Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 10

COLLECTION old scientific equipment

Exhibition held at the College in May and June 2005. During 2006, the school tea
chers and Javier Vega Margarita Valdes, completes the task of documentation and
dating of the instruments, collect all the information and the abstract in this
X-ray equipment includes:
Rumhkorff reel, which supplies the necessary potential difference, the manufactu
rer Leybold's Nachfolger
Switch Ducretet
RX tube
Fluorescent screen where you could see the image. Ducretet The screen is equal t
o that shown in the image
Outline mounted instrument
Solar Radiometer
Manufacturer Unknown 1910 -1920 Application Due Date: This beautiful instrument
called a solar radiometer, radiometer mill Croques or light, can transform solar
energy directly into mechanical energy
It consists of a glass bulb very thin, inside which there is a tube, also made o
f glass, which is coupled to a needle. On the needle is a very light cross blade
s whose fins have a silver face and the other blackened. Inside the tube is remo
ved a certain amount of air, but without making high vacuum. By placing the radi
ometer in the light of a fluorescent lamp or a bulb, does not occur in direct su
nlight begins to rotate the crosshairs
nothing. However, very fast.
to the
The rotation of the cross is due to radiometric effects of solar radiation, "the
photons driving the blades to the wind mill of a child"
Application: One of the first telegraph apparatus created by the prestigious Fre
nch instrument maker E. Ducretet. Ducretet was the author of the first telegraph
transmission in Europe, November 5, 1898, between the Eiffel Tower and the Pant
heon in Paris. Thanks to this transmission, the Eiffel Tower was saved from bein
g destroyed, as the French army commanders appreciated the importance of wireles
s communications. A model very similar to this was used by the Titanic just befo
re its collapse, to send the first SOS history, by which were saved over a thous
and people. In the collection of the laboratory there are several instruments ma
de by E. Ducretet, among which are the rest of the equipment needed to complete
the installation of the telegraph.
Manufacturer: E. Ducretet early twentieth century
Patented and manufactured by the engineer Monico Sanchez in 1911 This device bas
ically consists of a condensing coil, a switch, a vibrator and a set screw that
acts as a regulator, can benefit from greater and lesser intensity of primary cu
rrent. It allows to generate high frequency currents, 7,000,000 vibrations per s
econd, and differences in potential of 100,000 volts. The high voltage generated
can be used in medical-surgical X-rays to produce ozone, high temperatures in a
cauterizing element, electric scalpel. Its most common application was as a pro
ducer of X-rays for clinical diagnosis and trauma. Its portability and small siz
e made him ideal in hospitals, this model was used by the military medical corps
of the French Army during the First World War.
Voltameter HOFMANN
Possible to ascertain the laws of Faraday. Can be used individually or all three
partners in series. Two of them have elctrodos carbon and platinum third. It ca
n, among other applications, made the electrolysis of water (divided by the acti
on of electric current in the constituent elements) observed how an electrode is
formed at twice the volume of gas in the other two oxygen-hydrogen . Can be use
d as a galvanometer, since, in the graduated cylinders measuring the volume of g
as formed, we can calculate the amount of current flowing.
Manufacturer: Leybold Nachfolger Date: before 1900
Features: Includes three levels, compass, control almost 20 points and three mag
nifying glasses to see more clearly the measures of the angles in the vernier. P
recision instrument that requires great care in its use. Througton & Simms Londo
ners are manufacturers of optical instruments for several decades, reaching the
highest prestige in this field.
Manufacturer: THROUGHTON & SIMMS Date: 1890 (approx.) Application: Theodolite, a
pparatus for measuring angles in surveying and astronomical measurements
Wimshurst machine
Elecrostática Wimshurst Machine Developed by the British engineer James Wimshurs
t (1832-1903), is used to produce electrical charge. It consists of two discs, w
hich are close to each other, which is placed on the metal pieces called sectors
. When pressing a lever, the two wheels start spinning in opposite directions, r
ub the areas with small brushes and start charging, and thereafter, the charge i
s stored in two Leyden jars that are on the sides of the device. When the amount
of accumulated charge is large, a spark jumps between two areas connected to th
e bottles (discharge areas). Besides its use in laboratory demonstrations, could
be used for medical treatments and a source of high voltage for the first X-ray
Manufacturer unknown prior to 1915
Generation tools were found under the influence charge, is one of the first devi
ces capable of storing electric charge (capacitor). Designed by Franz U.T. Aepin
us (1724-1802), consists of two circular metal plates isolated, A and B are put
face to face on two columns of glass that can zoom in or out of each other. In t
he midst of dishes, was a glass that could be drawn. If the dish becomes positiv
ely charged A, the other dish (B) are negatively charged surface facing the plat
e A, due to the forces of attraction of positive charges, and positively in the
opposite surface. You can increase carrying capacity, grounding the plate B, so
that they leave positive charges. The entire process is repeated until achieving
maximum capacity of the condenser. If they contact the two plates through a con
ductor, will lead to their discharge.
