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VIII-Aristotle

2016-2017

CIRCLES

SUBMITTED BY:

LIEZL V. VILLANUEVA

SUBMITTED TO:

PATRICK BELTRAN

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. Introduction

II. Parts of Circle

III. Properties of Tangents

IV. Arcs and Central Angles

V. Arcs and Chords

VI. Inscribed Angles and Polygons

VII. Properties of Chords

VIII. Equation of Circle

IX. Rotations

During the early times when men lived

without using circles, admiring circles and

drawing circles accurately were two

different stories. To draw an accurate

circle was a great accomplishment of

early man but no one knows for sure how

it was first done, for there was no record

of this. An imaginative guess can be

made as to how it might have happen. It

is possible that the first true circle was

traced on the ground by an animal tied to

a stake. The animal might have run again

and again to the limit of its freedom and

might have stamped a circle on the

ground. The true circle was formed by

overlapping footprints with the same

distance from the stake, which was at the

center. It is for this reason that we

defined a circle as a set of points

Introduction

equidistant to a given point during the

study of geometry in mathematics III.

The applications of the circle can be

seen almost everywhere. It appears that

it has become indispensable, for without

the circle, life would practically come to a

standstill. The complex machines used in

industry would cease, the automobile that

transports people and goods would be

unheard of, and the generation of

electricity for power and light would not

be possible.

Since a circle is part of our lives, it is

necessary that we give some attention to

its properties in the same way that we

devoted our attention to the properties of

other geometric figures like lines,

triangles, and quadrilaterals.

Parts of Circle

The diagrams below show special

segments and lines of a circle.

A chord is a segment

whose endpoints are

points on a circle.

A diameter is a chord

that passes through

the center of a circle.

A radius is a segment

whose endpoints are

the center of a circle

and a point on the

circle.

A secant is a line that

intersects a circle in

two points.

plane of a circle that

intersects the circle

in exactly one point.

The point is called

point of tangency.

Example 1 Identify Special

Segments and Lines

Tell whether the line or segment is best

described as a chord, a secant, a tangent,

a diameter, or a radius of center is point

C.

a. AD b. HB

C. EG d. JK

SOLUTION

a. AD is a diameter because it passes

through the center C and its endpoints

are points on the circle.

b. HB is a chord because its endpoints

are on the circle.

c. EG is a tangent because it intersects

the circle in exactly one point.

d. JK is a secant because it intersects

the circle in two points.

Example 2 Name Special

Segments, Lines, and Points

Identify a chord, a secant, a tangent, a

diameter, two radii, the center, and a

point of tangency.

Solution

AB is a chord.

FG is a tangent.

DC is a radius.

C is the center.

HJ is a secant.

DE is a diameter.

CE is a radius.

K is a point of tangency.

Properties of Tangents

THEOREM 1

WORDS If a line is tangent

to a circle, then

it is perpendicular

to the radius drawn

at the point of tangency.

l CB.

THEOREM 2

WORDS In a plane, if a line is

perpendicular to a radius

of a circle at its endpoint

on the circle, then the

line is tangent to the circle.

SYMBOLS If l CB, then l is tangent to

C at B.

Tangents

AC is tangent to B at point c. Find BC.

VOCABULARY TIP

Tangent is based on word meaning to touch.

Solution

BC is a radius of B, so you can apply

Theorem 1 to conclude that BC and AC

are perpendicular.

So, BCA is a right angle, and BCA is a

right triangle. To find BC, use the

Pythagorean Theorem.

(BA)2 = (BC)2 + (AC)2 Pythagorean Theorem

132= (BC)2 + 122 Substitute 13 for BA and 12

for AC.

169=(BC)2 + 144 Multiply.

25= (BC)2 Subtract 144 from each side.

5= BC Find the positive square root.

a Circle

How can you show that EF

must be tangent to D?

Solution

Use the Converse of the Pythagorean

Theorem to determine whether DEF is a

right triangle.

(DF)2= (DE)2 + (EF)2 Compare (DF)2 with

(DE)2 + (EF)2.

152= 92 + 122 Substitute 15 for DF, 9 for DE,

and 12 for EF.

225= 81 + 144 Multiply.

225= 225 Simplify.

DEF is a right triangle with right angle E. So, EF is

perpendicular to DE. By Theorem 2, it follows that

EF is tangent to D.

touches a circle at one of the segments

endpoints and lies in the line that is

tangent to the circle at that point.

THEOREM 3

WORDS If two segments from

the same point outside

a circle are tangent to the

circle, then they are congruent.

at points R and T, then SR ST.

