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Who Were the First Ex-Pats?

(Who Came First?)
ñ ograhical arrangement of this edition
© John Halsted 2010

ñhis book ma not be reroduced in its current format in an manner in an media, or

transmitted b an means whatsoever, electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tae, or mechanical
( including hotoco , file or video recording, internet web sites, blogs, wikis, or an other
information storage and retrieval s stem) excet as ermitted b law without the rior written
ermission of the Author.

John Halsted
United Kingdom

email Books@AbelaPublishing.com


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CHAPñER 1 Who Came First? ................................ ................................ ....... 4

CHAPñER 2 Ex-Pats in Medieval ñimes ................................ ........................ 7
CHAPñER 3 Ancient Ex-Pats ................................ ................................ ........ 10
Chater 4 Antiquit and the Future ................................ ................................ 12
Chater 5 What Goes Around, Comes Around ................................ ............. 14
Chater 6 ExPat Slaves ................................................................ ................ 17
CHAPñER 7More Precious than Gold and Silver ................................ .......... 21
Chater 8 M ster of the Paragua an Vikings ................................ .............. 25
Author¶s Note ................................ ................................ ................................ Œ

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Who Came First?

Have ou ever asked ourself - who were the first ex -ats?

In toda s jet-age societ exat living is now an acceted wa of life and we are no
longer surrised to find eole born and raised in other countries and from other
continents living amongst us. But has it alwa s been so?
Indeed m own famil has lived almost in this manner for most of the last two
hundred ears. M great grandfather left England in the mid -to-late-1800s and
settled in Australia. M grandfather, born and brought u in Australia, went to South
Africa to fight in the Anglo -Boer war at the turn of the last centur , met a oung lad
from England, married and sta ed raising a famil of ten. M father, with the
excetion of a tour of North Africa, Ital , German and Poland in the ears 1939 to
1945, remained in South Africa. Having being born and brought u in South Africa I
married a New Zealander and moved to New Zealand where we had our children.
M mothers side of the famil is French -Mauritian and m wifes famil has Scottish,
Irish and Australian ancestr  M immediate famil is now cu rrentl ermanent -
temorar residents of England And so the wheel has turned a full circle.

With the advent of the industrial revolution came the first mass -migration of the
modern age. In the main, the USA, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zeala nd
were all settled b immigrants from the ³old World´ of the U.K and Euroe. What had
been a trickle in the 1600s became a flood b the mid -1800s. Ellis Island in New
York being a lasting testament to this. But was this the first mass migration of

In 722BC, the Ass rians, under King Shalmaneser V conquered the Northern
Kingdom of Israel and man Israelites were deorted to Khorasan. Since then, and
for over 2,700 ears, the Persian Jews have lived in the territories of toda s Iran.
In 588BC King Nebuchadnezzar defeated the Kingdom of Judah and most other
countries in the Levant. Subsequentl the Judean nation was exiled to Bab lon and
out of this exile came the well know stories of Daniel ± in the Lions den, in the fire
and his ascent to be t he Prime Minister of Bab lon, second in ower onl to
Nebuchadnezzar himself. ñhe stor of an ex -at who dun¶ good.

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It was another sevent ears before the Jews were allowed to return to Israel. But
during this time the Jews were not all understanding, ob edient and demure. ñhere
are stories of troublesome Jews being exiled to remote arts of modern da Iran b
Nebuchadnezzar where, against all odds, the established communities and inhabit
towns that exist to this da . Once again the ex -ats had an effect on a foreign

In reference to returning to Israel as art of the Jewish restoration, Georgian folklore

has unroven stories of Jewish migrations into the region of current da Azerbaijan
and Georgia. A not altogether unbelievable migration. When the state of Khazaria
was formed in the 500s to 600s AD between the lower Don and Volga rivers, it is
believed that it was this heritage that influenced the leaders of Khazaria to select
Judaism over Christianit (from the West) and Islam (from the East) . Selecting
Judaism was also oliticall astute as it aligned the new nation with neither of the
religious owerhouses of the da (B zantium and Baghdad) .

