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Calasiao Comprehensive National Highschool

Special Science Program


VIII-Aristotle
2016-2017

CIRCLES

SUBMITTED BY:
LIEZL V. VILLANUEVA
SUBMITTED TO:
PATRICK BELTRAN

TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Introduction
II. Parts of Circle
III. Properties of Tangents
IV. Arcs and Central Angles
V. Arcs and Chords
VI. Inscribed Angles and Polygons
VII. Properties of Chords
VIII. Equation of Circle
IX. Rotations
During the early times when men lived
without using circles, admiring circles and
drawing circles accurately were two
different stories. To draw an accurate
circle was a great accomplishment of
early man but no one knows for sure how
it was first done, for there was no record
of this. An imaginative guess can be
made as to how it might have happen. It
is possible that the first true circle was
traced on the ground by an animal tied to
a stake. The animal might have run again
and again to the limit of its freedom and
might have stamped a circle on the
ground. The true circle was formed by
overlapping footprints with the same
distance from the stake, which was at the
center. It is for this reason that we
defined a circle as a set of points
Introduction
equidistant to a given point during the
study of geometry in mathematics III.
The applications of the circle can be
seen almost everywhere. It appears that
it has become indispensable, for without
the circle, life would practically come to a
standstill. The complex machines used in
industry would cease, the automobile that
transports people and goods would be
unheard of, and the generation of
electricity for power and light would not
be possible.
Since a circle is part of our lives, it is
necessary that we give some attention to
its properties in the same way that we
devoted our attention to the properties of
other geometric figures like lines,
triangles, and quadrilaterals.
Parts of Circle
The diagrams below show special
segments and lines of a circle.
A chord is a segment
whose endpoints are
points on a circle.

A diameter is a chord
that passes through
the center of a circle.

A radius is a segment
whose endpoints are
the center of a circle
and a point on the
circle.
A secant is a line that
intersects a circle in
two points.

A tangent is a line in the


plane of a circle that
intersects the circle
in exactly one point.
The point is called
point of tangency.
Example 1 Identify Special
Segments and Lines
Tell whether the line or segment is best
described as a chord, a secant, a tangent,
a diameter, or a radius of center is point
C.
a. AD b. HB
C. EG d. JK

SOLUTION
a. AD is a diameter because it passes
through the center C and its endpoints
are points on the circle.
b. HB is a chord because its endpoints
are on the circle.
c. EG is a tangent because it intersects
the circle in exactly one point.
d. JK is a secant because it intersects
the circle in two points.
Example 2 Name Special
Segments, Lines, and Points
Identify a chord, a secant, a tangent, a
diameter, two radii, the center, and a
point of tangency.

Solution
AB is a chord.
FG is a tangent.
DC is a radius.
C is the center.
HJ is a secant.
DE is a diameter.
CE is a radius.
K is a point of tangency.
Properties of Tangents
THEOREM 1
WORDS If a line is tangent
to a circle, then
it is perpendicular
to the radius drawn
at the point of tangency.

SYMBOLS if l is tangent to C at B, then


l CB.

THEOREM 2
WORDS In a plane, if a line is
perpendicular to a radius
of a circle at its endpoint
on the circle, then the
line is tangent to the circle.
SYMBOLS If l CB, then l is tangent to
C at B.

EXAMPLE 1 Use Properties of


Tangents
AC is tangent to B at point c. Find BC.
VOCABULARY TIP
Tangent is based on word meaning to touch.

Solution
BC is a radius of B, so you can apply
Theorem 1 to conclude that BC and AC
are perpendicular.
So, BCA is a right angle, and BCA is a
right triangle. To find BC, use the
Pythagorean Theorem.
(BA)2 = (BC)2 + (AC)2 Pythagorean Theorem
132= (BC)2 + 122 Substitute 13 for BA and 12
for AC.
169=(BC)2 + 144 Multiply.
25= (BC)2 Subtract 144 from each side.
5= BC Find the positive square root.

EXAMPLE 2 Verify a Tangent to


a Circle
How can you show that EF
must be tangent to D?

Solution
Use the Converse of the Pythagorean
Theorem to determine whether DEF is a
right triangle.
(DF)2= (DE)2 + (EF)2 Compare (DF)2 with
(DE)2 + (EF)2.
152= 92 + 122 Substitute 15 for DF, 9 for DE,
and 12 for EF.
225= 81 + 144 Multiply.
225= 225 Simplify.
DEF is a right triangle with right angle E. So, EF is
perpendicular to DE. By Theorem 2, it follows that
EF is tangent to D.

Tangent Segment A tangent segment


touches a circle at one of the segments
endpoints and lies in the line that is
tangent to the circle at that point.
THEOREM 3
WORDS If two segments from
the same point outside
a circle are tangent to the
circle, then they are congruent.

SYMBOLS If SR and ST are tangent to P


at points R and T, then SR ST.
EXAMPLE 3 Use Properties of
Tangents
AB is tangent to C at B.
AD is tangent to C at D.
Find the value of x.

