Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

MythofTesting

Note:Thisarticle,"Tests:Myths&Realities,"isexcerptedfrom
TestingforResults:HelpingFamilies,SchoolsandCommunities
UnderstandandImproveStudentAchievementpublishedbytheU.
S.DepartmentofEducation(2002).WhyTestsAreNecessary.

Testingstudentsisnothingnew.Goodteachershavealwaystried
tomeasurehowwelltheirstudentsarelearningandusedteststo
recognizestudentachievementanduncoverlearningproblems.
Withoutmeasuringstudentachievement,theonlycriteria
governingstudentgradesandpromotionwouldbebehaviorin
classandattendance.

Testinghasonlyrecentlyemergedasanissuebecausetaxpayers
areaskingmoreandtougherquestionsabouttheperformanceof
theirschoolsandstudentsandseekingmoreandbetterinformation
aboutschoolandstudentperformance.Theresultsofteacher
designedexamsandawideassortmentof"offtheshelf"testsare
helpful,buttheyshedlittlelightonschoolperformanceand
academicprogramimpact.HowStudentsLearn:WhatWorks,
WhatDoesn'tWorkAstrongaccountabilitysystemcomposedof
annualtestingkeyedtorigorousacademicstandardsanda
challengingcurriculumtaughtintheschoolprovidesthesortof
informationneededtodeterminewhatworks,whatdoesn't,how
wellstudentsareachieving,andwhattodotohelpthosewhoneed
help.

Astheuseofstandardizedtestsincreasesandparentsarebetter
abletounderstandthedimensionsofschoolandstudent
performance,therewillbegreaterpressureonlowperforming
schoolstoimprove.Thisworriesthosewhomightfeelthat
pressureandsotheyhaveattemptedtounderminethe
accountabilitymovementbychallengingtheusefulnessoftesting.
Theoncecommonsenseassumptionthattestingispartoflearning
isbeingchallengedbymythscreatedtounderminetheeffortto
improveAmerica'sschools.

9MythsAboutTesting

Myth:Testingsuppressesteachingandlearning.

TheReality:Ateacheriseffectivewhenastudentlearns.Itis
impossibletodetermineteachingeffectivenesswithout
determininglearningresults.Ateachercanpresentagreatlesson,
butifthestudentsdonotunderstand,thenthelessonhasnovalue.

Testingstudentsonwhattheyaretaughthasalwaysbeenapartof
teaching.Theprocessoftestingstudentsonwhattheyarelearning
overacourseofinstructionisuniversallyunderstoodand
appreciated.Testinghelpsteachersunderstandwhattheirstudents
need,helpsstudentsunderstandwhattheyneedtolearn,andhelps
parentsunderstandhowtheymighthelptheirchildren.

Myth:Testingnarrowsthecurriculumbyrewardingtest
takingskills.

TheReality:Althoughaqualityeducationreachesfarbeyondthe
confinesofanyspecifictest,annualtestingisimportant.It
establishesbenchmarksofstudentknowledge.Testskeyedto
rigorousstateacademicstandardsprovideameasureofstudent
knowledgeandskills.Iftheacademicstandardsaretrulyrigorous,
studentlearningwillbeaswell.

Myth:Testingpromotes"teachingtothetest."

TheReality:Testingispartofteachingandlearning.Thosewho
saytestinggetsinthewayoflearningframeafalsedichotomy.
Giftedandinspiringteachersuseteststomotivatestudentsaswell
astoassesstotheirlearning.Effectiveteachersrecognizethevalue
oftestingandknowhowtoemploytestingininstruction.

Myth:Testingdoesnotmeasurewhatastudentshouldknow.

TheReality:Inastrongaccountabilitysystem,thecurriculumis
drivenbyacademicstandards,andannualtestsaretiedtothe
standards.Withthisinplace,testsnotonlymeasurewhatastudent
shouldknowbutalsoprovideagoodindicationofwhetherornot
thestudenthasindeedlearnedthematerialcoveredbythe
curriculum.