In ancient times it was common ractice to conquer nations and take the conquered
eole into exile with a view to assimilation. As such most of the great ancient
emires were cross-ollinated with the customs and cultures of a m riad of eoles.
Even though a eole were conquered, leaders of time realised the benefit of cross -
ollination. ñhe rohet Mohammed also realised this benefit. In his writings he
states there are ³five eoles of the book´ - Moslems, Christians, Jews, Manicheans
and Zoroastrians. He also states that all should be resected. Unfortunatel this
command seems to have been forgott en in the ever olarising views of the Middle
ño this end, when the Seljuks took control of Baghdad, the Sultan demanded that the
team who oversee the redesign and rebuilding of the cit should consist equall of
Jews and Moslems. While both would b ring technical exertise to solve the roblems
that would be faced, one can onl wonder how much extra benefit was gained
culturall , through learning tolerance and accetance of their fellow humans no
matter what their creed or what religion the ractice d.

While mankind has an insatiable hunger to exlore, discover and learn, ex -ats will
alwa s be with us. And while there are ³foreigners´ living in our midst, our
ercetions and attitudes will directl , and indirectl , be influenced and in most cases
changed for generations to come.

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I could go on about how the Ass rians, Urartians, the Medes and the Parthians in the
centuries before this had similar cross -ollination and assimilation ractices.
Irresective of how far back in time we travel, there have alwa s been ex-ats.

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Ex-Pats in Medieval ñimes

ñhe descendents of current da Kalm kia, a former Soviet state situated on the West
bank of the Volga just above Astrakhan and the Casian Sea, migrated | | in
the 1600s from Mongolia. ñhinking the had made a mistake the re -migrated to
Mongolia and returned to finall settle once and for all in Kalm kia. Indeed the urt,
which is common amongst nomadic Mongolians can now freel be seen on mainland
Euroe. Kalm kia is now the onl Euroean countr with Buddhism as its state
religion, hence the cross -ollination effects of ex -ats is clearl demonstrated.

After the much acclaimed novel 1491, ou ma think the Chinese led the exat
endeavour in the medieval world. But ou would be mistaken. ñwo hundred ears
before this Marco Polo lived as a Euroean ex -Pat in China and his adventures are
well documented. ñhere are also stories of other Euroeans who did likewise before
and after Marco Polo.

In about the ear 800AD, after ears of tribal fighting, a loose confederation of
Russian tribes asked the Svear, or Swedish Vikings, to establish a s stem of
government for them. ñhis set in lace the Rurik d nast which after initiall
establishing itself at Novgorod, ex anded its emire and later moved its caital to
Kiev. ñhis d nast lasted almost four hundred ears, until the late 1200s, when it
was overrun b Genghis Khan and the Golden Hoarde.

In the 600s AD, the Catholic Church held swa over most of Euroe whe re
innovation and free thought was decidedl frowned uon. Refuse and excrement was
thrown into the streets to be drained ( onl when it rained) b ad -hoc guttering which
fed directl into rivers. ñhe church forbade mone lending which in turn meant the
econom of Euroe was, like the gutters, stagnant.

In 711AD Sain was invaded b the Uma id Moslems, or Moors, who overran the
crumbling Visigothic kingdom of Roderick. ñhe Moors originated in North Africa,
(Mauritania and Morocco) and crossed the Straits of Gibraltar. ñhe bulk of their arm
was made u of Berber stock (more on the Berbers later ).

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In effect the Moors became ex -ats bringing their culture and customs with them.
Under the Emirate of Cordoba, the cities of southern Sain, ñoledo, Cordoba, and
Seville, seedil became centres of the new culture and were famed for their
universities and architectural treasures like the Alhambra (made ossible b the
arch), luster glazing, delicate and lace -like wooden carvings, calligrah , gold and
silver smithing, the develoment of steel etc. etc. etc.
Not onl were h sical and ascetic changes introduced, but the Moors also
introduced the social custom of chivalr , racticed across the Moslem world. ñheir
imact was to last seven hundred ears and was to hav e a significant art in leading
medieval Euroe out of the Dark Ages.