Manufacturer: Ducretet Date: End of s. XIX
It is used for electric charge to turn the disc. Ramsden electrostatic machine i
s the result of improvements in 1766, Ramsden made to the original electric mach
ine of Otto Von Guernicke. During rotation, the disc rubs the pads, ceding elect
rons, thus they are negatively charged. Glass, who has been charged positively i
nfluences the machine combs, attracting the electrons from their tips to regain
neutral state. With this, the metal balls on the ends of the horizontal bars, ar
e positively charged. For optimum performance of the machine is essential it is
completely dry and protected from moisture.
Cylindrical conductor
It is used in demonstrations of the action of electric charges, attraction and r
epulsion, depending on the sign and the effects of the electrification by influe
nce. The lower part has some holes that can be hung with balls of cork wires, wh
ich will attract and repel those at the shows.
Application: Apparatus by which it was possible to study the effects of discharg
es on various objects, including living beings, placed in the central dish. The
discharge occurred when touched by the spheres of the rods in contact with a Ley
den jar.
Manufacturer: Ducretet Date: End of s. XIX
Discovered by Abbé Nollet (1700-1777), served for the production of electric dis
charges in low pressure tubes. Formed by a bell jar, has attachments to fit a va
cuum machine also at the top, sealed, Excel connection of the two terminals that
are inside. When connecting this terminal to a static machine, is produced insi
de the shock and with it, one light. This device produced enough light to read l
arge letters on the dark, and his contemporaries called the "electric egg." With
it, Nollet had all the components needed to produce X-rays: a vacuum tube and a
source of high voltage electricity. With the addition of another wire sealed, p
laced on the opposite side of the tube, the discovery could have been done. If i
ndeed Nollet had come to produce X-rays, he would not have known, since it can n
ot be detected by sight. Missing about 140 years for the fluoroscopic screen, ca
pable of making visible the X-ray waves, could be fabricated.
Leyden jar
This is the first device capable of storing electrical charge, being the predece
ssor of the current capacitors. It was discovered in 1746 by Pieter van Musschen
broek, after being accidentally electrical shock from a metal jug filled with wa
ter.€The Leyden jars are made of a thin glass bottle (dielectric) externally cov
ered by a sheet metal tin (armature outside). The interior is filled with strips
of brass (armor inside), from where a metal rod that runs through the cork whic
h closes the container. To avoid communication between the plates, the neck of t
he bottle is painted shellac. To charge the Leyden jar is connected to an electr
ic rod while the outer frame is in contact with the ground through a string. Wer
e used in the first demonstrations of the effects of electricity, causing electr
ic shocks was electrocuted when even small animals.
Flashing TUBE
It consists of a glass tube, which is stuck inside a diamond-shaped brass, so ar
ranged that there is much distance between them, drawing a spiral along the tube
. At the ends of this tube are two terminals: one with a hook or area for connec
tion to an electrical machine (+), and the other with a string for ground (-). W
hen you turn the machine will generate an electrical potential difference betwee
n the two terminals. As the polarization is more positive on the hook, the great
er its attraction to ground (-) which will cause a spark jumping from one diamon
d to another along the tube. This beautiful effect that will continue until ther
e is electricity production. Manufacturer: Unknown Date: Second half of the s. X
It is a device that serves to demonstrate that electric charges are placed on th
e surface, and is known as "Biot hemispheres." Allows electrification experience
s (by contact and induction) on the potential and charge density on the conducto
rs. It consists of a brass ball brass foot on the subject with an insulating and
two hemispheres of the same material with insulated handles. You can see that i
f you load the field and approach the two hemispheres, the latter are under the
same loading of the sphere, and this finally is discharged. Remains at the curre
nt catalog of Leybold with numbers 54 302 and 54 305. Maybe it matches the catal
og number 922 555 M. Kohl. In other sources are known as semi-spheres or hemisph
eres, of Cavendish
If you come electrically charged object to the sails of the windmill, it begins
to rotate without anyone touching it. Shows the attractive effects of charges of
different signs and the law of the tips, which also draws the rod, indicating t
hat electrical charges build up in the most salient points of the objects.
