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Periodic table

To distinguish different types of atoms we use:

• • •
Atomic number, Z: is the number corresponding to nuclear charge, ie the number o
f protons P in the core. Then Z = P; Mass number or A: is the total number of pr
otons and neutrons N P in the core. Thus: A = P + N. The mass number A defines i
tself the mass of the atom, since electrons have a negligible mass.
1. Hydrogen (2. Hélio (): 3. Uranium ():):,,,,,,,. ;
Considering an element in its natural state, with electrically neutral atoms, we
have: Number of protons = Z = Z number of electrons Number of neutrons = A - Z
For an atom of element
all represent, we use the following notations:
X or
to represent its atomic number and its atomic mass. Example: to have an iron ato
m Fe 26 56.
Isotopes and isobars

Isotopes: atoms are with same number of protons () and different mass number ()
have the same chemical and physical properties differ. Example Hydrogen () has t
hree known isotopes: e;
1. common hydrogen (protium): 1 H 1, 2. deuterium: 1 H 2, and; 3 3. tritium: an
H, with e;

Isobars: are atoms with different numbers of protons (different elements) but th
at have the same mass number () have different chemical and physical properties;
Example Some isotopes of calcium and argon have the same mass number A = 40: 20
Ca 40 and

Isotoner: are atoms that have the same number of neutrons (different elements),
and presenting different, have different chemical and physical properties, boron
and carbon Example:
B 11 (N = 6) and
C 12 (N = 6)

Isoelectronic: are atoms that have the same number of electrons (different eleme
nts) have different chemical and physical properties; Example neon and sodium ca
Ne (e-= 10) and
At +1 (e-= 10)
Classification of Elements
Döbereiner in 1817 showed the existence of triads of elements with similar chemi
cal properties, where the weight of a bind element was approximately the arithme
tic mean of the atomic weights of the other two. Eg chlorine, bromine and iodine
. Newlands, in 1863, divided the elements in increasing order of atomic weights
in groups of seven, analogous to the second round of music, so this idea was aba
ndoned. Dmitri Mendeleyev in 1869, proposed a table much like the present, but t
hat had the elements arranged in order of increasing atomic weights, this classi
fication defines six unknown elements. Moseley in 1913, found that the chemical
elements in the periodic table should obey an order of increasing atomic number,
and it was up to the current table; In addition to the current table of the ele
ments are placed in order of increasing atomic number, there the following provi

Period or Series: are the horizontal rows of seven in number and indicate the le
vels (K, L, M, N, O, P, Q); elements of the same period show different chemical
properties. Families: they are the vertical columns of the table, elements of th
e same family have similar chemical properties. Some important families:
o o o
o o
Metal: has one of the three electrons in the outer layer; Non-metal: have 5-7 el
ectrons in the outer layer; Representative Elements: have more energy sublevels
as OSEO P. Are the family and the noble gases with an A, 2 A, 3 A at 8A; Transit
ion Elements: present as higher energy sublevel the sublevel d, even in families
3B 8B; Inner Transition Elements: present as higher energy sublevel the subleve
l f. Are the lanthanides and actinides;
Ions and Valencia
When an atom is a lack or excess of electrons, its net charge is no longer zero,
and call it ion:
• •
Cation: positive ion or atom that has lost one or more electrons; Anion: negativ
e ion or atom that has gained one or more electrons;
The valence of an ionized atom (ion) is defined by the number of electrons remov
ed or added to the atom (ion).
• • • •
monovalent: ion with excess (or lack) of an electron; bivalent: ion with excess
(or lack) of two electrons, trivalent: ion with excess (or lack) of three electr
ons, tetravalent: ion with excess (or lack) of four electrons;
• • •
Na + is a monovalent cation. O2-is a bivalent anion. Fe3 + is a trivalent.
Think a little!
• •
What happens when an electron in an atom is captured by another atom different?
It would be possible to produce water (H2O) with deuterium or tritium? She would
have a different taste? What was different about this new water?