At about the same time the Moors invaded Sain, the Vikings started raiding from
Northern climes, which was to last for three hundred ears. ñhe Viking era
culminated in the Battle of S tamford Bridge in 1066, two weeks before the more
famous Battle of Hastings. Less well known and acknowledged is where Vikings
raided, Viking traders usuall followed. Before m famil launched off to the shores of
the southern hemisheres new world in th e 1800¶s, we can trace our roots back to
the Danelaw (or Danelagh) of North and East England and before that Denmark. It
would seem that ex -at living is in our blood.

In 1066 the Normans invaded England and won the throne imlementing a Norman
culture over a Viking-Anglo-Saxon culture. But where did the Normans come from?
In order to sto Viking raids in Northern France, the French King offered the Vikings
tracts of land which have since become known as Normand ± home of the North or
Norse men, in effect Viking ex-ats. It was these same Northmen, or Francohile -
Vikings, that laid claim to the throne of England in 1066. In winning the throne of
England a whole new range of Franco -Viking customs, laws and language was
introduced to England. In order to su lant Anglo-Saxon culture with that of the
Normans, the ruling class of Normand almost decamed |  | to England
effectivel becoming ex-ats again. And the rest, as the sa , is histor . Onl the
effects are still being felt world -wide toda .

Much has been written about Viking activities to the West of Scandinavia i.e.
England, Scotland, Ireland, Iceland, Greenland and of course, the USA. But not
much has been written about Viking activities to the East, coincidentall the subject
of m book, Legend of the Last Vikings - ñaklamakan.
In 921AD on an embass to the Bulgar Court on the middle Volga, Ibn Fadlan, the

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acclaimed Arab chronicler, recorded Viking traders as seaking as man as nine

languages. Not exactl the Holl wood image of semi -barbaric illiterate raiders.
Another aside, the DID NOñ have horns on their helmets. ñhis is another Holl wood
fabrication which has cret into the modern -da image of Vikings.

ñhe Vikings had two rimar trade routes East. ñhe se were via the Dnier river and
the Volga river. ñhis involved sailing from the North Sea through the Skaggerak and
the Baltic Sea to the Gulf of Finla nd. ñhe then rowed ast St Petersburg into Lake
Ladoga and turned south, rowing u the Volkhov river to Novgorod, their first major
trading ost. ñhereafter the would row further inland to a oint where the Ilmen,
Dnier, Volga and Dvina rivers have thei r sources within about a one hundred mile
radius. Picking their boats u, the would then ort them and their cargoes to the
Dnier or Volga, refloat and then sail and row down these rivers to the Casian Sea
or Black Sea, trading as the went. ñhe oint o f this exlanation is where the Vikings
traded, the invariabl established trading osts and usuall ended u with ©|
Viking settlements of Viking ex -ats. With this came the introduction of Viking
customs and culture.

With links to B zantium and the Casian sea the Vikings most certainl would have
heard of the fabled cities of Samarkhand, Bukhara, Kashgar, Hotan and Xi¶an - to
name a few; all on the worlds first suerhighwa , the Silk Route. It is now an
established fact that Vikings traded to o rts along this network. Some even travelled
ortions of the route as did Yngvarr Vittfarne a Swedish Viking who disaeared in
the area of Samarkhand in about the ear 1040 AD.

Rest assured that wherever the medieval ex -ats ended u, getting there was ne ver
eas .