Solution
AD = AB Two tangent segments from the same
point are congruent.
2x + 3 = 11 Substitute 2x + 3 for AD and 11 for
AB.
2x = 8 Subtract 3 from each side.
x=4 Divide each side by 2.

Arcs and Central Angles


Any two points A and B on a circle C
determine a minor arc and a major arc
(unless the points lie on a diameter).
If the measure of ACB is less than 180 ,
then A, B, and all the points on C that lie
in the interior of ACB form a minor arc.
Points A, B, and all the points
On C that do not lie on AB
Form a major arc.
The measures of a minor arc and a major
arc depend on the central angle of the
minor arc.
The measure of a minor arc is
the measures of its central angle.
The measures of a major arc is
the difference of 360 and the measure of
the related minor arc.
A semicircle is an arc whose central
angle measures 180. A semicircle is
named by three points. Its measure is
180.

EXAMPLE 1 Name and Find


Measures of Arcs
Name the red arc and identify the type of
arc. Then find its measures.

Solution
a. DF is a minor arc. Its measure is 40.
b. LMN is a major arc. Its measure is 360
110 = 250.

POSTULATE 1
Arc Addition Postulate
Words The measure of an arc formed
by two adjacent arcs is the
sum of the measures of the
two arcs.

SYMBOLS mACB = mAC + mCB

EXAMPLE 2 Find Measures of


Arcs
Find the measure of GEF.
Solution
mGEF = mGH + mHE + mEF
= 40 + 80 + 110
= 230

Two circles are congruent circles if they


have the same radius. Two arcs of the
same circle or of congruent circles are
congruent arcs if they have the same
measure.
EXAMPLE 3 Identify Congruent
Arcs
Find the measures of the blue arcs. Are
the arcs congruent?

Solution
a. Notice that AB and DC are in
the same circle. Because mAB = mDC =
45, AB DC.
b. Notice that XY and ZW are not in the
same circle or in congruent circles.
Therefore, although mXY = mZW = 65,
XY ZW.

Arc Length An arc length is a portion


of the circumference of a circle. You can
write a proportion to find arc length.
ARC LENGTH
WORDS In a circle, the ratio of the
Length of a given arc to the
circumference is equal to the
ratio of the measure of the arc to 360.

SYMBOLS Arc length of AB =

EXAMPLE 4 Find Arc Lengths


Find the length of the red arc.

Solution
a. Arc length of AB =
b. Arc length of CD =
c. Arc length of EF =
Arcs and Chords
Theorem 4
Words If a diameter of a circle is
perpendicular to a chord,
then the diameter bisects
the chord and its arc.
SYMBOLS If BG FD, then DE EF and
DG GF.

Example1 Find the Length of a


Chord
In C the diameter AF is perpendicular to
BD.
Use the diagram to find the length of BD.
Solution
Because AF is a diameter that is
perpendicular to BD, you can use theorem
4 to conclude that AF bisects BD. So, BE
= ED = 5
BD = BE + ED Segment Addition Postulate

=5+5 Substitute 5 for BE and ED.


= 10 Simplify.
Answer: the length of BD is 10.

Theorem 5
Words If one chord is perpendicular
bisector of another chord,
then the first chord is a diameter.
Symbols If JK ML and MP PL, then JK is
a diameter.
All diameters of a circle include the center
of the circle. Therefore, the point where
two diameters intersect is the center of
the circle.

Example 2 Find the Center of a


Circle
Suppose an archaeologist finds part of a
circular plate. Show how to reconstruct
the original shape of the plate.

Solution
1. Draw any two chords that are
not parallel to each other.
2. Draw the perpendicular bisector
of each chord. These lines contain
diameters.
3. The diameters intersect at the
circles
center. Use a compass to draw the
rest of the plate.

Theorem 6
Word in the same circle, or in
congruent circles:
If two chords are congruent, then
their corresponding minor arcs are
congruent.
If two minor arcs are congruent,
then their corresponding chords are
congruent.
Symbols If AB DC, then AB DC.
If AB DC, then AB DC.

Example 3 Find Measures of


Angles and Chords
Find the value of x.
Solution
a. Because QP RS, it follows that QP
RS.
So, mQP = mRS = 60,and x = 60.
b. Because AB DE, it follows that AB
DE. So, x = DE= 3.

Inscribed Angles and


Polygons
An inscribed angle is an angle whose
Vertex is on a circle and whose sides
Contain chords of the circle.
The arc that lies in the interior of an
inscribed angle and has endpoints on the
angle is called the intercepted arc of
the angle.