Apparatus with two brass handles glass insulators, used to download a capacitor
by connecting its two armor or carrying an electrical charge to another device,
which could produce a spark. In perfect condition. In the illustration below, a
1860 book, is how to use an identical, with a battery of Leyden jars and a drive
r from Henley, to produce a discharge on an object.
Application: The instrument shows the explosive effect of static electricity on
certain mixtures of gases. It was used in demonstrations of the power of electri
city in the eighteenth century an explosive gas is introduced, for example metha
ne, container and communicates electrical charge (from a Leyden jar or an electr
ostatic machine) producing an electric spark that ignites the gas and violent bl
ows the cork from the bottle. An important part of chemistry from Boyle to Lavoi
sier, was the study of gases. In 1776, Volta made an important contribution to w
ork on the ability of certain flammable gases, a consequence of this discovery,
was the gun volta
Application: This device is used to test some mechanical effects due to the acti
on of electricity on their bodies. For the demonstration, are introduced into th
e bell small areas of Cork and closes with a metal base, and then gets the upper
ring in communication with the driver of an electric machine, with the top plat
e of the device is loaded positively, and because of the effect of polarization,
both the lower metal plate as the cork spheres are negatively charged, causing
a movement of attraction of such beads to the upper disk. Then, due to the neutr
alization effect, the areas in contact with the top plate are loaded with positi
ve sign and drive positive charges repel those of the spherules, as they fall to
the bottom,€time when the polarization starts again, repeating the above proces
s. Thus, the observer sees Cork areas up and down continuously. A. Volta, he use
d this experiment to explain the increased volume of hail before falling into th
e earth. The instrument was used in the studies of San Isidro Real Madrid for de
monstrations on electrical effects.
Previous to 1915
Reel induction to produce large high voltage electric shock. From a potential of
12 V can supply 10,000 potential difference V, the intensity and dangerous down
loads that can cause justifies the use within a bell jar. Reels smaller inductio
n (two in the laboratory) using a vibrating reed switch, but when working with h
igh amperage switch requires high-frequency mercury is also described in this ch
apter. Along with the Mercury centrifugal switch high frequency, and the process
or (all from the house Ducrertet) was part of telegraph transmission equipment o
perating in the school in the early twentieth century.
Manufacturer: Ducretet Date: 1900 approx.
NOBILI galvanometer
Application: To determine the intensity of weak electric currents Features: A ve
ry light magnetic needle is suspended from a strand of silk, under it, is arrang
ed a coil which, when traversed by an electric current, a magnetic field that ca
uses the deflection. The mirror, which also hangs from the wire, is used to obta
in more accurate measurements: focusing a beam of light over the mirror, it refl
ects to a scale of larger size. These instruments can be used in conjunction wit
h a termomultiplicador to make temperature measurements with an accuracy of 1 /
500 º C (detailed calibrations were necessary)
Crookes tube
Cathode ray tube, the precursor of x-ray tube of cathode ray tubes of convention
al television as William Crookes design in the 1870s in order to investigate the
properties of cathode rays. When you vacuum in the tube and applies a high volt
age, one end is lit because the cathode rays (electrons) that impact on the glas
s. This tube has a Maltese cross folding, that demonstrates that cathode rays ar
e transmitted in a straight line, because by bringing the cross in the path of c
athode rays can be seen its shadow on the end of the tube
The modern television picture tube comes directly from the Crookes tube. The mai
n differences are that the cathode ray tube uses a thermionic cathode to increas
e the number of electrons, and has additional electrodes to focus and deflect th
e beam in its path to the screen. Manufacturer: Radiguet. Filles du Golvaire. Pa
Used for diagnostic and experimental, currently not used due to the effect of ra
X-ray tube of cold cathode Röntgen, anticathode and anode. PHYWE, 1952
Implementation: Establish and cut the input current a large number of times per
second. Was used together with the reel Rumhkorff the same manufacturer to produ
ce large electric shock, fulfills the same function as reed switches Rumhkorff s
maller reels. It could be used today, but in its use of mercury vapors are highl
y toxic.
Manufacturer: Final Ducretet XIX-early XX century
Cathode Ray Tubes
Tube with bouquet of flowers. The cathode ray excited luminescence and the flowe
rs take a variety of colors.
Tube with a cathode and three anode, to see the different paths downloads
A spinning mill to affect him the cathode rays, showing that they are particles
with mass.
