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MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY

THREAD AND BOLTS


Threaded
Threaded elements are used extensively in the manufacture of almost all engineer
ing designs. The screws provide a relatively quick and easy to hold together two
parts and to exert a force that can be used to adjust inserts. DEFINITIONS OF T
HE TERMINOLOGY OF THREAD
Thread: is a continuous thread of uniform section, coiled like an ellipse on the
outer and inner surface of a cylinder. External thread: a thread on the outer s
urface of a cylinder. Internal Thread: thread is carved on the inside of a piece
, such as a nut. Inside diameter: the largest diameter of an internal or externa
l threads. Core diameter: the smaller diameter of an internal or external thread
s. Diameter on the flanks (or half) is the diameter of an imaginary cylinder pas
sing through the fillet at the point where the width of these is equal to the sp
ace between them. Step: is the distance between successive crests of two fillets
. The distance from a point on a steak to the corresponding point on the fillet
adjacent measured parallel to the axis. Preview: is the distance that would adva
nce the screw on the nut in a rotation. For a single threaded screw advancement
is equal to the step, to a double screw, progress is twice the step, and so on.
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RULES AND STANDARDS standards bodies in the table presented below shows the stan
dards bodies of various nations. Abbreviation NORMA UNE ISO DIN NF GOST standard
s body BSI USASI UNI International Organization for Standardization. Streamlinin
g and Standardization Institute. German Standards Committee. Soviet National Sta
ndards Body. French Standards Association. English Standards Institute. Italian
National Agency of Unification. Standards Institute for American.
PAIS International Germany Russia England France Spain Italy America
REPRESENTATION, annotations and STANDARD PARTS DESIGNATION The vast diversity of
mechanisms and machines in general, a large number of accessory parts that comp
ose them have shapes and dimensions and a predetermined set of rules, ie, they a
re standard parts. In general, the use of standard parts is greatly facilitated
the work of drawing, as using this type of piece, we avoid having to make corres
ponding shop drawings. These rules specify: shape, dimensions, tolerances, mater
ials, and other technical characteristics. DESIGNATION OF THE SCREWS Basically,
the designation of a screw includes the following information: type of screw acc
ording to the shape of his head, description of the thread, length and standard
that defines it. These data can be added others, relating to material strength,
precision, etc. Example: Hexagon screw M20 x 2 x 60 x 8.8 960.mg DIN To analyze
each element to see that. a) Title or name: Screw Hexagonal b) Designation of Th
read: M20 x 2 c) Shaft length: 60 d) To: Heads in dish-shaped knob
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e) Standard that specifies the shape and characteristics of the screw: DIN 960 f
) mg: Implementation and measurement accuracy g) 8.8: kind of resistance or mech
anical properties. Length involved in the description is as follows: 1. 2. In ge
neral, the relevant length corresponds to the total length of the stem. To end w
ith lug bolts, the relevant length includes the length of the pin. 3. For counte
rsunk screws, the length shown is the total length of the screw.
L
d d
L
L
d
DESIGNATION OF THE THREAD. The designation or nomenclature of the thread is to i
dentify the main elements involved in the manufacture of a particular thread, it
is through his representative and indicating the point size of outer diameter a
nd pitch. The latter is indicated directly in millimeters for the metric, while
the unified thread Witworth is indicated by the number of existing threads withi
n an inch. For example, the screw M 3.5 x 0.6 indicates a normal metric 3.5 mm o
uter diameter with a pitch of 0.6 mm. The thread W 3 / 4''- 10 is equivalent to
a normal Witworth thread 3 / 4 inch outside diameter and 10 threads per inch.€Th
e designation of the threads and Unified Do differently: For example a classific
ation in a plane normal workshop could be: 1 / 4-28 UNF - 3B - LH And the examin
ation of each element must be: 1 / 4 inch is the nominal diameter of the thread.
28 is the number of threads per inch. UNF is the number of threads, in this cas
e unified fine. 3B: 3 indicates the setting (the ratio between internal and exte
rnal threads when assembled), B indicates an inner nut. An A indicates an extern
al nut. LH indicates that the thread is left. (When no indication is assumed tha
t the thread is right) The following table provides information to recognize the
type of thread through its lyrics feature, listed most of the threads used in m
echanical engineering
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Tapping SimbolossSímbolos usual common name American Petroleum Institute Associa
tion British International Standards Organisation Edison Screw Thread Thread bik
e round fillet steaks trapesoidales Thread Thread Whitworth pipe thread passing
armored normal fine pitch thread Thread Whitworth Whitworth Whitworth thread cyl
indrical pipe thread Metric Thread Metric normal gait paso fino American Thread
Unified p. Unified Thread normal American p. American Unified Fine Thread Thread
p.exrafino American Cylindrical Tapered Pipe Thread Pipe Thread American Americ
an American Thread Cylindrical special steps "dryseal" American Pipe Tapered Thr
ead "dryseal" API pipe Rd Tr BA CE ISO PG BSPT BSW BSF BSP UNC MM UNS UNF UNEF S
PL NPSF NPT NPTF
Other
Pr W KR R SI SIF NC, NF USS, SAE NEF ASTP NS
With respect to the direction of rotation, in the designation indicates "left" i
f a thread of meaning left, nothing is indicated if the right sense. Similarly,
if you have more than one entry indicates "2 ent" or "3 ent." If not indicated a
nything about it, it underlies this is a thread of a entry and right forward dir
ection. In American-made threads, add more symbols to report the degree of fit a
nd treatments may create a thread with non-standard dimensions, but it is always
advisable to use standard threads to acquire hardware, and facilitate the locat
ion of the spare parts. The manufacture and machining of special parts increases
the cost of any design, therefore recommend the use of the pieces are in place.