Theorem 6
Measures of an Inscribed Angle
Words If an angle is inscribed in a circle,
then its measure is half the
measure of its intercepted arc.
Symbols m ADB =

Example 1 Find Measures of


Inscribed Angles and Arcs
Find the measure of the inscribed angle or
the intercepted arc.
Solution

Inscribed and Circumscribed If all the


vertices of a polygon lie on a circle, the
polygon is inscribed in the circle and the
circle is circumscribed about the
polygon. The polygon is an inscribed
polygon and the circle is a circumscribed
circle.
Theorem 7
Words If a triangle inscribed in a circle is a
right triangle, then the hypotenuse is a
diameter of the circle.
If a side of a triangle inscribed in a circle
is a diameter of the circle, then the
triangle is a right triangle.

Example 2 Find Angle Measures


Find the values of x and y.

Solution
Because ABC is inscribed in a circle and
AB is a diameter, it follows from theorem
1 that ABC is a right triangle with
hypotenuse AB.
Therefore, x = 90. Because A and B are
acute angles of a right triangle, y = 90
50 = 40.

Theorem 7
Words If a quadrilateral can be inscribed
in a circle, then its opposite
angles
are supplementary.
If the opposite angles of a
quadrilateral
are supplementary, then the
quadrilateral
can be inscribed in circle.

Example 3 Find Angle Measures


Find the values of y and z.
Solution
Because RSTU is inscribed in a circle, by
theorem 7 opposite angle must be
supplementary.

Properties of chords

Theorem 8
Words If two chords intersect inside a
circle, then
the measure of each angle formed
is one
half the sum of the measures of the
arcs
intercepted by the angle and its
vertical
angle.
Symbols

Example 1 Find the Measure of an


Angle
Find the value of x.

Solution
Example 2 Find the Measure of
an Arc
Find the value of x.

Solution

Intersecting chords When two chords


intersect in a circle, four segments are
formed. The following theorems shows
the relationship among these segments.

Theorem 9
Words If two chords intersect inside a
circle, then the product of the
lengths of the segments of one
chord is equal to the product
of the lengths of the segments of
other chord.
Symbols EA EB = EC ED.

Example 3 Find Segment


Lengths
Find the value of x.

Solution
Notice that ST and QP are chords that
intersect at R.
Equations of Circles
In the circle below, let point ( x, y)
represent any point on the circle whose
center is at the origin. Let r represent the
radius of the circle.
In the right triangle,
r = length of hypotenuse,
x = length of a leg,
y = length of a leg.
By the Pythagorean Theorem, you can
write
x2 + y2 = r2.
This is an equation of a circle with center
at the origin.

Example 1 Write an Equation of


a circle
Write an equation of the circle.

Solution
The radius is 4 and the center
is at the origin.
X 2 + y2 = r2
X2 + y2 = 42
X2 + y2 =16
Answer: An equation of the circle is x2 + y2 =16.

Standard Equation of a Circle If the


center of a circle is not at the origin, you
can use the Distance Formula to write an
equation of the circle.
For example, the circle shown
at the right has center (3,5) and
radius 4.
Let (x, y) represent any point on
the circle. Use the Distance
Formula to find the lengths of the legs.
Leg: |x 3|
Leg: |y -5|
Hypotenuse: 4
Use these expressions in the Pythagorean
Theorem to find an equation of the circle.
(x 3)2 + (y 5)2 = 42
This is an example of the standard
equation of a circle.
STANDARD EQUATION OF A
CIRCLE
In the coordinate plane, the
standard equation of a circle
with center at (h, k) and radius r is
(x h)2+ (y k)2 = r2.

Example 2 Write the Standard


Equation of a Circle
Write the standard equation
of the circle with center (2, -1)
and radius.

Solution
(x- h)2 + (y k)2 = r2 write the standard
equation of a circle.
(x 2)2 + (y ( -1))2 = 32 Substitute 2 for h,
-1 for k, and 3 for r.
(x 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 9 simplify.
Answer: The standard equation of the circle is (x
2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 9.

Example 3 Graph a Circle


Graph the given equation of the circle.
a.(x - 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 4 b. ( x + 2)2
+ y2 = 4
Solution
Rotations

A rotation is a transformation in
which a figure is turned about a fixed
point. The fixed point is the center of
rotation. In the Geo-Activity above,
point C is the center of rotation. Rays
drawn from the center of rotation to
point and its image form an angle
called the angle of rotation.
Rotations can be clockwise or
counterclockwise.
Rotational Symmetry A figure in a
plane has rotational symmetry if
the figure can be mapped onto itself
by a rotation of 180 or less. For
instance, the figure below has
rotational symmetry because it maps
onto itself by a rotation of 90.

Example 1 Identify
Rotational Symmetry

Does the figure have rotational


symmetry? If so, describe the rotations
that map the figure onto itself.
a.Rectangle b. regular hexagon c.
trapezoid
Solution
a.Yes. A rectangle can be mapped
onto itself by a clockwise or
counterclockwise rotation of 180
about its center.

b.Yes. A regular hexagon can be


mapped onto itself by a clockwise
or counterclockwise rotation of 60,
120, or 180 about its center.

c.No. A trapezoid does not have


rotational symmetry.