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Diversity in



Class- 9

Dr. Tejas Mittal
M.Sc. ,Ph.D., F.E.S.I., F.A.Z.

prokaryotes): It is the kingdom of prokaryotes & includes
bacteria and blue green algae.

1. Monera includes unicellular organisms.
2. They are prokaryotes. Their chromosomal materials is not
enclosed in a nuclear membrane. It lies directly inside the
cytoplasm and is called nucleoid.
3. Membrane bound cell organells like mitochondria,
lysosomes, golgi apparatus,etc are absent.
4. Cell wall may or may not be present.
5. The mode of nutrition may be autotrophic or hetrotrophic.
6. EXAMPLES- Bacteria(salmonella typhi, vibrio cholera)
and blue green algae(e.g. Anabena,Nostoc).
There are three subkingdoms
1. Archaebacteria;
Archaebacteria are most ancient bcterias living in most
extreme f environments.
Archaebacteria can manufacture their own amino acids
and proteins.
Most archaebacteria are autotrophs, a few ,
Archaebacteria are divided into three groups:
1. Methanogens: It manufactures methane as the
result of their metabolic activites.
Methanogens die in the presence of oxygen. They are found in
swamps and marshes.
2. Thermoacidophiles: These archaea fovour
extremely hot and acidic environments such as hot springs. They
use Hydrogen Sulphide as their energy source.

Halophiles: These archaea live in salty environments such as

Dead Sea and Great Salt Lake. These environments are extremely

2. Eubacteria(True Bacteria): They are

basically unicellular. They rarely exceed 2 microns in diameter
and 10 microns in length. The cell wall is made up of
peptidoglycan. The cells vary in shape.


Characteristics :
1. It includes unicellular organisms.
2. They are eukaryotes. They have well defined neuclear
3. Cell wall may or may not be present.
4. The mode of nutrition can be autotrophic or hetrotrophic.
5. EXAMPLES- Diatoms, euglena, Amoeba, Paramecium.

Phylum Protozoa:
1. Unicellular, mostly aquatic animals.
2. Body naked or covered by hard shells or pellicle.
3. Body may be irregular, spherical, oval, elongated or
4. Locomotion using cilia or flagella
5. Nutrition is mostly heterotrophic.
Examples: euglena, Noctiluna, Giardia, Volvox, etc.
1. Fungi are basically mult-cellular. Yeast is an exception in being
2. The body of fungi is made of thread-like structure called
hyphae. The hyphae grow in mat like structure called mycelium.
3. The cell wall is generally composed of chitin.
4. They are heterotrophic.
5. Most of them are decomposers, hence fungi are also known as
kingdom multi-cellular decomposers. They may be saprophytic
or parasitic.
Examples: Yeast, Mushroom (Agaricus), Rhizopus,

1. They are multicellular eukryotes.
2. All plants contain plastids. Plastids are double membrane
organelle that possesses photosynthetic pigments. They are
called chloroplast.
3. They are usually autotrophic.
4. Cells have cell walls of cellulose.
5. Reserve food is starch and lipids.
Division thallophyta
1. The plants in this group are commonly called algae.
2. Most primitive and simple plants.
3. The plant body is not differentiated into root stems and
leaves. It is often called Thallus.
4. Most algae are aquatic both fresh water and marine water.
5. They are autotrophic
6. They have cell wall of cellulose.
7. No vascular system.
8. Asexual reproduction generally takes place by spores.
9. Sex organs are simple, single-celled and there is no embryo

Examples- Green Algae-Ulva, Chara

Red Algae- Batra,

Brown algae-laminaria, Fucus.

Division Bryophyta:
1. It is a division of non-vascular plants having an embryo
stage in their development.
2. They are simplest land plants and are known as
amphibians of plant kingdom as they live in moist areas .
3. The plant is commonly differentiated into root stem and
leaf-like structures.
4. They are non vascular plants.
5. Gametophyte is attached to the substratum by means of
hair-like outgrowths, the rhizoids which absorb water and
minerals from the substratum. Sporophyte live as a
parasite over gametophyte.
6. The sex organs are multicellular.
7. An embryo is formed upon fertilization.

Examples- Riccia, Marchantia, Funaria

Division Pteridophyta:
1. They are found mainly in shady or damp places.
2. Plant body is differentiated into roots, stem and leaves.
3. Have well developed vascular system.
4. No flowers and no seed production.
5. Sex organs are multicellular and jacketed by strile cells.
6. Fertilised egg develops into embryo.
Example-Club mosses-Selaginella, Lycopodium
Ferns-Marsilea, pteris
Bryophytes Pteridophytes
1. Very small in size. Herbaceous.
2. Not contain vascular Contain vascular system.
3. Not divided into roots, Differentiated into roots stems
stems and leaves. and leaves.