The atomic number of an atom of nitrogen is 7 and its mass number is 14. What is
the number of protons€electrons and neutrons that neutral atom?
Application Exercises
1. A certain atom has 16 protons, 16 electrons and 16 neutrons an atom has 16 pr
otons, 16 electrons and 17 neutrons. "Upon them, are made the following statemen
ts: I - The atoms are isotonic. II - Atoms are isobars. III - The atoms are isot
opes. IV. - Atoms have the same atomic number. V - Atoms belong different chemic
al elements. Regarding the above statements, we can say that are just right: a)
I and V b) II and III c ) III and IV d) I and IV) II and V 2. A certain atom has
20 protons, 20 neutrons and 20 electrons, and another has 20 protons, 21 neutro
ns and 20 electrons. Mark V or F: a) () belong to different chemical elements. b
) () are isobars c) () are isotopes d) () have the same atomic number and) () Th
e mass number of both is 41 March. The pairs of atoms and, respectively, the occ
urrence of: a) isotonic isotopy, isobar. b) isotopy, Isobe, isotonic. c) Isobe,
isotopy, isotonic. d) isotopy, isotonic, isobar. e) Isobe, isotonic isotopy. and
, and represent
Supplementary Exercises
4. The unknown 17 X 37 atom has an equal number of neutrons that the atom of cal
cium 20Ca. The mass number A of the Ca atom is equal to: a) 10 b) 17 c) 20 d) 37
e) 40 5. A certain atom X is isobar of 40 Ca and neutron isotope of the atom X)
4 b) 18 c) 22 d) 36 e) 40
. The number is:
6. A trivalent metal cation has 76 electrons and 118 neutrons. The atom's chemic
al element which has led to atomic number and mass number, respectively: a) 76 a
nd 194 b) 76 and 197 c) 79 and 200 d) 194 and 79) 79 and 197
Periodic Properties
The Periodic Table was developed based on chemical and physical properties of th
e elements, analyzing it, we can get information about them, coming so the impor
tant properties of periods and families (or groups) Chemicals:
Figure 1: The Periodic Table.
Atomic radius or size of the Atom
The factors that determine the size of an atom are the number of electron shell
(Z) and nuclear charge (P). In families: as Z increases, the number of layers in
creases, which leads to increased size of the atom (from top to bottom); In peri
ods: as the increases, the number of layers remains the same, but the nuclear ch
arge increases, the attraction of the nucleus on the peripheral electrons also i
ncreases, resulting in smaller atoms. In a period, the size of the atom increase
s from right to left.
Figure 2. Atomic radius or size of the atom.
Ionization potential
It's a measure of energy supplied to a single atom in a gaseous state to loosen
or remove an electron, forming a gaseous positive ion (cation). The larger the a
tom, the lower ionization energy (Ei), a family the ionization energy increases
from bottom to top. In periods the ionization energy increases from left to righ
Figure 3: Increasing the ionization energy of atoms.
Consider a sample of gaseous sodium (P = 11, Z = 11):
In this case, the ionization energy Ei of sodium is 119 kcal / mol, and the posi
tive sign indicates that energy must be absorbed.
Electron affinity
It's a measure of energy released by a single atom in a gaseous state to receive
an electron, forming gaseous negative ion (anion).
Ionization of chlorine (Cl):
and in this case the energy is released in the reaction. In families the electro
n affinity increases from top to bottom, and at times increases from left to rig
Figure 4. Atomic radius or size of the atom.
Property that the atom has a greater or lesser tendency to attract electrons to
itself, resulting from the joint action of the ionization energy (Ei) and the el
ectron affinity, ie, compares the force of attraction exerted by the atom on its
Figure 5: Increase in the electronegativity of atoms. In families increases from
bottom to top and at times increases from left to right.
Chemical Reactivity
Is related to the metallic character or non-metallic element. The greater the ab
ility to lose electrons is the more metallic element. The larger the atom the sm
aller the ionization potential (E i) and the lower the electronegativity, and th
us the higher the metallic character and the greater the chemical reactivity of
the metal. The smaller the size of the atom, the greater the electron affinity,
and the higher the electronegativity and the larger non-metallic character, the
greater the chemical reactivity of non-metal.
Figure 6: Increase in chemical reactivity.
Density (ρ)
The density o specific g avity of a body is the atio of its mass volume V, ie,
and its
and is measu ed in kg/m3 in SI, o also in g/cm3. Example: the density of alumin
um (Al) is ρAl = 2.700 g/cm3 = 2700 g/cm3.
Figu e 7: Inc easing the density of atoms.€In families inc eases f om top to bot
tom, and du ing pe iods of inc eased late al to the cente .
Atomic Volume
Measu e the specific mola volume of solid mate ial, and is elated to the c yst
alline st uctu e of the element (dist ibution of atoms in space):
Figu e 8: Inc ease of the atomic volume of atoms. In families the atomic volume
inc eases f om top to bottom, and the time inc eases f om the cente to the side
Melting Point (FP)
It is the tempe atu e at which a solid changes f om solid to liquid.
Figu e 9: Inc ease the Melting Point (FP). In families, the Pf inc eases f om to
p to bottom, except fo 1A and 2A, which is the opposite, at times, inc eases th
e sides towa d the cente .
Think a little!
• • •
Among the pe iodic p ope ties studied, which a e physical and which a e chemical
? Which element is mo e dense than you've eve seen? See the pe iodic table and
make su e the e is some element even mo e dense. Cite examples of semi-metals an
d non-metals known.
Application Exe cises
1. Notice the elements ep esented in the pe iodic table and judge the items (V
= F = t ue and false), in o de :
I - The elect onegativity of bo on (B), ca bon (C), nit ogen (N), oxygen (O) and
fluo ine (F) dec eases f om ight to left. II - The smallest element is Elect o
positivity cesium (Cs). III - Among the known elements, bo on (B) is the only se