à Œ Œ

Ancient Ex-Pats

Even before the Vikings made it to the Silk Route, it is also an established fact that
the Romans had conquered the Western World and even arts of the Eastern world,
thereb exorting Roman customs and culture to t he far outosts of Britain in the
West and Iran, Iraq and Eg t in the East and just about ever lace in between.
Less known is that in an unwritten agreement with the Chinese, the Romans built
forts along the western ortions of the Silk and Sice Routes to rotect trade along
those routes, as did the Chinese along their Western aroaches into the
ñaklamakan desert culminating at the fabled cit of Lou Lan.
Needless to sa man a Roman soldier garrisoned over a thousand miles awa from
home took ©| wives who in turn would have had children, thereb introducing
western genes into the Asian gene ool and
| |  

In about the ear 100BC a tribe started a migration west from the North West
Casian area. ñhe made their wa across Euroe settling f or a while in German
later moving west in to the P renees (in the 400¶s AD) into an area which toda we
call Andalusia. ñhe are known to us as the Vandals, from which the name Andalusia
is derived. A name which even toda brings thoughts of wanton destru ction to mind.
Eventuall outsta ing their welcome the began migrating across the Iberian
Peninsula eventuall crossing the Straits of Gibraltar | | to North Africa. ñhere
the migrated East and became rulers of Carthage, eventuall building a fleet and
controlling much of the Western Mediterranean. We all know the stor of Sartacus,
the Punic wars and of course Hannibal and his elehants. Needless to sa that
during these camaigns more than one Vandal soldier decided to not return to
Carthage and sta ed on mainland Euroe, in effect becoming ex -at Vandals ±

ñhe Vandals were finall brought to heel in the 500s b the B zantine Emeror
Justinian. But what haened to them? It is believed that man slied awa into the
desert and intermarried with the Berber tribes of North Africa ||| || | 
   |  . In a break with Moslem law and tradition, Berber woman are
ermitted to aroach a man and ask him out on a date. It is believed that this is a

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throwback to Vandal customs.

ñhere are also tales in sub -Saharan African folklore that reort red haired and blond
haired men arriving |  | in the Sahel (the geograhic area that marks the
southern reaches of the Sahara and the start of Sub -Saharan Africa) not long after
the defeat of the Vandals in the 500¶s AD. ñhe effect these men had on the negroid
Bantu tribes is unfortunatel not recorded.

What is known is that it was the Berber regiments who heled the Moors defeat the
Visigoth King, Roderick, in Sain just over t wo hundred ears after the Vandals were
defeated b Justinian. In effect returning to an area in which the had been
temoraril resident. Which raises the question, could the have trul been
considered to be ex -ats?

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Chater 4
Antiquit and the Future

ñhree hundred ears before the birth of Christ and before the Vandals and the
Romans, the Macedonians, led b Alexander the Great, conquered the known world,
and be ond. Indeed Afghan and Northern Indian families with light skins and
blue/green e es claim these h sical attributes are directl traceable to Alexanders
conquest of their area. One onl has to also look at the now famous 1985 National
Geograhic cover icture taken b Steve McCurr of the green -e ed ³Afghan girl´ for
evidence of Alexander s lasting legac in Asia ± two thousand two hundred ears

Alexanders s stem of rule was to lace his most trusted generals and staff in charge
of the areas and regions he conquered, in effect introducing a s stem of exat
Macedonian governors and administration staff. As such he created a s stem of
satraies across his emire reaching from Macedonia and Greece to India including
Persia (Iran and Iraq), ñurke , Eg t, the Hol Land and the Lebanon. In effect he
imlemented a s stem of devolved government not too dissimilar to that used in
modern democracies toda . It goes without sa ing that Macedonian customs and
culture must have been introduced and adoted b the locals to a greater or lesser
degree. But Alexander was not the first to use this s s tem. Ass rian and Persian
kings were using this s stem hundreds of ears before Alexander arrived on the

When Alexander died rematurel his satraies were divided amongst his generals,
most deciding to take the oortunit to become Kings in their own right. As such the
ruling class over much of the known world was, for a time, Macedonian. Indeed the
Mogul d nasties of Northern India which followed can be attributed to Alexanders
introduction of formal government.

