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Design of steel

beams in torsion

A G J WaymEng,CEng,mICE
T C CosgroveBSc,mSc,DIC,mIEI,CEng,mIStructE
M E BrettleBEng
Design of steel
beams in torsion
SCI PublICatIon P385

Design of steel
beams in torsion
In accordance with Eurocodes and the UK National Annexes

A F HughesMACEngMICEMIStructE
D C IlesMScCEngMICE
A S MalikBScMSc

iii
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iv
foreworD

Thispublicationprovidesguidanceonthedesignofsteelbeamssubjecttotorsion.
ItowesmuchtotheearlierSCIpublicationP057Design of members subject to
combined bending and torsionpreparedbyNethercot,SalterandMalikandpublished
in1989.Althoughthescopeissimilarandthefundamentaltheoryisunchanged,
theguidancehasbeenrevisedtofacilitatedesigninaccordancewithEurocode3
Design of steel structuresandtoaccommodatethechangesintherangesofstructural
sectionsforwhichtorsionalparametersareprovided.Therulesforstrengthverification
inEurocode3differinimportantrespectsfromthoseinBS5950andtherearemany
changesofterminologyandsymbolism.

ThenewpublicationwaspreparedbyAlastairHughes,ofSCI,withsignificant
contributionsfromDavidIlesandAbdulMalik,bothofSCI.Accounthasbeen
takenoffeedbackfromtheSCIMemberswhorespondedtoarequesttocomment
onpublicationP057.

ThepreparationofthisguidewasfundedbyTataSteel;theirsupportis
gratefullyacknowledged.

v
Contents

Foreword v struCtural
hollow seCtIons 37
Contents vii
6.1 Elastic behaviour of hollow sections 37
summary ix 6.2 Resistance to combined bending
and torsion 37
IntroduCtIon 1
1.1 Torsion of beams 1 desIgn oF ConneCtIons 41
1.2 Scope of this publication 2 7.1 Types of end plate connection 41
1.3 Terminology and symbols 3 7.2 Choice of end plate thickness 42
1.4 References to Eurocode 3 4 7.3 Design resistance of end plate connections
to combined shear and torsion 42
elastIC theory oF torsIon 7
7.4 Bolt slip 43
2.1 St Venant torsion 7
7.5 The effect of bolt tension on
2.2 Warping torsion 9
shear resistance 43
2.3 Relative magnitudes of St Venant torsion
7.6 Restraint against warping at member ends 43
and warping torsion 12
2.4 Example of the variation of rotation reFerenCes 47
for a cantilever 14
appendIx a:
2.5 The shear centre 14
torsIonal propertIes
2.6 Achieving warping restraint at member ends 17
oF seCtIons - tables 49
desIgnIng For
appendIx b:
CombIned eFFeCts 19
torsIonal propertIes
3.1 Resistance of cross sections 19
oF seCtIons - Formulae 61
3.2 Buckling resistance 23
3.3 Stabilizing and destabilizing loads 24 appendIx C:
3.4 Serviceability limit state 25 solutIons For and Its
derIvatIves - Formulae 69
desIgn oF Channels 27
4.1 St Venant torsion 27 appendIx d:
4.2 Warping torsion 27 solutIons For and Its
4.3 Practical considerations 28 derIvatIves - graphs 77

desIgn oF asymmetrIC beams 31 appendIx e:


5.1 Types of asymmetric beam 31 desIgn examples 85
5.2 Section properties 31
5.3 Transient and permanent design situations 31
5.4 Design effects 33
5.5 Verification at ULS 34
5.6 Serviceability limit state 34

vii
summary

Inmoststeel-framedstructures,beamsaresubjectonlytobendingandnottotorsion
butsituationsdoarisewheretorsionaleffectsaresignificant,typicallywherethe
demandsofpracticalconstructionresultineccentricallyappliedloads.Thedesigner
willthenneedtoevaluatethemagnitudesofthetorsionaleffectsandtoconsiderthe
resistancesofthemembersunderthecombinedbendingandtorsion.

Thispublicationprovidesabriefoverviewofthetorsionalperformanceofopenand
closedstructuralsectionsanddistinguishesbetweenStVenanttorsionaleffects
(sometimesreferredtoaspuretorsion)andwarpingtorsionaleffects.Itexplainsthat
theinteractionbetweenthetwotypesofeffectdependsonthetorsionalparameters
forthecrosssection,theloadingandthememberlength.Expressionsanddesign
curvesaregivenforevaluatingthetwotypesofeffectandguidanceisgivenontheuse
ofsimplifiedapproachesthatavoidtheneedfordetailedevaluation.

Memberssubjecttotorsionwillinmostcasesalsobesubjecttobending.Guidance
isgivenontheverificationaccordingtoEurocode3ofthecombinedeffectsdueto
bendingandtorsion,bothintermsofresistanceofthecrosssectionandintermsof
resistanceagainstlateraltorsionalbuckling.

TorsionalparametersforarangeofrolledsectionsaregiveninanAppendix.Sixshort
workedexamplesillustratetheverificationfortypicaldesignsituations.

ix
introDuCtion

1.1 Torsion of beams


Inmoststeel-framedstructures,beamsaresubjectonlytobendingandnottotorsion.
Inbuildings,beamsareusuallyhotrolledIorHsections,proportionedforoptimum
bendingperformanceabouttheirmajoraxis.Theseareopensectionsandare
relativelyflexibleintorsion;itisusuallyarrangedthattheloadsonsuchsectionsact
throughtheshearcentreandthustherearenotorsionaleffects.

However,situationsarisewheretorsionaleffectsaresignificant,typicallywherethe
demandsofpracticalconstructionresultineccentricallyappliedloads.Forinstance,
precastunitsareoftensupportedononesideofaflangeoronashelfangle;inthe
temporarycondition,withonesideloaded,mostoftheloadisappliedeccentrically.
Anotherexamplewouldbeabeamwhichcannot,forarchitecturalreasons,beplaced
concentricallyunderthewallitsupports.

Facedwithsuchsituations,thedesignerwillneedtoevaluatethemagnitudesofthe
torsionaleffectsandtoconsidertheresistancesofthemembersunderthecombined
bendingandtorsion.Insomecircumstancesthedesignermaychoosetousedclosed
structuralhollowsections,whichhaveamuchbetterperformanceintorsion;effects
andresistancesforthesewillhavetobeevaluated.Attheendsofmemberssubjectto
torsionalloads,torsionalrestraintmustbeprovidedandtheconnectionswillhaveto
bedesignedtoresisttheforcesthatprovidetherestraint.

Forsimplicityindesignanddetailingthefollowingapproachtosteelframedesign
issuggested:

1. Takeallreasonablestepstoeliminatetorsionaleffects,avoidingeccentricityby
placingbeamsinlinewiththeloads,oraddingbeamsinanotherdirectiontocarry
theeccentricloadsindirectbending.
2. Ifitisnotpossibletoavoidsubjectingamembertosignificanttorsionalmoment,
useahollowsection(typicallyRHSforabeam),ifpracticaltodoso.
3. Whereamemberissubjecttotorsion,followtheapproachgiveninthispublication
toquantifythetorsionaleffectsandtoverifythememberundercombinedbending
andtorsion.

1
IntroductIon

1.2 Scope of this publication


Althoughmuchoftheguidanceinthispublicationisnotstandard-dependent,itis
assumedthatthedesignofsteelbeamswillbecarriedoutinaccordancewith
Eurocode3,principallyinaccordancewithEurocode3Part1.1,publishedintheUKas
BSEN1993-1-1[1]andaccompaniedbyitsUKNationalAnnex[2].Ageneralintroduction
todesigntotheEurocodesisgiveninSCIpublicationP361[3].

Theelastictheoryoftorsionhasbeendiscussedinmanypublicationsandisnot
repeatedhere.However,thedetailedtheoryandexpressionsfordeterminingtorsional
effectsareprobablyunfamiliartomostbuildingdesigners.Section2thereforesets
outarelativelysimplesummaryoftheelastictheoryoftorsionandmakesreferenceto
Appendicesthatprovidedetailedexpressionsforevaluatingtorsionalparametersand
determiningtorsionaleffectsinarangeofdesignsituations.

Section3discussesthedesignofbeamsforcombinedbendingandtorsionaleffects,
principallyinrelationtostraightIsectionbeams.Particulardesignconsiderationsfor
channelsandasymmetricbeamsaregiveninSections4and5.Abriefoverviewofthe
designofstructuralhollowsectionsisgiveninSection6;thewiderconsiderationsfor
boxgirders,includingdistortionaleffects,arenotcovered.

Beamscurvedonplanwillbesubjecttotorsionaswellasverticalbending.Guidance
onthedesignofcurvedbeamsisgiveninSCIPublicationP281[4]andisnotdiscussed
withinthepresentpublication.

Toillustratetheapplicationoftheguidancesixexamplesarepresented,in
calculationsheetformat,inAppendixE.Theseexamplesillustrateboththesimplified
approachtodeterminingtorsionaleffectsandthedetailedevaluationusingthe
expressionsinAppendixC.

SectionpropertiesforrolledsteelsectionsaregiveninSCIpublicationP363[10]but
notalltheparametersneededforevaluationofstressesduetotorsionaleffectsare
tabulatedthere.AppendixAsupplementsP363bypresentingtablesoftorsional
parametersforUKB,UKC,PFCandASBsections;thevalueshavebeendetermined
usingtheexpressionsinAppendixB.Onlysectionscurrentlyproducedareincluded.
Ifpropertiesforoldersectionsarerequired,referencemaybemadetotheearlierSCI
publicationDesign of members subject to combined bending and torsion(P057)[5]or
valuesmaybecalculatedusingthegeneralexpressionsinAppendixB.

AppendixCgivesmathematicalexpressionsfordeterminingangleofrotationandits
threederivativesforarangeofdesignsituations.Asexplainedinthemaintext,these
valuesareusedtodetermineangleofrotation,StVenanttorsionalmoment,warping
torsionalmoment,andwarpingmoment.Forthemorecommonsituations,AppendixD
presentsgraphicallyvaluesderivedusingthoseexpressions.

2
1.3 Terminology and symbols
Theterminologyanduseofsymbolsinthispublicationgenerallyfollowsthatin
theEurwocodes.Generally,termsandsymbolsaredefinedwheretheyareused.
Unfortunately,thetermsandsymbolsarenotalwaysthesameasthoseusedin
classicalreferencetexts.Theprincipaltermsusedinthispublicationaregivenbelow.

Torqueisacommonlyusedterminrelationtotorsionbuthereitisusedonlyinthecontext
ofanappliedtwistingmoment(anactioninEurocodeterms).ThesymbolTisused.

Torsional momentistheinternaltwistingmoment(aboutthebeamslongitudinalaxis).
Asexplainedlater,itisusuallyconsideredintwocomponents,St Venant torsional
momentandwarping torsional moment.InEurocodeterms,thedesignvaluesofthe
totalmomentanditstwocomponentsaresymbolizedas TEd,Tt,EdandTw,Edrespectively.

Warping Momentisthebendingmomentinaflangeactingasaresultofrestraintof
warping.Themomentsinthetwoflangesareequalandofoppositesign.Thedesign
valueissymbolizedasMw,Ed

Note: The term Bimoment is not used in this publication but is found in BS EN 1993-1-1
and is referred to in some texts. It is not a moment but is the product of the warping
momentMw,Edand the centre-to-centre distance between the flanges. This much
misunderstood term, often confused with the warping moment, is not essential to the
evaluation of effects and resistances. Where it is mentioned in 6.2.7(4), it effectively
means due to the restraint of torsional warping.

Theangle of rotation isgiventhesymbol.Itsderivativesd/dx,d2/dx2,d3/dx3are


symbolized,,respectively.

St Venant torsional constantisthesectionpropertyrelatingStVenanttorsional


momenttothefirstderivativeofrotation(twistperunitlength).InEurocode3itis
giventhesymbolITbutinmanytextsthesymbolJisused.

Warping constantisthesectionpropertyrelatingwarpingtorsionalmomenttothe
thirdderivativeofrotation.Ithasdimensionsoflengthtothepowersix.InEurocode3
itisgiventhesymbolIwbutinmanytextsthesymbolHisused.

Shear modulus.Thevalueofthemodulus,G,isgivenbyG = E/2(1 + ),whereEis


themodulusofelasticityandisPoissonsratio.Forstructuralsteel,E/G = 2.6and
G 81000 N/mm2.

Torsional bending constant isgiventhesymbolaanditsvalueisgivenbya= EI w GI T ,


whereEIwrepresentsthewarpingstiffnessandGITistheStVenanttorsionalstiffness.
Theparameterhasdimensionsoflength.Althoughthislengthcannotreadilybe
visualized,itgenerallyexpressestherateatwhichwarpingtorsionalmoment
diminishes,fromapositionwherewarpingisrestrained.Generally,warpingtorsional
momentsareaverysmallproportionofthetotaltorsionalmomentbeyondadistance
ofabout3afromthepositionofwarpingrestraint.

3
IntroductIon

1.4 References to Eurocode 3


Forbrevity,referencestoBSEN1993-1-1aregivenintheform6.4.7,whichisa
referencetoclause6.4.7,andNA.3,whichisareferencetoclauseNA.3intheUK
NationalAnnex.Referencetoexpressionsaregivenas,forexample,Expression(6.21).
ReferencestootherPartsofEurocode3aregiveninfull.

4
5
elastiC theory
of torsion

Theelastictheoryoftorsionofuniformbarshasbeenwelldevelopedintextssuchas
Timoshemko[6]andTrahair[7]andthetheoreticalbasiswillnotbeexploredhere.This
Sectionreviewstheelastictheoryoftorsionfromasteelworkdesignersperspective,
particularlyinrelationtothetorsionofI sectionbeams.

BecauseallthetheoryoutlinedinthisSectioniselastic,theprincipleofsuperposition
maybeappliedwhencombiningeffectsduetodifferentactions.

2.1 St Venant torsion


Auniformbarorbeamthatissubjecttoequalandoppositetorquesateachendwill,
iftheendsarefreetowarpoutoftheirplanes,resistthetorqueateachcrosssection
bythepatternofshearstressesshowninFigure2.1.Thetotaleffectoftheshear
stressesoveracrosssectionisequaltothetorsionalmomentinthebeamandthe
beamwilltwistaboutalongitudinalaxisknownasitsshearcentre(seeSection2.5for
discussiononthelocationoftheshearcentre).

Suchbehaviourissometimesreferredtoaspuretorsionbutmorecommonlyas
StVenanttorsion,onaccountofthetheorydevelopedinitiallybyStVenant.

Stress variation
(in all elements)

Shear stresses in open sections

Stress variation
(near uniform)
Figure 2.1
Shear stresses in closed sections
St Venant
shear stresses

7
ElastIc thEory

Themuchgreatereffectivenessofclosedsectionsintorsioncanbeappreciated
bycomparingpatternsofshearstressesinopenandclosedcircularsectionsin
Figure2.1.Fortheclosedsectionalltheshearstressesareinthesamerotational
direction,thusmaximizingtheireffect.Intheopensection(thecirclewithaslit)the
shearstressesareinoppositedirectionsatoppositefacesandthusaremuchless
efficientinprovidingtorsionalresistance.

Crosssectionsofacircularbaroracircularhollowsectionwillremainplaneasa
resultofuniformtwistingbutallothersectionswillexperiencewarpingofthecross
section,dependingonthegeometryofthecrosssection.Thewarpingofsolidsections
andhollowsectionsisgenerallyverysmallandcanbeneglected.Thewarpingof
angleandTeesectionsisalsoverysmallandcanbeneglected.Thewarpingofopen
double-flangedsections,suchasanI sectionorachannel,ismuchmoresignificant;
itisessentiallytheeffectofcounterrotationoftheflangesintheirplanes,suchas
illustratedforanI sectioninFigure2.2.

Figure 2.2
Plan view of
an I section
Ends free to warp
beam subject to
uniform torsion

Twist
Thechangeofrotation(twist)perunitlength(i.e.thefirstderivativeofrotation)ofa
beamduetoStVenanttorsionisgivenby:

=T/GIT

where
T istheappliedtorque
G istheshearmodulus
I T istheStVenanttorsionalconstant.

Therotation ofoneendofthebarrelativetotheotherendisthusTL/GIT.

Theaboveexpressionforrateofchangeofrotationisvalidforbothopenandclosed
sections(butthetorsionalconstantisevaluateddifferently-seeAppendixCfortypical
expressionsforI sectionsandhollowsections.)

Stresses
StVenantshearstressesareproportionalto.Foranopensection,thepeak
(surface)stressisgivenby:

8
=Gt

wheretistfortwasappropriate.

Since=T/GIT,thiscanbere-expressedas:

=Tt/IT

or

=T/Wt

TheparameterWtisreferredtoasthetorsionalsectionmodulusandissimilartothe
sectionmodulusforbending,exceptthatitgivesavalueofshearstressratherthan
directstress.Itsvalueisnotusuallytabulatedforopensectionsandtheshearstressis
simplyevaluatedasTtw /ITinthewebandTtf /ITintheflange.

Foraclosedsection,thesameexpression(=T/Wt)applies,exceptthatthevalueof
Wtisevaluateddifferentlyandisgenerallymuchgreaterforaclosedsection.Valuesfor
WtforstructuralhollowsectionsaregiveninAppendixAandexpressionsforevaluating
WtaregiveninAppendixB.4.

Notethatthesimpleexpression=Gtisstrictlyapplicableonlytopartsofacross
sectionwherethethicknessisuniform.Iftherearesharpre-entrantcorners,the
StVenantshearstressisincreasedverylocally.Thisdoesnotrequireanyspecial
considerationforordinarydesignatULSbutifthetorsionwereduetofatigueloading,
moredetailedassessmentshouldbecarriedoutatsuchlocations.Suchadviceis
outsidethescopeofthispublication.

2.2 Warping torsion


Whenwarpingofthecrosssectionsisconstrained,longitudinalstressesandadditional
shearstressesaredevelopedandthetorsionispartlyresistedbythoseadditional
shearstresses.Toillustratetheeffectofwarpingrestraint,consideralengthofuniform
I sectionwithatorqueappliedatthemiddle.Thedisplacementofthebeamwould
thenbeasillustratedinFigure2.3.

Ifthetwohalvesofthebeamhadbeenseparate,theleft-handhalfwouldhavetwisted
asinFigure2.2andtheright-handhalfwouldhavetwistedinthesamemannerbutin

Figure 2.3
Plan view of an
I section beam
subject to a torque Ends free to warp
at mid-span

9
ElastIc thEory

theoppositesense.Thewarpingdisplacementsofthetwohalvesatthemiddlewouldbe
inoppositedirections.ButbecausethebeaminFigure2.3iscontinuousatmid-span,
warpingisfullyrestrainedatthatlocation.Bothflangesarethereforeconstrainedtobend
inplanandthebeamwilltwistatavaryingrateovereachhalfspan.

Atanypointinthespan,thetorsioniscarriedpartlyasStVenanttorsion(i.e.bythe
StVenantshearstresses)andpartlyaswarpingtorsion(i.e.bytheshearstresses
causedbytherestraintofwarping).ThisisexpressedinEurocodeterminology
(Clause6.2.7)as:

TEd = Tt,Ed+Tw,Ed
(thesuffixEddenotesdesignvalues)

Theproblemforthedesignerishowtodeterminethesetwodesignvalues?Thekeyto
thisisinformulatingadeflectedshapethatreflectsthevariousstiffnesses.

Theseparatetorsionalmomentscanbeexpressedintermsofangleofrotationandits
derivativesasfollows:

TEd =GIT -EIw

where
T isthetorsionalmomentatacrosssection
and arethefirstandthirdderivativesofangleofrotationwithrespectto
distancex alongthemember
Iw isthewarpingconstant(forasymmetricalI sectionIw Iz ( h -tf )2/4 )
IT istheStVenanttorsionalconstant.

Formulatingthevariationofangleofrotation forthegeneralcasewhereTEdvaries
alongthebeamandallowingfordifferentendconditionsisacomplextaskbutfora
rangeofstandardsituations,algebraicexpressionshavebeenderivedandtheseare
presentedinAppendixC.Someofthesearealsopresentedasaseriesofcurvesin
AppendixD.Thesecurvesarereadilyusablebythedesigner,withouttheneedtoresort
tocomplexcalculation.

Warping stresses
Restraintofwarping(dueeithertointernalrestraintassociatedwithnon-uniformmoment
ortoexternalrestraintattheends)produceslongitudinalstressesandshearstresses.
Forabi-symmetricI section,warpingstressesareshowndiagrammaticallyinFigure2.4.

Thelongitudinalwarpingstressesaregreatestattheflangetipsandtheirvalueisgivenby:

w =EWn0

whereWn0isthenormalizedwarpingfunctionattheflangetip.

10
w

w
Figure 2.4
Elastic warping
stresses in an
I section

Thewarpingshearstressisgreatestatthejunctionwiththewebanditsvalueisgivenby:

w =ESw1/t

whereSw1isthewarpingstaticalmoment.

Thetermsnormalizedwarpingfunctionandwarpingstaticalmoment,andthesymbols
usedtorepresentthem,havebeeninuseforsometime.Althoughthetermsand
symbolsarenotusedinEurocode3,theyareretainedhereforclarity.Theirvalues
dependonthelocation:forconveniencethekeylocationsinthecrosssectionare
labelled0and1,forthetipsoftheflangesandtheweb/flangejunctionrespectively.
(Thislabellingconventionisextendedforchannelsections-seeSection4.)

ValuesforWn0andSw1aregiveninAppendixA.

Inpractice,forI sections,thewarpingshearstressesaresmallenoughtobeneglected.

Fortheverificationofcombinedbendingandtorsion,itismoreconvenienttousethe
valueofthewarpingmomentintheflange,ratherthanthelongitudinalwarpingstress.
Thevalueofthewarpingmomentisgivenby:

Mw =EIw/( h -tf )

Where( h -tf )isthedistancebetweenthecentroidsofthetwoflanges.

11
ElastIc thEory

ForbisymmetricI sections,thismaybere-expressedas:

M w =EIf( h -tf )/2

WhereIfisthesecondmomentofareaofoneflange( IfIz /2).

Simplified assessment of warping effects


Aconservativeassessmentofwarpingeffectsinaflangedbeamwouldbetoignore
theStVenanttorsionalstiffnessandtotreattheappliedtorqueasacoupleofforces
F(whereF=T/( h-tf )).Thewarpingmomentintheflangeisthensimplycalculated
asthatduetotheforceFappliedtoasimplysupportedbeam(Mw,Ed=FL/4).Forlong
beams,thiscanbeveryconservative,asdiscussedinmoredetailbelow.

2.3 Relative magnitudes of St Venant torsion


andwarping torsion
TheabovegeneralexpressionfortorsionalmomentTEdcanberearrangedas:

T/ GIT =-a2

wherea= EI w GI T

Theparameteraisknownasthetorsionalbendingconstantandhasthedimensions
oflength.Itisanindicatorofhowquicklytheeffectofwarpingrestraintdissipatesand
maybeillustratedbyconsideringtheeffectinabeamsubjecttoaunittorqueatmid-
span,asrepresentedinFigure2.3.

Figure2.5showsthevariationofStVenanttorsionalmomentforthreevaluesofthe
ratioL/a.Ineachcasethewarpingtorsionalmomentisthedifferencebetweenthe
totaltorsionalmomentandtheStVenanttorsionalmoment.ThecurveforL/a = 1

0.6

L/a = 1
0.4 L/a = 4
St Venant torsional moment Tt /T

L/a = 10
T (total)
0.2

0.0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

-0.2

-0.4

Figure 2.5
-0.6
Variation of St Venant
Distance along beam x/L
torsional moment in a
beam subject to unit Ends of beam unrestrained against warping
torque at mid-span

12
0.05

0.00

Warping moment in flange Mw /FL


-0.05

-0.10
L/a = 1
L/a = 4
-0.15
L/a = 10

-0.20

-0.25
Figure 2.6 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Variation of warping Distance along beam x/L


moment in a beam Ends of beam unrestrained against warping
subject to unit torque F = TI(h tf)
at mid-span

representsafairlyshortbeam,inwhichmostofthetorsionisresistedaswarping
torsion-i.e.bybendingintheflanges.ThecurveforL/a = 10representsamuchlonger
beam;inwhichthemajorityofthebeamresiststorsionbyStVenanttorsion.

Themagnitudeofthewarpingmomentineachflangeforthesethreecasesisshown
inFigure2.6.Fortheshortbeam,thewarpingmomentisalmostequaltothatfora
simplebeam(FL/4)butforthelongbeamitisonly20%ofFL/4(forverylongbeams,
MwtendstoFa/2).

Fromtheabovediscussion,itcanbeseenthattherelativemagnitudeofStVenant
torsionaleffectsandwarpingtorsionaleffectsdependonthetorsionalbending
constanta,whichinturndependsonthetypeofcrosssection.Asaroughguide,
Table2.1indicatestherelativesignificanceofthesetwomeansofresistingtorsionfor
arangeofsectiontypes.

