipalities @ the
authorit) to create
municipal corporations is
essentiall) legislatie in
nature&!lthough
"ongress ma) delegate
to another branch of the
oernment the po0er
to 5ll in the details inthe
e$ecution, enforcement
or administration of a
la0, it is essential, to
forestall a iolation of the
principleof separation of
po0ers, that said la0B
+a be complete in
itself @ it must set forth
therein the polic) to
bee$ecuted, carried out
or implemented b) the
delegate and +b 5$ a
standard @ the limits of
0hich aresuCcientl)
determinate or
determinable @
to 0hich the delegate
must conform in the
performance of
hisfunctions&=ndeed,
0ithout a statutor)
declaration of polic), the
delegate 0ould in eAect,
ma?e or formulate
suchpolic), 0hich is the
essence of eer)
la0( and, 0ithout the
aforementioned
standard, there 0ould
be nomeans to
determine, 0ith
reasonable certaint),
0hether the delegate
has acted 0ithin or
be)ond thescope of his
authorit)& ence, he
could thereb) delegate
upon himself the po0er,
not onl) to ma?e the
la0,but, also @ and this
is 0orse @ to unma?e it,
b) adopting measures
inconsistent 0ith the end
sought to beattained b)
the !ct of "ongress, thus
nullif)ing the principle of
separation of po0ers
and the s)stem of chec?
s and balances, and,
conseuentl),
undermining the er)
foundation of our
Republican
s)stem&Section 68 of
the Reised !
dministratie "ode does
not meet these 0ell
settled reuirements for
a aliddelegation of the
po0er to 5$ the details
in the enforcement of a
la0& =t does not
enunciate an) polic)
tobe carried out or
implemented b) the
President& %either
does it gie a standard
suCcientl) precise
toaoid the eil eAects
aboe referred to& =n
this connection, 0e
do not oerloo? the fact
that, under
the lastclause of the 5rst
sentence of Section 68,
the PresidentB&&& ma)
change the seat of the
goernment 0ithin an)
subdiision to such
place therein as the
public0elfare ma)
reuire&=t is apparent,
ho0eer, from the
language of this
clause, that the phrase
<as the public 0elfare
ma)reuire< uali5ed,
not the clauses
preceding the one ust
uoted, but onl) the
place to 0hich the seat
of the goernment ma)
be transferred& !t an)
rate, the conclusion
0ould be the
same, insofar as the
case atbar
is concerned, een if 0e
assumed that
the phrase <as the
public 0elfare ma)
reuire,< in said
Section68, uali5es all
other clauses thereof&
=n Section 68, as
aboe indicated, the
creation of
municipalities, isnot an
administratie function,
but one 0hich is
essentiall) and
eminentl) legislatie in
character& ;heuestion
of 0hether or not
<public interest<
demands the e$ercise
of such po0er is not one
of fact& it is<purel) a
legislatie uestion <