Myth:Annualtestingplacestoomuchemphasisonasingle
exam.

TheReality:MostAmericansseetheimportanceofvisitinga
physicianforanannualcheckup.Theyalsorecognizethe
importanceofmaintainingahealthylifestyleandmonitoringtheir
healththroughouttheyear.

Annualtestingprovidesimportantinformationonstudent
achievement.Annualtestingenablesteachersandparentstoknow
howbesttoimprovestudentperformanceanddiagnoseproblems
thatmightbeassociatedwithpoorperformance.Ifasingleannual
testweretheonlydeviceateacherusedtogaugestudent
performance,itwouldindeedbeinadequate.Effectiveteachers
assesstheirstudentsinvariouswaysduringtheschoolyear.As
theydothis,theynotonlymonitorstudentachievementbutalso
helptoensurethattheirstudentswillexcelonannualtests.

Myth:Testingdiscriminatesagainstdifferentstylesoftest
takers.
TheReality:Awelldesignedevaluationsystemaccommodates
specialneeds.Evaluatingtheperformanceofallstudentsisnot
easy.Somestudentsdohavetroubletakingtests.Somestudents
scorepoorlyforreasonsoutsidetheclassroom.Agoodevaluation
systemwillreflectthediversityofstudentlearningand
achievement.

Myth:Testingprovideslittlehelpfulinformationand
accomplishesnothing.

TheReality:Agoodevaluationsystemprovidesinvaluable
informationthatcanhelpdiagnoseachievementproblems.Testing
givesinformationthatisnecessaryforteachersandparentsto
makeinformeddecisionsaboutinstructionandcurriculuminthe
classroom,school,district,andhome.Testingisprovesuseful
informationandcanchangethewayschoolsoperate.

Myth:Testinghurtsthepoorandpeopleofcolor.

TheReality:Millionsofyoungpeoplemanyfromlowincome
families,manypeopleofcolorarebeingleftbehindeveryday
becauseoflowexpectationsabouttheiracademicachievement
andinadequatemeasurestodetermineacademicachievement.
Thesearethestudentswhostandtobenefitthemostfromannual
testing.Astrongaccountabilitysystemwillmakeitimpossibleto
ignoreachievementgapswheretheyexist.Moreover,where
testingsystemsarenowinplace,lowincomeandminority
studentsareindeedexcelling.Arecentstudyreportsthatthereare
morethan4,500highpovertyandhighminorityschools
nationwidethatscoredinthetoponethirdonthestatetests.

Myth:Testingwillincreasedropoutratesandcreatephysical
andemotionalillnessinchildren.
TheReality:Theoverwhelmingmajorityofstudentswhodropout
ofschooldosobecausetheyarefrustrated.Theycannotreador
writeorlearn.Testinghelpswiththeearlyidentificationof
studentswhoarehavingtroublelearningsotheymaygetthe
servicestheyneedtosucceed.Testing,inanyform,does
sometimescauseanxiety.Effectiveteachersunderstandthisand
helpstudentsprepareforit.Testingisapartoflife,andyoung
peopleneedtobeequippedtodealwithit.

Note:"Testing:Myths&Realities"isexcerptedfromanlonger
articlepublishedbytheU.S.DepartmentofEducation,Testingfor
Results:HelpingFamilies,SchoolsandCommunitiesUnderstand
andImproveStudentAchievement(2002)

Soalan Forum 1

Mohon semua pelajar baca artikel yang bertajuk


Myth of Testing dan sila beri respon kepada soalan-
soalan yang dikemukakan dalam forum ini. Soalan-
soalan adalah seperti berikut:

1. Sejauhmanakah kebenarannya mitos dan realiti


pentaksiran seperti yang dibincangkan dalam artikel
di atas dalam konteks pendidikan di Malaysia?

2. Apakah pengajaran yang boleh diperolehi


daripada perbincangan tentang mitos dan realiti
dalam artikel tersebut?

Moderator : Othman bin Lebar