mi-metal. IV - The ionization ene gy of k ypton (K ) is g eate than that of pot
assium (K). V - The atomic adius of magnesium (Mg) is g eate than the sodium (
Na) because it has one elect on mo e. Tick the alte native that co ectly judge
the above items in sequence f om I to V.
a) F, V, V, F, F b) F, V, F, F, V c) F, F, F, V, F d) V, F, F, V, and F) V, V, F
, F, V
2. On the elements Na, Mg and Al, can be made the statements: I - Na +, Mg + + a
nd Al + + + have the same numbe of elect ons. II - The o de of dec easing elec
t onegativity of these elements a e Na, Mg and Al III - Mg and Al + + + + + have
the same numbe of p otons. IV - The inc easing o de of eactivity with H2O is
Al, Mg and Na. The option that contains only co ect statements is: a) I and IV
b) I and III c) II and IV d) III and IV) II and III 3. In eaction F (g) + e-(g
) → F-+ 402 kcal / mol, the ene gy measu e 402 kcasl / mol: a) the elect onegati
vity of fluo ine b) Elect opositivity of fluo ide c) the ionization potential of
fluo ine d) the elect on affinity of fluo ine and) the pola ity of the fluo ine
Supplementa y Exe cises
4. Fo the ion N 7 -3 to become the neut al nit ogen atom, it should: a) eceivi
ng th ee p otons b) lose th ee elect ons c) eceiving 3 d elect ons) lose p oton
s and 7) eceive elect ons July 5. Fo a neut al atom of calcium to become the C
a2 + ion, it should: a) lose two p otons b) eceive two elect ons c) lose two el
ect ons d) eceive two p otons and) lose a p oton
Chemical Bonds
Stability of Atoms
The noble gases a e the only ones found in natu e as monatomic, ie do not bind,
and p esent themselves in the fo m of atoms. This means that the atom is complet
ely stable. The noble gases (Column 8A of the pe iodic table), except helium hav
e eight elect ons in the oute shell. Noble Gases He (Z = 2) 2 Ne (Z = 10) 2 8 A
(Z = 18) 2 8 18 8 X (Z = 36) 2 August 18 August 18 Xe (Z = 54) 2 8 18 32 Augu
st 18 Rn (Z = 86) 2 8 18 32 32 18 8 Laye valence elect on is the oute most laye
. You can eceive o p ovide elect ons in the bond between atoms. The valence o
f an atom is the numbe of bonds that an atom need to do to get the configu atio
n of a noble gas.
Theo y of Octet
An association was made between the stability of the noble gases and the fact th
ey have eight elect ons in the second laye . Then came the Theo y of Octet: "To
achieve a stable situation, the e is a tendency of atoms to obtain the elect oni
c st uctu e of eight elect ons in the valence shells of noble gas equal to the a
tomic numbe close". In the case of atoms into smalle numbe of elect ons, the
tendency is to each the duet, ie get two elect ons in the last laye , such as h
elium (Z = 2): 1s2. This is the case of hyd ogen and lithium.
Classification of Elements
As fo the elect onic configu ation, we can classify the chemical elements as:
Metals: These a e elements that have less than fou elect ons in the oute shell
. Donate elect ons when making chemical bonds; Non-Metals: These a e elements th
at have mo e than fou elect ons in the oute shell. Receive elect ons when maki
ng chemical bonds; semimetals: A e some elements that sometimes behave like meta
ls and sometimes as nonmetals, ega dless of the numbe of elect ons in the oute
shell; Hyd ogen: No ating, but its tendency is to gain an elect on. The eleme
nts which have fou valence elect ons in the laye can give o eceive elect ons
in bonds. Ca bon,€fo instance, will conduct non-metal, eceiving elect ons. Th
e silicon and ge manium a e semi-metals: eithe cede elect ons, now eceiving.
Ionic binding o Elet ovalente
Ionic bonding occu s when a metal binds to a non-metal o hyd ogen. The metal do
nates elect ons to fo m the cation. The non-metal o hyd ogen eceives elect ons
to fo m an anion. The consequence of the att action between positive ions (cati
ons) and negative (anions) is an o ganized g oup of ions, which we call ionic c
Figu e 10. Ionic c ystal
The ionic c ystal is ep esented by a minimum fo mula, ie the minimum numbe of
cations and anions needed fo both cha ges a e neut alized. Fo example the mini
mum fo mula of salt is given by:
This st uctu e of high cohesion elect ical in natu e gives the ionic high meltin
g point. Solid does not conduct elect icity. This only occu s if the ions a e f
ee in solution o in molten state (liquid). We set up a fo mula of ionic compoun
d by placing the left and ight the cation anion. We note that the positive and
negative cha ges cancel out. If the cha ges if cancel, the fo mula will be of a
cation to an anion. If the cha ges if cancel, we will use the following t ick:
eve sed the cha ge fo the cation and anion content of the cha ge of the anion t
o cation content:
Cha acte istics of Ionic Binding
• • • • •
Fo mation of ions, elect on t ansfe ; compounds solid at oom tempe atu e; T ain
ing c ystalline compounds, ionic compounds in aqueous media when conducting elec
t ical cu ent.
Metal Link
Occu s between metals. As we know, metal has a tendency to donate elect ons to f
o m cations. The metallic bonding occu s when many atoms of a metal lose elect o
ns at the same time, and the cations fo med a e stabilized by the "cloud''of ele
ct ons that gets a ound.
Analyzing a coppe wi e, excellent conducto of elect icity and heat, we find th
at f ee elect ons in the mate ial p esents an explanation of the conductivity. T
he "n''coppe atoms cede thei pe iphe al elect ons and become cations su ounde
d by many f ee elect ons.
Covalent o Molecula
Covalent bond that is fo med as a esult of sha ing elect ons between atoms. Wil
l fo m a molecule, in the sense that the atoms come togethe as "pa tne s''of th
e same elect ons. Fo example, chlo ine has seven elect ons in the second laye .
When done the covalent bond with hyd ogen to fo m HCl. The pai consists of two
sha ed elect ons, one f om each atom, sha ed by both atoms.
Figu e 11. Elect onic Sha ing Pa . Both acqui e stable elect onic configu ation
of noble gas.
Anothe example: SO2:
Molecula Rep esentation
The e a e diffe ent ways of ep esenting a molecule. Conside a molecule of oxyg
en gas, fo med by two oxygen atoms.