ñhree centuries later and half a world awa in Eg t, Cleoatra VII, of Mark Anthon
and Julius Caesar fame, was the last of the Macedonian Ptolemaic d nast . Ptolem
was allegedl Alexander¶s half brother and also one of his generals. B the time Mark
Anthon and Cleoatra started acti ng out their final scenes, the Ptolemies were more

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Eg tian than Macedonian having adoted the Eg tian Gods, Goddesses, customs
and ractices. ñhis raises another interesting oint. At what oint does an exat
become a local?

But wh do we label ourselv es? After all, in toda ¶s d namic and ever shifting world,
what is an African, an Asian, a Euroean or an American? Consider this: I was born
and raised to Caucasian arents in Africa, which, using toda ¶s et molog would
make me a Euroean African. M father, born in Johannesburg to arents, one of
whom was Australian and the other British, would have been a Euroean -Australian-
What then about a child born to ex -at Nigerian arents in England, which is not
uncommon. Does this make him an Africa n Euroean?

ñhe existence of ex -ats started as soon as the concet of statehood and belonging
was introduced, and we all know this to be circa seven thousand ears ago, ossibl
with Abraham in Ur. But what of the future?
When humankind eventuall gets to exlore the stars, what will we be called? Will we
siml label ourselves ³Earthlings´ or will we confuse the matter b labelling
ourselves ³African Earthlings´, ³American Earthlings´, ³Asian Earthlings´ or ma be
even ³Euroean Earthlings´?

Lets hoe we have the whole ³cultural tolerance and labelling´ thing well sorted b
then, because rest assured we are guaranteed to have off -world ex-ats living
among us, as no doubt the will have off -world exat ³earthlings´ living amongst

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Chater 5
What Goes Around, Comes Around

Under the Ptolemies ( 306BC to 30BC) who we mentioned in chater 4, C renaica

in North Africa had become the home of a large Jewish communit . ñhese numbers
were substantiall increased b tens of thousands of Jews deorted there after the
failure of the rebellion against Roman rule in Palestine and the destruction of
Jerusalem in AD70. Ô ©  | | | |©  Ô
  Some of these refugees
made their wa into the desert, where the became nomads and nurtured their fierce
hatred of Rome. ñhere the con verted man of the Berbers, with whom the mingled,
to Judaism and in some cases whole tribes were identified as Jewish. In AD30 the
Romans finall conquered Eg t and inherited all Eg t¶s rovinces including
C renaica.
In AD 115 the Jews raised a major revolt in C renaica that quickl sread through
Eg t back to Palestine, also ruled b Rome. ñhe urising was eventuall ut down
b AD 118, but onl after Jewish insurgents had laid waste to C renaica and sacked
the cit of C rene. Contemorar observers counted the loss of life during those
ears at more than 200,000, and at least a centur was required to restore C renaica
to the order and roserit that had meanwhile revailed in ñriolitania 1.

In the 1975 movie ñ c c c  c  

c set a little further West on the North
African coast at the turn of the 19 th and 20th centuries, the Great Raisuli, Lord of the
Rif (la ed b Sean Conner ) catures an American widow (la ed b Candice
Bergen) and her two children which triggers an international incident and a
subsequent chain of events which was resolved b that ever so effective tool of
imerial governments of the time ± Gunboat Dilomac .
But there were Euroeans in the Rif long before the earl 1900¶s and even before the
Portuguese Navigators of the 1400¶s, albeit for a short eriod ± Vikings (who else?)

In his book ñ c   cc c  c cF. Donald Logan mentions the four -
ear ³exedition´ of Bjorn Ironside and Hasting between AD859 and AD862. At a
time when former Viking raiders were s ettling down and inter -marr ing, eseciall in
Ireland and England, these Vikings took a fleet, estimated to be 62 shis, and

ŒŒ$ %Œ&'(ŒŒó 
 Œ£  )Œ* +Œ,Œ Œ- .Œ,Œ$(Œ"! Œ

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enetrated the Inner Sea or the Mare Nostrum also known as the Mediterranean.