Division gymnospermae
1. Includes plants that bear naked seeds.
2. Plants are perennial, woody and evergreen. It
includes medium sized trees and shrubs.
3. Xylem lacks vessels and phloem lacks
companion cells.
4. Sporophylls are aggregated to form cones.
Division Angiospermae:
1. Flowering plants enclosed in a protective structure called fruits.
2. Highly evolved group of plants.
3. In xylem only vessels are present.
4. Sporophlls are aggregated to form flowers.

Gymnosprems Angiosperms
1 Sporophylls are Sporophylls are aggregated to
. aggregated to form cones. form flowers.
2 The seeds are naked. Seeds are enclosed in fruit wall.
3 Xylem lacks vessels and Vessels and companion cells are
. phloem lacks companion present.
4 Ovulws are not contained Ovules are enclosed within an
. within an ovary. ovary.
5 Endosperm cells are Endosperm cells are triploid.
. haploid.
Examples- cycas , pinus Examples- Monocots and Dicots

Monocots Dicots
1 Only adventitious roots are Tap and adventitious both roots
. present. are present.
2 Vascular bundle scattered. Vascular bundle are arranged in
. ring with central pith.
3 Leaves are usually parallel Leaves are mostly with
. veined. reticulum network.
4 One cotyledon is present. Two cotyledons are present.
5 The flowers have 3 or Flowers have 5 or multiple of 5,
. multiple of 3,rarely 4. rarely 4.
Examples-pea, potato, Examples- maize, wheat,
rose, apple, etc. rice, coconut, banyan,
sugarcane, etc.
Kingdom Animalia
Membranes of kingdom animalia are multi-cellular
They have heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
Almost all animals are mobile. Sponges and corals are
however sedentary.
Cell wall is absent.
Phylum porifera (animals bearing pores):
Simplest multicellular, diploblastic, acoelomate animals.
Mostly marine but few are fresh water living.
Mostly sessile and attached to the substratum.
Cells are loosely held together to form tissues.
Body contains numerous pores(ostia) that open into a canal
system for entry of water carrying food and oxygen and a
single opening called oscula.
Examples- spongilla, Sycon,
Phylum colenterata:
Mostly marine except hydra.
Tissue level of organisation.
Acoelomates, diploblastic, radially symmetrical,
Their central cavity is called coelenteron.
No anus. Tentacles sourround the mouth by stinging cells.
That serves for both intaking and outleting.
Hydra, Aurelia, fungia,
Phylum Platyhelminthes:
Triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical, Elongated,
dorsoventrally flattened animals, acoelomate.
Digestive cavity with a single opening, the mouth. Anus is
Suckers and hooks are usually present.
Specialised cells called flame cells helps in osmoregulation
and excretion.
Examples- dugesia, planaria, fasciola
Phylum Nematoda:
Triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical, cylindrical,
pseudocoelomate, unsegmented animals.
Body is covered with tough cuticle; cilia is absent.
Alimentary canal is complete with well developed muscular
pharynx & anus.
Sexes are separate.
Examples- ascaris, enterobius, wuchereria.
Phylum Annelida:
Triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical,soft,elongated,
vermiform & cylindrical, true coelomate and closed vascular
Body is metamerically segmented externally by trsnsverse
grooves internally by septa.
Organ system of organisation
Digestive system is well developed. Alimentary canal is tube
like and extends straight from mouth to anus.
Nereis, Aphrodite, leech.
Phylum Arthropoda:
Triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical,
metamercilly segmented, organ level of
Largest phylum which includes insects.
Body consists of head, thorax and abdomen with
jointed legs.
Alimentary canal is complete. Mouth & anus lies
at the opposite ends of the body.
Excretion takes place by Malpighian tubules
(insects) and green glands (crab & pawn).
Examples- cancer, julus, limulus(king crab),
apis(honey bee).
Phylum mollusca:
Second largest phylum and ancient group that
lives on planet over 500 million years.
Terrestrial, marine, and fresh water inhabitants.
Triploblastic coelomates with usually bilateral
The body is soft and divided into three regions-
head, dorsal visceral mass and ventral foot. Foot
is for creeping and other kind of locomotion.
Body is covered with hard calcareous shell.
Sexes are usually separate.
Examples- chiton, Helix, Limax, pila, unio.
Phylum Echinodermata:
All are marine, triploblastic and coelomate,
unsegmented and radially symmetrical.
The most distinctive feature is presence of water
vascular system with an array of radiating canals and
tube like appendages called tube feet. Tube feet are for
locomotion, capturing of food and respiration .
Exoskeleton are spiny.
Head is absent and five radially arranged head are
Digestive system is usually complete. Anus is absent in
Examples- cucumaria, Ophiura, Antedon.
Phylum Chordata:
Phylum of triploblastic and bilaterally symmetrical
Flexible rod-like Notochord along the mid-dorsal axis of
body. The notochord is later replaced by a backbone.