EXAMPLE 3 Use Properties of

Tangents

AB is tangent to C at B.

AD is tangent to C at D.

Find the value of x.

Solution

AD = AB Two tangent segments from the same

point are congruent.

2x + 3 = 11 Substitute 2x + 3 for AD and 11 for

AB.

2x = 8 Subtract 3 from each side.

x=4 Divide each side by 2.

Any two points A and B on a circle C

determine a minor arc and a major arc

(unless the points lie on a diameter).

If the measure of ACB is less than 180 ,

then A, B, and all the points on C that lie

in the interior of ACB form a minor arc.

Points A, B, and all the points

On C that do not lie on AB

Form a major arc.

The measures of a minor arc and a major

arc depend on the central angle of the

minor arc.

The measure of a minor arc is

the measures of its central angle.

The measures of a major arc is

the difference of 360 and the measure of

the related minor arc.

A semicircle is an arc whose central

angle measures 180. A semicircle is

named by three points. Its measure is

180.

Measures of Arcs

Name the red arc and identify the type of

arc. Then find its measures.

Solution

a. DF is a minor arc. Its measure is 40.

b. LMN is a major arc. Its measure is 360

110 = 250.

POSTULATE 1

Arc Addition Postulate

Words The measure of an arc formed

by two adjacent arcs is the

sum of the measures of the

two arcs.

Arcs

Find the measure of GEF.

Solution

mGEF = mGH + mHE + mEF

= 40 + 80 + 110

= 230

have the same radius. Two arcs of the

same circle or of congruent circles are

congruent arcs if they have the same

measure.

EXAMPLE 3 Identify Congruent

Arcs

Find the measures of the blue arcs. Are

the arcs congruent?

Solution

a. Notice that AB and DC are in

the same circle. Because mAB = mDC =

45, AB DC.

b. Notice that XY and ZW are not in the

same circle or in congruent circles.

Therefore, although mXY = mZW = 65,

XY ZW.

of the circumference of a circle. You can

write a proportion to find arc length.

ARC LENGTH

WORDS In a circle, the ratio of the

Length of a given arc to the

circumference is equal to the

ratio of the measure of the arc to 360.

Find the length of the red arc.

Solution

a. Arc length of AB =

b. Arc length of CD =

c. Arc length of EF =

Arcs and Chords

Theorem 4

Words If a diameter of a circle is

perpendicular to a chord,

then the diameter bisects

the chord and its arc.

SYMBOLS If BG FD, then DE EF and

DG GF.

Chord

In C the diameter AF is perpendicular to

BD.

Use the diagram to find the length of BD.

Solution

Because AF is a diameter that is

perpendicular to BD, you can use theorem

4 to conclude that AF bisects BD. So, BE

= ED = 5

BD = BE + ED Segment Addition Postulate

= 10 Simplify.

Answer: the length of BD is 10.

Theorem 5

Words If one chord is perpendicular

bisector of another chord,

then the first chord is a diameter.

Symbols If JK ML and MP PL, then JK is

a diameter.

All diameters of a circle include the center

of the circle. Therefore, the point where

two diameters intersect is the center of

the circle.

Circle

Suppose an archaeologist finds part of a

circular plate. Show how to reconstruct

the original shape of the plate.

Solution

1. Draw any two chords that are

not parallel to each other.

2. Draw the perpendicular bisector

of each chord. These lines contain

diameters.

3. The diameters intersect at the

circles

center. Use a compass to draw the

rest of the plate.

Theorem 6

Word in the same circle, or in

congruent circles:

If two chords are congruent, then

their corresponding minor arcs are

congruent.

If two minor arcs are congruent,

then their corresponding chords are

congruent.

Symbols If AB DC, then AB DC.

If AB DC, then AB DC.

Angles and Chords

Find the value of x.

Solution

a. Because QP RS, it follows that QP

RS.

So, mQP = mRS = 60,and x = 60.

b. Because AB DE, it follows that AB

DE. So, x = DE= 3.

Polygons

An inscribed angle is an angle whose

Vertex is on a circle and whose sides

Contain chords of the circle.

The arc that lies in the interior of an

inscribed angle and has endpoints on the

angle is called the intercepted arc of

the angle.

Theorem 6

Measures of an Inscribed Angle

Words If an angle is inscribed in a circle,

then its measure is half the

measure of its intercepted arc.

Symbols m ADB =

Inscribed Angles and Arcs

Find the measure of the inscribed angle or

the intercepted arc.