After raiding orts along the west coast of Iberia , two Viking scout shis were
catured b the Muslims and under torture from their cators (some of whom were
Berbers - remember them from chater 3) established that Bjorn and Hasting¶s shis
were alread ³laden with silver, gold and risoners and rovisi ons´. Intent on raiding
Cordoba and Seville the Emir was forewarned and forearmed and drove off the
attack. Sailing on and assing through the Pillars of Hercules, or Straits of Gibraltar,
Ironside¶s and Hasting¶s fleet attacked Algeciras (51m/82k) west o f Marbella. ñhere
the lundered the town and set fire to it¶s great mosque.

Crossing to North Africa, the town of Nekor in the Rif was next on the list where ³ |
  ©| |©
 © | ´. Because of the inhositable climate and
lack of towns to lunder the exedition remained in Africa for eight da s before the
fleet took u its winter residence on an Island in the Mediterranean.
F. Donald Logan raises an interesting question, ³were these the same slaves
("Blaumenn" (blue men) 2) that an Irish source states were brought to Ireland from
Africa at about the same time?´ Because the event is so unique, it is robable. But
were the the first black Africans to arrive in Northern climes? Probabl not.

From the end of the first centur for at least 400 ears ñriolitania and C renaica, in
current da Lib a, were roserous Roman rovinces and art of a cosmoolitan
state whose citizens shared a common language, legal s stem, and Roman identit .
Roman ruins like those of Letis Magna attest t o the vitalit of the region 1. Indeed
ñriolitania was known as the ³bread basket of the Emire´ roviding the majorit of
Rome¶s wheat, grain, olives, oil, gold, slaves, horses and more. ñhe bulk of the
oulation in the countr side consisted of Berber fa rmers, who in the west were
thoroughl "Punicized" in language and customs (remember the Berbers and
Vandals from chater 4?).
ñherefore it is not unreasonable to conclude that the Emire would have had
ñriolitanian and C renaican soldiers in its regiments. Indeed a local Legion (5,500
men) were recruited and trained to rotect the rovince against marauding (Jewish -
Berber) tribesmen oosed to the rule of Rome.


|  || | |

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|©| |||| | 
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In fact some of the soldiers in the Roman arm serving along Hadrian¶s Wall were
Black Africans, beating the North African Viking slaves to Northern climes b almost
four hundred ears.

And so we have migration overla ing migration overlaing migration. ñhe Jews
who left Africa in the great exodus returning as refugees. ñhen we have the Berbers -
most of who were converted to Judaism b fervent anti -Roman Jews later being
infused with Vandal bloodlines eventuall conve rting to Islam and forming a great
art of the arm that conquered Sain, who in -turn catured some Vikings. ñhen we
have Black African Romans defending Hadrian¶s Wall against the ³blue´ Scotsmen
four hundred ears before Black North African slaves first a rrived in Ireland - and who
said histor was boring?

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Chater 6
ExPat Slaves

ñhroughout the revious five chaters, like the Berbers, slaver has shown its hand
on more than one occasion. I thought it was therefore time to stud it in a bit more

ñhe abolitionist movement started as earl as the 5 th centur AD. Indeed on national
conversion to Christianit in 340AD, the Kingdom of Meroe (in current da Sudan)
abolished slaver . Yet for some reason its lands and its neighbouring lands (Darf ur,
Kordofan etc.) have been lundered for slaves for millennia. ñhe legal abolition of
slaver in Britain was achieved some 1,300 ears later in 1807. Slaver was
eventuall abolished in the British Emire in 1833 after at least 42 ears of tireless
camaigning b William Wilberforce and members of the Claham Sect.
Desite the ongoing global drive against slaver on our lanet, it is still legal ractice
in a few of our world¶s nations.