Itshouldalsoberememberedthattheshorterthemember,thegreaterwillbethe
significanceoftorsionalwarping(becausetheL/aratioissmaller).

SeCtIon tyPe ShaPe St Venant WarPIng

Circular hollow sections -

Rectangular and elliptical



hollow sections

Angles, Tees and



cruciform sections
Table 2.1
Significance of Twin-flanged rolled and

St Venant torsion fabricated sections
and warping torsion
for different Thin cold-formed sections
types of section
Key:=significant;=negligible;-=doesnotact

13
ElastIc thEory

2.4 Example of the variation of rotation for


acantilever
Thisexampleisincludedtoillustratenumericallythevariationinrotationandtorsional
effectsalongahotrolledbeamcantilever.Itmightbenotedthatthebehaviouroftwo
suchcantilevers,joinedback-to-back,wouldbeequivalenttothatofasinglebeamwith
acentraltorque,asdiscussedingeneraltermsinSection2.3.

Considertheconfigurationofcantileveroflength1.73m,usinga305127UKB42
beamsection.Forthisbeamsection,thetorsionalconstanta 1 m.

Thevaluesofanditsderivatives,determinedfromtheexpressionsinAppendixC
areplottedinFigure2.7toshowhoweachvariesalongthelengthofthemember.The
followingmaybenoted:

Theplotforcanbeviewedasthedeflectedshapeoftheflange,inplan.
Theplotforshowsthevariationintwist,towhichStVenantshearstrainsand
stressesareproportional,asistheStVenanttorsionalmomentTt.
Theplotfor canbeviewedasrelatedtothecurvatureoftheflangesandthusas
proportionaltothewarpingmomentinoneflange.Fortheotherflange,thewarping
momentisequalandopposite.
Theplotforrepresentsrateofchangeofcurvatureandisthusproportionalto
thewarpingshearforceinaflange.Itisthusalsoproportionaltowarpingtorsional
momentTw.Sincethesumof TtandTwisconstantinthisexample,itsshapemirrors
thatfor.

Ifthelengthofthecantileverweregreater,StVenanttorsionalmomentatthetipwould
begreater;ifthecantileverwereshortertheStVenanttorsionalmomentatthetip
wouldbeless.

2.5 The shear centre


Whenamemberofasteelframeissubjecttotorsion,thisiscommonlytheresultof
eccentricallyappliedload.Thetorquegeneratedistheproductoftheforceanditsperpen-
diculardistancefromtheshearcentreofthesection,whichisnotalwaysitscentroid.

Forstructuralsectionswherethereisanaxisofsymmetry,theshearcentrewilllie
onit.Forstructuralsectionswhicharedoublysymmetric,theshearcentreandthe
centroidcoincide.Figure2.8illustratestheshearcentrelocationforvarioussections.
DimensionstotheshearcentrearegivenintherelevanttablesofAppendixA;
AppendixBexplainshowthelocationiscalculatedfortypicalasymmetricshapes.

Amembertwistsaboutalongitudinalaxisthroughitsshearcentre.Inabeam,
importantsecondaryeffectsdependonthepositionoftheload.Loadsappliedabove
theshearcentrearedestabilizing(becausetheeccentricityincreasesasthemember
twists)andloadsappliedbelowtheshearcentrearestabilizing(seeSection3.3).

14
Isection cantilever
for a selected
plotted against x,
its derivatives
Rotation and
Figure2.7

0 10 21 32 43 4.5 deg
4 4.5 deg

0 00.025 0.0250.05 0.05 0.079 0.079 0 0 0.05 0.05 0.1 m-1 0.1 m0 -1 0 0.05 0.05 0.1 m-2 0.1 m
0 -2 0 0.05 0.05 0.1 m-3 0.1 m-3
0 0

0.5 0.5

305 305
127 127
L = 1.73 1.73 m
L =m UKB42UKB42
1.0 1.0

As would
As would
be be
expected
expected
this this
area mirrors
area mirrors
the the
St Venant
St Venant
1.5 1.5
contribution
contribution
(plotted
(plotted
2nd left)
2nd left)

x x 0 0 67% 67% 0 0 33% 33% 100%100%

Deflected
Deflected
shapeshape St Venant
St Venant Warping
Warping
momentmoment Warping
Warping
contribution
contribution
T = 1.7
T =kNm
1.7 kNm of topofflange
top flange contribution
contribution in flange
in flange (Tw /T(T
) w /T )
(Tt /T (T
) t /T ) ( Mw ) ( Mw )
Plan Plan
view view
of cantilever
of cantilever
The expressions
The expressions
plotted
plotted
aboveabove
are: are:

= Ta
= tanh
Ta Ltanh L x
(cosh x sinh xsinh xx x T Ltanh L x
cosh x x
sinh x
GIT GIT a a 1)a1)
a (cosh a + aa + a T T
aa
=GIT=a GItanh a acosh a asinh a

T L x Ltanh x x x
= T = tanh tanh
sinh
L xsinh x xcosh = T= 2 Ttanh
2
sinh
L x cosh
a asinh a acosh a
GIT GITa a a cosh
a a + 1a + 1 GI T aGI T a a

15
Elastic Theory

z z

y y

S
y y

z z
Doubly symmetric Monosymmetric
(UKB, UKC) (ASB)

z z
S

S
y y
y y

z z
Symmetric about major axis T-section
(PFC) (UKT)

z
z
v

S
u
y y
y y

S
z

v
z
Angle Z-section
(UKA)
Figure2.8
Shear centre location
for some common
structural sections

16
2.6 Achieving warping restraint at member ends
Thewarpingstiffnessofabeamcan-intheoryatleast-beimprovedbyadoptingfixed
ends.However,normalboltedbeamendconnections,eventhosedesignedtotransmit
bendingmoment,cannotbereliedupontoprovidesignificantwarpingfixity.Forfixity,it
wouldbenecessaryfortheconnectiontopreventcontra-rotationofthetopandbottom
flangesinplan,eitherbyclampingthemtogetherorbyclampingbothtoanother,rigid,
element.Inpractice,thisisdifficulttoarrange.

ConnectiondetailsdesignedtoprovidewarpingfixityareillustratedinSection7.6,
butthesearefabrication-intensive(andthereforeexpensive)andrarely,ifever,
employedinnormalbuildingframes.Consequently,nographsarepresentedinthis
publicationforwarpingfixityattheendsofthemember,exceptforthecantilevercase
(GraphE,AppendixD).Nevertheless,expressionsforcaseswithwarpingfixityatthe
endsaregiveninAppendixCforuseinsituationswherethedesignerisconfidentthat
theneededrestraint(tobothflanges,oroneagainsttheother)canberealized.One
casewherewarpingfixitymightapplywouldbeamembercontinuousovertwoequal
spanswithidenticaltorsionalactionsineachspansuchthatwarpingrestraintcould
reasonablybeassumedatthecentralsupportbyvirtueofcontinuityandsymmetry.
Continuityalonewouldnotconferwarpingfixity,astheadjacentspancouldbeloaded
inanasymmetricmanner.

Inreality,flangesattachedtofulldepthendplatesdohaveacertainamountofin-plane
rotationalrestraintfromtheirconnectiontotheadjacentstructure.Theendsarethus
neitherrestrainednorfreebutsomewhereinbetween.Elastictheorycouldgenerate
solutionsforless-than-totalrestraintagainstwarping,evenincludingdifferentrestraint
conditionsforthetwoflanges(thoughthiswouldinvalidatethehithertoimplied
assumptionthatthewarpingmoments,notjusttheassociatedshearforces,areequal
andopposite).However,theaddedcomplicationandthenear-impossibilityofreliable
predictionofrotationalspringvaluesmakethepursuitofpartialwarpingrestraintan
unattractiveone.Thechoiceisbetweenallornothing,andthesafechoiceisnothing.

17
Designing for
CombineD effeCts

ThisSectionconsiderstheverificationofsteelbeamsinaccordancewith
BSEN1993-1-1,whensubjecttocombinedbendingandtorsion.Itisassumedthat
elasticglobalanalysisisusedfordeterminingbendingmomentsandshearforces.

Fortorsionaleffects,6.2.7(3)permitsthevaluesofTt,EdandTw,Ed(StVenanttorsional
momentandwarpingtorsionalmoment)tobedeterminedbyelasticanalysis.Thusthe
interactiondiscussedinSection2andthegraphsandexpressionsintheAppendices
maybeused.

Alternatively,6.2.7(7)allowsthesimplificationsofneglectingtorsionalwarpingfora
closedhollowsectionorofneglectingStVenanttorsionforanopensection.Ineither
case,thiscompletelyavoidstheprocessofdeterminingtherelativemagnitudesofthe
twotypesoftorsionalmoment,althoughthiscanbeconservativeforlongopensection
membersandisinappropriateforangleandTeesections(wherewarpingresistanceis
verysmall).

Attheultimatelimitstate,BSEN1993-1-1requiresverificationoftheresistanceofthe
crosssectionandresistanceagainstbuckling.Forbeams,thelattermeansthatlateral
torsionalbucklingresistanceneedstobedetermined;interactionwithtorsionaleffects
mustalsobeconsidered.

Attheserviceabilitylimitstate,BSEN1993-1-1andtheUKNAonlyrefertocompliance
withlimitsondeflectionandvibration.ThereisnorequirementtolimitstressesatSLS
totheyieldstrength.

3.1 Resistance of cross sections


Accordingto6.2.5,thebendingresistanceofClass1and2crosssectionsmaybe
takenastheplasticmomentresistance.Class3sectionscanonlyusetheelastic
bendingresistance.Theshearresistanceforrolledsectionscanusuallybetakenas
theplasticshearresistanceaccordingto6.2.6,sincesuchsectionsarenotlimited
byshearbuckling.Bendingresistancecanbereducedbythepresenceofahighshear
force,accordingto6.2.8;biaxialbendingisconsideredin6.2.9.

Wheretorsionaleffectsarealsopresent,6.2.7(1)simplyrequiresthatTEd /TRd 1but


doesnotgivearuleforevaluatingTRd.Additionally,6.2.7(4)saysthatthestressesdueto
torsionshouldbetakenintoaccount,withoutbeingspecificabouthowtheyaretobetaken

19
combInEd EffEcts

intoaccount.6.2.7(5)saysthatforelasticverification,theyieldcriterionof6.2.1(5)may
beused;butwherethesectionisClass1or2,whichmostrolledIandHsectionsare,in
bending,thedesignerwilloftenwanttousetheplasticbendingresistance.

6.2.7(6)doescovertheplasticbendingresistancewhentorsionispresentbutitonly
saysthatthetorsionaleffectsBEd(bywhichitrefersonlytothestressesduetowarping
torsion,nottheshearstressesduetoStVenanttorsion,sinceBEdisthebimoment)
shouldbedeterminedbyelasticanalysis;itdoesnotofferaninteractioncriterion.In
practice,atpositionsofmaximumbendingmomentthetorsionalmomentisusually
whollywarpingtorsionalmoment,withnoStVenanttorsionalmoment,sothelatter
doesnotneedtobeconsidered.

3.1.1 Elastic verification


FromeitherthedetailedevaluationoftheinteractionbetweenwarpingandStVenant
torsionorthesimplificationsallowedin6.2.7(7),directandshearstressescanbe
determinedatcriticalcrosssections.

Open sections
Typicalstresspatternsforabeamloadedeccentricallyatmid-spanareshown
diagrammaticallyinFigure3.1andFigure3.2.

Themaximumdirect(longitudinal)stressesoccuratthetipsoftheflanges.Atthese
locationstheshearstressiszero(wherethereiswarpingrestraint,theStVenantshear
stresseswillgenerallybenegligibleandespeciallysoatthetips).Theverification
accordingto6.2.9.2maybeperformed.Indoingso,minoraxisbendingduetothe
rotationofthesection(i.e.Mz,Ed = My,Ed)shouldbetakenintoaccount.Thecriterion
maybeexpressedintermsofmoments:

M y,Ed M z,Ed M w,Ed


+ + 1
M y,el,Rd M z,el,Rd M f,Rd

WhereMf,Rd Mz,el,Rd /2

Shearstressesduetowarpingtorsionareveryrarelysignificant.The(transverse)shear
forceduetowarpingrestraintisgivensimplyby Tw,Ed ( h tf ) .Thisisusuallymuchless
thanthe(transverse)plasticshearresistanceoftheflangeandmaybeneglected,as
permittedby6.2.10.

ShearstressduetoStVenanttorsionwillgiverisetoasmallreductionintheplastic
shearresistanceoftheweb,accordingto6.2.7(9).

Closed sections
Warpingstressesinclosedsectionsareverysmallandmaybeneglected.The
StVenantshearstresseswillalsousuallybesmallbutwheretheyaresignificant
theinteractionpermittedby6.2.10isnotappropriateforthissituation,sincethe

20
y = M y /W el,y

w = Mw /( t f b 2/6)
z = My / Wel,z

Peak stress
y+ w+ z

Stresses viewed
separately . . . .

. . . . and in
combination

Area enlarged
in main view

Figure3.1
Longitudinal stresses kg
in an eccentrically
loaded beam shown
separately and
in combination

= VA z /I y

w = ES w1 / t f

+ w

Figure3.2
Shear stresses due to
bending and warping
in the beam

21
combInEd EffEcts

shearstressisconstantacrosstheflangeandwillcoexistwithmaximumbending
stresses(unlikeopensectionswherepeakeffectsoccuratdifferentlocations).Itis
moreappropriatetousethecriterionin6.2.1(5),which,intheabsenceoftransverse
stresses,reducestothefollowing:
2 2
x,Ed
+ 3 Ed 1
f y M0 f y M0

Wherex,Edisthedirectstress(longitudinal)duetobiaxialbending.

Byinspection,itcanbeseenthatsmallvaluesofStVenantshearstress(t,Ed )would
notleadtosignificantlimitationofdirectstress.

3.1.2 Plastic verification


DesignerswillusuallywishtoutilizetheplasticbendingresistanceofClass1and2
crosssections,foreconomy.Wherethereistorsion,directandshearstresseswill
usuallyhavebeendeterminedelastically.Itisthereforenecessarytoconsiderthe
potentialeffectoftheplastification(duetobending)onthisdeterminationoftorsional
momentsandonverificationofresistance.

Open sections
Wherethesimplificationallowedby6.2.7(7)foropensectionshasbeenadopted,
thetorsionalmomentisassumedtoberesistedbywarpingtorsionalone;thewarping
momentintheflangeistheneasilydetermined.Minoraxisbendingduetotherotation
ofthesection(i.e.Mz = My,Ed )mustalsobetakenintoaccountbutanoteofcaution
mustbegivenaboutthevalueoftherotationofthebeamwhenplasticresistanceof
theflangeisutilized:therotationwillbegreaterthantheelasticvalue.Anallowancefor
increasedrotationshouldbemade,dependingonthesituation.

WheretheinteractionbetweenStVenanttorsionandwarpingtorsionhasbeendetermined
accordingtoelastictheory(asinSection2),itwouldseemobviousthatplastificationdue
tocombinedmajoraxisbendingandwarpingmomentwouldaffectthesharingofthe
torsionalmoment.Howeveritseffectistosoftenthewarpingstiffness(effectivelyreducing
thevalueofa)andthustoleadtoareducedvalueofwarpingmoment.ThevalueofMw,Ed
determinedbytheelasticanalysismaythusbeusedasaconservativevalue.However,the
plastificationwillalsoleadtoaslightlylargerrotation(asnotedabove)andthisshouldbe
takenintoaccountwhendeterminingtheminoraxismomentduetorotation.

Whereplasticbendingresistanceistobeutilized,aplasticinteractioncriterioncanbe
usedandthecriterioninExpression(6.41)maybeadaptedforthispurpose;assuming
thatthereisnoaxialforceonthebeamthecriterionis:
2
M y,Ed M z,Ed M
+ + w,Ed 1
M pl,y,Rd M pl,z,Rd M pl,f,Rd

whereMpl,f,Rd Mpl,z,Rd /2

22
NotethatthiscriterionisforasymmetricalIorHsection;forchannelsectionssee
Section4andforasymmetricbeamsseeSection5.

The(transverse)shearforceduetowarpingrestraintisusuallymuchlessthanthe
(transverse)plasticshearresistanceoftheflangeandmaybeneglected,aspermitted
by6.2.10.

ShearstressduetoStVenanttorsionwillgiverisetoasmallreductionintheplastic
shearresistanceoftheweb,accordingto6.2.7(9).

Hollow sections
Forhollowsections,thetorsionwillberesistedasStVenanttorsionandtheshear
stresswillbeconstantaroundthesection,althoughinmostcasestheshearstress
willbesmall.Theplasticinteractioncriterionforhollowsectionsin6.2.9.1(6)is
appropriateforbiaxialbendingbutallowancefortheshearstressshouldbemade
byreducingthebendingresistancesusingExpression(6.28).Thismeansthatthe
criterionforrectangularhollowsectionsbecomes:

1.66 1.66
M y,Ed M
+ z,Ed 1
M v,y,Rd M v,z,Rd

WhereMv,y,RdandMv,z,Rdarethebendingresistancesaboutthemajorandminoraxes,
eachreducedbyafactor:

t,Ed
1

(
f y 3 M0 )

Forcircularhollowsections,thebendingresistanceshouldbereducedbythe
samefactor.

3.2 Buckling resistance


Wherebucklingofamembercanoccur,thebucklingresistancemustbeverified.For
steelbeamswithoutaxialforce,lateraltorsionalbuckling(LTB)mustbeconsidered,
unlessthecompressionflangeiscontinuouslyrestrained.Aswellasdetermining
bucklingresistanceforbendingaboutthemajoraxis,interactionwithothereffects
needstobeconsidered.InBSEN1993-1-1Expressions(6.61)and(6.62)provide
limitingcriteriafortheinteractionofaxialforceandbiaxialbending;intheabsenceof
axialforcethesereducetoasimplelinearinteractionrelationshipbetweenbending
aboutthetwoaxes.

InteractionofbendingwithtorsionisnotcoveredinBSEN1993-1-1butthisomission
hasbeenaddressedinBSEN1993-6(concernedwithcranesupportingstructures).
InitsAnnexAitgivesacriterioninwhichthetorsionaleffectandresistanceare

23
combInEd EffEcts

expressedasthebimoment(seeterminologyinSection1.3)butitisperhapsmore
helpfultore-expressthecriterionas:

M y,Ed Cmz M z,Ed k w kzw k M w,Ed


+ + 1
LT M y,Rk M1 M z,Rk M1 M w,Rk M1

where:
Cmz istheequivalentuniformmomentfactorforbendingaboutthez-axis
accordingtoEN1993-1-1TableB.3.(Forasimplysupportedbeamwitha
parabolicbendingmomentdiagramduetouniformlydistributedloading,
Cmz = 0.95;foratriangularbendingmomentdiagramduetoasinglepoint
load,Cmz = 0.9.)
kw = 0.7 - 0.2 Mw,Ed /(Mw,Rk /M1 )
kzw = 1 - Mz,Ed /Mz,Rd
k = 1/[1 - My,Ed /Mcr ]
Mcr istheelasticcriticalmomentaboutthey-axis.

Mw,EdandMw,Rkarethewarpingmomentandcharacteristicbendingresistanceinthe
(weaker)flange.

kwcanconservativelybetakenas0.7;Cmzandkzwcanconservativelybetakenas1;
butkdoesneedtobeevaluated.

ThebackgroundtothederivationofthiscriterionisgivenbyLindner[8].Whilethis
expressionwasoriginallyintendedforcranerunwaybeams,itmaybeusedforother
simplysupportedbeamsofuniformcross-sectionthataresubjecttotorsion.

Asnotedearlier,bendingabouttheminoraxiswillresultfromrotationofthesection
(= My,Ed)andthisneedstobeincludedinMz,Ed.

3.3 Stabilizing and destabilizing loads


Torsionismoreoftenthannottheresultofeccentricload.Itispreferabletoarrangefor
suchaloadtobeappliedatorbelowtheleveloftheshearcentre,theaxisaboutwhich
themembertwists,toavoidthesecondaryeffectofincreasingeccentricityasthe
cross-sectionrotates.Iftheloadisappliedbelowtheshearcentre(e.g.onthebottom
flange)theeccentricitywillactuallyreducewithrotation,thoughthisfavourableeffect
maysafelybeignored.Howevertheunfavourableeffectofloadapplicationabovethe
shearcentre(destabilizingload)mustnotbeignored.

Ifnecessary,theeffectofdestabilizingloadcanbeaccountedforbyrepeatingthe
calculationusingamagnifiedeccentricity,determinedfromthecalculatedrotation.A
singleiterationisnormallysufficient.

Destabilizingloadalsoaffectstheelasticcriticalmoment.Itcanbeallowedforby
usingthefreelydownloadablesoftwareLTBeam[9].

24
3.4 Serviceability limit state

3.4.1 Limiting criteria for rotation


EN1990setsouttheprinciplethatserviceabilitycriteriafordeformationsand
vibrationsshallbedefinedbutonlymentionsverticalandhorizontaldeflections
ingeneralterms;nomentionismadeofrotation.BSEN1993-1-1offersno
recommendationsfordeflectionlimitsofbeamsandtheUKNAonlyofferssuggested
limitsforverticalandhorizontaldeflections;again,nomentionismadeofrotation.

InP057,itwassuggestedinafootnotetooneoftheworkedexamplesthata2degree
limittotheangleofrotationwouldseemappropriate.Theintentionwastoofferpractical
advicewithoutbeingdefinitive.Thislimithasbeeninprintforover20yearsandSCIs
AdvisoryDeskhasdirectedenquirerstoit.Therehasbeenlittlefeedbackonitsapplication
inpractice,successfulorotherwise,but,intheabsenceofanyotherguidance,itmaybe
accordedsomerespectbyvirtueoflongexistencewithoutnegativecomment.

Anoteofcautionisneeded,perhaps,wherefacadesareconcerned.Arotationof
2degreesundera4mhighmasonrywalltranslatesintoa14mmdisplacementatthe
top,whichseemsunacceptable.Itwouldbehardtoresisttheconclusionthatamore
restrictivelimitshouldapplyinsensitivesituations.Whatthatlimitismustcontinueto
beamatterforcase-by-casejudgement.

3.4.2 The likelihood of serviceability governing


AnI sectionisgenerallyveryflexibleintorsionandthelimitationofrotationatSLS
islikelytogovernwhentherearesignificanttorsionalmoments.Hollowsectionsare
verystiffintorsionbutifthetorsionalmomentsbecomeasignificantproportionofthe
torsionalresistance,therotationwouldneverthelessbelargeif,forexample,asquare
hollowsectionweredesignedtousethefulltorsionalresistanceatULS,thenatSLSa
twistof2wouldbegeneratedoverarelativelyshortlengthofabout10timesitswidth.

Itshouldalsobenotedthata2rotationatSLSwouldbeabout3atULSandthat
rotationwouldintroduceaminoraxismomentofabout5%ofthemajoraxismoment.

25
Combined Effects

26
Design of Channels

Channelsareopensectionsand,likeI sections,areflexibleintorsionandresistitby
acombinationofStVenantandwarpingtorsion.However,becauseoftheirasymmetry
aboutthez-axis,theyaremorelikelytobesubjecttotorsionthanareI sections.

Achannelwilltwistaboutitsshear
e0 centre,whichliesoutsidethesectionon
thewebside(asshowninFigure4.1).
z
Achannelloadedonitstopflangeor
directlyoveritswebwould,accordingto
elastictheory,besubjecttotorsion.Only
ifloadactsinlinewiththeshearcentre
woulditbetorsion-free.Dimensionsfrom
s thecentroidtotheshearcentrearegiven

y y
inAppendixAforparallelflangechannel
sections(UKPFC).

Whenachannelsectionissubjectto
bendingduetoapointloadthatacts
throughtheshearcentreandparallel
totheweb,thebendingstressinthe
flangesisuniformacrosstheirwidth
Figure 4.1 z
andtheshearstressvariesasshown
A channel twisting
about its shear centre inFigure4.2.

4.1 St Venant torsion


Asforotheropensections,thetwistperunitlengthduetouniformtorsionwhenwarping
isnotrestrained(i.e.StVenanttorsion)isgivenby = T/GITandtheStVenantshear
stressisgivenby = Tt/IT.ValuesofITforUKPFCsectionsaregiveninAppendixA.