Fo mula elect onic o Lewis: ep esents the elect ons of the last laye of atoms

St uctu al fo mula: each ep esented by a dash.
elect on
sha ed
it is

Molecula Fo mula: indicates only the type and numbe of atoms fo ming a molecul
Example: the connection of wate
H - 1S1: The need to gain an elect on - 1s2 2s2 2P4: need to gain two elect ons
Lewis st uctu es
Lewis is a symbol of a symbol in which elect ons f om the valence shell of an at
om o a single ion a e ep esented by dots placed a ound the element symbol. Eac
h dot ep esents one elect on. Fo example:
Figu e 12: (a) neut al chlo ine, (b) chlo ide ion. Notice in the above examples
that the chlo ine has seven valence elect ons, while the chlo ide ion, eight. A
covalent chemical bond that is fo med by sha ing a pai of elect ons between two
atoms. The Lewis St uctu e of a covalent compound o polyatomic ion shows how
elect ons a e dist ibuted between the atoms in o de to show the connectivity be
tween them. In the case of methane (Figu e 11), fo example, fou elect ons, one
f om each hyd ogen, plus the fou ca bon valence elect ons a e pai ed in the st
uctu e, showing how each atom is connected to anothe by a pai of elect ons.
Figu e 13: Setting up the Lewis st uctu e fo methane. Instead of using a colon
to indicate the pai of elect ons that pe petuate the covalent bond, we can use
a dash. Thus, the t ace will ep esent the two elect ons of the covalent bond.
Figu e 14: Setting up the covalent bond. Come in Figu e 15 ep esent the Lewis s
t uctu e of wate . Two hyd ogens a e attached to the cent al oxygen atom. The el
ect ons a e indicated by connecting lines between the oxygen and each hyd ogen.€
The emaining elect ons - two pai s - which a e the octet of oxygen, a e called
non-binding because they a e not involved in covalent bonds.
the x
the x
Figu e 15: Lewis St uctu e of Wate . The fi st step to d aw a Lewis st uctu e is
to dete mine the numbe of valence elect ons of the atoms that will be connecte
d. Then you must dete mine which is the cent al atom, and attach it to the pe ip
he al atoms by pai s of elect ons.
Conside ca bon dioxide CO2.
The e a e a total of 16 e-to be placed in the Lewis st uctu e. Connect the cent
al atom to othe atoms in the molecule with single bonds. Ca bon is the cent al
atom, two oxygens a e attached to it and late we will add mo e elect ons to com
plete the octets of atoms pe iphe als. Connect the cent al atom to othe atoms i
n the molecule with single bonds. Ca bon is the cent al atom, two oxygens a e at
tached to it and late we will add mo e elect ons to complete the octets of atom
s pe iphe als.
Figu e 16. St uctu e of CO2. Step 1 So fa we have used fou of the 16 elect ons
available. Complete the valence shells of atoms on the pe iphe y of the molecul
Figu e 17. Const uction of the Lewis st uctu e of CO2-Step 2. We used all 16 ava
ilable elect ons. Place any emaining elect ons on the cent al atom. `` The e a
e no mo e elect ons available in this instance. "