Saint Patrick, the atron saint of Ireland (died March AD462 or AD 492), installed as
Bisho of Ireland b Poe Celestine, was one of the first eole to advocate the
abolishment of slaver . According to his Confessio, at the age of (about) sixteen,
Patrick was catured and taken to Ireland as a slave to a Druidic chiefta in named
Milchu in Dalriada in Count Antrim (although the exact area is still debated). His
enslavement markedl strengthened his faith. He escaed at the age of twent -two
and returned to Britain after the death of his father, later becoming one of the f irst
Christian rosel tisers in Ireland, being receded b such men as Palladius.

Even though the Romans, Arabs and later the Vikings ractised slaver , it was never
widesread within England, although man English merchants became wealth
through the slave trade.

Sweden abolished slaver in 1335.

In a 1772 case, English judge William Murra , 1st Earl of Mansfield, held that slaver
had no basis in law. He famousl wrote, " |
  |  |
 ||  ©  | |  |   | |
 ||  ||   |  |  | 

|©  | |
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 || |© ©| | || 

." Essentiall this ruling held
that if slaver is rohibited in a jurisd iction, then an slave taken into that territor was
free. Unfortunatel the ruling did not al to British colonies; hence, slaver

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à Œ Œ

remained in the future United States of America.

ñhe English statesman, William Wilberforce, led the antislaver movement in

England, making his first seech against the slave trade On 12 Ma 1789. His first
bill, in 1791, was defeated b a landslide of 163 votes to 88, et Wilberforce did not
give u.

After a revolt b slaves, Haiti abolished slaver in the same ear.

In 1805 the House of Commons finall assed a law that made it illegal for an
British subject to transort slaves but the House of Lords blocked it.
Eventuall in 1807 Wilberforce heled ersuade Parliament to ass a bill outlawing
the slave trade throughou t the British Emire. ñhe ban was enforced b the Ro al
Nav . However, even after 1807 slaves were still held, though not sold, within British
A concerted camaign led b William Wilberforce, ñhomas Clarkson and members of
the Claham Sect led to the abolition of all slaver throughout the emire in 1833.
ñhe British Government aid £20 million in comensation to lantation owners in the
So while slaver was not racticed in Britain er sé, ex -at Britains racticed oh so
well in the col onies, themselves creating a societ of ex -at slaves. Slaves taken, in
the main, from east and west Africa in the hundreds of thousands, if not millions.

Sadl , William Wilberforce died on 29 Jul 1833, a month before the Slaver
Abolition Act was assed, an act which gave all slaves in the British Emire their
freedom. Yet he had seen slaver abolished in the region that now includes Ecuador,
Colombia, and Venezuela in 1821, through a gradual emanciation lan. ñhis was
followed b Chile in 1823 and Mexico in 1829, followed b Denmark (including all
Danish colonies) in 1848.

Wilberforce was a ver dedicated man, comelled to take action b his religious f aith.
He wrote " ©Ô
|| || | || |
! |" ©| ©|| 
 # |  " He was also a founder member of the
Ro al Societ for the Prevention of Cruelt to Animals (RSPCA) and resonsible for
enshrining Christian values in the charter of the East India Coman .
««.and there are those who still believe that one man can¶t make a difference?

In the USA, all of the states north of Mar land graduall and soradicall abolished
slaver between 1789 and 1830, commencing with Massachusetts. Yet in the earl
1850s the American abolitionist movement slit into two cams over the issue of the
United States Constitution, eventuall resulting in the American Civil War in 1861,
which lasted until 1865.

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Even more graduall and slowl nations around the world began to abolish slaver .
ñhe Netherlands (including all colonies) in 1863. Cuba in 1886, Brazil in 1888 and
China in 1910.