4.2 Warping torsion


ChannelspossesswarpingresistanceinthesamewayasdoI sections,thoughthey
havenarrowerflanges.Thewebparticipatesinthewarpingresistance,effectively
forminganLsectionwitheachflange.Thevariationofwarpingstressesinachannel
sectionisshowninFigure4.3.AsforI sectionsthemagnitudesofthedirectandshear

27
dEsIgn of channEls

e0 (b - t w /2)

Ff

V
V

(h - t f )
y y

Ff

Figure 4.2
Shear stress Ve 0 = F f (h - t f )
distribution for a
z
channel loaded
through its
shear centre

stressesdependonthenormalizedwarpingfunctionandwarpingstaticalmoment
parametersbutthereareadditionalkeylocationsfortheseparameters,asshownin
theFigure.Thepeakwarpingstressoccursattheflangetip(wherew = EWn0)and
thepeakshearstressesoccuratlocation1intheflange(w = ESw1/tw)andatthe
topoftheweb(w = ESw2/tw).TheseeffectsaresummarizedinTable4.1.

Whereplasticresistanceisconsideredwhenevaluatingtheinteractionofbendingwith
torsion(seeSection3.1.2),theplasticresistancetowarpingmomentshouldbebased
ontheflangesalone,ignoringtheweb.

4.3 Practical considerations


Despitetheeccentriclocationoftheshearcentre,thereislittleevidenceofchannel
sectionbeamsrotatingwhentheyaredirectlyloadedbyconcreteslabsonthetop
flange.Thisisbecausethetopflangeisrestrainedagainsthorizontalmovementby
frictionandthebottomflangeisundertension.Forshortspantrimmerbeamsitis
commonpracticetoignoretorsionaleffectsandtorelyonthisrestraint.

UKPFCsectionsaresometimesusedaslintels,placedundertheinnerleafofacavity
wallwithaplateweldedtothebottomflange(oranangleweldedtotheweb)toprovide
unobtrusivesupportfortheouterleaf.Customarily,theeffectontheshearcentreofthe
additionalbottomflangeisignored.Example4(AppendixE)demonstratesthisapproach.

28
Shear force SF/UL
per unit length
b - tw/2 = ESw2 = ESw1
2 1 0

tf 2 1 0
es,w

+
Longitudinal
(bending) Shear force
stress w per unit length
h - tf y
3 3
tw

SF/UL
= ESw3

2 1 0 2 1 0

Simplification into Maximum longitudinal warping Maximum warping shear


three elements stress at 0 (flange tip) in the web at 2 (junction)
w =EWno w=ES w2 /tw
Figure 4.3
Elastic warping
effects in a
channel section

StreSS In Web In Flange

Longitudinal NONE NONE


St Venant
Shear
(at element surface) t = Gtw t = Gtf

Table 4.1 Longitudinal w = EWn2 w = EWn0


Peak elastic stresses WarPIng
due to torsion in a Shear w = ESw2/tw w = ESw1/tf
channel section
Forthelocationofpoints0,1and2seeFigure4.3

29
Design of
asymmetriC beams

BeamsusedinSlimflorandSlimdeksolutionsaresubjecttotorsionatvarious
stagesoftheconstructionsequence.Withbothfabricatedandrolledasymmetric
sections,theshearcentreisbelowmid-depthandthecalculationofwarpingmoment
isslightlymorecomplicatedthanfordoublysymmetricI sections.

5.1 Types of asymmetric beam


WhereasuitableASBrolledsectionisavailable,itwillusuallyprovidethemostcost-
effectivesolution.FordetailsoftheASBrange,seeSCIpublicationP363[10]orthe
TataSteelwebsite.

Slimflorfabricatedbeams(SFB),comprisinga15mmplateweldedtotheunderside
ofaUKCsection,offerawiderrangeofasymmetricbeamsizes,providingbottom
flangeoutstandsof100mmforthedeepdeckingorprecastunit.

Athirdoptionistofabricateabespokesectionfromthreeplates.Thisallowsnear-total
freedomofdimensionalchoice,constrainedonlybyavailableplatethicknesses.

5.2 Section properties


SectionpropertiesforASBsectionsaregiveninP363,inTataSteelliteratureandthe
TataSteelwebsite.However,notallthenecessarytorsionalparametersaregivenin
thosesources.TorsionalparametersarethereforegiveninAppendixA.Itwillbenoticed
thatsomeofthevaluesgiveninAppendixAdifferslightlyfromvaluesgivenintheother
sources.ThevaluesinthispublicationhavebeenaccuratelycalculatedusingAppendixB
andshouldbeusedinpreferencetothoseintheothersources,wheretheydiffer.

Propertytablesforarangeof36Slimflorfabricatedbeams(SFB)arepublishedby
TataSteel[11].

Forsectionsweldedfromthreeplates,ITmaybeconservativelyapproximatedas
(Lt3/3)forthethreeconstituentrectangles.AformulaforIwisgiveninAppendixB.3.

5.3 Transient and permanent design situations


AsymmetricbeamsemployedinSlimflorsolutionsmaybeusedtogetherwitheither
deepdeckingorprecastunits,asillustratedinFigure5.1.Thebeamscanbesubject

31
dEsIgn of asymmEtrIc bEams

toconsiderabletorsionalloadingatvariousstages,suchaswhenthewetconcreteand
constructionalloadsarepresentononesideonly.

Internalbeamsarenormallydesignedforthiscondition(asatransientsituation)and
areverifiedforlateral-torsionalbucklingresistance;itisnotthennecessarytorestrict
theconstructionsequencetoonethatmaintainsbalancedloading.Itisgenerally
consideredimpracticalandpotentiallyunsafetodootherwise.Ontheotherhand,
whereprecastunitsareuseditwouldnormallybeconsideredbothpracticalandsafe
torequirethattheunitsareinplaceonbothsidesbeforein-situtoppingiscast(which
mightbeononesidebeforetheother).DesignExample3inAppendixEillustratesa
rangeoftemporaryloadcases.

30 min Top of in-situ concrete

SD225

75 nominal
bearing

With deep decking

30 min Top of in-situ concrete

60 min

Hollowcore unit

80 nominal
bearing

40 minimum
bearing

Figure 5.1
Typical solutions With precast hollowcore
using ASB sections
(all dimensions in mm)

32
Oncethein-situconcretehashardened,aninternalbeammaybeconsideredtobe
restrainedagainstlateral-torsionalbuckling.Further,itwouldseemreasonable,where
thesectionisfullysurroundedbyinfillconcreteonbothsides,torelyonthisfloorplatefor
restraintagainsttwistingunderloadimbalance.Accordingly,inthefinalcondition,atypical
internalbeamneedonlybeverifiedforresistanceofitscrosssectioninbendingandshear.

Edgebeamswillneedtobeverifiedfortheeffectsoftorsioninthefinalcondition
unlesstheyareeffectivelytiedtotheadjacentslabatlowlevel(whichcouldbeacost-
effectivealternative,especiallyifthetiesservemorethanonefunction).Beamswith
deepdeckingspanningparallelononesideshouldbetreatedasedgebeamsinthis
respect,whereasparallelprecastunitscanbeconsideredtoproviderestraint.

Foranedge(orquasi-edgesuchaswhenparalleldeckingispresent)beaminthe
finalcondition,atopflangesetagainstaplateofhardenedconcreteisobviouslynot
goingtodeflectinwards.Effectively,theshearcentreisforceduptotopflangelevel.
Anyrotationmustbeduetothebottomflangedeflectingoutwards,havingovercome
considerable(butunreliable)bondandfrictionresistance.Inwarpingterms,thefull
flexuralrigidityandresistanceofthelargerflangecanactataleverarmof(htf)to
opposetorsion.Itisclearthatresultsfromaconventionaltorsioncalculationwillbe
veryconservative.

5.4 Design effects


Theshearcentreofamonosymmetricbeamremainsonthez-axis(theaxisof
symmetry)butisoffsetfromthecentroid,towardsthebottomflangebutstillabove
it.Thismeansthatloadappliedatbottomflangelevelisnotdestabilising(thoughthe
beamsownweightis).

BeamsusedinSlimflorsolutionsarenormallynotsubjecttotherotation-induced
weak-directionbendingwhichwouldapplytoabeamwithafreelysuspendedeccentric
gravityload.Thisisbecause,forthecasewherethebeamsupportsthedeckingor
precastunit(i.e.thedeckingorunitistransversetothebeam)thedecking(ifitis
adequatelyfixedtothebeam)ortheprecastunitprovidesthelateralrestraintnecessary
toresistthiscomponent.

Asymmetrydoesnotchangetheprocessofcalculatinganditsderivatives,whichis
carriedoutasforadoublysymmetricsectionusingtabulatedvaluesofItanda.The
differencearisesatthestageofquantifyingthewarpingmomentintheflanges.The
followingexpressionshouldbeusedforthewarpingmomentinthetopflange(thevalue
ofMw,Edisnumericallythesameforbothflangesbutitisthetopflangethatgoverns).

Mw,Ed = EItf es,f

wherees,fistheheightofthecentroidofthetopflangeabovetheshearcentreandItfis
thesecondmomentofareaofthetopflange(bendinginitsplane).

33
dEsIgn of asymmEtrIc bEams

5.5 Verification at ULS


Verificationofthecross-sectionresistancefollowsthesameprocedureasfor
asymmetricI sectionbeam.ASBsectionsareClass1sectionsandtheplastic
interactioncriteriongiveninSection3.1.2maybeused.

BucklingresistancewillnearlyalwaysneedtobeconsideredwithaSlimflorbeam
atthewetconcretestage,sinceanythingwhichcouldproviderestraint(suchasa
precastslabunit)isattachedbelowtheshearcentre.Theinteractionformulafrom
BSEN1993-6(discussedinSection3.2)isvalidforasymmetricsections.LTBeam[9]
cancomputeMcrforasymmetricI sections(asexplainedinanarticle[12]giving
guidanceforfirst-timeusers).LTBeamwillallowforthefavourable(stabilizing)effectof
loadsappliedbelowtheshearcentre,andprovidesforasecondUDLatahigherlevel,
torepresentthebeamsselfweight.Moreover,itcomputesthelevelsofthecentroid
andtheshearcentreforthispurpose.

ForASBsections,therequirementsinNA.2.17meanthatcurveainTable6.4should
beusedtodeterminethereductionfactorLT.Forabeamweldedfromthreeplates,
6.3.2.2leadstotheuseofeithercurvecord,dependingontheh/bratio.

5.6 Serviceability limit state


PreviousdesignguidanceforSlimflorsolutions[13],[14]hassuggestedlimitinglateral
deflectionofthetopflangetospan/500.Foratypical7.5mspanthisis15mm,which
couldcorrespondtoover3degreesrotation.Whilethisishigherthanmightbejudged
tolerableinothersituations,noproblemshavebeenreportedinpractice.Thisisthe
limitappliedinthetemporary(wetconcrete)loadcase.Sincepartoftheloading(the
constructionloads)disappearsbeforetheconcretesets,thetwistactuallylockedinto
thecompletedstructureisduetotheweightofconcretealone.

Inthecaseofanedgebeaminitsfinalcondition,thetopflangeispreventedfrom
deflectinginwardsbyhardenedconcrete.Eveniftorsionweresignificantinthe
verificationatULS,theprimeconcernforSLSislikelytobeverticaldeflection.Note
thatsomeoutwardsdeflectionofthebottomflangemayhavebeenlockedinduetothe
eccentricloadingduringconstructionbutwithtypicalasymmetricbeamproportions
anyintrusionintothecladdingzoneshouldnotexceed20to30%ofthespan/500
limitrecommendedforthetopflange.

34
35
struCtural
hollow seCtions

Withstructuralhollowsections,torsionalwarpingdisplacementsaregenerally
negligibleorabsent(inCHS)andtorsionalmomentsareentirelyStVenanteffects.
Distortionofthecrosssectionofrectangularhollowsectionsmightoccurwhen
eccentricmomentsareintroducedthroughaconnectionononlyonefaceofthe
sectionbutsucheffectsareoutsidethescopeofthispublication.Torsionofboxgirders
isalsooutsidethescopeofthispublication.

6.1 Elastic behaviour of hollow sections


AscanbeseenfromtheTablesinAppendixAandtheexpressionsfortorsional
constantITinAppendixB,thetorsionalstiffnessofhollowsectionsismuchgreater
thanthatofopensectionsofcomparablesize.Thesamegeneralexpressionfor
torsionalshearstressapplies,thatis = T/Wt,butnowthevalueofWtismuchgreater
thanforanopensection.Strictly,thetorsionalshearstressisslightlygreateronthe
outersurfacethanontheinnerbutthedifferenceissmallinathinwalledsectionand
inpracticethestresseswouldredistributeatyield.

6.2 Resistance to combined bending and torsion


Sincestructuralhollowsectionsareoftenchosentoresistlargetorsionalmoments,the
torsionalresistancemaybesubstantiallyutilizedinsuchcasesandthiswouldaffect
theresistancetobendingandshear.

In6.2.7(9)theplasticshearresistanceisreducedduetothepresenceofStVenant
torsionalshearstress.Thereductionfactorforhollowsectionsmakesasimple
reductionthatisappropriatewhentheverticalshearandtorsionalshearactinthe
samedirection;thereisnobenefitfromthefactthattheshearsactinopposite
directionsontheothersideofthehollowsection.

ThereisnomentioninBSEN1993-1-1ofhowtotakeaccountoftheeffectoflarge
StVenantshearstressesintheflangesofhollowsectionsonthebendingresistance
but,asnotedinSection3.1.2,itwouldseemappropriatetoapplytotheflangeareathe
samefactorasappliedinExpression(6.28)toVpl,Rd.

ForalmostallpracticalsituationslateraltorsionalbucklingisnotaconcernforRHS
sections.AccordingtoECCSPublication119[15],RHSsectionsmaybeconsideredto

37
structural hollow sEctIons

benon-susceptibleuptoanon-dimensionalslendernessof z = 10b/h.Evenwith
h/b = 3.333,currentlytheslimmestRHSintherangeproducedbyTataSteel,this
correspondstoanuncommonlyhighslenderness.

ItshouldalsobenotedthatafewRHSsectionshavewallthicknessesthatwouldmake
themsusceptibletoshearbuckling.AccordingtoClause5.1(2)ofBSEN1993-1-5[16],
aplateissusceptibletoshearbucklingifthevalueofhw /texceeds72/(=59for
S355steel,with = 1,assetbytheUKNationalAnnex).Forthecurrent(2010)
CelsiusSHSrange,only400 150 6.3,400 200 6.3,500 200 8and
500 300 8sectionsexceedthislimit.Anyreductionforshearbucklingshould
beappliedtoboththeverticalshearresistanceandtheresistanceoftheRHSto
StVenantshear.

38
39
Design of
ConneCtions

Endplatesofferasimplesolutionwhereaboltedconnectionisrequiredtotransmit
torque.Anarrangementoffourormoreboltswillbeabletoresistacombinationof
torqueandshearforce.Endplateconnectionswithrelativelythinendplatesmaybe
consideredasnominallypinnedconnectionsinsimpleconstruction.Wherethickerend
platesareusedinmoment-resistingconnections,thebolttensionforceswillreduce
theirshearresistance.

Asanalternativetoanendplateconnection,cleatstobothflangeswouldprovide
reliabletorsionresistance.Otherconnectiontypestraditionallyassociatedwithsimple
construction(finplatesordoubleanglecleats)arebestavoidedforconnections
designedtotransmitmorethannominaltorsion.

7.1 Types of end plate connection


Therearethreebasictypesofendplateconnection:partialdepth,fulldepthand
extended.Partialdepthendplatesarenotsuitableforprovidingsignificanttorsional
resistance,becausetheyarenotconnectedtobothflanges.Typicalfulldepthand
extendedendplateconnectionsareshowninFigure7.1.

Ifthebeamisahollowsection,theendplatecanextendhorizontallyorvertically,
dependingonwhatisavailabletoconnectto.

Figure 7.1
Types of end
plate connections
suitable for torsional
resistance

41
dEsIgn of connEctIons

7.2 Choice of end plate thickness


Itisunlikelythatthechoiceofendplatethicknesswouldbegovernedbythetorsional
momentattheconnection.Thethicknessrequiredforthedesignoftheconnection
asanominallypinnedormoment-resistingconnectionwillnormallybesuitablefor
resistancetotorsioncombinedwiththeothereffects.

GuidanceonthedesignofnominallypinnedendplateconnectionsisgiveninSCI
publicationP358,Joints in steel construction Simple connections (Eurocode
version)[17].Thatpublicationadvisesthat,fornominallypinnedjoints,endplatesof
10mmor12mmshouldbeused.Endplatesofthisthickness,withreasonableedge
andenddistances,willbeadequateinmostsituations.

Formoment-resistingconnections(seeSCIpublicationP207/95Joints in steel
construction Moment connections[18]),anendplatethicknessapproximatelyequal
totheboltdiameterisappropriate(i.e.20mmthickwithM20bolts,25mmthickwith
M24bolts).Itshould,however,berecognizedthatthetensiondevelopedintheupper
boltswillreduceavailableshearresistance.

7.3 Design resistance of end plate connections to


combined shear and torsion
Itispossible,butnotaltogetherdesirable,tolaydownhardandfastrulesfordistribution
offorceamongtheboltsofagroupresistingtorsioninanendplateconnection.Acommonly
adoptedapproachistouseaquasi-elasticcalculationinwhichforceineachboltis
proportionaltoitsradialdistancefromanotionalcentreofrotation.Althoughthereal
forcedistributionwillnotmatchthiscalculationexactly,thedivergenceisnocausefor
concern.Inreality,initialboltforceswillowemuchtohowperfectly(orotherwise)the
holesalignandthereisconsiderablescopeforplasticredistributionastheboltsbed
themselvesintothesofterandmoreresilientplatestheypassthrough.

Inpractice,areasonableboltforcedistributionisamatterfordesignerjudgement.
Equilibriummustalwaysbesatisfied.Outerboltsshouldnotbeexpectedtoresistless
forcethaninnerones,andacautiousviewisadvisablewheretheconnectionis(by
accidentordesign)momentresisting.Upperboltrowsareliabletoattractacertain
amountoftension,whichwillreducetheavailableshearresistance(seeTable3.4of
BSEN1993-1-8[19]).

Asimpleoptionforboltforcesduetotorqueontheendplate,withfoursymmetrically
locatedbolts,isforeachtobeassignedonequarterofthetorquedividedbyitsradial
distancefromthecentreofthegroup.Verticalshearcanbeaddedvectoriallyandthe
resultantcomparedwithshearandbearingresistancesinthenormalway.

Analternativeapproachistoassumethatthecombinedtorsionalmomentandshear
forceissimilartothecaseofashearforceactingataneccentricityfromthecentroid
onthebeam,asshowninFigure7.2.Inthisapproach,thedesignproceduremaybe

42
TEd
z=
TEd VEd

Figure 7.2
Alternative model
z
for determining
connection resistance
to combined torsional VEd VEd
moment and
shear force

consideredtobesimilartothatforafinplateconnectionwithtwoverticallinesof
bolts.TheprocedureisdescribedinSCIpublicationP358[17].

7.4 Bolt slip


Althoughtherewillbelittlein-planedistortionoftheendplateitself,normal2mm
oversizeboltholesinevitablypermitsomerotationofthebeam.Ifthisisaconcernfor
serviceabilityreasons,anobvioussolutionwouldbetospecifypreloadedbolts.

7.5 The effect of bolt tension on shear resistance


Momentresistingconnectionswithshear,bothverticalandtorsion-induced,should
beverified,usingtheinteractioncriterioninTable3.4ofBSEN1993-1-8(thisallows
aboltfullyutilizedintensiontoresistacoexistingshearforceofupto28%ofits
shearresistance).

7.6 Restraint against warping at member ends


Itisimportanttorecognizethataconventionalmomentconnection,evenonewith
athickandextendedendplate,doesnotprovidewarpingfixity.Forthispurposeitis
requiredthatbothtopandbottomflangesarepreventedfromrotating(inopposite
directions)intheplanview.Surroundingstructureisunlikelytobeinapositionto
providesuchrestraint,soanapproachthathasbeenputforwardistoconnectthetwo
flangesrigidlytogethersothattheymayreactagainstoneanother.

ThedetailsshowninFigure7.3illustratetwowaysinwhichwarpingrestraintmight
beprovided,althoughsuchdetailswillrarelybepracticalandcost-effective.Warping
restraintcanalsobeprovidedbycastingalengthofbeaminathickwall,thoughthis
toowillrarelybeapracticaloption.

43
dEsIgn of connEctIons

Figure 7.3
Warping fixity
demands prevention Channel section
of flange contra- (on both sides)
rotation in the
plan view

Whileitisusuallypreferablenottorelyonwarpingfixity,thereisnoneedtotakeactive
stepstoavoidit.Anywarpingrestraintcanonlyincreasetorsionalresistanceand
reducerotation.

44
45
referenCes

[1] BSEN1993-1-1:2005 [12] UGHES,A.F.,


H
(IncorporatingCorrigendumNo.1) Getting the best out of LTBeam
Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. NewSteelConstruction,Vol17(5),May2009
Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings, [13] RACKHAM,J.W.,HICKS,S.J.andNEWMAN,G.M.
BSI,2005 Design of Asymmetric Slimflor Beams with
[2] AtoBSEN1993-1-1:2005,
N Precast Concrete Slabs (P342)
UK National Annex to Eurocode 3: Design of SCI,2006
steel structures. Part 1-1: General rules and [14] LAWSON,R.M.,MULLETTD.L.andRACKHAM,J.W.
rules for buildings, Design of Asymmetric Slimflor Beams using
BSI2008 Deep Composite Decking (P175)
[3] RETTLE,M.E.
B SCI,1997
Steel building design: Introduction to the [15] OISSONNADEN.etal,
B
Eurocodes (P361), Rules for Member Stability in EN 1993-1-1:
SCI2009 Background documentation and design
[4] ING,C.M.andBROWN,D.G.
K guidelines (page 118),
Design of Curved Steel (P281), ECCSPublication119,EuropeanConventionfor
SCI,2001 ConstructionalSteelwork,2006

[5] ETHERCOT,D.A.,SALTER,P.R.,andMALIK,A.S.
N [16] SEN1993-1-5:2006
B
Design of members subject to combined (IncorporatingcorrigendumApril2009)
bending and torsion (P057), Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures.
SCI,1989 Part 1-5: Plated structural elements,
BSI,2006
[6] T IMOSHENKO,S.P.ANDGOODIER,J.N.
Theory of Elasticity (Engineering societies [17] Joints in steel construction
monographs) (3rd Edition) Simple joints to Eurocode 3 (P358),
McGraw-HillEducation,1970 SCI,2011

[7] T RAHAIR,N.S.,BRADFORD,M.A., [18] J oints in steel construction


NETHERCOT,D.A.andGARDNERL. Moment connections (P207/95),
The Behaviour and Design of Steel Structures to SCI,1995
EC3 (4th Edition), [19] SEN1993-1-8:2005
B
Taylor&Francis,2008 (IncorporatingCorrigendaDecember2005,
[8] L INDNER,J., September2006andJuly2009)
Committee document TC8-2004-010, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures.
ECCSTechnicalCommittee8(privatecirculation) Part 1-8: Design of joints,
BSI,2005
[9] TBeamsoftware
L
Availablefrom:www.cticm.org

[10] teel building design: Design data,


S
In accordance with Eurocodes and the UK
National Annexes (P363)
SCIandBCSA,2009

[11] dvanceSections,
A
Corus,2007

47
48
appenDix a:
torsional properties
of seCtions - tables

ThesetablessupplementthesectionpropertiesinSCIP363[10]andotherpublications,
whosecoverageisnotcomprehensivefortorsioncalculationswhichinvolvewarping.
AdditionalpropertiestabulatedhereincludeTorsionalBendingConstant,Normalized
WarpingFunction(s)andWarpingStaticalMoment(s).Dimensionstothecentroidand
shearcentrearegivenfornon-doublysymmetricsections.Allvaluesareroundedto
threesignificantfigures.

Thefollowingpropertiesaretabulated.

open sections hollow sections


UKB UKC PFC ASB Circular Elliptical Square Rectangular
St Venant
torSIonal
ConStant

WarPIng

ConStant

torSIonal
bendIng
ConStant
normalIzed
WarPIng
FunCtIon
WarPIng
StatICal
moment
torSIonal
SeCtIon
moduluS

loCatIon oF

Shear Centre

Thepropertiesneededfortorsioncalculationsforhollowsections(ITandWt)are
availableinbrochuresandhandbooks,buttablesareincludedhereforeaseof
reference.Forsquareandrectangularhollowsectionsthepropertiesarebasedon
thecornergeometryofCelsiusandsimilarhotfinishedsections.Propertiesfor
cold-formedcornergeometrydifferveryslightly.

Propertiesforobsoletesectionswithtaperingflanges(channelsandjoists)canbe
foundinP057[5].

AppendixBgivesinformationonmethodsofcalculatingsectionproperties.