If the valence shell of cent al atom is complete, you just d aw a easonable Lew
is st uctu e. `` Ca bon is elect on deficient - it only has fou elect ons a oun
d it. This is not a Lewis st uctu e acceptable. "If the valence shell of cent al
atom is not complete, use a lone pai of atoms f om the pe iphe y to fo m a dou
ble bond to that atom with the cent al atom. Continue the p ocess of making mult
iple Pe iphe al connections of atoms with the cent al atom until the valence she
ll of cent al atom is complete.

Figu e 18. Const uction of the Lewis st uctu e of CO2-Step 3. Becomes

Figu e 19. Const uction of the Lewis st uctu e of CO2-Step 4. The cent al atom i
s still elect on deficient, thus sha e anothe pai .

Figu e 20. Const uction of the Lewis st uctu e of CO2 - Step 5. Becomes

Figu e 21. Const uction of the Lewis st uctu e of CO2 - Step 6 Make su e that yo
u have used the co ect numbe of elect ons in the Lewis st uctu e. Remembe tha
t some elements such as sulfu , fo example, can expand its valence shell beyond
eight elect ons. The best Lewis st uctu e can be w itten fo the ca bon dioxide
Figu e 22. Best Lewis st uctu e fo CO2.
Nonpola covalent bond
Occu s between amethyst same chemical element (wate soluble) (same elect onegat
ivity). Fo example: H - H.
Pola covalent bond
Amethyst occu s between diffe ent elements (wate insoluble) (diffe ent elect on
egativity). Example: HCl molecule, because chlo ine is mo e elect onegative than
hyd ogen, ie, has g eate ability to att act elect ons, so the pai of bonding
elect ons a e att acted by it, c eating a g eate on the edge elect on density.
Thus, the e a e distinct poles ( ep esented by), fo ming a pola covalent bond:.
Think a little!
• •
Give a possible application fo the same chemical fo mula w itten in diffe ent w
ays. That is, what is the use of w iting and elect onic st uctu al fo mula of th
e same element? The noble gases a e also called ine t gases? Explain.
Application Exe cises
1. Ente the st uctu al fo mula of the following molecules: Data: Cl (Z = 17), C
(Z = 12), N (Z = 7), H (Z = 1), O (Z = 8). a) CCl4 b) NH3 c) CO2 d) HNO3
Supplementa y Exe cises
2. Give the fo mulas of the following st uctu al and elect onic molecules, data:
H (Z = 1), O (Z = 8) and S (Z = 16).
a) H2S
b) SO2
c) SO3
d) HNO3
Coo dinate o dative bond
This is the case of covalent bonding that occu s when the pai of elect ons sha
ed between two atoms come f om only one of them. Fo the atom can make a coo din
ate bond it has to have pai s of f ee elect ons. A coo dinate bond is indicated
by an a ow on the atom that gives the pai of elect ons to the atom that accept
s it. In the case of ca bon monoxide, have a good example: the oxygen causes a d
ative bond with ca bon, that is, he sha es in coo dination with thei pee s elec
t onics. As we can see in Fig. (30.3):
Figu e 23. Dative bond f om the OC.
Molecula O bital
To bette visualize the covalent bonds (atoms fo ming molecules), we will study
the links f om the point of view of atomic o bitals to fo m molecula o bitals.€
Molecula o bital is the egion a ound the nuclei most likely to be found the sh
a ed elect on pai . The e a e two types of molecula o bitals: O bital Molecula
σ ( igma), or imply σ bond i  that formed in the interpenetration of atomic or
bital  on an axi . Molecular orbital π, or simly π bond is that formed in the i
nterenetration of  orbitals exclusively along the arallel axis.
H2 (H molecule: H or H - H) Hydrogen has one electron in s orbital, which we kno
w to be sherical: 1S1, and needs one more electron to gain stability. Occurs wh
en the aroach of another hydrogen atom, the nucleus of a ositive attracts the
electron cloud of another.
Figure 24. Two atoms of H. As a result of attraction, we aroach resulting in a
n interenetration of orbitals called "overla" (overla). The "overla" is the
interenetration of the atomic orbitals forming a molecular orbital. In the form
ation of overla there is a distance between the nuclei of each atom, where the
reulsion of charges of same sign outweighs the attraction of the charges of dif
ferent signs.
Figure 25. Overla or overla. In the case of H2, H - H, we have orbital σ (  -
). The notation σ (  - ) mean  σ molecular orbital made by two orbital  of typ
e .
Think a little!
• •
What are the main u e  of the chemical bond  in nature? A  the chemical  are fou
nd in nature, "pure or mixed with other element ''?
Application Exerci e 
1. The group of atom  that i  found in the monatomic form becau e they are tabl
e are: a) halogen b) Chalcogen  c) alkaline earth metal  d) Alkali Metal  and) N
oble Ga e  2. The propadiene (H2C = C = CH2) re pectively how  how many igma b
ond  and pi bond ? a) 6:02 b) 2:02 c) 4:02 d) 4:00 e) 0 and 4 3. (ACAF) Incredib
le, but 15% of methane in the atmo phere come  from the belch of oxen, cow , goa
t  and heep, contributing to the greenhou e effect