Electrotherapy device
Portable electrotherapy, manufactured in England, where they were very popular i
n the late nineteenth century. By turning a crank moves a coil, which in the pre
sence of a magnetic field leads to an electrical current. It is the very foundat
ion of the dynamo of Clarke and the reverse process to that of an electric motor
The label inside the box and play gives instructions how to perform the treatmen
t to patients. Two electrodes are placed on the patient and the crank is rotated
, the electrodes must be applied with a wet or damp sponge on the skin, to impro
ve conductivity and prevent burns.€Date: The label indicates that it was patente
d in 1862 and received awards at the Paris Exposition in 1875
Reel induction to produce high voltage electric shock. From a potential differen
ce of 12 V can supply 10,000 V Starting with a low voltage DC gets an alternatin
g current with high potential differences. The high potential differences are ne
cessary to shock the vacuum tubes, Geissler Crookes or X-rays as exist in this c
ollection. It is the type of reel that was used in the first experiments with X
rays (they were originally named for its origin unknown) that allowed to make "p
ictures through opaque bodies." Manufacturer: Leybold's Nachfolger Date: 1910 ap
Large transformer, the French manufacturer Ducretet, used with the reel Rumhkorf
f, the same manufacturer, which is also conserved in the lab, and you can see on
this page. The container is filled with oil, which is dipped twice transformer
winding, acting as a refrigerant oil. The team that worked on telegraph school i
n the early twentieth century Manufacturer: Ducretet Date: 1900 approx.
Application: These are tubes containing low-pressure gases, which when subjected
to electric shock provided by a spool of Ruhmkorff or electrostatic machine, pr
oduce different colors depending on the gas they have in their interior. Invente
d by Heinrich Geissler. Achieved great popularity during the years 1910-1930, so
ld as curios or decorative Date: 1915 approximately
Manufacturer: Max Kohl Date: 1910 -1920 Application: Provides electrical current
. By turning the crank, it moves a coil placed inside a magnetic field, thus gen
erating current. It consists of four horseshoe magnets placed on a base and inve
sted in it, spinning reels, which are wound on iron cores. It is a modification
of the dynamo Pixie 1832. Was used to generate electric currents in laboratory p
ractice, and is similar to those that had crank telephones of the time.
It is a cathode ray tube, 1 meter in length. Can be used to explain the operatio
n of conventional televisions because their base is the same. Lets prove that ca
thode rays are transmitted in a straight line as they go through a series of ver
y fine lines that are aligned within the tube. It also shows that cathode rays a
re low, as it diverted by the action of an electric field that can be created be
tween two metal plates on both sides of the tube. Modifying the intensity and po
larity of this field, you can contact the beam to any point on the screen. Manuf
acturer: PHYWE Date: 1952
Vertical Galvanometer
Application: Detection and measurement of electrical current is a measuring inst
rument used purely didactic, is designed to direct and comprehensive vision of t
he phenomenon of the current. The principle of operation is based between a perm
anent magnet and a coil or solenoid through which current flows. It is built on
a multiplier having two positions in a tiny one larger section and less resistan
ce and a finer thread and more resistance. The pointer moves with the passage of
current through a large graduated dial which you can read the amount of current
flowing through the instrument. Manufacturer: MAX KOHL Date: 1910
Application: rotary pump used to make the vacuum Gets and maintains the necessar
y vacuum to operate the rest of the laboratory vacuum instruments, such as vacuu
m chamber, etc. Magdeburg hemispheres. It grows in a few minutes down to 0.01 at
mosphere pressure. Use and maintenance very simple. Make: Leybold Nachfolger Dat
e: before 1910
Bell Jar
Application: Used to perform a vacuum inside. Connected to the pump in question,
has shut-off valve and has a small bell attached side where there is a mercury
barometer. Inside can be large number of experiments and used in classes at the
school to the 1980's, to carry out practices such as boiling water showy at room
temperature. Make: Leybold Nachfolger Date: 1915 Catalog
Barometer suitable for measuring pressures both above and below atmospheric pres
sure. Serves to explain the barometer anaeroide and gauges of metal,€that underl
ie many of today's barometers. Lateral link has a rubber tube can be connected t
o the vacuum pump Manufacturer: Leybold's Nachfolger Date: 1910 approx. Applicat
ion: Pressure Measurement
Bell Jar
This little tool allows to show that sound waves are not transmitted in a vacuum
. Moving the instrument, normally you can hear the sound of the bell, but then c
onnects to the vacuum pump removes the air inside the glass container, but to mo
ve the bell, and can not be perceived sound. Date: the beginning of S. XX
Apparatus to show how a container which has been evacuated, it can absorb water
located at a lower level. The experience begins by the vacuum inside the contain
er, at which time the key is closed, the instrument is placed in a container wit
h water, then open the faucet and water comes by itself (driven by atmospheric p
ressure ) on the instrument, forming a continuous flow of water that rises witho
ut apparent cause.