49
appEndIx a: tablEs

Table A.1 Universal beams (UKB) - Torsional Properties


St Venant torSIonal normalIzed WarPIng
maSS torSIonal WarPIng
bendIng WarPIng StatICal
Per ConStant
SeCtIon ConStant ConStant FunCtIon moment
deSIgnatIon metre I T a Iw Wn0 Sw1
kg/m cm4 m dm6 cm2 cm4
1016 x 305 487 4300 1.97 64.4 758 31600
437 3180 2.13 55.9 746 27900
393 2330 2.32 48.4 736 24500
349 1720 2.56 43.3 731 22100
314 1260 2.78 37.6 723 19500
272 835 3.16 32.2 719 16700
249 582 3.46 26.9 716 14000
222 390 3.78 21.5 712 11300
914 x 419 388 1730 3.64 88.8 930 35800
343 1190 4.06 75.9 920 30800
914 x 305 289 926 2.96 31.2 688 16900
253 626 3.30 26.4 680 14500
224 422 3.68 22.0 674 12200
201 291 4.04 18.4 669 10300
838 x 292 227 514 3.13 19.4 605 11900
194 306 3.59 15.2 599 9500
176 221 3.90 13.0 595 8160
762 x 267 197 404 2.69 11.3 499 8490
173 267 3.02 9.39 494 7110
147 159 3.47 7.40 488 5670
134 119 3.75 6.46 486 4970
686 x 254 170 308 2.50 7.42 428 6490
152 220 2.75 6.42 424 5670
140 169 2.96 5.72 421 5080
125 116 3.27 4.79 419 4290
610 x 305 238 785 2.18 14.4 471 11500
179 340 2.78 10.1 458 8300
149 200 3.26 8.18 452 6780
610 x 229 140 216 2.19 3.99 342 4360
125 154 2.41 3.45 339 3810
113 111 2.64 2.99 337 3320
101 77.0 2.91 2.51 334 2820
610 x 178 100 95.0 1.99 1.45 264 2040
92 71.0 2.13 1.24 263 1760
82 48.8 2.35 1.04 261 1480
533 x 312 273 1290 1.74 15.0 432 13000
219 642 2.11 11.0 422 9770
182 373 2.47 8.79 414 7950
151 216 2.90 7.03 408 6460
kg/m 10 m
-8 4
m 10 m
-6 6
10 m
-4 2
10-8 m4

50
Table A.1 Universal beams (UKB) - Torsional Properties (continued)
St Venant torSIonal normalIzed WarPIng
maSS torSIonal WarPIng
bendIng WarPIng StatICal
Per ConStant
SeCtIon ConStant ConStant FunCtIon moment
deSIgnatIon metre I T a Iw Wn0 Sw1
kg/m cm4 m dm6 cm2 cm4
533 x 210 138 250 1.66 2.67 281 3550
122 178 1.84 2.32 277 3130
109 126 2.02 1.99 274 2720
101 101 2.16 1.81 273 2490
92 76 2.34 1.60 271 2210
82 52 2.59 1.33 269 1850
533 x 165 85 73.8 1.73 0.85 215 1480
75 47.9 1.93 0.69 214 1210
66 32.0 2.14 0.57 212 997
457 x 191 161 515 1.06 2.25 229 3660
133 292 1.24 1.73 223 2890
106 146 1.50 1.27 218 2170
98 121 1.59 1.18 216 2040
89 90.7 1.72 1.04 214 1820
82 69.2 1.86 0.922 212 1620
74 51.8 2.02 0.818 211 1450
67 37.1 2.22 0.705 209 1260
457 x 152 82 89.2 1.31 0.592 174 1270
74 65.9 1.43 0.518 172 1130
67 47.7 1.56 0.448 170 982
60 33.8 1.72 0.387 169 858
52 21.4 1.94 0.311 167 694
406 x 178 85 93.0 1.43 0.728 181 1500
74 62.8 1.58 0.608 178 1280
67 46.1 1.73 0.533 177 1130
60 33.3 1.90 0.466 175 997
54 23.1 2.10 0.392 174 843
406 x 140 53 29.0 1.48 0.246 141 652
46 19.0 1.68 0.207 139 555
39 10.7 1.94 0.155 138 421
356 x 171 67 55.7 1.38 0.412 151 1020
57 33.4 1.60 0.330 149 831
51 23.8 1.76 0.286 147 726
45 15.8 1.97 0.237 146 606
356 x 127 39 15.1 1.34 0.105 108 364
33 8.79 1.55 0.081 107 284
305 x 165 54 34.8 1.32 0.234 124 708
46 22.2 1.51 0.195 122 597
40 14.7 1.70 0.164 121 509
kg/m 10 m
-8 4
m 10 m
-6 6
10 m
-4 2
10-8 m4

51
appEndIx a: tablEs

Table A.1 Universal beams (UKB) - Torsional Properties (continued)


St Venant torSIonal normalIzed WarPIng
maSS torSIonal WarPIng
bendIng WarPIng StatICal
Per ConStant
SeCtIon ConStant ConStant FunCtIon moment
deSIgnatIon metre
I T a Iw Wn0 Sw1
kg/m cm 4
m dm 6
cm 2
cm4
305 x 127 48 31.8 0.91 0.102 93.0 408
42 21.1 1.02 0.085 91.7 345
37 14.8 1.13 0.072 90.6 299
305 x 102 33 12.2 0.97 0.0442 77.3 214
28 7.40 1.11 0.0349 76.3 171
25 4.77 1.22 0.0273 75.7 135
254 x 146 43 23.9 1.06 0.103 90.9 425
37 15.3 1.20 0.0858 89.7 358
31 8.55 1.41 0.0660 88.7 279
254 x 102 28 9.57 0.87 0.0281 64.0 163
25 6.42 0.97 0.0231 63.4 136
22 4.15 1.07 0.0182 62.8 108
203 x 133 30 10.3 0.97 0.0374 66.0 212
25 5.96 1.13 0.0294 65.1 169
203 x 102 23 7.02 0.75 0.0154 49.3 117
178 x 102 19 4.41 0.76 0.0099 43.0 85.9
152 x 89 16 3.56 0.59 0.0047 32.1 54.8
127 x 76 13 2.85 0.43 0.0020 22.7 32.8
kg/m 10-8 m4 m 10-6 m6 10-4 m2 10-8 m4

52
Table A.2 Universal columns (UKC) Torsional properties
St Venant torSIonal normalIzed WarPIng
maSS WarPIng
torSIonal bendIng WarPIng StatICal
Per ConStant
SeCtIon ConStant ConStant FunCtIon moment
deSIgnatIon metre
IT a Iw Wn0 Sw1
kg/m cm 4
m dm 6
cm 2
cm4
356 x 406 634 13700 0.86 38.8 421 34400
551 9240 0.93 31.1 406 28700
467 5810 1.04 24.3 390 23300
393 3550 1.18 18.9 376 18800
340 2340 1.31 15.5 366 15800
287 1440 1.49 12.3 356 13000
235 812 1.75 9.54 346 10300
356 x 368 202 558 1.82 7.16 326 8240
177 381 2.03 6.08 321 7110
153 251 2.30 5.13 316 6060
129 153 2.66 4.17 312 5020
305 x 305 283 2030 0.899 6.34 259 9190
240 1271 1.01 5.03 251 7520
198 734 1.17 3.88 243 5990
158 378 1.40 2.87 235 4570
137 249 1.58 2.39 231 3870
118 161 1.79 1.98 227 3270
97 91 2.11 1.56 223 2620
254 x 254 167 626 0.823 1.63 171 3590
132 319 0.982 1.19 164 2710
107 172 1.16 0.899 159 2110
89 102 1.35 0.717 156 1730
73 58 1.59 0.563 153 1380
203 x 203 128 427 0.578 0.549 113 1820
114 305 0.628 0.464 110 1570
100 210 0.691 0.386 108 1340
86 137 0.777 0.318 105 1130
71 80.2 0.899 0.250 102 914
60 47.2 1.04 0.197 101 734
52 31.8 1.17 0.167 98.9 632
46 22.2 1.29 0.143 97.8 548
152 x 152 51 48.8 0.568 0.061 60.8 376
44 31.7 0.639 0.050 59.4 315
37 19.2 0.734 0.040 58.0 258
30 10.5 0.871 0.031 56.6 204
23 4.63 1.09 0.021 55.4 143
kg/m 10 m-8 4
m 10 m
-6 6
10 m
-4 2
10-8 m4

53
54
Table A.3 Parallel Flange Channels (PFC) Torsional properties
dIStanCe dIStanCe
appEndIx a: tablEs

From From
St Venant torSIonal
maSS WarPIng normalIzed Centre Shear
torSIonal bendIng WarPIng StatICal moment
Per ConStant WarPIng FunCtIon oF Web Centre
SeCtIon ConStant ConStant
metre to Shear to
deSIgnatIon Centre CentroId
IT a Iw Wn0 Wn2 Sw1 Sw2 Sw3 e0 es,c
4 6 2 2 4 4 4
kg/m cm m dm cm cm cm cm cm mm mm
430 x 100 64.4 65.7 0.916 0.219 127.0 67.2 780 561 491 32.7 53.4
380 x 100 54 47.6 0.893 0.150 109.6 63.0 608 407 347 34.8 57.9
300 x 100 46 38.4 0.729 0.0813 83.3 52.1 427 260 205 36.7 62.7
300 x 90 41 30.0 0.699 0.0581 76.5 45.2 336 219 178 31.8 53.3
260 x 90 35 21.4 0.669 0.0379 65.0 40.7 254 155 120 33.1 56.5
260 x 75 28 12.2 0.649 0.0203 56.3 32.3 161 108 90 26.1 43.6
230 x 90 32 20.1 0.590 0.0279 55.9 37.3 215 120 86 34.5 60.0
230 x 75 26 12.3 0.558 0.0153 47.9 30.1 140 84.6 67.3 27.7 47.4
200 x 90 30 19.1 0.508 0.0197 47.0 33.4 179 88.4 56.7 36.0 63.7
200 x 75 23 11.6 0.481 0.0107 40.3 27.2 115 62.5 46.3 29.1 50.9
180 x 90 26 13.8 0.506 0.0141 42.3 30.4 143 69.5 40.8 36.3 64.7
180 x 75 20 7.60 0.498 0.00754 36.8 24.2 89.3 50.8 35.8 28.5 49.6
150 x 90 24 12.2 0.426 0.00890 34.3 25.6 111.1 49.3 20.9 37.1 66.8
150 x 75 18 6.31 0.429 0.00467 29.8 20.8 67.9 34.8 21.0 29.7 52.8
125 x 65 15 4.89 0.313 0.00194 21.3 14.7 40.3 21.1 12.1 25.4 45.2
100 x 50 10 2.64 0.215 0.000491 12.9 8.83 16.9 8.99 5.21 19.3 34.1
kg/m 10-8 m4 m 10-6 m6 10-4 m2 10-4 m2 10-8 m4 10-8 m4 10-8 m4 10-3 m mm

NotethatthevaluesoftheStVenantTorsionalConstantareslightlyhigherthanthoseinP363.Thetabulated
valueshavebeencalculatedinaccordancewiththemoreexactexpressionsinAppendixB.
Table A.4 Asymmetric Slimflor Beams (ASB) Torsional properties
SeCtIon maSS St Venant torSIonal WarPIng dIStanCe From dIStanCe From dIStanCe From toP Flange
deSIgnatIon Per torSIonal bendIng ConStant CentroId to bottom Flange toP Flange PlaStIC SeCtIon
metre ConStant ConStant Shear Centre Centre to Centre to moduluS
Shear Centre Shear Centre
IT a Iw es,c es,bf es,tf Wpl,z,tf
4 6
kg/m cm m dm mm mm mm cm3
300 ASB 249 2000 0.508 2.00 65 65 237 412
196 1180 0.574 1.50 65 59 243 335
185 871 0.599 1.20 65 60 231 276
155 620 0.668 1.07 64 56 238 256
153 513 0.672 0.895 66 58 228 217
280 ASB 136 379 0.696 0.710 61 54 212 199
124 332 0.751 0.721 59 52 218 206
105 207 0.847 0.574 59 50 216 170
100 160 0.854 0.451 61 51 209 135
74 72.2 1.101 0.338 59 49 209 107
kg/m 10-8 m4 m 10-6 m6 10-3 m 10-3 m 10-3 m 10-6 m3

55
appEndIx a: tablEs

Table A.5 Circular hollow sections Torsional properties


SeCtIon maSS St Venant torSIonal SeCtIon maSS St Venant torSIonal
deSIgnatIon Per torSIonal SeCtIon deSIgnatIon Per torSIonal SeCtIon
metre ConStant moduluS metre ConStant moduluS
IT Wt IT Wt
kg/m cm4 cm3 kg/m cm4 cm3
21.3 x 3.2 1.43 1.54 1.44 193.7 x 5 23.3 2640 273
26.9 x 3.2 1.87 3.41 2.53 193.7 x 6.3 29.1 3260 337
33.7 x 3.2 2.41 7.21 4.28 193.7 x 8 36.6 4030 416
33.7 x 4 2.93 8.38 4.97 193.7 x 10 45.3 4880 504
42.4 x 3.2 3.09 15.2 7.19 193.7 x 12.5 55.9 5870 606
42.4 x 4 3.79 18.0 8.48 219.1 x 6.3 33.1 4770 436
48.3 x 3.2 3.56 23.2 9.59 219.1 x 8 41.6 5920 540
48.3 x 4 4.37 27.5 11.4 219.1 x 10 51.6 7200 657
48.3 x 5 5.34 32.3 13.4 219.1 x 12.5 63.7 8690 793
48.3 x 6.3 6.53 37.5 15.5 219.1 x 16 80.1 10600 967
60.3 x 3.2 4.51 46.9 15.6 244.5 x 12.5 71.5 12300 1006
60.3 x 4 5.55 56.3 18.7 244.5 x 16 90.2 15100 1200
60.3 x 5 6.82 67.0 22.2 273 x 10 64.9 14300 1000
60.3 x 6.3 8.39 79.0 26.2 273 x 12.5 80.3 17400 1300
76.1 x 2.9 5.24 89.5 23.5 273 x 16 101 21400 1600
76.1 x 3.2 5.75 97.6 25.6 323.9 x 10 77.4 24300 1500
76.1 x 4 7.11 118 31.0 323.9 x 12.5 96 29700 1800
76.1 x 5 8.77 142 37.3 323.9 x 16 121 36800 2300
76.1 x 6.3 10.8 170 44.6 355.6 x 16 134 49300 2800
76.1 x 8 13.4 201 52.9 406.4 x 10 97.8 49000 2400
88.9 x 4 8.38 193 43.3 406.4 x 16 154 74900 3700
88.9 x 5 10.3 233 52.4 457 x 10 110 70200 3100
88.9 x 6.3 12.8 280 63.1 457 x 16 174 108000 4700
88.9 x 8 16 336 75.6 508 x 12.5 153 120000 4700
114.3 x 3.6 9.83 384 67.2 508 x 16 194 150000 5900
114.3 x 4 10.9 422 73.9 kg/m 10 m
-8 4
10-6 m3
114.3 x 5 13.5 514 89.9
114.3 x 6.3 16.8 625 109
114.3 x 8 21 759 133
139.7 x 5 16.6 961 138
139.7 x 6.3 20.7 1180 169
139.7 x 8 26 1440 206
139.7 x 10 32 1720 247
168.3 x 5 20.1 1710 203
168.3 x 6.3 25.2 2110 250
168.3 x 8 31.6 2590 308
168.3 x 10 39 3130 372
168.3 x 12.5 48 3740 444
kg/m 10 m
-8 4
10-6 m3

56
Table A.6 Elliptical hollow sections Torsional properties
SeCtIon maSS St Venant torSIonal
deSIgnatIon Per torSIonal SeCtIon
metre ConStant moduluS
IT Wt
kg/m cm4 cm3
300 x 150 x 12.5 65.5 7050 686
400 x 200 x 12.5 88.6 17600 1300
400 x 200 x 16.0 112 21600 1580
kg/m 10-8 m4 10-6 m3

57
appEndIx a: tablEs

Table A.7 Square hollow sections Torsional properties


SeCtIon maSS St Venant torSIonal SeCtIon maSS St Venant torSIonal
deSIgnatIon Per torSIonal SeCtIon deSIgnatIon Per torSIonal SeCtIon
metre ConStant moduluS metre ConStant moduluS
IT Wt IT Wt
kg/m cm4 cm3 kg/m cm4 cm3
40 x 40 x 3.2 3.61 16.5 7.42 150 x 150 x 5 22.6 1550 197
40 x 40 x 4 4.39 19.5 8.54 150 x 150 x 6.3 28.1 1910 240
40 x 40 x 5 5.28 22.5 9.60 150 x 150 x 8 35.1 2350 291
50 x 50 x 3.2 4.62 33.8 12.4 150 x 150 x 10 43.1 2830 344
50 x 50 x 4 5.64 40.4 14.5 150 x 150 x 12.5 52.7 3370 402
50 x 50 x 5 6.85 47.6 16.7 160 x 160 x 6.3 30.1 2330 275
50 x 50 x 6.3 8.31 55.2 18.8 160 x 160 x 8 37.6 2880 335
60 x 60 x 3.2 5.62 60.2 18.6 160 x 160 x 10 46.3 3480 398
60 x 60 x 4 6.9 72.5 22.0 160 x 160 x 12.5 56.6 4160 467
60 x 60 x 5 8.42 86.4 25.7
180 x 180 x 6.3 34 3360 355
60 x 60 x 6.3 10.3 102 29.6
180 x 180 x 8 42.7 4160 434
60 x 60 x 8 12.5 118 33.4
180 x 180 x 10 52.5 5050 518
70 x 70 x 3.2 6.63 98 26.1
180 x 180 x 12.5 64.4 6070 613
70 x 70 x 4 8.15 118 31.2
180 x 180 x 16 80.2 7340 724
70 x 70 x 5 9.99 142 36.8
200 x 200 x 5 30.4 3760 362
70 x 70 x 6.3 12.3 169 42.9
200 x 200 x 6.3 38 4650 444
70 x 70 x 8 15 200 49.2
200 x 200 x 8 47.7 5780 545
80 x 80 x 3.2 7.63 148 34.9
200 x 200 x 10 58.8 7030 655
80 x 80 x 4 9.41 180 41.9
200 x 200 x 12.5 72.3 8490 778
80 x 80 x 5 11.6 217 49.8
200 x 200 x 16 90.3 10300 927
80 x 80 x 6.3 14.2 262 58.7
250 x 250 x 6.3 47.9 9240 712
80 x 80 x 8 17.5 312 68.3
250 x 250 x 8 60.3 11500 880
90 x 90 x 4 10.7 260 54.2
250 x 250 x 10 74.5 14100 1060
90 x 90 x 5 13.1 316 64.8
90 x 90 x 6.3 16.2 382 77.0 250 x 250 x 12.5 91.9 17200 1280

90 x 90 x 8 20.1 459 90.5 250 x 250 x 16 115 21100 1550

100 x 100 x 3.6 10.8 328 62.3 300 x 300 x 8 72.8 20200 1290

100 x 100 x 4 11.9 361 68.2 300 x 300 x 10 90.2 24800 1580
100 x 100 x 5 14.7 439 81.8 300 x 300 x 12.5 112 30300 1900
100 x 100 x 6.3 18.2 534 97.8 300 x 300 x 16 141 37600 2330
100 x 100 x 8 22.6 646 116 350 x 350 x 8 85.4 32400 1790
100 x 100 x 10 27.4 761 133 350 x 350 x 10 106 39900 2190
120 x 120 x 5 17.8 777 122 350 x 350 x 12.5 131 48900 2650
120 x 120 x 6.3 22.2 950 147 350 x 350 x 16 166 61000 3260
120 x 120 x 8 27.6 1160 176 400 x 400 x 10 122 60100 2900
120 x 120 x 10 33.7 1380 206 400 x 400 x 12.5 151 73900 3530
120 x 120 x 12.5 40.9 1620 236 400 x 400 x 16 191 92400 4360
140 x 140 x 5 21 1250 170 400 x 400 x 20 235 112000 5240
140 x 140 x 6.3 26.1 1540 206 kg/m 10 m
-8 4
10-6 m3
140 x 140 x 8 32.6 1890 249
140 x 140 x 10 40 2270 294
140 x 140 x 12.5 48.7 2700 342
kg/m 10-8 m4 10-6 m3
58
Table A.8 Rectangular hollow sections Torsional properties
SeCtIon maSS St Venant torSIonal SeCtIon maSS St Venant torSIonal
deSIgnatIon Per torSIonal SeCtIon deSIgnatIon Per torSIonal SeCtIon
metre ConStant moduluS metre ConStant moduluS
IT Wt IT Wt
kg/m cm4 cm3 kg/m cm4 cm3
50 x 30 x 3.2 3.61 14.2 6.80 160 x 80 x 5 17.8 600 106
50 x 30 x 4 4.39 16.6 7.77 160 x 80 x 6.3 22.2 730 127
50 x 30 x 5 5.28 19.0 8.67 160 x 80 x 8 27.6 880 151
60 x 40 x 3.2 4.62 30.8 11.7 160 x 80 x 10 33.7 1040 175
60 x 40 x 4 5.64 36.7 13.7 160 x 80 x 12.5 40.9 1200 198
60 x 40 x 5 6.85 43.0 15.7 200 x 100 x 5 22.6 1200 172
60 x 40 x 6.3 8.31 49.5 17.6 200 x 100 x 6.3 28.1 1470 208
80 x 40 x 3.2 5.62 46.2 16.1 200 x 100 x 8 35.1 1800 251
80 x 40 x 4 6.9 55.2 18.9 200 x 100 x 10 43.1 2160 295
80 x 40 x 5 8.42 65.1 21.9 200 x 100 x 12.5 52.7 2540 341
80 x 40 x 6.3 10.3 75.6 24.8 200 x 120 x 6.3 30.1 2030 255
80 x 40 x 8 12.5 85.8 27.4 200 x 120 x 8 37.6 2490 310
90 x 50 x 3.2 6.63 80.9 23.6 200 x 120 x 10 46.3 3000 367
90 x 50 x 4 8.15 97.5 28.0 200 x 150 x 8 41.4 3640 398
90 x 50 x 5 9.99 116 32.9 200 x 150 x 10 51 4410 475
90 x 50 x 6.3 12.3 138 38.1 250 x 150 x 6.3 38 4050 413
90 x 50 x 8 15 160 43.2 250 x 150 x 8 47.7 5020 506
100 x 50 x 3.2 7.13 93 26.4 250 x 150 x 10 58.8 6090 605
100 x 50 x 4 8.78 113 31.4 250 x 150 x 12.5 72.3 7330 717
100 x 50 x 5 10.8 135 36.9 250 x 150 x 16 90.3 8870 849
100 x 50 x 6.3 13.3 160 42.9 300 x 100 x 8 47.7 3070 387
100 x 50 x 8 16.3 186 48.9 300 x 100 x 10 58.8 3680 458
100 x 60 x 3.2 7.63 129 32.4 300 x 200 x 6.3 47.9 8480 681
100 x 60 x 4 9.41 156 38.7 300 x 200 x 8 60.3 10600 840
100 x 60 x 5 11.6 188 45.9 300 x 200 x 10 74.5 12900 1020
100 x 60 x 6.3 14.2 224 53.8 300 x 200 x 12.5 91.9 15700 1220
100 x 60 x 8 17.5 265 62.2 300 x 200 x 16 115 19300 1470
120 x 60 x 4 10.7 201 47.1 300 x 250 x 8 66.5 15200 1070
120 x 60 x 5 13.1 242 56.0 340 x 100 x 10 65.1 4300 523
120 x 60 x 6.3 16.2 290 65.9 400 x 150 x 16 128 16800 1430
120 x 60 x 8 20.1 344 76.6 400 x 200 x 8 72.8 15700 1130
120 x 80 x 4 11.9 330 65.0 400 x 200 x 10 90.2 19300 1380
120 x 80 x 5 14.7 401 77.9 400 x 200 x 12.5 112 23400 1660
120 x 80 x 6.3 18.2 487 92.9 400 x 200 x 16 141 28900 2010
120 x 80 x 8 22.6 587 110 450 x 250 x 8 85.4 27100 1630
120 x 80 x 10 27.4 688 126 450 x 250 x 10 106 33300 1990
150 x 100 x 5 18.6 807 127 450 x 250 x 12.5 131 40700 2410
150 x 100 x 6.3 23.1 986 153 450 x 250 x 16 166 50500 2950
150 x 100 x 8 28.9 1200 183 500 x 300 x 10 122 52400 2700
150 x 100 x 10 35.3 1430 214 500 x 300 x 16 191 80300 4040
150 x 100 x 12.5 42.8 1680 246 500 x 300 x 20 235 97400 4840
kg/m 10 -8 m4 10-6 m3 kg/m 10-8 m4 10-6 m3

59
appenDix b:
torsional properties
of seCtions-formulae

ThisAppendixprovidescalculationmethodsforsometorsionalpropertiesofcommonly
usedstructuralshapes.ItrecordshowthetorsionalpropertiesgivenintheTablesin
AppendixAwerederived,andmaybeusefulformanualcalculationofthepropertiesof
otherrolledorfabricatedsections.