(Atmo pheric warming). Tick the alternative that de cribe  the type  of chemical
bond  found in thi  ga : a) 2 ionic and covalent 2 b) 2 dative bond  c) four do
uble bond  d) 2 igma and 2 pi, e) 4 igma bond .
Supplementary Exerci e 
4. An alkaline earth metal (M) ha  two electron  in it  outer hell. The alterna
tive indicate  that the formula of an oxide and chloride of the metal, re pectiv
ely i : a) M2O - M2Cl e) MO - MCl4. 5. In the molecule H - O - O - H, there i :
a) no ionic bond, b) three covalent bond  c) three igma bond  d) three ionic bo
nd , e) two metallic bond , b) M2 - MCl c) MO2 - MCl2 d) MO - MCl2;
Molecular Geometry
Theory of Peer Rejection electronic , developed in the late 1960 : `` The pair 
of electron  around the central atom are di tributed in pace o that the repul 
ion between them i  a  mall a  po ible, en uring greater tability. "Pair  of
electron  may or may not be part of link . When electron  are bonding, the coupl
e may be ingle bond , double, triple or dative. The relative po ition  of ligan
d atom  are given by the provi ion of all pair  of electron , but the geometry o
f the molecule i  con idered only the relative po ition of their nuclei.
Figure 26. Carbon dioxide (CO2) ha  a linear molecular geometry, patial di trib
ution of electronic linear pair .
Figure 27. The compound SO3 ha  trigonal planar molecular geometry, patial di t
ribution of electronic triangular pair .
Figure 28. Water (H2O) pre ent  molecular geometry angular di tribution of elect
ron pair  tetrahedron.
Figure 29. Methane (CH4) ha  tetrahedral molecular geometry and electronic di tr
ibution of the tetrahedral pair .
Figure 30. The PCL5 ha  trigonal bipyramid molecular geometry and atom ha  five
ligand .
Intermolecular Force 
Molecular ub tance  can be found in three phy ical tate , which lead  u  to co
nclude that among the molecule , there are force  of attraction of different int
en itie . To the e force  we call the intermolecular force , they can be of two
type :
• •
Van der Waal  force , hydrogen bond 
Van der Waal  force 
Force  are of low inten ity that fall in dipole-dipole and dipole-dipole induced
nap hot. The polarity of the connection ha  a direction, a direction and inten
ity, can be repre ented by a vector (: vector dipole moment), thi  vector i  or
iented alway  toward  the negative pole to the po itive. For molecule  with more
than two atom , knowing the molecular geometry, you can determine if the molecu
le ha  dipole, ie€in the molecule there i  uneven di tribution of po itive and n
egative charge. Thi  determination i  made taking into account the vector time o
f each call. A  whether or not electric dipole, the molecule  are cla ified a 
polar or nonpolar, re pectively.
CO2 i  nonpolar (
). See the ymmetry of the molecule in Figure 26.
H2O i  polar (CS2 (ΔE = ± 0) Link 
). See the a ymmetry of the molecule in Figure 28. CO2 (ΔE = ± 1.0) H2O covalent
link  (ΔE = ± 1.3) covalent bond 
nonpolar covalent molecule  There i  nomolecular
 dipole  in polar molecule
ar dipole There Dipole center  δ + δ-an o not overlap (they are separate ) δ +
H \ + δ H / O-δ
There exist δ + an δ + an δ-δcentros whose overlap O = C = O δ - δ + δ-
S = C = S
Van er Waals forces, ipole- ipole
This type of interaction occurs between polar molecules.
The molecule
The formationof the ipole is ue to the  ifference in electronegativity betwee
n hy rogen an chlorine. The negative en of one molecule attracts the positive
en of the neighboring molecule. This type of attraction is the same that occurs
in connection iômica, but with much less intensity.
Van er Waals forces, ipole- ipole in uce bo ies help 
They are forces of attraction
 that appear in substances
 compose of nonpolar mol
ecules in soli or  liqui . Theelectronic clou  innonpolar molecules
 is uniform
, not showing loa s. This clou can become eforme by outwar action,  or statis
tical fluctuations (collisions)or with increasingpressure an ecreasing tempe
rature, causing then
 an uneven istributionof loa s,  which
 causes the appearanc
e of a temporary ipole. The instantaneous ipole in uce polarization of the ne
ighboring molecule,resulting  in a weak action between them. This type of intera
ction is also calle the  Lon on force, name  after the scientist Fritz Lon on (1
900-1957), who prepare all the theoretical evelopment.
Hy rogen
 bri ges  
The hy rogen bon s are
 cases of ipole- ipole interaction, where the  mol
ecular ipole  is fixe an great intensity. This phenomenon occurs when hy rogen
is connecte
 to one of the
 three most electronegative elements - fluorine,
en an nitrogen - as the ifference of electronegativity between hy rogen an th
ese elements is very large.
The water molecule H2O is a highly polarize (polar) an the hy rogen bon s pro
uce enough force to keep the molecules together in liqui . δ-δ +-H --- The δO