Thread Thread Types V-Acute applies where the subject is important or friction
fit, as in precision instruments, but their use is now rare.
P 60 °
P / 2
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0.87 P
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Rounded Screw caps are used for bottles and bulbs, which do not require much str
ength, it is quite appropriate when the threads are to be cast or rolled metal s
heet P.
P / 2 R = P / 4
P / 2
This American National Unified thread form is the standard base of the threads i
n the U.S., Canada and Britain.
P 60 °
P / 8
P / 2
Square thread This thread can transmit all the forces in the direction almost pa
rallel to the axis, sometimes changes the way giving you a square fillet taper o
r slope of 5 ° to the sides.
P P / 2 P P / 2 P / 2
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17P/24
Rounded or flat
P / 2
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Acme thread has largely replaced the truncated steak thread. It is stronger, eas
ier to carve and allows the use of a split nut or clutch that can not be used wi
th a square screw thread. Acme threads are used where you need to apply great fo
rce. They are used to transmit motion in all types of machine tools, jacks, pres
ses big "C" clamps and fasteners. Acme threads have a thread angle of 29 ° and a
large flat face on the crest and the root. Acme threads are designed to replace
the square thread, which is difficult to manufacture and brittle. There are thr
ee kinds of Acme threads, 2G, 3G and 4G, and each has gaps in all dimensions to
allow free movement. 2G class threads are used in most sets. 3G and 4G classes a
re used when allowing less play or play, such as the spindle of a lathe or a mil
ling machine table.
P 29 °
3P / 8
P 29 °
0.422P
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0.3P
P / 2
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Whitworth thread Used in Britain to be its equivalent used the American National
thread.
0137 rounded or flat
P 55 °
P / 8
0.640P
Endless screw axle is used to transmit force to the worm gear.
0.335 P 29 °
P
P / 2
0.31 P 0.68166 P
Trapezoidal thread This thread is used to direct the force in one direction. It
is used in cats and gun locks.
0.163 P 45 ° 7
P 0.66 P
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SCREWS Definition: cylindrical metal part whose surface has a coiled highlight c
onstant separation, this is used as a connecting element, usually screwed into a
nut and it may end in a point, flat or otherwise standardized. Types of Screws:
Screw • Union: Used for joining two pieces and is made through a hole (unthread
ed) from one and screwing in the other, as the nut. • Intern Screw: A screw thro
ugh the bonded without tapping into any of them. They are used for molding or li
ght alloys • Asparagus. It is a threaded rod at both ends without change in diam
eter. One end is screwed into the piece while the other has external thread, has
no head and the subject is achieved by means of a nut. • self-tapping screws: T
hese are used for connections to be skipping rarely recommended for soft metals
or steels least 50 pounds of resistance, body, fine mechanics and electronics. •
Set Screw: A screw rod by one or both ends, its placement is between the nut an
d bolt, drilled previously.
MECHANICS OF FORCE OR POWER SCREWS Power screws are a device to change and usual
ly linear to transmit power. More specifically the power screws are used: 1. To
obtain a greater mechanical advantage in order to lift weights, as in the case o
f cats such as screws cars. 2. To exert forces of great magnitude, as in the hom
e or in a compacting press. 3. For precise positioning of an axis movement, as i
n a micrometer screw or lead screw of a lathe. In each of these applications usi
ng a torque on the ends of the screws through gear sets, thereby creating a burd
en on the device. In power screws using the Acme thread profile. The thread angl
e is 29 ° and its dimensions can be determined easily after known passage:
0.335 P 29 °
P
P / 2
0.31 P 0.68166 P
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A threaded fastener clip is a device used to fasten or attach two or more member
s. The name given to the threaded fasteners depends on the purpose for which the
y were made and not how it is actually used in specific cases. If you remember t
his basic fact will not be difficult to distinguish between a screw and a bolt.
If an item is designed so that its primary function is being installed into a ta
pped hole, called a screw. Therefore, a screw is tightened using a torque in his
head.
If an item is designed to be installed with a nut, bolt is called. Thus, the bol
ts are tightened by applying torque to the nut.
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An asparagus (or double screw bolt, stud) and suna rod threaded at both ends, yo
u go into a threaded hole e l other receives a nut.
Threaded fasteners include bolts, screws, machine screws, set screws and a varie
ty of special tools that use the principle of the screw.
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