Generalexpressionsforsectionpropertiesmaybefoundintextbooks,forexample
Theory of Elasticity (Engineering societies monographs)[6].SoftwaresuchasLTBeamis
alsoavailabletogeneratepropertiesofagivensection.

B.1 Shear centre location


Todeterminethelocationoftheshearcentreofasectioncomposedofthinelements,
theelementsmayberepresentedbytheircentrelines.Forsimplicity,therootradiifor
rolledsectionsmaybeneglected.

WhereashearforceVactsonasection,anditisnottotwist,thecoupledeveloped
byequalandoppositeshearforcesintheflanges,actingasacouple,mustbe
balancedbytorqueVeinwhicheistheeccentricityfromthelineofshearforceinthe
(vertical)web.ThisprinciplecanbeappliedbothtochannelsectionsandASBsections.
Fordoublysymmetricandmonosymmetricsections,e = 0.

B.1.1 Shear centre in parallel flange channels


Foranequalflangedchannelsection,theelementlengthsareequalto(b - tw/2)forthe
flangesand(h - tf)fortheweb.Bysymmetry,theshearcentreislocatedonthemajor
axis,asshowninFigure4.2.

Todeterminethehorizontalpositionoftheshearcentre,considertheshearforcesin
theflangesassociatedwithbendingaboutthemajoraxis(thesecanbedetermined
usingthefamiliarVAz /Iyexpressionsforshearflowatalocation).

ThetotalshearforceFfactinghorizontallyineachflangeisgivenby:

Ff = {V tf (b-tw/2) [(h-tf)/2]/Iy} (b-tw/2)

ThecoupleduetotheseforcesisthenFf (h - tf),whichmustbebalancedbyV e0.

61
appEndIx b: formulaE

Hencetheeccentricityoftheshearcentrerelativetothecentrelineofthewebisgivenby:

e0 = tf (b-tw/2)2 (h - tf)2/(4Iy)

Note: the use of the symbol e0 for this dimension is consistent with P363.

B.1.2 Shear centre in ASB sections


ASBsectionsaremonosymmetricabouttheirminoraxissotheshearcentrewillbe
locatedonthecentrelineoftheweb.Thecentroidisalsolocatedonthecentreline,
abovetheshearcentre.TheprincipaldimensionsofanASBandthelocationsofthe
shearcentreandcentroidareillustratedinFigureB.1.

t f /2

t f /2

Key h/2
S = Shear centre es,tf
C = Centroid

y y h
C

S ec,bf h/2
es,bf
t f /2

t f /2

bb
Figure B.1
ASB dimensions

Todeterminethelocationoftheshearcentre,considershearforcesinthetwoflanges
thatareproportionaltoeachflangessecondmomentofareaaboutthez-zaxis:the
locationoftheshearcentrewillbeonthelineoftheresultantofthetwoforces.The
locationcanthusbedeterminedbytakingmomentsofthetwoforces(actually,the
Ivalues)aboutanyconvenientlocation.

Theshearcentrelocationrelativetothemid-thicknessofthebottomflangeisthusgivenby:

es,bf = (h - tf) Iz,tf /(Iz,tf + Iz,bf)

whereIz,tfandIz,bfarethesecondmomentsofareaofthetopandbottomflanges
respectively.Thewebandthefilletsoftherolledsectionareassumedtohavea
negligibleeffectonthelocationoftheshearcentreandarethusexcludedfromthe

62
valuesofIz,tfandIz,bf.(Thethickwebwouldmakeasmallcontributiontothesecond
momentofareaofthewholesectionaboutthez-zaxisbutitsinfluenceonthelocation
oftheshearcentreismuchless.)

Incontrast,thelocationofthecentroidisinfluencedbytheareaoftheweband,toa
lesserextent,bythefillets.Todetermineitspositionitisconvenienttoconsiderthe
ASBsectionintwoparts-abisymmentricIsectionwithbothflangesofwidthbtandthe
tworemainingportionsofthebottomflange,eachofwidth(bb bt)/2.

Thecombinedareaofthetwoflangetipsisgivenby:

A1 = (bb - bt)tf

Theareaofthebisymmetricportionisgivenby:

A2 = A - A1

whereAistheareaofthewholeASBcrosssection.

Thepositionofthecentroid,relativetothemid-thicknessofthebottomflangeisthus
givenby:

ec,bf = [(h - tf)/2] A2 /A

B.2 StVenant torsional constant I T

B.2.1 Solid rectangles


TheStVenenttorsionalconstantforarectangularsectionofdimensionsab(where
ab)isgivenby:

ab
3
b b4
IT = 1 0.21 1
3 a 12a 4

Foralongrectanglethissimplifiesto:

3
ab ab
3
IT = 0.21b 4 or,fora >> b, I T =
3 3

Thededuction0.21b4representsareductionattheendsofarectangle.

B.2.2 Open sections


Fortypicalstructuralsectionscomposedofthree(or,inthecaseofangles,two)
rectangularelementswhosethicknesstissmallrelativetolengthL,areasonable
approximationmaybeobtainedbysummingLt3/3fortherectangularelements.
Thus,forasymmetricIsection:

63
appEndIx b: formulaE

IT [2btf3 + (h - 2tf )tw3]/3

andforanASB:

IT [(bt + bb)tf3 + (h - 2tf )tw3]/3

Forrolledsections,especiallythosewithrelativelylargerootradii,thedegreeof
conservatismintheaboveexpressioncanbesignificant.Amoreaccurateassessment,
correctingforthedeductionsattheopenendsandtheenhancementatthejunction,
iswarranted.ThemethodologygivenbelowwasdevelopedbyElDarwish&Johnstonin
the1960s,asdescribedinElDarwishandJohnston*.

Thedeductionateachendis0.105t4,wheretisthethicknessoftheelement.When
therearefourflangetips,therearefourdeductionstobemade;whenthereareonly
twoflangetipsonlytwodeductionsaremade(theabovereferencemistakenlyshows
fourdeductionsforchannels).

ThejunctionenhancementisD4,whereDisthediameterofthelargestcirclethat
canbeinscribedwithinthesectionandisadimensionlesscoefficientobtainedfrom
agraphoranempiricalformula.Therearedifferentgraphsandformulaefordifferent
junctiongeometries.Theonesrelevanttocurrent(parallelflanged)sectionsare1for
T-junctions,asinIsectionsand3forL-junctionsasinchannelandanglesections.
Forobsoletesectionswithtaperingflanges,valuesmaybefoundinElDarwishand
JohnstonorinP057[5].

b b

tf tf

tw tw r
r
D1 D3

Figure B.2 IT = [2bt3f + (h 2tf)tw3]/3 IT = [2bt3f + (h 2tf)tw3]/3


Junction corrections
based on the + 2 1D41 4 0.105t4f + 2 1D41 2 0.105t4f
inscribed circle

Theempiricalformulaeare:

1 = - 0.042 + 0.2204tw/tf + 0.1355r/tf - 0.0865twr/tf2 - 0.0725tw2/tf2

3 = - 0.0908 + 0.2621tw/tf + 0.1231r/tf - 0.0752twr/tf2 - 0.0945tw2/tf2

* ElDarwish,I.A.andJohnston,B.G.,Torsionofstructuralshapes,ASCEJournaloftheStructural
Division,Volume91,ST1,February1965

64
Thediametersoftheinscribedcirclesaregivenby:

ForT-junctionD1 = [(tf + r)2 + tw(r + tw /4)]/(2r + tf)

ForL-junctionD3 = 2{(3r + tw + tf ) - [2(2r + tw)(2r + tf)]}

Thejunctioncorrectionswillbeadditiveandiftherearetwojunctionstherearetwo
additionstobemade.

B.2.3 Structural hollow sections


Foranythin-walledhollowsectionofuniformthicknesst,thevalueofITisclosely
approximatedby:

IT = 4tAp2/p

inwhichpisthemeanperimeterlengthandApistheareaenclosedbythemean
perimeter,whichfollowsthecentreofthetubewall.

Acloserapproximation,usedintheProductStandardEN10210-2:2006(forhot
finishedstructuralhollowsections),expressedusingthesymbolsforareaand
perimeterinthisguide,is:

IT = 4tAp2/p + pt3/3

The pt3/3termallowsforthevariationofshearstressacrossthethicknessofthe
section.Ifthesamesectionweretobeconvertedintoanopenonebyalongitudinal
cut,thiswouldbethevalueofitstorsionalconstant.

Forcircularhollowsections,uniquely,anexactformulationisavailable:

IT = [d4 - (d - 2t)4]/32 (= Ip = 2I)

Forellipticalhollowsections,thelengthoftheperimeterofanellipse(expressedhere
asp)isgivenbyEN10210-2(againusingsymbolsinthisguide)as:

p = (/2)(h + b - 2t){1 + 0.25[(h - b)/(h + b - 2t)]2}

TheareaenclosedisgivenasAp = (h - t)(b - t)/4.

Forrectangularhollowsections,theperimeterlengthis:

p = 2[(h - t) + (b - t)] - 2r(4 - )

inwhichristhemeancornerradius.Forhotfinishedsections,r = 1.25t,according
toEN10210-2;forcoldformedsectionsthemeancornerradiusisbetween1.5tand

65
appEndIx b: formulaE

2.5t,accordingtovaluesforcalculationofsectionpropertiesgiveninAnnexBof
EN10219-2:2006.(Thepropertiesforcoldformedsectionsarethereforeveryslightly
smallerthanthoseforhotrolledsections.Onlythevaluesforhotrolledsectionsare
giveninAppendixA.)

Forarectangularhollowsection,theareaisgivenby:

Ap = (h - t)(b - t) - r2(4 - )

B.3 Warping constant Iw

B.3.1 Isections

Doubly symmetric (equal flanged) Isections


Inadoublysymmetricsection,thewarpingmoment Mwisgivenby:

Mw,Ed = EIf (h - tf)/2

andthewarpingtorqueisgivenby:

Tw,Ed = EIf (h - tf)2/2

whereIfisthesecondmomentofareaofoneflange

Iw isthereforeequalto If(h - tf)2/2

ForpracticalpurposesIfmaybetakenashalfofIzforthesectionasawhole,
soIw Iz (h - tf)2/4.

Monosymmetric (unequal flanged) Isections


Althoughtheflangesareunequal,Mwwillbenumericallythesameforbothflanges
andtheproductofIfanditsdistancefromtheshearcentrewillbethesameforboth
flanges.Therefore,basedonthebottomflange:

Mw,Ed = EIbf es,bf

where
es,bf istheheightoftheshearcentreabovethecentreofthebottomflange
Ibf isthesecondmomentofareaofthebottomflangeaboutthezaxis.

Thewarpingtorsionalmomentis:

Tw,Ed = EIbf es,bf (h - tf )

66
Iw isthereforeequaltoEIbf es,bf (h - tf).

B.3.2 Parallel flange channels


Foranequal-flangedchannelsection,Lsections,eachcomposedofaflangeplushalf
theweb,canacttoresistwarping(seeFigure4.3).

Thevalueofthewarpingtorsionalconstantisgivenbyconsiderationofbendingofthe
Lsectionsaboutbothz-zandy-yaxes.FromSCIpublicationP363,thevalueofIwis
givenas:

( h tf )
2
2 ( h tf ) A
2

Iw = I z A ( cz tw 2 ) 1
4 4I y

whereczisthedistancefromthebackofthewebtothecentroidalaxisandAisthe
areaofthecrosssection.

B.4 Torsional section modulus Wt

B.4.1 For an open section


Foranopensection,thetorsionalsectionmodulusisgivensimplyby:

Wt =IT /t

Where
IT istheStVenanttorsionalconstant
t isthethicknessatthepointconsidered.

B.4.2 For a structural hollow section


Foranythin-walledhollowsection,Wtisgivenapproximatelyas:

Wt = 2tAp

whereAp isasdefinedinB.2.3andtisthethicknessofthesection.

AmoreexactformulagiveninEN10210-2forrectangular,squareandelliptical
sections(usingthesymbolsinthisguide)is:

Wt = IT/(t + 2Ap /p) = (4Ap2t/p + pt3/3)/(t + 2Ap /p)

whereIT,tandrareasdefinedinB.2.3

Forcircularsections,themoreexactformulais:

Wt = 4I/d

inwhichI = [d4 - (d - t)4]/64.

67
appenDix C:
solutions for anD
its Derivatives -
formulae

Thegeneralequationfortorsionalmomentis:

T / GIT = - a2

where
a = EI W GI T

Solvingthisdifferentialequationforthevariationof withdistancealongthebeamx,
givessolutionsoftheform:

= Asinh(x/a) + Bcosh(x/a) + Cx3 + Dx2 + Ex + F

whereAto Fareconstantsthatdependonloaddistributionandendconditions.

Theconstantshavebeenevaluatedfortencases.Theexpressionsfor, , and
forthesetencasesaregivenbelow.Eachcaseisillustratedwithadiagramthatshows
theformofloadingandtheendconditions.

Theforkdeviceintheexplanatorysketchesistoindicatethatthememberisprevented
fromtwistingbutnotfromwarpingatthepointofrestraint.Usually,butnotinvariably,
thisisalsoapointofsupportintheconventionalsense.Thejawsdeviceistoindicate
thatthememberisheldinavice-likegripthatpreventscontra-rotationoftheflanges.
Thisistheassumptionofwarpingrestraintwhich,asdiscussedinSections2.6
and7.6,isdifficulttorealizeinpractice.Ifitcanbeachieved,itismorethanlikelythat
thememberwillfinditselfrestrainedagainsttorsionandbending(bothMyandMz)at
thesamepointtheviceisattachedtoabench,sotospeak.

Continuitydoesnotprovidewarpingrestraint.Neverthelessadouble-spanningbeam
withidenticalspansandloadscould,byvirtueofsymmetry,betreatedaswarping-fixed
atthecentralsupport.Cases8and9caterforthisrarepossibility.

Case10coversdistributedtorquevaryinglinearlyfromzeroatoneendto2T/Latthe
other.ResultsfromthisandCase4canbesuperimposedtocaterforaSlimflorpanel
inwhichthebeamsarenon-parallel.

Intheorytherearemanymorecasesthatcouldhavebeenincluded.Also,warping
fixityisallornothing;thereisnoprovisionforflexiblerestraint.However,experience
suggeststhatthecasesincludedcananswermostpracticaldemands.

69
appEndIx c: formulaE

Notethattheendconditionsfortorsionarenotthesameasendconditionsforvertical
orlateralrestraint;itispossibletohaveoneformofrestraintwithouttheother-for
exampleanunproppedcantilevercanstillberestrainedagainsttorsionatthefreeend.

Cautionary notes on use of the formulae


Itshouldalwaysberecognisedthatthevalueof Tapplicabletothegraphsand
formulaeisthetotalappliedtorque,notthegreatestvalueoftorsionalmomentinthe
beam.Inasimplebeamwithacentraltorque,forexample,themaximumtorsional
momentTEdisonlyhalftheappliedtorque.

InatypicalSlimflorconstructionstagecalculationusingCase4,Tistheslabreaction
perunitlengtheccentricitylengthofthebeam,end-to-end.

70
Table C.1 Expressions for , , and

CaSe deSCrIPtIon Formula graPh

1 Torsional restraint at one = Tx/(GIT) Not required


end only. for this simple
= T/(GIT)
case
No end restraint
L =0
against warping.
= 0
Point torque T applied at
free end. For uniformly distributed torque, is not constant and there will be warping. However it is
convenient (and safe) to assume a linear variation in and end rotation of TL/(2GIT)
This case represents the
T torsional equivalent of a
cantilever, but note that the
free end may or may not
be supported; torsional
behaviour is no different.

2 Both ends restrained = [Ta/(GIT)] {tanh[L/(2a)]cosh(x/a) - tanh[L/(2a)] + x/a - sinh(x/a)} Not provided
against warping.
= [T/(GIT)] {tanh[L/(2a)]sinh(x/a) + 1 - cosh(x/a)}
Equal and opposite
= [T/(GITa)] {tanh[L/(2a)]cosh(x/a) - sinh(x/a)}
torques T applied at
the ends. = [T/(GITa2)] {tanh[L/(2a)]sinh(x/a) - cosh(x/a)}

71
72
appEndIx c: formulaE

Table C.1 (continued)

CaSe deSCrIPtIon Formula graPh

3 Torsional restraint at (a) for x L Use graphs


both ends. A (for )
aL = [Ta/(GIT)] {(1 - )x/a + [sinh(L/a)/tanh(L/a) - cosh(L/a)]sinh(x/a)} B (for )
No end restraint
against warping. = [T/(GIT)] {(1 - ) + [sinh(L/a)/tanh(L/a) - cosh(L/a)]cosh(x/a)}
Point torque T applied at = [T/(GITa)] [sinh(L/a)/tanh(L/a) - cosh(L/a)]sinh(x/a)
(3a) an intermediate point L
T = [T/(GITa2)] [sinh(L/a)/tanh(L/a) - cosh(L/a)]cosh(x/a)
from one end of a member
of length L. (b) for x L
(3 b) x
= [Ta/(GIT)] [(L - x)/a + sinh(L/a)sinh(x/a)/tanh(L/a) - sinh(L/a) cosh(x/a)]

Alternatively:
= [T/(GIT)] [- + sinh(L/a)cosh(x/a)/tanh(L/a) - sinh(L/a)sinh(x/a)]

Point torque T/3 applied


= [T/(GITa)] [sinh(L/a)sinh(x/a)/tanh(L/a) - sinh(L/a) cosh(x/a)]
at quarter points = [T/(GITa2)] [sinh(L/a)cosh(x/a)/tanh(L/a) - sinh(L/a)sinh(x/a)]
(c) for special case of x = = L/2
T/3
T/3 = [Ta/(GIT)] [L/(4a) +{sinh[L/(2a)]/tanh(L/a) - cosh(L/(2a)}sinh(L/(2a)]
T/3
T/3
T/3 = [T/(GITa)] {sinh[L/(2a)]/tanh(L/a) - cosh[L/(2a)]} sinh[L/(2a)]
T/3
For quarter and third point loading, use formulae for single point load and add together
the results for the two or three applied torques (evaluated for T/2 or T/3, as appropriate).
Or:
Point torque T/2 applied
at third points.

T/2
T/2
T/2
T/2
Table C.1 (continued)

CaSe deSCrIPtIon Formula graPh

4 Torsional restraint at = [Ta2/(GITL)] {(xL - x2)/(2a2) + cosh(x/a) - tanh[L/(2a)]sinh(x/a) - 1} Use graphs


both ends. C (for )
= [Ta/(GITL)] { L/(2a) - x/a + sinh(x/a) - tanh[L/(2a)]cosh(x/a)} D (for )
No end restraint
against warping. = [T/(GITL)] {-1 + cosh(x/a) - tanh[L/(2a)]sinh(x/a)}
Uniformly distributed = [T/(GITLa)] {sinh(x/a) - tanh[L/(2a)]cosh(x/a)}
torque T along full length
of member.
T

5 As Case 3 but fully (a) for x L Not provided


restrained against both
warping and torsion at = [Ta/(GIT)] {(K1 - K3 + K4)[cosh(x/a) - 1] - sinh(x/a) + x/a}/(K1 + 1)
both ends. = [T/(GIT)] {(K1 - K3 + K4)sinh(x/a) - cosh(x/a) + 1}/(K1 + 1)
Note: expressions for K1 = [T/(GITa)] {(K1 - K3 + K4)cosh(x/a) - sinh(x/a)}/(K1 + 1)
etc are given at the foot of
T this table. = [T/(GITa2)] {(K1 - K3 + K4)sinh(x/a) - cosh(x/a)}/(K1 + 1)
(b) for x L
= [Ta/(GIT)] [K2 + K5cosh(x/a) +{[cosh(L/a) - 1]/K1 + cosh(L/a)}sinh(x/a) - x/a]/(1 + 1/K1)
= [T/(GIT)] [K5sinh(x/a) + {[cosh(L/a) - 1]/K1 + cosh(L/a)}cosh(x/a) - 1]/(1 + 1/K1)
= [T/(GITa)] [K5cosh(x/a) +{[cosh(L/a) - 1]/K1 + cosh(L/a)}sinh(x/a)]/(1 + 1/K1)
= [T/(GITa2)] [K5sinh(x/a) + {[cosh(L/a) - 1]/K1 + cosh(L/a)}cosh(x/a)]/(1 + 1/K1)

73
74
appEndIx c: formulaE

Table C.1 (continued)

CaSe deSCrIPtIon Formula graPh


6 As Case 4 but fully = [Ta/(2GIT)] {[1 + cosh(L/a)][cosh(x/a) - 1]/sinh(L/a) + (1 - x/L)x/a - sinh(x/a)} Not provided
restrained against both
warping and torsion at = [T/(2GIT)] {[1 + cosh(L/a)]sinh(x/a)/sinh(L/a) + 1 - 2x/L - cosh(x/a)}
both ends. = [T/(2GITa)] {[1 + cosh(L/a)]cosh(x/a)/sinh(L/a) - 2a/L - sinh(x/a)}
= [T/(2GITa2)] {[1 + cosh(L/a)]sinh(x/a)/sinh(L/a) - cosh(x/a)}

7 As Case 1 but one end = [Ta/(GIT)] {tanh(L/a)[cosh(x/a) - 1] - sinh(x/a) + x/a} Use graph
(at x = 0) is restrained E (for both
against warping as well = [T/(GIT)] [tanh(L/a)sinh(x/a) - cosh(x/a) + 1] and )
as against torsion. = [T/(GITa)] [tanh(L/a)cosh(x/a) - sinh(x/a)]
Point torque T applied at = [T/(GITa2)] [tanh(L/a)sinh(x/a) - cosh(x/a)]
free end.
Note that the free end may
T or may not be supported;
torsional behaviour is
no different.
8 As Case 1 but one end is = [Ta2/(GITL)] {K8[cosh(x/a) 1] (L/a)sinh(x/a) + (x/a)[L/a x/(2a)]} Use graph
restrained against both E (for both
warping and torsion. = [Ta/(GITL)] [K8sinh(x/a) (L/a)cosh(x/a) + (L/a x/a)] and )
Torque T uniformly = [T/(GITL)] [K8cosh(x/a) (L/a)sinh(x/a) 1]
distributed along the = [T/(GITaL)] [K8sinh(x/a) (L/a)cosh(x/a)]
length of the member.
T Note that the free end may
or may not be supported;
torsional behaviour is
no different.
Table C.1 (continued)

CaSe deSCrIPtIon Formula graPh


2
9 As Case 4 but one end = [Ta /(GITL)] {K10[tanh(L/a) x/a tanh(L/a)cosh(x/a) + sinh(x/a)] + cosh(x/a)/cosh(L/a) Not provided
is fully restrained against 1/cosh(L/a) x2/(2a2)}
both warping and torsion.
= [Ta/(GITL)] {K10[1 tanh(L/a)sinh(x/a) + cosh(x/a)] + sinh(x/a)/cosh(L/a) x/a}
= [T/(GITL)] {K10[ tanh(L/a)cosh(x/a) + sinh(x/a)] + cosh(x/a)/cosh(L/a) 1}
= [T/(GITaL)] {K10[ tanh(L/a)sinh(x/a) + cosh(x/a)] + sinh(x/a)/cosh(L/a)}
T

10 Torsional restraints at = [2T/(GIT)] [x/6 xa2/L2 + (a2/L)sinh(x/a)/sinh(L/a) x3/(6L2)] Not provided


0 both ends. 2 2 2 2
= [2T/(GIT)] [1/6 a /L + (a/L)cosh(x/a)/sinh(L/a) x /(2L )]
No end restraint
against warping. = [2T/(GIT)] [(1/L)sinh(x/a)/sinh(L/a) x/L2]
2T /L
Torque per unit length = [2T/(GIT)] {[1/(aL)]cosh(x/a)/sinh(L/a) 1/L2}
varying from zero at LH
end (x = 0) to 2T/L at RH
T end (x = L). Total torque T.

K1 = {[1 - cosh(L/a)]/tanh(L/a) + [cosh(L/a) - 1]/sinh(L/a) + sinh(L/a) - L/a} / {[cosh(L/a) + cosh(L/a) cosh(L/a) - cosh(L/a) - 1]/ sinh(L/a) +
( - 1)L/a - sinh(L/a)}
K2 = [cosh(L/a) - 1]/[ K1sinh(L/a)] + [cosh(L/a) - cosh(L/a) + (L/a)sinh(L/a)]/sinh(L/a)
K3 = 1/sinh(L/a) + sinh(L/a) - cosh(L/a)]/tanh(L/a)
K4 = sinh(L/a) - cosh(L/a)]/tanh(L/a) + 1/tanh(L/a)
K5 = [1 - cosh(L/a)]/[K1tanh(L/a)] + [1 - cosh(L/a) cosh(L/a)]/sinh(L/a)
K8 = tanh(L/a)[L/a - sinh(L/a)] + cosh(L/a)
K10 = [L2/(2a2) - 1 + 1/cosh(L/a)]/[tanh(L/a) - (L/a)]

Caution:NotethecommentsinSections2.6and7.6beforeassumingwarpingfixityatmemberends(indicatedbythevice-likedevice).