Intermolecular Forces an Boiling Point
: The important factor that influences the boiling point of a substance is the s
izeof the molecule, because thelarger
 the molecule, the easier the occurrence
of istortion of electronic clou , an consequently easier to form clusters, ie
the measure the size of the molecule increases (increase in molecular weight),
he boiling point must also increase. NOTE: For the transition from liqui to gas
eous state is a separation
 of the molecules so the greater the attraction betwee
n molecules in the liqui , the higher the boiling point. The larger the molecule
the easier it is to form clusters.
Think a little!
• •
When the water boils, what type
 of connection is broken in the change of state?
We have two substances, HX an HY. What can we sayabout the boiling point
of these substances, knowing that occur in HX Van er Waals forces an hy rogen
bon s occur HY?
Application Exercises  
 Whichof these links is weaker? a) eletrovalente b) covalent c) hy rogen bon
) Van er Waals e) ion
2. Each water
 is ableto performup to: a)5 hy rogen bon s. b)
 two hy
rogen bon s. c)4 hy rogen bon s. ) a hy rogen bon . e) 3 hy rogen bon s. 3. Am
ong the compoun s below: I. H3C - CH2 - O - CH3 II. H3C - CH2 - NH2 III. H3C - C
H2 -OH isplayhy rogen  bon ing between its molecules: a) I only b) II only c)
I an III only ) II an III only e) I, II an III
Supplementary Exercises   
4. Per share of energy, the atomic hy rogen issociates accor ing to theequatio
n: H-H (g)
 → H 2 (g)).
 This issociation occurs breaking
 of chemical bon s such
 a) hy rogen bon . b) Van er Waals. c) metal ) ionic e) covalent 5. The hy
ri es of the type H2X elements of thefamily are all gaseous oxygen at room temp
erature, with the exception of the hy ri e of oxygen.This is the  result: a) the
lowmolecular mass of water b) of bon s c) of the hy rogen bon s between molecu
 ) the fact that the oxygenhaving the largest  atomic ra ius of this family
an ) the fact that ice  is less  ense than liqui water 6. Of the following subst
ances,€which shows hy rogen bon s between water molecules? a) methane (CH4)
 b) c
hloroform (CHCl3) c) benzene (C6H6). )-ethyl ether (H2C - O - C2H5) an ) Water
Think a little!

Analyzing the variation of electronegativity in the perio ic table, showing the
connection less polar an more polar: HO: HH: HI: HP: HN: HF:
 Application Exercises
1. Consi ering the chemical bon between oxygen
 an aluminum, in light 
of the oc
tet theory for the formation of aluminum oxi e, is correct to assert (a the nu
mbers correspon ing to the correct alternatives): a) Each aluminum atom, three e
lectrons lose b) Oxygen is the anion withnegative charge equal
 to three for eac
h atom, c) the two aluminum atoms involve in the connection ) each oxygen atom
will receive two electrons e) The number of positive charges per formula will b
e six. f) the electron
 configuration 1s2 2s2 Al3 + is 2P6. g) The minimum formul
a of aluminum oxi e will contain four atoms in total. 2. Atoms of an element
 X (
atomic number 20) an another element Y (atomic number 7)joinby ionic bon s, c
ausing the compoun of the formula: a) XYb) X2Y c) X3Y2 ) an X2Y3) X3Y4 3. Th
e force of attraction
 between positive an negative
  ions characterizes the conne
ction: a) coor inate b) covalent c) metal ) an ative) ion
Supplementary Exercises 
4. In magnesium chlori e, the union between magnesium
 an chlorine occurs throug
h linkage: a) molecular b) covalent
 c) metal ) ionic e) ative 5. The concept o
f covalent bon ing refers to the i ea
 of: a) electrostatic attraction b) ion pai
r c) intermolecular attraction ) an free electrons) pairing of electrons
6. (Supra-SC)
 between the atoms of the compoun s KBr, NH3 an HCN, chemical bon
s are pre ominant, respectively: a)covalent, ionic,  ion b) covalent, ionic, cov
alent c) covalent, covalent, ionic ) Ion, ionic an covalent) Ionic, covalent,