Manufacturer: Max Kohl Date: 1915 approx
This instrument allows to demonstrate that air has weight and can be measured. I
t consists of a bell jar of spherical shape, mounted on a brass holder has a key
. Weigh the instrument, then removes the air from inside with an air-pump or vac
uum pump, close the key to maintain the vacuum inside and weighed again. The dif
ference between the two values is the weight of air inside. If you divide the we
ight of air between the interior volume of container can calculate the density o
f air at the temperature at which we are working. Date: end of S. XIX
Magdeburg hemispheres
Application: Used to show the effects of vacuum and atmospheric pressure. Invent
ed by Otto von Guericke in 1652 Once inside the vacuum, are given to two student
s to try to separate them and found they are very difficult to separate as they
empty inside, though, as it opens the key and equalizes pressure with the outsid
e, they detach from each other easily. Date: the beginning of S. XX
This instrument, designed by Arthur De La Rive (1801 - 1873), can show how the b
rightness of electric shock varies with gas pressure that occurs. It consists of
a bell, egg-shaped ends is crossed by two copper electrodes finished in two are
as. At its lower end has a connection that can attach to a vacuum pump to remove
air from inside the electrodes are loaded while connected to an electrostatic m
achine. Inside there is an electrical discharge that begins as a diffuse violet
light, but if it loses air slowly re-enter inside is seen as successive changes
are produced in the glow until it becomes a continuous white sparkle .
Radio transmitter and receiver telegraphy Manufacturer: unknown Date: late ninet
eenth century developed by Louis-François-Clément Breguet, known as the needle t
elegraph or telegraph dial. It consists of two areas: the upper, which has a nee
dle pointing to the letters that are received and a bottom, which write the mess
age to be sent; for it, it moves a lever on the letters that are arranged in ord
er in the area, thus, the device sends a series of electrical impulses interpret
ed by the receiving computer. The needle telegraph system was adopted by the rai
Application: to produce sound and determine their frequency. Designed by French
physicist Charles Cagniard de la Tour (1779-1859) in 1819: The siren of Cagniard
de Latour to measure the pitch of a sound through an air current that drives a
disk with holes, which, turning, beeps, the more acute the higher speed. It also
has a mechanism to count the revs when the instrument has reached the desired s
hade. Condition: poor, it lacks an indicator needle
Application: Allows for wave emission experiences. Used as an issuer in experime
nts with wireless telegraphy Manufacturer: MAX KOHL Date: 1910-1915
Get freeze the water by evaporation of ether. It has a wooden base and is specia
lly designed to work with the model of Leybold vacuum pump of this laboratory. T
o evaporate the ether needs energy, and water intake,€who gives to the ether the
energy needed to pass gas, and spends himself to solid is a state of lower ener
gy. You can freeze water in a minute when the pump operates at 150 revolutions p
er minute. Application: production of ice Manufacturer: Leybold - Early twentiet
h century Nachfolger
Application: To determine the condensation temperature and air humidity it. It c
onsists of a glass tube bent double inverted U-shaped with branches of different
length and terminated at both ends in separate areas of glass. The shop which i
s longer tube allows for its blurring the observation of aqueous saturation poin
t. The rationale is to condense the ether that exists inside the unit to cool th
e ball that is covered with a muslin, for which it is poured a liquid that evapo
rates easily. Ether was used, strictly forbidden at this time for the anesthetic
, the character that once made the students had problems. Evaporate the ether th
at has the ball
gold ring as it cools and reaches a time when they begin to deposit water drople
ts on the ring. The internal thermometer indicated the temperature at which the
room is saturated. The relative humidity is the ratio of the vapor pressure of w
ater saturation at these two temperatures.
An instrument for measuring the coefficient of expansion of different metals. Pl
ace a metal rod to study on a carrier, one end is fixed and the other based on t
he base of a needle. Under the bar there is a container with a wick, which, mois
tened with alcohol, heat lights to trasnsmitir the bar. The bar, to expand by th
e action of heat, move the base of the needle, being able to read at grade level
expansion. Has bar behavior. different materials to test their different
Manufacturer: Leybold - Nachfolger early twentieth century