75
In every case, T is the total torque acting on the member.
appenDix D:
solutions for anD
its Derivatives - graphs

Thefollowinggraphsareprovided:

StruCture loadIng graPh Parameter


Beam, no warping fixity Single point torque (Case 3) A
at ends

Single point torque (Case 3) B

Point torques at third and quarter C


points (based on Case 3)
UD torque (Case 4)
Point torques at third and quarter D
points (based on Case 3)
UD torque (Case 4)
Cantilever with warping Point torque at tip (Case 7) E and
fixity at support UD torque (Case 8)

Beam, no warping fixity Uniformly increasing torque F and


at ends (Case 10)

Cautionary notes on use of the graphs


ItshouldalwaysberecognisedthatthevalueofTapplicabletothegraphsand
formulaeisthetotalappliedtorque,notthegreatestvalueoftorsionalmomentinthe
beam.Inasimplebeamwithacentraltorque,forexample,thetorsionalmomentin
eachhalfofthebeamisonlyhalftheappliedtorque.

InatypicalSlimflorconstructionstagecalculation(usinggraphsC&D),Tistheslab
reactionperunitlengtheccentricitylengthofthebeam,end-to-end.

77
78
10

1
9 0.
=

Appendix D: Graphs

5
0.1
8 =

0. 2
=
7

0.25
=
0.3
6 =
L/a
.4
=0
5 .5
=0

4 2

L/a 1
GI T
at x = L
Ta
2
T

0
L 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
1
L
GI T /( Ta)

DETAIL
0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

GI T /( Ta)

Graph A, for Both ends restrained against torsion but free to warp
Case 3: Single point
torque T at x = aL
10.0

9.0

8.0
GI T a
at z = L
T
7.0 T

L
6.0 L
L/a
1
0.
5.0 =

5
0.1
=
0.2
4.0 =
5
0.2
= .3

=0
3.0

0.4
=
0.5
=
2.0

1.0

0.0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

GI T a/T

Both ends restrained against torsion but free to warp


Graph B, for
Case 3: Single point

79
torque T at x = aL
80
10.0

T (uniformly distributed)

9.0
A
Appendix D: Graphs

T/3 T/3 T/3


1/4 point B
8.0

C
T/2 T/2
1/3 point
7.0
D

6.0

L/a

5.0

4.0

1.5

3.0 L/a 1

A uniformly
0.5
2.0 distributed torque

B 1/4 point torque


GIT
at midspan 0
Ta
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
1.0
C 1/3 point torque GI T /( Ta)
GIT DETAIL
D 1/3 point torque at third point
Graph C, for Ta
0.0
Case 4: Torque T
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
uniformly distributed.
Case 3: Symmetrical GI T /( Ta)
combinations of Both ends restrained against torsion but free to warp
third point and
quarter point loading
10.0

T (uniformly distributed)

9.0

T/3 T/3 T/3


8.0 1/4 point

7.0 T/2 T/2


1/3 point

6.0

A
L/a
5.0
B

4.0 C

3.0 A uniformly
distributed torque GIT
at midspan
a
2.0 B 1/4 point torque
GIT
C 1/3 point torque at third point
1.0
a

0.0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Graph D, for GI T a/T


Case 4: Torque T
Both ends restrained against torsion but free to warp
uniformly distributed.
Case 3: Symmetrical
combinations of
third point and

81
quarter point loading
82
10.0

A
GIT at free end
Uniformly distributed torque Ta point torque
Appendix D: Graphs

9.0
at the end
T GIT
B at support
T
8.0

Point torque at the end GIT


C at free end uniformly
7.0 T Ta
distributed
GIT torque
D at support
6.0
T A

L/a B
5.0
C

D
4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

Graph E, for and 0.0

Cantilever with 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
warping fixity
at support. GI T /Ta or GIT a/T
Case 7: Point
torque at tip.
Case 8: Uniformly
distributed torque
10.0

9.0

8.0

7.0

6.0
A
L/a
5.0 B
m

4.0

3.0
GIT
A at midspan
Ta
2.0
GIT
B at midspan
a
1.0
T is the total torque. T = mL /2

0.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

GI T /Ta or GIT a/T

Both ends restrained against torsion but free to warp

Graph F, for and


Case 10: Uniformly

83
increasing torque
appenDix e:
Design examples

ThisAppendixpresentssixdesignexamples,asfollows:

example 1 - unrestraIned beam example 4 - lIntel In CavIty


wIth eCCentrIC poInt load 87 wall usIng a uKpFC 117
1.1 Configuration 87 4.1 Configuration 117
1.2 Section properties 87 4.2 Section properties 117
1.3 Actions 88 4.3 Actions 118
1.4 Design value of bending moment 4.4 Combination of actions 120
and shear force 88 4.5 Design value of vertical bending
1.5 Design values of torsional effects at ULS 88 moment and shear 118
1.6 Cross sectional resistance 92 4.6 Design value of torsional effects at ULS 119
1.7 Buckling resistance 93 4.7 Cross sectional resistance 121
1.8 Serviceability limit state 95 4.8 Buckling resistance 123
4.9 Serviceability limit state 125
example 2 - Crane beam
4.10 Commentary 125
subjeCt to two wheel loads 96
2.1 Configuration 96 example 5 - lIntel In CavIty
2.2 Section Properties 97 wall usIng a hollow seCtIon 127
2.3 Design values of vertical and horizontal 5.1 Configuration 127
bending moments and shear 97 5.2 Section properties 127
2.4 Design values of torsional effects at ULS 97 5.3 Actions 128
5.4 Combination of actions 128
example 3 - asb at varIous
5.5 Design value of vertical bending moment 128
stages oF SlimFlOR
5.6 Design values of torsional effects 128
ConstruCtIon 106
5.7 Cross sectional resistance 129
3.1 Configuration 106
5.8 Buckling resistance 130
3.2 Section properties 106
5.9 Serviceability limit state 130
3.3 Actions 107
5.10 Commentary 130
3.4 Design values of vertical bending
moments and shear forces at ULS 108 example 6 - end plate
3.5 Design values of torsional effects at ULS 108 ConneCtIon 131
3.6 Cross sectional resistance 111 6.1 Configuration 131
3.7 Buckling resistance 113 6.2 Design values of forces on connection 131
3.8 Serviceability limit state 115 6.3 Approach one 131
6.4 Approach two 132

85
Appendix E: Examples

86
Example1 - Unrestrained beam with eccentric pointload

1.1 Configuration
Asimplysupportedbeamspans4mwithoutintermediaterestraint.Itissubjecttoa
permanentconcentratedloadof74kNatmid-span,whichisattachedtothebottom
flangeataneccentricityof75mm.

Verifythetrialsection254UKC73(S275).

254 UKC 73

2 2
0.075

74 kN

Anyrestraintprovidedbytheendplateconnectionsagainstwarpingispartial,unreliable
andunquantifiable.Theendsofthememberwillthereforebeassumedtobefreetowarp.

Note: This example is similar to Example 6 in SCI publication P364. That example only
uses a simplified assessment of torsional effects.

1.2 Section properties


For254UKC73inS275

SCI P363 b =254.6 mm


h =254.1 mm
t w =8.6 mm
t f =14.2 mm
I w =0.562 dm6
I T =57.6 cm4
r =12.7 mm
A =9310 mm2
Wpl,y =992 cm2
Wpl,z =465 cm2
I z =3910 cm4
Table A.2 a =1.59 m

87
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

Fort<16 mmandS275

BS EN 10025-2, fy =ReH= 275 N/mm2


Table 7

1.3 Actions

1.3.1 Partial factor for actions


BS EN 1990 Permanentactions G = 1.35
Table NA.A1.2(B)
1.3.2 Combination of actions at ULS
BSEN1990presentstwooptionsfordeterminingtheeffectduetocombinationof
actionstobeusedfortheultimatelimitstateverification.Herethelessfavourable
combinationfromExpression(6.10a)and(6.10b)isdetermined.

Expression(6.10b)willusuallybethegoverningcaseintheUK,exceptforcaseswhere
thepermanentactionsaregreaterthan4.5timesthevariableactions.

BS EN 1990 6.4.3.2, However,asthereareonlypermanentactionspresent,6.10awillbemoreonerous


NA.2.2.3.2 than6.10bandsogovernsthedesign.

Fortheconcentratedloadactingatmid-spanwithaneccentricityof75mm.

F d =GGk=1.35 74=100 kN

T d =0.075Fd=0.075 100=7.5 kNm

Forthebeamselfweight:

fd =G gk=1.35 0.716=0.97 kN/m

1.4 Design value of bending moment and shear force


Atmid-span:

My,Ed =100 4/4 + 0.97 42/8=102 kNm

Atthesupport:

VEd =100/2 + 0.97 4/2 = 52 kN

1.5 Design values of torsional effects at ULS

1.5.1 Simplified assessment of effects


3-1-1/6.2.7(7) Asasimplification,formemberswithopencrosssections,theeffectsofStVenant
torsionmaybeneglected.

88
Thetorqueshouldthenbeconsideredasacouple,appliedtotheflanges,wherethe
forceisgivenby:

Fw,d =Td /(htf) =7.5/(0.254 0.014) = 31.3 kN

Thebendingmomentinaflangeatmid-spanisthus:

Mw,Ed = (31.3 4)/4 = 31.3 kNm

1.5.2 Assessment of effects, allowing for elastic interaction between


StVenant torsion and warping torsion
Theflangesareunrestrainedagainstwarpingattheirendsandthebeamissubject
toapointtorque;graphsAandBinAppendixDandtheexpressionsinCase3in
AppendixCarethusapplicable.

Forthisbeam:

L 4
= = 2.52
a 1.59

Inthiscase,thetorqueactsatmid-spanandthus = 0.5

Rotation

FromGraphA,for = 0.5andL/a= 2.52:

GI T
= 0.21
Td a

Therefore

0.21 7.5 1.59


= = 0.053 rad (3)
81 10 6 57.6 108

Minoraxismomentinducedbyrotation:

Mz,Ed = My,Ed= 0.053 102= 5.4 kNm

Warping moment

FromGraphB,for = 0.5andL/a= 2.52:

GI T a
= 0.425
T

0.425 7.5
= = 0.043 rad/m2
81 106 57.6 108 1.59

89
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

Thewarpingmomentatmid-spanisthus:

h tf
Mw,Ed =-EIf
2

whereIfIz /2

Therefore:

210 106 19.55 106 ( 0.254 0.014 ) 0.043


Mw,Ed = = 21.1 kNm
2

Thismomentoccursineachflange(inoppositedirections).

Note: Only in the top flange does warping moment act in the same direction as the
minor axis moment induced by rotation.

Commentary:EvaluationoftheexpressionsinAppendixC,Case3,alongthelengthof
thebeamwouldgivethefollowingbendingmomentdiagram:

25.0

20.0
Warping moment Mw,Ed (kNm)

15.0

10.0

5.0

0.0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

-5.0
Warping moment due Distance along beam, x/L
to point torque

ItmaybenotedthattheinteractionwithStVenanttorsionhasreducedthepeak
warpingmoment(relativetothatinthesimplifiedassessment,byapproximately33%
(21.1kNmcomparedto31.3kNm).

StVenant torsional moment

TheStVenanttorsionalmomentisgivenbyT=GIT(seeSection2.3).

NographsareprovidedinAppendixDfor,butitsvaluemaybeobtainedfrom
expressionsinAppendixC.

For = 0.5theexpressionforapointtorquesimplifiesto:

Td 1 sinh ( L / 2a )
= + cosh ( L 2a ) cosh ( x a )
GI T 2 tanh ( L / a )

90
Atthememberend,x= 0and

Td 1 sinh 1.26 T
= + cosh 1.26 cosh 0 = d 0.238
GI T 2 tanh 2.52 GI T

Tt,Ed =GIT=Td 0.238 = 0.238 7.50 = 1.78 kNm

FurtherevaluationoftheexpressionsinAppendixCwouldrevealthesharingof
torsionalmomentbetweenStVenanttorsionandwarpingtorsionalongthelengthof
thebeam.Thefollowingplotshowsthevariation.

5.00

4.00 Total torsional moment


St Venant torsional moment
3.00
Warping torsional moment
Torsional moment (kNm)

2.00

1.00

0.00
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-1.00

-2.00

-3.00

-4.00

-5.00
Variation of torsional
moment along Distance along the beam, x/L
the beam

1.6 Cross sectional resistance

1.6.1 Bending resistance


ForthisClass1section,thebendingresistanceaboutthemajoraxisis:

Wpl,y f y
3-1-1/6.2.5(2) My,Rd =
M0

M0= 1.0,accordingtotheUKNA

992 106 275 103


My,Rd = = 273 kNm
1.0

My,Ed = 102 kNm < My,Rd= 273 kNm

Thebendingresistanceabouttheminoraxisis:

Wpl,z f y 465 106 275 103


Mz,Rd =Mpl,z,Rd= = = 128 kNm
M0 1.0

91
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

Mz,Ed = 5.4 kNm < My,Rd= 128 kNm

Thewarpingresistanceofoneflangeis:

Mw,Rd =Mpl,f,Rd=Mpl,z,Ed /2 = 64 kNm > Mw,Ed= 21.1 kNm

Considertheplasticinteractioncriterion,asgiveninSection3.1.2:

2
M y,Ed M w,Ed M z,Ed
+ + 1
M pl,y,Rd M pl,f,Rd M pl,z,Rd

2
102 21.1 5.4
273 + 64 + 128 = 0.14 + 0.33 + 0.04 = 0.51 1 OK

Inthisexample,theloadingatmid-spanisappliedthroughatensionrodthatpasses
througha27mmdiameterholeinthebottomflange.Itisthereforenecessarytofind
outwhetherthebendingresistancesneedtobereducedtotakeaccountofthehole.

Accordingto6.2.5(4),fastenerholesinatensionflangemaybeignoredprovidedthat:

Af,net 0.9 f u Af f y

M2 M0

ForS275steel,fu= 430 N/mm2

BS EN 10025-2 M2 = 1.10,accordingtotheUKNA

Af = 254 14.2 = 3610 mm2

Af,net =Af - 27 14.2 = 3220 mm2

3220 0.9 430 3610 275


103 = 1130 kN and 103 = 993 kN
1.1 1.0

So,theholemaybeignoredforbendingaboutthemajoraxis.

Forlateralbendingofthebottomflange,thereisnosimplecriteriontopermit
neglectingthehole.Thevalueofthesectionmodulusfortransversebendingshould
thereforebeevaluatedfortheflangewiththehole,althoughthecalculationofan
appropriateplasticmodulusforaflangewithaholeononesideisnotstraightforward.
Consideringherethattheholeremovesapproximately20%oftheareaofoneflange
outstand,thattheutilizationofthetopflangecalculatedaboveisonly51%andthat
thewarpingmomentandminoraxismomentareinoppositedirectionsinthebottom
flange,theadequacyofthebottomflangeisjudgedsatisfactory.

92
1.6.2 Shear resistance
Plastic shear resistance

Withouttorsion,theplasticshearresistanceofthebeamisgivenby:

Av f y / 3
Vpl,Rd =
M0

ForanIsection:

Av =A - 2btf + (tw + 2r)tf,butnotlessthanhwtw


= 9310 - 2 (254 14.2) + (8.6 + 2 12.7) 14.2 = 2560 mm2
h w =h - 2tf=254 - (2 14.2) = 226 mm
3-1-5/NA.2.4 = 1.0(accordingtoUKNAtoBSEN1993-1-5)

Thushwtw= 1.0 226 8.6 = 1940 mm2

2560 > 1940

ThereforeAv= 2560 mm2

2560 275 / 3
Vpl,Rd = 103 = 406 kN
1.0

Reduced shear resistance in the presence of torsion

TheshearresistanceisreducedbythepresenceofStVenanttorsionalshearstressintheweb.

Inordertocalculatethereductioninavailableresistanceduetotorsion,itisnecessary
toevaluatethetorsionalshearstressintheweb.Thisisgivenby:

t,Ed =Tt,Ed t/IT

= 1.78 106 8.6/57.6 104 = 26.6 N/mm2

3-1-1/6.2.7(9) Thereductionfactor= 1
t,Ed 26.6 3
= 1 = 0.93
1.25 f y / 3 1.25 275

Vpl,T,Rd = 0.93 406 = 378 kN

VEd = 52 kN < Vpl,T,Rd= 378 kNOK

Notethat,withthislevelofshearstresstherewouldbenoreductioninplasticbending
resistance,evenifthetwoeffectswerecoexistent.Inthiscase,thereisnoStVenant
torsionalmomentatmid-span.

1.7 Buckling resistance

1.7.1 Lateral torsional buckling resistance


Thebucklingresistancemomentisdeterminedfrom:
LTWy f y
3-1-1/6.3.2.1(1) Mb,Rd =
M1

93
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

M1= 1.0,accordingtotheUKNA
ForthisClass1section,Wy=Wpl,y

ThevalueofthereductionfactorLT isdeterminedfromabucklingcurveaccordingto
thenondimensionalslenderness LT,whichisgivenby:

Wy f y
3-1-1/6.3.2.1(1) LT =
M cr

Fortheconfigurationofthisbeam,theelasticcriticalmomentMcrisgivenbyLTBeam
asMcr= 1049 kNm

273
Therefore, LT= = 0.51
1049

3-1-1/NA.2.17 Foradoublysymmetricrolledsectionwithh/b < 2,theUKNAdirectsthatbuckling


curvebof6.3.2.3shouldbeused.

Buckling curve b For LT = 0.51, LT= 0.95

Wy fy 0.95 992 106 273 103


3-1-1/6.3.2.1(1) Mb,Rd =LT = = 259 kNm
M1 1.0

1.7.2 Interaction of LTB with minor axis bending and torsion


AsdiscussedinSection3.2,usetheformulainAnnexAofBSEN1993-6.ForM0=M1
thismaybere-expressedas:

M y,Ed Cmz M z,Ed k w kzw kM w,Ed


+ + 1
M b,Rd M z,Rd M w,Rd

3-1-1/Table B.3 Here:


Cmz = 0.9(near-triangularbendingmomentdiagram)
M w,Ed 21.1
k w = 0.7 - 0.2 = 0.7 - 0.2 = 0.63
M w,Rd 64
M z,Ed 5.4
kzw =1- =1- = 0.96
M z,Rd 128

M y,Ed 102
k = 1/(1 - ) = 1/(1 - ) = 1.11
M cr 1049

Thecriterionisevaluatedas:

102 0.9 5.4 0.63 0.96 1.11 21.1


+ + = 0.39 + 0.04 + 0.23 = 0.66OK
259 128 64

Therefore,thebucklingresistanceissatisfactory.

94
1.8 Serviceability limit state
ThepartialfactorGatSLSis1.0,comparedwithitsvalueof1.35atULS.Hencethe
SLSactioneffectsareasforULS1/1.35

ser = 0.053/1.35 = 0.039 rad (2.25)

TherearenocommonlyagreedlimitsforpermanentdeflectionsatSLSandthematter
isforthedesignersjudgement.

Inthisexample,thedesignermightneedtoconsidertheeffectofsucharotationon
thesuspensionrod,unlessitisattachedinawaywhichpermitsrotation.If,instead
ofasuspensionrod,theloadwereconnectedviaacableattachedtoaneyebolt,a
rotationinexcessoftwodegreesmightbejudgedlessofaconcern.

95
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

Example2 - Crane beam subject to two wheel loads

2.1 Configuration
Acranebeamspans7.5mwithoutintermediaterestraint.Verifythechosen533210
UKB101sectionundertheconditionshownbelow,inwhichtwowheelloads3mapart
actatraillevel65mmabovethebeam.

TheULSdesignvaluesoftheloadsfromthewheelsofthecraneare50kNvertical
togetherwith3kNhorizontal.

Allow2kN/mforthedesignvalueoftheselfweightofthebeamandcranerail.

Considerthedesigneffectsforthelocationshownbelow(whichgivesmaximum
verticalbendingmoment).

3 3

0.065
Rail level

533 x 210 UKB 101 S275

7.5

3 m (= 0.4 L) 50kN 50kN


6 m (= 0.8 L )

2 kN/m

L = 7.5 m
(Elevations)

3kN 3kN

(Plan view)

Assumethatanelastomericpadwillbeprovidedbetweentherailandthebeam.
AccordingtoEN1993-6,6.3.2.2(2),theverticalwheelreactionshouldthenbetaken
asbeingeffectivelyappliedatthelevelofthetopoftheflangeandthehorizontalload
attheleveloftherail.

96
2.2 Section properties
SCI P363 For533210UKB101,sectionpropertiesinclude:
h =536.7 mm
b =210 mm
t w =10.8 mm
t f =17.4 mm
Wpl,y =2610 cm3
Wpl,z =399 cm3
r =12.7 mm
A =12900 mm2
I z =26.8 cm4 (=26.8 108 m4)
I T =101 cm4 (=101 108 m4)
I w =1.8 dm6 (=1.81 106 m6)
Table A.1 a =2.16 m
I f =Iz /2 =13.4 cm4 (13.4 106 m4)

BS EN 10025-2, Fort>16 mmandS275


Table 7

fy =ReH=265 N/mm2

2.3 Design values of vertical and horizontal bending


moments and shear
ThebendingmomentduetotheverticalpointloadsandtheselfweightUDLis:

My,Ed = (50 0.6 + 50 0.2) 3.0 + 7.5 3.0 - 2 3.02/2 = 133.5 kNm

Thebendingmomentduetothehorizontalpointloadsis:

Mz,Ed = (3 0.6 + 3 0.2) 3.0 = 7.2 kNm

Note: This is not the full Mz,Ed since rotation will induce an additional My.

Atthelefthandsupport:

VEd = 50 (0.6 + 0.2) = 40 kN underthegivenloading

VEd = 50 (1 + 0.6) = 80 kN withthelefthandwheeladjacenttothesupport

2.4 Design values of torsional effects at ULS


Thememberissubjecttohorizontalforcesattwopoints,appliedatraillevel.

Distancefromcentroid/shearcentreofbeam:

d = 536.7/2 + 65 = 333 mm

97
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

Torqueappliedateachposition= 333 3 103 = 1.0 kNm

2.4.1 Simplified assessment of effects


3-1-1/6.2.7(7) Asasimplification,formemberswithopencrosssections,theeffectsofStVenant
torsionmaybeneglected.

Eachtorqueshouldthenbeconsideredasacouple,appliedtotheflanges,wherethe
forceisgivenby:

Fw,d =Td /(htf)= 1.00 / (0.537 0.017) = 1.92 kN

Thebendingmomentsinaflangearethus:

Mw,Ed = (1.92 0.6 + 1.92 0.2) 3.0 =4.61 kNm attheleftwheel

Mw,Ed = (1.92 0.8 + 1.92 0.4) 1.5 = 2.88 kNm attherightwheel

Bending moment
2.88 kNm
diagram for warping
4.61 kNm
moment (simplified
assessment)

2.4.2 Assessment of effects, allowing for elastic interaction between


StVenant torsion and warping torsion
Theflangesareassumedtobeunrestrainedagainstwarpingatthememberends
andthusGraphsAandBinAppendixDandtheexpressionsinCase3inAppendixC
areapplicable.Sincethegraphsdonotcaterfor > 0.5,theexpressionsinthe
Appendixwillbeuseddirectly.

Forthisbeam:

L 7.5
= = 3.47
a 2.16

ConcentratedtorquesTd= 1 kNmat= 0.4and0.8willbeconsideredinturn.Since


thecalculationisalinearelasticone,theprincipleofsuperpositionapplies.

Rotations

Appendix C, Case 3 Therotationsinthebeamaregivenby:

L
sinh
T x a L x
= d (1 ) + cosh sinh forx L
GI T a tanh L a a
a

98
L
Td sinh a x L x
= ( L x ) + sinh sinh cosh forx L
GI T a tanh L a a a
a

Attheleft-handwheel,duetoitstorque(= 0.4andx=L):

Td a 0.6 3.0 sinh ( 3.0 2.16 )


= + sinh ( 3.0 /2.116) sinh ( 3.0 / 2.16) cosh ( 3.0 / 2.16 )
GI T 2.16 tanh ( 7.5/ 2.16 )
Td a
= [0.371]
GI T

Attheleft-handwheelduetotheright-handwheeltorque(= 0.8andx<L)

Td a 0.2 3.0 sinh ( 6.0 2.16 )


= + cosh ( 6.0 / 2.16 ) sinh ( 3.0 / 2.16 )
GI T 2.16 tanh ( 7.5 / 2.16 )
Td a
= [0.190]
GI T

Thetorqueateachlocationis1.00kNm,hencesuperpositiongives:

Td a 1.00 2.16
= [0.371 + 0.190] = 0.561 = 0.0146 rad (0.84)
GI T 81 106 101 108

Commentary:Evaluatingtherotationalongthebeamwouldgivethefollowing
deflectiondiagram:

0.70

0.60 LH wheel
RH wheel
0.50 Combined wheels
Rotation GIT /Ta

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

Rotation of crane
beam due to two 0.00
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
pointloads at 0.4L
Distance along beam (x/L)
and 0.8L

Themaximumrotationoccursbetweenthetwowheelsandisslightlygreaterthanthat
attheleft-handwheel.