Solution

vertices of a polygon lie on a circle, the

polygon is inscribed in the circle and the

circle is circumscribed about the

polygon. The polygon is an inscribed

polygon and the circle is a circumscribed

circle.

Theorem 7

Words If a triangle inscribed in a circle is a

right triangle, then the hypotenuse is a

diameter of the circle.

If a side of a triangle inscribed in a circle

is a diameter of the circle, then the

triangle is a right triangle.

Find the values of x and y.

Solution

Because ABC is inscribed in a circle and

AB is a diameter, it follows from theorem

1 that ABC is a right triangle with

hypotenuse AB.

Therefore, x = 90. Because A and B are

acute angles of a right triangle, y = 90

50 = 40.

Theorem 7

Words If a quadrilateral can be inscribed

in a circle, then its opposite

angles

are supplementary.

If the opposite angles of a

quadrilateral

are supplementary, then the

quadrilateral

can be inscribed in circle.

Find the values of y and z.

Solution

Because RSTU is inscribed in a circle, by

theorem 7 opposite angle must be

supplementary.

Properties of chords

Theorem 8

Words If two chords intersect inside a

circle, then

the measure of each angle formed

is one

half the sum of the measures of the

arcs

intercepted by the angle and its

vertical

angle.

Symbols

Angle

Find the value of x.

Solution

Example 2 Find the Measure of

an Arc

Find the value of x.

Solution

intersect in a circle, four segments are

formed. The following theorems shows

the relationship among these segments.

Theorem 9

Words If two chords intersect inside a

circle, then the product of the

lengths of the segments of one

chord is equal to the product

of the lengths of the segments of

other chord.

Symbols EA EB = EC ED.

Lengths

Find the value of x.

Solution

Notice that ST and QP are chords that

intersect at R.

Equations of Circles

In the circle below, let point ( x, y)

represent any point on the circle whose

center is at the origin. Let r represent the

radius of the circle.

In the right triangle,

r = length of hypotenuse,

x = length of a leg,

y = length of a leg.

By the Pythagorean Theorem, you can

write

x2 + y2 = r2.

This is an equation of a circle with center

at the origin.

a circle

Write an equation of the circle.

Solution

The radius is 4 and the center

is at the origin.

X 2 + y2 = r2

X2 + y2 = 42

X2 + y2 =16

Answer: An equation of the circle is x2 + y2 =16.

center of a circle is not at the origin, you

can use the Distance Formula to write an

equation of the circle.

For example, the circle shown

at the right has center (3,5) and

radius 4.

Let (x, y) represent any point on

the circle. Use the Distance

Formula to find the lengths of the legs.

Leg: |x 3|

Leg: |y -5|

Hypotenuse: 4

Use these expressions in the Pythagorean

Theorem to find an equation of the circle.

(x 3)2 + (y 5)2 = 42

This is an example of the standard

equation of a circle.

STANDARD EQUATION OF A

CIRCLE

In the coordinate plane, the

standard equation of a circle

with center at (h, k) and radius r is

(x h)2+ (y k)2 = r2.

Equation of a Circle

Write the standard equation

of the circle with center (2, -1)

and radius.

Solution

(x- h)2 + (y k)2 = r2 write the standard

equation of a circle.

(x 2)2 + (y ( -1))2 = 32 Substitute 2 for h,

-1 for k, and 3 for r.

(x 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 9 simplify.

Answer: The standard equation of the circle is (x

2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 9.

Graph the given equation of the circle.

a.(x - 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 4 b. ( x + 2)2

+ y2 = 4

Solution

Rotations

A rotation is a transformation in

which a figure is turned about a fixed

point. The fixed point is the center of

rotation. In the Geo-Activity above,

point C is the center of rotation. Rays

drawn from the center of rotation to

point and its image form an angle

called the angle of rotation.

Rotations can be clockwise or

counterclockwise.

Rotational Symmetry A figure in a

plane has rotational symmetry if

the figure can be mapped onto itself

by a rotation of 180 or less. For

instance, the figure below has

rotational symmetry because it maps

onto itself by a rotation of 90.

Example 1 Identify

Rotational Symmetry

symmetry? If so, describe the rotations

that map the figure onto itself.

a.Rectangle b. regular hexagon c.

trapezoid

Solution

a.Yes. A rectangle can be mapped

onto itself by a clockwise or

counterclockwise rotation of 180

about its center.

mapped onto itself by a clockwise

or counterclockwise rotation of 60,

120, or 180 about its center.

rotational symmetry.

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