1 - Use the perio ic table to write the following
 empirical formulas
 of ionic
 s: a) so ium astateto
 ) gallium nitri
 e, b) barium fluori e, e) rubi ium
oxi e, c) potassium sulfi e, f) phosphie calcium. 2 - Each of the following mol
ecules contains at  least one ouble bon . Write the Lewis structure for a) CS2,
c) C4H6 b) C3H6, ) C2H3Cl. 3 - Each of the following moleculeshas at least one
triple bon . Draw Lewis structures for a) CO c) HCN, b)C2H2, ) C3H4.  4 - Show
that the ammonium chlori e, NH4Cl, are present ionican covalent bon s. 6 - Sh
ow that each of the following  species contains a coor inative covalent bon : a)
NH4 + c) H3O + b) S2 ² ˉ ) H3PO4.  7 - Using the perio ic table, write  the molec
ular formula
 for simpler compoun s (a few atoms
 per molecule)
 forme between chl
orine an each of the following: a) sulfur, ) P b) io ine; e) boron. c) silicon
; 8 - The structure ofeach of the following ions or molecules can be represente
as a resonance hybri. Draw the shapes that contribute to the structure of a)
SO2, c) NO3 ˉ b) SO3, ) NO2 ˉ. 9 - What factors influence  the
 an atom? Interpret the observe
 variations in perio s an groupsof the peri
o ic table. 10-Using the perio ic table, sortthe links as being pre ominantly i
onic or covalent: a) - S c) Si - C b) Ca - S ) H - I;
e) Cl - O, f) Ga - F, g) Rb - Br;
h) H - Li i) Cs - N.

11 - Write the electronic configurations for H an Na. Explain why HCl is covale
nt while NaCl is ionic.  12 - Rate the link in the following compoun s: a) CsBr f
) b) MGS g) c) AS h) ) SF4 i) e) CaI2; CS2; OF2; KI; Rb2O.
13 As the loa istribution in BrCl iffers  from that of  Cl2? Draw pictures to i
 your answer. 14-Use
 the perio ic table to pre ict which of the followi
 bon s is least polar an which is most polar: a) S - Cl c) If - Br b)S - Br
) If - Cl. 15-Write
  the Lewis structure
 for the following
  ionic compoun
 s: a) R
ubi ium fluori  e, ) potassium oxi e,  b) barium io i e, e) cesium nitri e, c) ma
gnesium sulfi e, f) strontium phosphi e. 16-Draw the Lewis structure for each  of
the following molecules: a) chi3 e) HOCl b) C2H5Cl f) HOCl c) PCl3 g) BCl3 ) N
2H4 h) OF2. 17-Write the Lewis structure forthe following ions: a) pH4 + f) BF4
² ˉ b) SO2 ² ˉ g) CN ˉ c) S2O3 ² ˉ h) N3 ˉ ) PO4 ³ ˉ i) CH3NH3 +. e) HPO4ˉ²,
18-In which
 of the following species the valence shells of atoms are expan e t
o accommo ate more than eight electrons? Write the Lewis structure for them: a)
ICl4 ˉ e) F4 Xe b) SF6 f) x an F4, c) SF4 g) BrF3 ) I3 ˉ h) BrF5.
 of the outer shell to allow more than eight electrons can be ac
commo ate can only occur if there is a sufficient number
 orbitals. Rememberi
ng this, explain why the phosphorus forms two chlori es, an PCl3 PCL5, while on
ly one nitrogen,NCl3. 20 - For each species below the oxi ation numbers of each
atom: a) BrCl, ) IO3 ˉ b) BeCl2 e) CN ˉ c) BF4 ˉ f) + N2H5. 21-Specify the oxi
ation numbers of each atom in the following species: a) H3PO3; g) KClO2 b) H2S2
O7 h) Fe2O3 c) S2O3 ˉ i) KHSO4
 ) S4O6 ² ˉj) CrF6 ³ ˉ e) C12H22O11; k) ˉ HO2 (l
ike peroxi e). f) KCl, 22-In icate the oxiation number of each atom in the foll
owing species: a) C2Cl6 b) MgSO4 c) FeSO4 ) C3H6O2 e) AlCl3 f) FeCl3 g) AsCl5 h
) ICL; i) ICl4 ˉ j) I3 ˉ.