Minor axis bending

Theadditionalminoraxisbendingmomentduetotherotationis:

Mz,Ed = 0.0146 My,Ed= 0.0146 133.5 = 1.95 kNm

99
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

Thetotalminoraxismomentisthus:

Mz,Ed = 1.95 + 7.2 = 9.2 kNm

Warping moment

Thewarpingmomentintheflangedependson,whichisgivenby:

L
sinh
Td a cosh L x
= sinh forxL
GI T a tanh L a a
a

L
sinh
Td a x L x
= sinh sinh cosh forxL
GI T a tanh L a a a
a

Attheleft-handwheel,duetoitstorque(= 0.4andx=L):

Td sinh ( 3.0 2.16 )


= sinh ( 3.0 / 2.16 ) sinh (3..0 / 2.16 ) cosh ( 3.0 / 2.16 )
GI T a tanh ( 7.5 / 2.16 )
Td
= [0.462]
GI T a

Attheleft-handwheelduetotheright-handwheeltorque(= 0.8andx<L):

Td sinh ( 6.0 2.16 )


= cosh ( 6.0 / 2.16 ) sinh ( 3.0 / 2.16 )
GI T a tanh ( 7.5 / 2.16 )
Td
= [0.088]
GI T a

Superpositiongives:

Td 1.00
= [ 0.462 0.088] = [ 0.550] = 3.11 103
GI T a 81 10 101 108 2.16
6

Thewarpingmomentineachflangeisgivenby:

EI w 210 106 1.81 106


Mw,Ed = = 3.11 103 = 2.28 kNm
( h tf ) ( 0.537 0.017 )

Alternatively,Mw,Edcouldbederiveddirectlyfromthevalue[0.550]aboveusing
Mw,Ed=Tda/(h-tf) [0.550]

100
Commentary:Evaluatingthewarpingmomentalongthebeamwouldgivethefollowing
bendingmomentdiagram:

2.50
LH wheel
RH wheel

Warping moment Mw,Ed (kNm)


2.00 Total, two wheels

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Warping moment due Distance along beam, x/L


to two point loads

ItmaybenotedthattheinteractionwithStVenanttorsionhasreducedthepeak
warpingtorsionalmoment,relativetothatdeterminedbythesimplifiedassessmentin
2.4.1,byapproximately50%(2.29kNmcomparedto4.61kNm).

Thereisanequalandoppositewarpingmomentinthebottomflangebutonlyinthe
topflangedoeswarpingmomentactinthesamedirectionasMz.

FurthercalculationswouldrevealthesharingoftorsionalmomentbetweenStVenant
torsionandwarpingtorsion,alongthebeam.Thefollowingplotshowsthevariation.

1.00
Total torsional
moment
0.50
Torsional moment (kNm)

St Venant
torsional moment
0.00
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

-0.50

-1.00

Variation of torsional -1.50


moment along Distance along the beam, x/L
the beam

2.5 Cross sectional resistance

2.5.1 Bending resistance


ForthisClass1section,thebendingresistanceaboutthemajoraxisis:

Wpl,y f y
3-1-1/6.2.5(2) My,Rd =
M0

101
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

M0 = 1.0,accordingtotheUKNA

2610 10-6 265 103


My,Rd = = 692 kNm
1.0
My,Ed = 133.5 kNm <My,Rd= 692 kNm

Thebendingresistanceabouttheminoraxisis:

Wpl,z f y
Mz,Rd = = 399 106 265 103 = 106 kNm >Mz,Ed= 9.2 kNm
M0

Thebendingresistanceofoneflangeis:

Mf,Rd =Mz,Rd/2 = 53 kNm >Mw,Ed= 2.28 kNm

Byinspection,theplasticinteractioncriterioninSection3.1.2issatisfied.

2.5.2 Shear resistance


Theplasticshearresistanceintheabsenceoftorsionis:

3-1-1/6.2.6(2) Vpl,Rd = AvVRd / 3


M0

where:

6.2.6(3) Av =A - 2btf + (tw + 2r) tfbutnotlessthanhwtw


12900 - (2 210 17.4) + (10.8 + 2 12.7) 17.4 = 6220 mm2
h w =h - 2tf= 536.7 - 17.4 = 501.9 mm
NA.2.4 = 1.0accordingtotheUKNAtoBSEN1993-1-5
hwtw = 1 501.9 10.8 = 5420 mm2
6220 mm2 > 5420 mm2

Therefore:

Av = 6220 mm2

Therefore:

Vpl,Rd =
(
6220 265 / 3 ) 10 3
= 952 kN
1.0

ThemaximumStVenanttorsionalmoment,attherighthandsupport,isTt,Ed= 0.6 kNm


(calculationnotgivenherebutmaybeseenonplotabove)hencetheStVenantshear
stressinthewebis:

t,Ed =Tt,Ed tw/IT

= 0.60 106 10.8 / (101 104) = 6 N/mm2

102
ThereductionofshearresistanceduetoStVenanttorsionisthussmallandby
inspectionofthevaluesofVEd,theshearresistanceofthebeamisadequate.

2.6 Buckling resistance

2.6.1 Lateral torsional buckling resistance

LTWy f y
3-1-1/6.3.2.1(1) Mb,Rd =
M1

Forclass1andclass2sectionsWy=Wpl,y

ThereductionfactorforlateraltorsionalbucklingLTisdetermineddirectlyfroma
bucklingcurveusing LT

Wy f y
3-1-1/6.3.2.1(1) LT =
M cr

Foraclass1section

W y =Wpl,y

Underthegivenpatternofloading,LTBeamgivesMcr= 320 kNm

3-6/6.3.2.2 Hadtherebeennoelastomericpadbetweentherailandthebeam,thevertical
loadcouldhavebeenassumedtoactattheleveloftheshearcentreandMcrwould
be455kNm.

2610 10-6 265 103 692


3-1-1/6.3.2.1(1) LT = = = 1.47
320 320

h
3-1-1/NA.2.17 ForaUKBwith > 2usebucklingcurvec
b
3-1-1/6.3.2.3(1) Bucklingcurvecfor LT= 1.47gives:

LT = 0.401

TheUKNationalAnnextoBSEN1993-6referstotheNAtoBSEN1993-1-1forpartial
factorsM0andM1andthisgivesvaluesofbothequalto1.0.

Mb,Rd =LTMy,Rd

Mb,Rd = 0.401 692 = 277 kNm

103
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

2.6.2 Combined bending and torsion resistance


InteractionbetweenLTB,minoraxisbendingandtorsioneffectswillbeverifiedusing
BSEN1993-6(A.1),re-expressedas:

Section 3.2 M y,Ed M z,Ed M w,Ed


+ Cmz + k w kzw k 1
M b,Rd M z,Rd M w,Rd

where:

Cmz istheequivalentuniformmomentfactorforbendingaboutthez-axis,
fromEN1993-1-1TableB.3.

Inthisexample,sincetwo-pointloadingisnotconsideredinTableB.3,itseems
reasonabletotakeCmz= 0.95asforaparabolicbendingmomentdiagramunder
uniformlydistributedload.

M y,Ed 133.5
= = 0.482
M b,Rd 277

Wpl,z f y
Mz,Rd =
M0

399 106 265 103


= = 106 kNm
1

M z,Ed 9.2
= = 0.09
M z,Rd 106

Mw,Rd =
Wpl,f f y
=
( 0.0174 0.21 / 4 ) 265 10
2 3

= 50.8 kNm
M0 1

M w,Ed 2.33
= = 0.05
M w,Rd 50.8

M w, Ed
k w = 0.7 -
M w, Rd

= 0.7 - 0.05 = 0.65

M z, Ed
kzw = 1 -
M z, Rd

= 1 - 0.09= 0.91

1 1
k = M y,Ed = 133.5 = 1.72
1 1
M cr 320

104
Theinteractionexpressionisevaluatedas:

0.48 + 0.95 0.09 + 0.65 0.91 1.72 0.05 = 0.48 + 0.09 + 0.05 = 0.62 < 1

2.7 Serviceability limit state

2.7.1 Displacements
Maximumrotationinservicewillbebetweenthewheels,notunderthem.Also,it
maywellbeexperiencedwhenthecraneisinadifferentpositionfromtheonewhich
generatesmaximummoment.Thesameistrueoftherotationunderawheel,ifthatis
takenasthedesigncriterion.

3-6/7.3 AccordingtoBSEN1993-6,limitsfordeformationsanddisplacementsshouldbe
3-6/Table 7.1 agreedforeachproject.ThelimitingvalueofhorizontaldeformationofL/600givenin
BSEN1993-6fortheSLScharacteristiccombinationofactionsisconsideredhere.

FortheULScombinationofactions,=0.0146 rad,undertheleft-handwheel.

1-3/Table A.1, NA.2.6 ThepartialfactorsonpermanentactionsandcraneactionsatULSarebothequalto


1.35accordingtoBSEN1991-3andtheUKNA.HencetheSLSdeflectionis1/1.35
timestheULSdeflection.

Assumingthatthecentraldeflectionis5%greaterthanattheleft-handwheel,theSLS
rotationatmid-spanis:

0.0146 1.05/1.35 = 0.0114 rad (0.65)

Attopofraillevel,thedisplacementduetotwistis0.0114 0.333 = 0.0038 m (3.8 mm).

Todeterminethehorizontaldisplacementofthebeamundertheinfluenceofthetwo
horizontalforces,forsimplicityconsiderthecentraldeflectionduetotwosymmetrically
placedloadsatadistancedfromtheends:

w =FL3 [3d/4L - (d/L)3]/6EI

Hered= (7.5 - 3)/2 = 2.25 m

Theforceshouldbetakenasthatfromthecraneplusacomponentoftheverticalload
duetotherotation:

F = 3/1.35 + 50/1.35 0.0114 = 2.64 kN

2640 75003 3 2250 2250 3


w = = 6.5 mm
6 210000 2690 104 7500 7500

Totallateraldisplacementatraillevelatmid-span:

w = 3.8 + 6.5 = 10.3 mm

Limit =L/600 = 7500/600 = 12.5 mmOK

105
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

Example 3 - ASB at various stages of construction

3.1 Configuration
Afloorisconstructedusing300ASB153beamsspanning7.5mandspacedat7.5m
centres.TheASBssupport250mmthickhollowcoreunitswithin-situlightweight
concretetoppingtoatotalconcretethicknessof316mm.

Verifythebeamatvariousstagesofexecution,withprecastunitsononeandboth
sidesandwithconstructionloadsononeandbothsides.

Theweightofthehollowcoreunitsis3.4kN/m2(takenfrommanufacturersliterature)
andthedensityofthewetlightweightconcretetoppingistakenas19kN/m3
(correspondingtoadrydensityof1750kg/m3).

30 min Top of in-situ concrete

60 min

316
Hollowcore unit
80 nominal
bearing

40 minimum
bearing

3.2 Section properties


For300ASB153inS355:

P363 ASBisaClass1section
h = 310 mm
bt = 190 mm
bb = 300 mm
tf = 24 mm
tw = 27 mm
A = 196 cm2
Wpl,y = 2160 cm3
Iz = 6840 108 m4
Appendix A IT = 513 108 m4
Iw = 0.895 106 m6
es,bf = 58 mm (shearcentretomidbottomflange)

106
es,c = 66 mm (shearcentretocentroid)
a = 0.672 m

BS EN 10025-2 Fort> 16 mmandS355

f y =ReH= 345 N/mm2

3.3 Actions

3.3.1 Permanent actions


Selfweightofprecastunits gk,1= 3.4 kN/m2

Selfweightofbeam gk,2= 1.5 kN/m

3.3.2 Variable actions


Theweightofwetconcreteqcfistreatedasavariableaction:

qcf = 0.066 19 = 1.25 kN/m2

1-1-6/NA.2.13 BSEN1991-1-6NA.2.13providesrecommendedvaluesforqccandqcabutallows
alternativevaluestobedetermined.

qcc istheconstructionloadduetonon-permanentequipmentinpositionfor
useduringexecution
qca istheconstructionloadduetoworkingpersonnel,staffandvisitors,
possiblywithhandtoolsorothersmallsiteequipment

Advisory Note Forcompositebeamdesign,AD346recommendstheuseof:


AD 346
qcc =0 (Qk,1aintheAD)

qca = 0.75 kN/m2 (Qk,1bintheAD)

Totalvariableactionqk= 2 kN/m2

BS EN 1990 3.3.3 Partial factors for actions


Table NA.A1.2(B) Permanentactions G= 1.35
Variableactions Q= 1.5

3.3.4 Combinations of actions for ULS


BS EN 1990 AnnexA.1ofBSEN1993-1-6recommendstheuseofo= 1.0whichresultsin
expression6.10agoverning.UsingtheUKNationalAnnextoBSEN1990results
inexpression6.10agivingthesamedesignvaluesasexpression6.10forthe
constructionstages.

Table NA.A1.2(B) Here:

fd =Ggk,1 b + Ggk,2 + Qqk b

107
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

wherebisthespacingofthebeams

Considerthreedesignsituations:

1. Onesideofbeamloaded(precastunitsandconstructionloads)

fd = 1.35 3.4 3.75 + 1.35 1.5 + 1.5 2.0 3.75 = 30.5 kN/m

Note: this situation, where the concrete is placed on one side before the units
are in place on the other, would normally be excluded by the method statement.
However, it could arise if there were a construction opening on one side and since
it demonstrates the worst torsional loading, is considered here.

2. Onesideofbeamloadedwithprecastunitsandconstructionloads,theotherwith
precastunitsonly

fd = 1.35 3.4 7.5 + 1.35 1.5 + 1.5 2.0 3.75 = 47.7 kN/m

3. Bothsidesofbeamloadedwithprecastunitsandconstructionloads

fd = 1.35 3.4 7.5 + 1.35 1.5 + 1.5 2.0 7.5 = 59.0 kN/m

3.4 Design values of vertical bending moments & shear forces at ULS
Themajoraxisbendingmomentatmid-spanandtheshearforceattheendsaregivenby:

f d L2 f L
My,Ed = andVEd= d
8 2

Thevaluesforthethreesituationsarethus:

1. My,Ed = 214 kNmandVEd= 114 kN


2. My,Ed = 335 kNmandVEd= 179 kN
3. My,Ed = 415 kNmandVEd= 221 kN

3.5 Design values of torsional effects at ULS

3.5.1 Total torque


Conservatively,assumethatthebearingzoneisreducedto40mm(toallowfor
toleranceinunitlengthandplacement)onSide1andisthenominal80mmon
Side2.Also,assumethatallthewetconcreteandconstructionloadistransferred
throughthebearingoftheprecastunit.Theeccentricityofthereactionisthus130mm
and110mmonthetwosides,respectively.(Thisisaveryconservativeassumption,
forillustrativepurposesinthisguide;withgoodsitecontroltheeccentricitieswould
usuallybeassumedtobeequalonbothsides.)

Thetorqueduetotheprecastunitsis:

Tp1 = 1.35 3.4 3.75 0.130 = 16.8 kNm

108
Tp2 = 1.35 3.4 3.75 0.110 = 14.2 kNm

Thetorqueduetotheconstructionloadsis:

Tc1 = 1.5 2.0 3.75 0.130 = 11.0 kNm

Tc2 = 1.5 2.0 3.75 0.110 = 9.3 kNm

Thenettorqueforeachdesignsituationisthus:

1. Td = 16.8 +11.0 = 27.8 kNm


2. Td = 16.8 +11.0 - 14.2 = 13.6 kNm
3. Td = 16.8 +11.0 - 14.2 - 9.3 = 4.3 kNm

3.5.2 Simplified assessment of torsional effects


SincetheASBisrelativelystiffinStVenanttorsion,thesimplificationofignoringitand
determiningwarpingmomentsdirectlyisnotpursuedinthisexample.

3.5.3 Assessment of effects, allowing for interaction between St Venant


torsion and warping torsion
Theflangesareunrestrainedagainstwarpingattheirendsandthebeamissubjectto
auniformlydistributedtorque;graphsCandDinAppendixDandtheexpressionsin
Case4inAppendixCarethusapplicable.

L 7.5
= = 11.1
a 0.672

Thisisbeyondtherangeofthegraphs,sousetheexpressions.

ForCase4,withx=L/2(i.e.mid-span):

Td a a ( xL x ) + cosh x tanh L sinh x 1


2

=
GI T L 2a 2 a 2a a

Fordesignsituation(1)maximumtorque:

1 11.1 11.1
2
Td 0.674 11.1 11.1
= + cosh tanh sinh 1
GI t 11.1 8 2 2 2

Td a 27.8 0.674 1.3


= 1.30 = = 0.059 rad (3.4)
GI t 81 106 513 108

Astrongcasecanbemadefordiscountingrotationinducedweakdirectionbendingin
thisexample,sincetheloadisnotfreelysuspended.Theprecastunitcanprovidethe
smallhorizontalforcenecessarytokeepitsreactionparalleltotherotatedbeamaxis.

109
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

ForCase4,withx=L/2(i.e.mid-span):

Td a x L x
= 1 + cosh tanh sinh
GI T a L a 2a a

Td 11.13 11.1 11.1


= 11.1 1 + cosh tanh sinh
GI T a 2 2 2

Td
= 0.089
GI T a

Thewarpingmomentinthetopflangeisgivenby:

EI wTd Ta
Mw,Ed =EIw/(h - tf )= 0.089 = d 0.089
GI T a (h tf ) ( h tf )

27.8 0.674 0.089


Mw,Ed = = 5.89 kNm(fordesignsituation(1))
( 0.310 0.024 )
Note: the warping moment in the bottom flange will be equal and opposite, but
obviously the top flange will govern.

Commentary:Evaluatingthewarpingmoment(fordesignsituation(1))alongthebeam
wouldgivethefollowingbendingmomentdiagram:

7.00

6.00
Warping moment Mw,Ed (kNm)

5.00

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Distance along beam, x/L

Warping moment
in flanges

ItisnotnormallyconsiderednecessarytoevaluateandtheStVenanttorsional
moment.However,forillustrativepurposes,thevariationoftorsionalmomentalongthe
beamisshownbelow.

Thediagramshowsthat,asanticipatedinneglectingthesimplifiedassessmentby
warpingalone,themajorityofthetorsionisresistedasStVenanttorsionalmoments.

110
20.0

15.0 Total torsional


moment
St Venant

Torsional moment (kNm)


10.0
torsional moment
5.0 Warping torsional
moment
0.0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-5.0

-10.0

-15.0

-20.0
Distance along the beam, x/L
Variation of torsional
moment along
the beam

Theeffectsforthethreedesignsituationsaresummarizedbelow:

My,Ed Td Mw,Ed Tt,Ed


SItuatIon (knm) (knm) (knm) (knm)
(mid-span) (at support)

1. Precast units and


construction loads on one 214 27.8 5.89 11.4
side of beam
2. Precast units both sides,
construction loads on one 335 13.6 2.88 5.58
side of beam
3. Precast units and
construction loads on 415 4.3 0.91 1.76
both sides of beam

3.6 Cross sectional resistance

3.6.1 Bending resistance


ForthisClass1section,thebendingresistanceaboutthemajoraxisis:

Wpl,y f y
3-1-1/6.2.5(2) My,Rd =
M0

M0= 1.0,accordingtotheUKNA

2160 10-6 345 103


My,Rd = = 745 kNm
1.0

Themaximumverticalbendingmomentonthesteelsectionoccursinsituation(3):

My,Ed = 415 kNm <My,Rd= 745 kNm

Thewarpingresistanceofthetopflangeisitsplasticbendingresistance:

111
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

Wpl,z,tf f y 217 345 103


Table A.4 Mw,Rd = = = 74.8 kNm
M0 1.0

Themaximumwarpingmomentonthesteelsectionoccursindesignsituation(1):

Mw,Ed = 5.89 kNm <Mw,Rd= 74.8 kNm

Considertheplasticinteractioncriterion,asgiveninSection3.1.2:

2
M y,Ed M w,Ed M z,Ed
+ + 1
M pl,y,Rd M pl,f,Rd M pl,z,Rd

(Thisappliestothetopflange)

Bendingabouttheminoraxisisnotconsidered(asdiscussedabove)hencethe
evaluationofthiscriterionis:

2
415 5.89
745 + 74 + 0 = 0.31 + 0.08 + 0 = 0.39 1 OK

3.6.2 Shear resistance


Plastic shear resistance

Withouttorsion,theplasticshearresistanceofthebeamisgivenby:

Av f y / 3
Vpl,Rd =
M0

ForanASBsection:

Av =A - bttf - bbtf + (tw + 2r)tf

= 19500 - 190 24 - 300 24 + (24 + 2 27) 24 = 9610 mm2

9610 345 / 3
Vpl,Rd = 103 = 3320 kN
1.0

ThisresistanceissignificantlygreaterthanVEdforallthreedesignsituations.

Reduced shear resistance in the presence of torsion

TheshearresistanceisreducedbythepresenceofStVenanttorsionalshearstress
intheweb.

Inthiscase,thereductionsduetotheStVenantstresseswillnotbecriticalbutthe
maximumvaluewillbecalculated,forillustrativepurposes.

t,Ed =Tt,Ed t/IT

112
= 11.4 106 24/513 104 = 53 N/mm2 (forCase1)

t,Ed 53 3
Thereductionfactor= 1 = 1 = 0.89
1.25 f y / 3 1.25 345

Vpl,T,Rd = 0.89 3320 = 2940 kN

NotethatStVenantshearstressdoesnot,accordingtoBSEN1993-1-1,reducethe
plasticbendingresistanceofanIsection.

3.7 Buckling resistance

3.7.1 Lateral torsional buckling


Itisassumedthat,duringconstruction,thewetconcreteprovidesnorestrainttothe
ASBandthusitcanbuckleinaLTBmode,inwhichthetopflangedisplaceslaterally.
Itisalsoassumedthatfrictionattheundersideoftheprecastunitsprovidessufficient
lateralrestrainttopreventbendingabouttheminoraxisbutdoesnotinfluencethe
bucklingresistance.

Thebucklingresistanceisgivenby:

W y fy
3-1-1/6.3.2.1(1) Mb,Rd =LT
M1

where:

1
LT = butLT 1.0
LT + LT 2 LT 2

LT =0.5 1 + LT ( LT 0.2 ) + LT2

Wy f y
LT =
M cr

TocalculateMcr,theelasticcriticalmomentforlateraltorsionalbuckling,LTBeam
softwarecanbeused.Atthetimeofwriting,ASBsectionshaveyettobeaddedtoits
cataloguebutdimensionsoftheASBsectionsmaybedirectlyentered.

InLTBeam,theloadscanbeappliedatdifferentlevels.Inthiscase,thereactionsat
theendsoftheprecastunits(whichincludethereactionsduetoconstructionloads)
areappliedatthetopofthebottomflange(whichis58 - 24/2 = 46 mmbelowthe
shearcentre)andtheselfweightofthebeamisappliedatthebeamcentroid(whichis
66mmabovetheshearcentre).

ThelowestvalueofMcrisforsituation(1)(slightlyhighervalueswouldbegiven
forsituations(2)and(3)butforconvenience,thelowestvaluewillbeusedinall
situations).FromLTBeam:

113
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

Mcr = 1135 kNm

Fromthis,thenondimensionalslendernessiscalculatedas:

Wy f y
LT =
M cr

ForthisClass1sectionWy=Wpl,y

2160 10-6 345 103 745


LT = = = 0.810
1135 1135

ForASBsections,usebucklingcurvea(seeSection5.5)

3-1-1/Table 6.3 Forbucklingcurvea,LT= 0.21

3-1-1/6.3.2.2(1) LT = 0.5 [1 + 0.21(0.810 - 0.2) + 0.8102] = 0.892

1
LT = = 0.79
0.892 + 0.8922 0.8102

LTWy f y 0.79 744


Mb,Rd = = = 587 kNm
M1 1.0

ThemaximumdesignbendingmomentisMy,Ed= 415kNm(situation3),sothebuckling
resistanceissatisfactory.