A hollow dorsal nerve chord.
Paired gill slits.
A tail extending behind the anal opening.
Complete digestive system.
A. Protochordata:
Subphylum urochordata:
Notochord is present only in tail of larva and is lost
during metamorphosis.
Dorsal nerve chord is also lost.
Exclusively marine, solitary and colonial.
Salpa, Doliolum, Herdmania
Subphylum Cephalochordata:
Notochord and nerve chord extend throughout the
entire body length. Possesses post anal tail.
Exoskeleton, head, jaws, and paired fins are absent.
Phanyx large and perforated by numerous gill-lits.
Marine, widely distributed in shallow water.
Sexes are separate.
Examples- amphioxus.
B. Vertebrata:
Subphylum agnatha:
Most primitive vertebrates known to humans.
Without true jaws; but possess a sectorial mouth.
Without paired appendades.
Class Cyclostomata:
Body is long, elongated with 6-15 pairs of gill-slits for
Skin is smooth, soft, slimmy and scaleless.
It includes vertebrates which have suctoral mouth. Mouth
do not possess jaws.
Endoskeleton is cartilaginous. Notochord persist
throughout life.
Heart is two chambered and circulation is closed type.
Example- Myxine, Petromyzon.
Subphylum Gnathostomata:
Class Chondrichthyes
Marine fishes with completely cartilaginous endoskeleton.
Mouth is ventral in position.
Skin is tough and covered with minute placoid scales.
Respiration through gills. 5 or 7 pairs of are present.
Fins for locomotion and balance.
Heart is two chambered.
Class Osteichthyes:
Bony fishes have their skeleton made of cartilage.
Four pair of Gills are covered by an operculum.
Swim bladder is present.
Mouth is terminal in position.
Heart is two chambered and cold blooded animals.
Lay eggs and fertilization is external.
Rohita, labeo, anabas,
Class Amphibia:
They can live on land as well as in water.
Cold blooded and heart is three chambered.
Respiration is by gills, lungs and through skin.
Lay eggs in water.
Skin is smooth or rough, moist, mostly without any
exoskeleton like scales hairs or nails.
Endoskeleton is made up of bones and cartilage.
Brain is poorly developed. Cranial nerves has 10 pairs.
Sexes are separate, fertilization is external.
Examples- hyla, siren, bufo, rana,
Class Reptilia:
Mostly terrestrial animals body is covered by dry and
cornified skin, epidermal scales.
Body varies in form and is usually divided into head, neck,
trunk & tail.
Endoskeleton is bony
Brain is better than amphibians. Central nerves 12 paires.
Fertilization internal, lay eggs on land. They are oviparous.
Heart is three chambered except crocodiles which have
four chambered.
Respiration by lungs.
Examples- lizard, snakes, turtles, draco, calotes
Class Aves:
Body is streamlined
Warm-blooded, tetrapodous vertebrates.
Body is divisible into head, neck, trunk & tail.
Exoskeleton of feathers.
Forelimbs are modified into wings while hind limbs have
four clawed digits meant for walking, running or perching.
Bones are very light due to air spaces.
Lay eggs with calcareous shell. They are oviparous.
Complete four chambered heart.
Respiratory system possesses well developed lungs with
air sacs attached to them.
Birds have keen sense of sight.
Sexes are separate only left ovary is present in females.
Examples- crow, ostrich, eagle, pavo, passer, etc
Class Mammalia:
Most evolved animals of animal kingdom. They have well
developed brain.
Warm-blooded animals.
Body is covered by hair. Skin has sweat glands to regulate
body temperature.
Females have milk producing glands called mammary
Only animals which nourish their young ones with milk.
Two pairs of pentadactayl limbs are present. Digits in fore
limbs and hind limbs are generally 5 and ending as claws,
nail and hoof.
Limbs are variously adapted for walking , running,
climbing, burrowing, swimming or flying
Respiration by lungs, heart is four chambered.
Sexes are separate , internal fertilization, mostly
viviparous except platypus & echidna that lays eggs.
Kangaroo gives birth to poorely developed young ones.
Examples- dog, man, elephant, panthera tigris, camelus,
elephas, canis, gorilla, etc.

Amphibians Reptiles
1 Have slimy skin. Have exoskeleton of scales.
2 Mostly lay eggs inside Lay eggs outside water.
. water.
3 Larvae have gills. Larvae dont have gills.
4 Fertilization is external. Fertilization is internal.
5 Heart is three- Heart is incompletely four
. chambered. chambered.

Aves Mammalia
1 Body is covered with Body is covered with hairs.
. feathers.
2 Oviparous Viviparous
3 No mammary glands. Have mammary glands for
. production of milk to nourish
their young ones.
4 Possess hollow bones for No hollow bones.
. flying.
5 Toothless beak is Jaws do not form beak. Teeth
. present. are present.

Bony fishes Cartilaginous fishes

1. Have bony exoskeleton. Cartilaginous endoskeleton.
2. Contain four pairs of gill Contain 5-7 pairs of gill
slits. slits.
3. Mouth is terminal in Mouth is ventral in position.
4. Gill slits are covered with An operculum is absent in
an operculum. them.
5. Air bladder is usually Swim bladder is absent in
present in them. them.