3.7.2 Interaction of LTB with minor axis bending and torsion


AsdiscussedinSection3.2,usetheformulainAnnexAofBSEN1993-6.ForM0=M1
thismaybere-expressedas:

M y,Ed Cmz M z,Ed k w kzw kM w,Ed


+ + 1
M b,Rd M z,Rd M w,Rd

HereMz,Ed= 0,asdiscussedabove,andthuskzw= 1

M w,Ed
kw = 0.7 0.2
M w,Rd

1
k =
M y, Ed
1
M cr

Forsituation(1),My,Ed= 214 kNm,Mw,Ed= 5.89 kNm

M y, Ed 214
= = 0.36
M b , Rd 587

114
M w,Ed 5.89
= = 0.08
M w,Rd 74

k w = 0.7 - 0.2 0.08 = 0.68

1
k = = 1.23
1 ( 214 / 1128 )

Thecriterionisevaluatedas:

0.36 + 0.68 1.23 0.08 = 0.36 + 0.07 = 0.43 < 1 OK

Forsituation(3),My,Ed= 415 kNm,Mw,Ed= 0.91 kNm

M y,Ed 415
= = 0.71
M b,Rd 587

M w,Ed 0.91
= = 0.01
M w,Rd 74

k w = 0.7 - 0.2 0.01 = 0.70

1
k = = 1.58
1 ( 415 / 1128 )

Thecriterionisevaluatedas:

0.71 + 0.70 1.58 0.01 = 0.71 + 0.01 = 0.72 < 1OK

Situation(2)hasintermediatevaluesofMy,EdandMw,Edandisalsosatisfactory,
byinspection.

3.8 Serviceability limit state


AtSLSthepartialfactorsonactionsarebothunityandthusthetotaltorquesare:

1. 16.8/1.35 + 11/1.5 = 12.4 + 7.3 = 19.7 kNm


2. 19.7 - 14.2/1.35 = 9.2 kNm
3. 9.2 - 9.3/1.5 = 2.9 kNm

Therotationsarethus:

1. 19.7/27.8 0.059 = 0.042 rad (2.4)


2. 9.2/27.8 0.059 = 0.020 rad (1.1)
3. 2.9/27.8 0.059 = 0.006 rad (0.4)

Ifnoslabweretobeplacedonthesecondside(i.e.theASBwereanedgebeamor
adjacenttoanopening)mostofthesituation(1)rotationwouldbelockedinwhenthe
concretehardened.

115
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

Inmostsituations,theprecastunitswouldbeplacedonthesecondsidebeforeany
concreteiscastandthusonlythesituation(2)rotationwouldbelockedin,shouldone
sidebecastbeforetheother,oronlythesituation3rotation(ifbothwerecastatthe
sametime).

Atthemaximumrotation,insituation(1),themid-spandeflectionofthetopflange,
assumingthatbottomflangeisrestrainedbytheprecastunits,wouldbe:

0.042 (310 - 24) = 12 mm

Therecommendedlimittolateraldeflection(seeSection5.6)is:

L/500 = 7500/500 = 15 mm

Themaximumdeflectioniswithinthatlimit.

116
Example 4 - Lintel in Cavity Wall using a UKPFC

4.1 Configuration
A300100UKPFCactsasalinteltosupporta2mhighcavitywall.A24010
plateweldedtotheundersideofthechannelsupportstheouterleaf,butwillnotbe
consideredtoactcompositely.

Thebeamislaterallyunrestrainedoveritseffectivespanof5m.Assumethateachend
isrestrainedagainsttorsionbutnotagainstwarping.

102 80 20 90

Key:
S = Shear centre
C = Centroid

Outer Inner
leaf S leaf 3 kN/m

5.18 kN/m
Beam
0.45 kN/m
300 x 100 UKPFC
S275

160 240 x 10 plate

Plate

4.2 Section properties


SCI P363 Fora30010046UKPFC

t f = 16.5 mm
t w = 9 mm
h = 300 mm
b = 100 mm
r = 15 mm
I T = 36.8 104 mm4
i z = 31.3 mm
Wpl,y = 641 cm3
A = 58.0 102 mm2

117
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

Appendix A e0 = 36.8 mm(fromcentrelineofweb)


es,c = 62.7 mm(shearcentretocentroid)
I w = 81.3 109 mm6
a = 765 mm

Fortf > 16 mmandS275

BS EN 10025-2 fy =ReH= 265 N/mm2

4.3 Actions
Thepermanentloadsonthebeamare:

Outerleaf:2.3 mheightofbrickworkat2.25 kN/m2 gk,1 = 5.18 kN/m


Innerleaf: 2.0 mheightofblockworkat1.5 kN/m2 gk,2 = 3 kN/m
Beam: 46 kg/m gk,3 = 0.45 kN/m
Plate: 0.24 0.01 7850 = 18.8 kg/m gk,4 = 0.18 kN/m
Total: gk,tot= 8.81 kN/m

Takingmomentsabouttheshearcentre(clockwisepositive),thetorquesare:

Outerleaf:5.18 (-0.131 - 0.0045 + 0.0367) =- 0.512 kNm/m


Innerleaf:3 (0.065 - 0.0045 + 0.0367) = 0.292 kNm/m
Beam: 0.45 0.0627 = 0.028 kNm/m
Plate: 0.18 (-0.040 - 0.0045 + 0.0367) =- 0.001 kNm/m
Total torque: =- 0.193 kNm/m

Partialfactorforpermanentactions
BS EN 1990 Table G = 1.35
NA.A1.2
4.4 Combination of actions
BS EN 1990 Asthereareonlypermanentactionspresent,equation6.10(a)willbemoreonerous
than6.10(b)andwillthereforegovern.Thedesignvalueforthecombinationofactions
atULSis:

f d =G gk,i= 1.35gk,tot= 1.35 8.81 = 11.9 kN/m

Thedesignvalueofthetotalappliedtorqueonthe5mlongbeamis:

T d = 1.35 0.193 5 = 1.30 kNm(actinganticlockwise)

4.5 Design value of vertical bending moment and shear


Bendingmomentatmid-span(ULS):

11.9 52
My,Ed = = 37.2 kNm
8

118
Thedesignshearforceateachsupportis:

11.9 5
VEd = =30 kN
2

4.6 Design value of torsional effects at ULS

4.6.1 Simplified assessment of effects


Considerthetorsionresistedonlybywarping.Thetotaltorqueisequivalenttoacouple
F= 1.30/(h tf) = 1.30/0.2835 = 4.59 kN.

ThisforceactsasaUDLalongeachflangeandthusthebendingmomentineach
flangeisgivenby:

4.59 5
Mw,Ed = = 2.87 kNm
8

4.6.2 Assessment of effects, allowing for elastic interaction between


St Venant torsion and warping torsion
Theflangesareassumedtobeunrestrainedagainstwarpingatthememberends
andthusGraphsCandDinAppendixDandtheexpressionsinCase4inAppendixC
areapplicable.

Forthisbeam:

L 5.0
= = 6.54
a 0.765

FromGraphC,curveA,withL/a = 6.54:

GI T
= 0.675
TEd a

FromGraphD,curveA,withL/a = 6.54:

aGIT
= 0.14
TEd

whence:

0.675 1.30 0.765


= = 0.0225 rad (1.29)
(81 106 36.8 108 )

Minoraxismomentduetorotation:

Mz,Ed =My,Ed= 0.0225 37.2 = 0.837 kNm

0.140 1.30 646 103


= =
(G 36.8 108 0.765) G

119
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

EI w
WarpingmomentMw,Ed=
( h tf )
TakingE/G = 2.6,thisgives:

8.13 108 646 103


Mw,Ed = 2.6 = 0.48 kNm
( 0.3 0.0165)

Themomentinthetopflange(= 0.48 + 0.84/2 = 0.90 kNm)issignificantlylessthan


calculatedbythesimplifiedassessment(2.87 kNm).

Commentary:EvaluationoftheexpressionsinAppendixDwouldgivethevariationofwarping
momentandtorsionalmomentsalongthebeam.Theyareshownbelowforinformation.

0.60

0.50
Warping moment Mw,Ed (kNm)

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

-0.10

Distance along beam, x/L


Warping moment in
flanges of lintel

0.80

Total torsional
0.60 moment
St Venant torsional
moment
0.40
Warping torsional
moment
Torsional moment

0.20

0.00
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

-0.20

-0.40

-0.60

-0.80
Variation of torsional Distance along the beam, x/L
moment along
the beam

120
4.7 Cross sectional resistance
Partialfactorforresistance
3-1-1/NA.2.15 M0 = 1.0

4.7.1 Bending resistance


ThechannelisaClass1section.

ForaClass1section,thebendingresistanceaboutthemajoraxisisgivenby:

W pl , y fy 641 103 265 106


BS EN 1993-1-1 Mc,y,Rd = = = 170 kNm
6.2.5(2) M0 1.0

Mc,y,Rd>My,Ed= 37.2 kNm

Thebendingresistanceabouttheminoraxisis:

Wpl,z fy 148 10 -6 265 103


Mc,z,Rd = = = 39 kNm
M0 1.0

Thewarpingresistanceofoneflange(onitsown,withoutpartoftheweb)is:

Mw,Rd = M w,Rd =
Wf,pl f y
=
(100 2
16.5 4 ) 265
106 = 10.9 kNm
M0 1.0

Mw,Rd>Mw,Ed= 0.90 kNm

4.7.2 Shear resistance


Shearwouldnotbeexpectedtobesignificant.However,withachannelsectionthe
needarisestoconsiderwebsheararisingfromwarpingaswellasStVenant,sothe
opportunityistakentodemonstratetheprocedure.
ES w2
Theelasticshearstressinthewebduetowarpingisgivenbyt=
tw
TheshearstressinthewebduetoStVenantisgivenbyt= Gtw .

Forthissimplysupportedbeam,botheffectsaregreatestatthesupports
(wherex = 0).TheexpressionsfromAppendixC,whenx = 0are:

TEd a L L
= tanh
GI T L 2a 2a

TEd a L
= tanh
GI T a 2 L 2a

121
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

Hence:

1.30 0.765 5.0 5.0


= 6

8 tanh
81 10 36.8 10 5 2 0.765 2 0.765

=0.015 rad/m

Therefore,theshearstressduetoStVenanttorsionis:

t,Ed =Gtw= 81 103 9 0.015 103 = 10.9 N/mm2

And

1.30 0.765 5.0


= 6 8 tanh
81 10 36.8 10 0.765 5.0 2 0.765

= 0.011 rad/m3

Theshearstressduetowarpingtorsionis:

ES w2
t,Ed =
tw

Appendix A whereSw2 = 260 cm4 (Sw2 > Sw3)

210 103 260 104 (0.011 109 )


w,Ed = = 0.67 N/mm2
9

Theshearstresseswillreducetheverticalshearresistanceoftheweb.

(6.27) ThereductionfactorappliedtoVpl,Rdis:

t,Ed
1 w,Ed
1.25 f y / 3 f y / 3

10.9 3 1 3
= 1
1.25 265 265

= 0.97 - 0.01 = 0.96

Theshearresistanceintheabsenceoftorsionis:

Av f y / 3
Vpl,Rd = M0

122
Where,forachannelsection:

Av = A - 2btf + bf (tw + r)

= 58 102 - (2 100 16.5) + 16.5 (9 + 15) = 2896 mm2

Therefore:

2896 265 3
Vpl,Rd = 103 = 443 kN
1.0

Thus,theshearresistanceinthepresenceoftorsionis:

Vpl,T,Rd = 0.96 443 = 425 kN > VEd = 30 kNSatisfactory

4.8 Buckling resistance

4.8.1 Lateral torsional buckling


Bendingresistanceofthisunrestrainedbeamwillbelimitedbylateraltorsional
buckling.Thenon-dimensionalslendernessneedstobeevaluated.Forthisexample
theloadisnotdestabilizingandtheconservativeapproximationinpublicationP362
willbeused.(TheLTBeamsoftwareusedfortheotherexamplesinthispublicationis
restrictedtosectionssymmetricalabouttheirz-axis.)

L /i z
P362, LT = forS275
Section 6.3.2.3 96
where:
L istheeffectivespanofthebeam= 5 m
5
= = 1.664
0.0313 96

3-1-1/NA.2.17 AccordingtotheNAtoBSEN1993-1-1,forhotrolledsectionsthatarenotdoubly
symmetric,bucklingcurvedshouldbeused.

For LT= 1.66,LT= 0.29

3-1-1/6.3.2.3 Inthiscase,withalargeslendernessvalue,themodificationfactorin3-1-1/6.3.2.3(2)
doesnotofferanyenhancement.

Therefore,

LT Wy fy
Mb,Rd =
M1

SinceM0 = M1thiscanbeexpressedasMb,Rd = LT Mc,Rd

Appendix E, 4.7.1 Mb,Rd = 0.29 170 = 49 kNm

123
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

4.8.2 Interaction of LTB with minor axis bending and torsion


AsdiscussedinSection3.2,usetheformulainAnnexAofBSEN19936.ForM0 = M1
thismaybere-expressedas:

M y, Ed M z,Ed M
+ Cm + k w k zw k d w, Ed
M b,Rd M z,Rd M w,Rd

where:
BS EN 1993-1-1 Cm = 0.95(forasimplysupportedbeamwithauniformload)
Table B.3 M
Section 3.2 kw = 0.7 - 0.2 w,Ed
M w,Rd
M z,Ed
kz,w = 1-
M z,Rd
1
k =
1 ( M y,Ed / M cr )

Inthiscase:

M w, Ed 0.48
= = 0.04
M w,Rd 10.9

M z,Ed 0.84
= = 0.02
M z,Rd 39

M y,Ed 37.2
=
M cr M cr

M y, Ed 37.2
= = 0.76
M b , Rd 49

SinceMcrhasnotbeencalculatedwhilstdetermining LT ,itwillbebackcalculatedfrom:

M y fy
BS EN 1993-1-1 LT =
6.3.2.2(1) M cr

Wy fy
Mcr =
LT2

ForaClass1section,accordingtotheUKNAtoBSEN1993-1-1:

W y f y =Wpl,y fy=My,Rd

170
Mcr = = 61.4 kNm
1.6642

Therefore:

k w = 0.7 - (0.2 0.03)=0.69

124
kzw =1 - 0.03= 0.97

1
k = =2.54
1 ( 37.2 / 61.4 )

Thereforethecriterionisevaluatedas:

37.2
+ 0.95 0.02 + 0.69 0.97 2.54 0.04
49

= 0.76 + 0.02 + 0.07= 0.85

0.85 < 1.0

Therefore,theresistanceofthemembertocombinedbendingandtorsionissatisfactory.

4.9 Serviceability limit state


0.0225
TherotationatSLSwillbe= = 0.019 rad, 1.06.
1.35
Ifacompleteprefabricatedwallwereplacedonthebeam,thetopofthe2mhighwall
would,atmid-span,lean40mmoutfromitsintendedposition.

Inreality,sincethewallwillbelaidincourses,aconsiderabledegreeofcompensation
maybeexpected,especiallyifthebricklayerisawareofthepotentialproblem.Also,if
thetwoleavesarenotbroughtupinparallel,agreatertwistwilloccurwhentheouter
leafisconstructed.Thedesignershouldconsiderwhetheranyspecialrequirementsfor
verticalityneedtobespecified.

Theverticaldeflectionis:

5 f d,ser L4 5 8.81 50004


w = = = 4.1 mm
384 EI y 384 210000 8230 104

Thereisnocommonlyacceptedlimitfordeflectionduetopermanentactionsbutthis
modestdeflectionwouldnormallybesatisfactory.

4.10 Commentary
Thistraditionaldetailisprobablybettersuitedtoshorterspans,becauseofthetwist.
SubstitutionofaRHS,oraproprietaryclosedsectionlintelwouldsignificantlyreduce
twistseeExample5.

Thesimplifiedmethodofassessment,ignoringStVenanttorsion,givesmuchgreater
warpingmomentthanthatdeterminedbyevaluatinginteraction(itisapproximatelysix
timesgreater)andtheinteractionwouldfailthelimitingcriterion.Therotationusing
thatsimplificationhasnotbeenevaluatedbutwouldcertainlybegreater.

Thestressesassociatedwiththeinteractingeffectsaregenerallymodest.

125
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

Theplateweldedtothebottomflangeofthechannelhasbeenignoredinthis
assessment.Ifthecompositeweldedsectionweretobeassessed,thecalculationof
torsionalpropertiesandeffectswouldbequitecomplex;thepositionoftheshearcentre
wouldmovehorizontallyslightly(towardthechannel)anddownwards;sincethewarping
resistanceiscontrolledbythetopflange,therewouldbeverylittleeffectonitsvalue.

126
Example 5 - Lintel in Cavity Wall using a Hollow Section

5.1 Configuration
A3001008rectangularhollowsectionisusedinplaceofthechannelsectionin
Example4.TheoveralldimensionsandselfweightareverysimilartothoseinExample4.

102 80 20 90

Inner leaf
3 kN/m

300 x 100 RHS


S355

Outer
leaf
5.18 kN/m
Beam
0.47 kN/m

160
240 x 10 plate

Plate

5.2 Section properties


Fora3001008RHS
h = 300 mm
b = 100 mm
t = 8 mm
I T = 3070 cm4
Wpl,y = 546 cm3
W t = 387 cm3

TheshearcentreandthecentroidarebothlocatedatthemiddleoftheRHS.

BS EN 10025-2 Fortf < 16 mmandS355

fy =ReH= 355 N/mm2

127
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

5.3 Actions
Thepermanentloadsonthebeam,are:
Outerleaf:2.3 mheightofbrickworkat2.25 kN/m2 gk,1 = 5.18 kN/m
Innerleaf: 2.0 mheightofblockworkat1.5 kN/m 2
gk,2 = 3 kN/m
Beam: 47.7 kg/m gk,3 = 0.47 kN/m
Plate: 0.24 0.01 7850 = 18.8 kg/m gk,4 = 0.18 kN/m
Total: gk,tot= 8.83 kN/m

Takingmomentsabouttheshearcentre(clockwisepositive),thetorquesare:
Outerleaf:5.18 (-0.181) = - 0.938 kNm/m
Innerleaf:3 0.015 = 0.045 kNm/m
Beam: 0.45 0 = 0
Plate: 0.18 (-0.090) = - 0.016 kNm/m
Total torque: = - 0.909 kNm/m

Partialfactorforpermanentactions
BS EN 1990 Table G = 1.35
NA.A1.2
5.4 Combination of actions
BS EN 1990 Asthereareonlypermanentactionspresent,equation6.10(a)willbemoreonerous
than6.10(b)andwillthereforegovern.Thedesignvalueforthecombinationofactions
atULSis:

f d =Ggk,i=1.35gk,tot=1.35 8.83 =11.9 kN/m

Thedesignvalueofthetotalappliedtorqueonthe5mlongbeamis:

T d = 1.35 0.909 5 =6.14 kNm(actinganticlockwise)

5.5 Design value of vertical bending moment


Bendingmomentatmid-span(ULS):

11.9 52
My,Ed = = 37.2 kNm
8

5.6 Design values of torsional effects

5.6.1 Torsional moments


ConsiderthetorsionresistedonlybyStVenanttorsion(asallowedby
BSEN1993-1-1,6.2.7(7)).

Thedesignvalueoftorsionalmomentiszeroatmid-span,increasinglinearly(butin
oppositesenses)toTt,Ed=TEd= 6.14/2 = 3.07 kNmateachsupport.

128
5.6.2 Rotation
Theaveragetorqueovereachhalfofthebeamis3.07/2=1.54 kNmsorotationatmid-
spanisgivenby:

Tav,t,Ed L 2 1.54 2.5


= = = 0.00156 rad (0.09)
GI T 81 106 3070 10-8

Theminoraxismomentduetothisverysmallrotationisnegligible.

5.7 Cross sectional resistance


Partialfactorforresistance:
M0 = 1.0

5.7.1 Bending resistance


TheRHSisaClass2sectioninbending.ForaClass2section:

Wpl,y f y 546 106 355 103


3-1-1/6.2.5(2) Mc,y,Rd = = = 194 kNm
M0 1.0

Mc,y,Rd = 194 kN > My,Ed = 37.2 kNOK

5.7.2 Torsion resistance


ThedesignresistancetoStVenanttorsionisgivenby:

Wt f y / 3 387 106 355 103 / 3


TRd = = = 79 kNm
M0 1.0

TheshearstressduetotheStVenanttorsionalmomentis:

= Tt,Ed / Wt = 3.07 106 / 387 103 = 7.9 N/mm2

5.7.3 Shear resistance


Shearresistanceintheabsenceoftorsionis:

Av f y 3
3-1-1/6.2.6(2) Vpl,Rd =
M0

3-1-1/6.2.6(3) ForaRHSwiththeloadappliedparalleltotheheight,

Ah 60.8 104 0.3


Av = = = 4.56 10-3 m2
b+h 0.1 + 0.3

4.56 103 355 103 / 3


Vpl,Rd = = 934 kN
1.0

129
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

Thereducedshearresistanceaccountingfortorsionis:

7.9
3-1-1/6.2.7(9) Vpl,T,Rd = 1 t,Ed Vpl,Rd = 1 934 = 898 kN
f y / 3 355 / 3

Vpl,T,Rd = 898 >VEd= 30 kNOK

5.7.4 Combined bending and torsion


Themaximumvaluesofdesignbendingmoment(MEd)anddesigntorque(TEd)occurin
differentlocationsandthusnointeractionbetweenthesevaluesneedbeconsidered.
Atintermediatelocations,therearecombinedeffectsoflesserdesignvalues;toverify
thecombinationatalllocations,onecouldconservativelyconsiderthemaximum
valuestobecoexistent.However,theverylowStVenantshearstress(7.9N/mm2at
maximum)wouldgiverisetoverylittlereductioninbendingresistance(seeSection6.2)
andtheinteractionatalllocationsissatisfactorybyinspection.

5.8 Buckling resistance


TheRHSsectionisnotsusceptibletolateraltorsionalbuckling(seeSection6.2)and
thusthebucklingresistance(andinteractionwithtorsion)doesnotneedtobeverified.

5.9 Serviceability limit state


0.00156
TherotationatSLSwillbe= = 0.00116 rad (0.066),whichissatisfactory.
1.35

fd = gk,tot = 8.83 kN/m

Theverticaldeflectionis:

5 f d L4 5 8.83 50004
w = = = 5.4 mm
384 EI y 384 210000 6310 104

Thereisnocommonlimitfordeflectionduetopermanentactionsbutthismodest
deflectionwouldnormallybesatisfactory.

5.10 Commentary
Thetrialsectionismorethanadequate;therotationisverymuchlessthanthatof
thechannelsectioninExample4.Asmaller,lighterRHSwouldsuffice,althoughthe
verticaldeflectionwouldbegreaterandislikelytobecomethelimitingcriterion.

130
Example 6 - End Plate Connection

6.1 Configuration
ConsiderthesimplysupportedbeamofExample1withfulldepthendplate
connections,asshownbelow:

90

75
62.5

50 100 50

Thebeamisa254UKC73with10mmendplate,gradeS275.

BoltsareM20,class8.8.

Twoapproachesareexaminedtoverifytheresistanceoftheendplateconnection.

6.2 Design values of forces on connection


Verticalforce VEd= 52 kN

Torque TEd= 3.75 kNm

6.3 Approach one


Inthisapproach,theverticalforceandtorquearesharedequallybetweenthefourbolts.

Eachboltissubjectto:

V 52
= = 13 kN
VerticalforceFvert,Ed= Ed
4 4

3.75
InclinedforceduetotorqueFinc,Ed= 103 = 15 kN
4 62.5

Theangleofinclinationoftheforcewillvary,asshownbelow.

131
appEndIx E: ExamplEs

15

15
13
13

5
3

15

15 13
13

TheforcesshownareinkN.

ThelargestresultantforceisonthelowerboltontheLHside,whichmaybecalculatedas:

4
Verticalcomponentofresultant= 13 + 15= 25 kN
5
3
Horizontalcomponentofresultant= 15= 9 kN
5

Hence,theresultantshearforceontheboltFv,Ed= 252 + 92 = 26.6 kN

Itcanbedemonstratedinthenormalwaythatthisislessthanthedesignresistanceof
aM20class8.8boltina10mmendplate.

6.4 Approach two


Inthisapproachthecombinationofverticalforce(52kN)andtorque(3.75kNm)is
replacedbyanequivalentverticalforceof52kNactingataneccentricityof0.0721m
(3.75kNm/52kN)fromthecentreoftheboltgroup.

Theresistanceoftheconnectiontothiseccentricforcecanbecalculatedasoutlined
inSCIpublicationP358forfinplateconnectionswithtwoverticallinesofbolts.

ForM20class8.8boltsina10mmendplate,thelowestresistancegivenbythe
relevantdesignchecksgiveninP358is184kNandthustheconnectionisadequate
forthe52kNforceatthiseccentricity.

132
133
SCI Membership

Technical Information

Construction Solutions

Communications Technology
SCI Assessment

Design of steel beams in torsion


In most steel-framed structures, beams are subject only to bending and not to torsion.
Designers are therefore much less familiar with evaluating torsional effects when they do
occur and with determining the resistance to torsion, particularly in conjunction with bending.
This guide explains the basic behaviour of beams in torsion and provides formulae and graphs
for evaluating the effects of torsion. Practical guidance is given on the design for torsional
resistance, in accordance with Eurocode 3, including the interaction of torsion with bending
resistance and buckling resistance.

SCI Ref: P385


ISBN: 978-1-85942-200-7
SCI
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