In 1848 seven ear old Barbara Maria Szasz, an orhan of an Hungarian officer,
found herself in a refugee cam. She was abducted into an Ottoman harem and
raised to become a concubine. A British widower and exlorer, Samuel Baker -White
haened to see her at an Ottoman slave auction and so taken was he with her that
he stole her from the auction and smuggled her out of Ottoman territor into the
Austro-Hungarian Emire after which she changed her name to Florence. Aged just
sixteen she accomanied Sir Samuel on his travels into deeest, darkest Africa
where together the exlored the Uer Nile, discovered and named Lake Albert and
the Murchison Falls. ñhis journe took four ears during which time the became
fluent in Arabic, witnessed female circumcision, negotiated with hostile tribes, and
nearl died of fever and eventuall met S eke and Grant. Florence married Sir
Samuel. Even though her husband was knighted she was denied an audience with
Queen Victoria (because of her background) and was initiall shunned London
Societ . ! $

In 1869, Ismail Pasha, the ruler of Eg t, aointed the same Sir Samuel Baker -
White (1821-1893 known as an exert on Eg t and Sudan) as governor general of
Sudan, which was then governed b Eg t. Ismail wanted Baker to defeat the slave
trade and oen routes for commerce. But ou¶ ll have to read his first -hand account in
his book ³ %

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  |! |
 |! |" ©| ´ available
from the Narrative Press, to gain a firsthand account of his adventures and battles in
the Sudan.

On December 10, 1948, one hundred ears after Maria/Florence found herself in a
refugee cam, the General Assembl of the United Nations adoted the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights. Article 4 states:
  |  | |©
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Yet in that same ear, in m native South Africa, the National Part came into ower
on a latform that roosed the introduction of aartheid, or searate develoment
based on race. ñhe Poulation Registration Act was introduced which classified the
eole as Bantu (black Africans), Coloured (eole of mixed race), White (the
descendants of the Boers, the British and other Euroeans), and Asian (Indian and
Pakistani immigrants), which had an initial emhasis on ³restori ng´ the searation of
races within the urban areas. As such, a large segment of the Asian and Coloured
oulations were forced to relocate out of then, so-called, white areas. African
townshis that had been overtaken b (white) urban srawl were demolish ed and

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à Œ Œ

their occuants removed to new townshis well be ond cit limits.

It is interesting that Hendrik Verwoerd (regarded as the architect of Aartheid) born in

Holland, was taken to South Africa as an infant in 1903, when his arents emigrated
as missionaries. He graduated from Stellenbosch Universit and studied further in
German , where he came into contact with the nascent National Socialist (Nazi)
art .
Even more interesting is that his successor, Balthazar Johannes ³John´ Vorster,
became involved in the Afrikaner nationalist movement and heled found a militant
anti-British organization. He was interned for oosition to the allies during World
War II (1942±44), after which he entered olitics and was elected to the South
African Parliament as a Na tionalist art member in 1953 becoming Prime Minister in

ñhe Klisruit farm (   |© 

 ( literal translation ³Ston Stream´),
South West of Johannesburg, was urchased b the Johannesburg Cit Council in
1904 ostensibl to build a s ewerage works for the cit . In 1906 a townshi was
established on the site. ñhis became the first townshi of what was to become
SOWEñO (an acron m for SOuth stern ñOwnshis), a name written into world
histor on 16 June 1976 as the beginning of the end of Aartheid, just six months
before I was to commence National Service.
Between the assage of the Grou Areas Act of 1950 and 1986, about 1.5 million
non-white South Africans were forcibl removed from cities to rural reservations.
While aartheid was te chnicall not slaver , it was, however, but one ste removed
from that abhorrent state.
White South Africa eventuall ielded to world ressure and domestic violence in
1990 b reealing most of the aartheid laws. ñhree ears later, a new constitution
gave eole of all races the right to vote, and the following ear South Africans of all
races elected a black South African, Nelson Mandela, as resident.

In 2004 Soweto celebrated its centenar with the launch of the ³Soweto 100 Projects´
initiative, which ran into 2005.

Yet slaver still exists in man arts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Concerted
camaigns to rid the world of slaver are ongoing. ñhe United Nations General
Assembl declared 2004 the International Year to Commemorate the Struggle
against Slaver and its Abolition. ñhis roclamation also marked the bicentenar of
the birth of the first black state, Haiti.

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More Precious than Gold and Silver

U to here ou have read a lot about the voluntar and forced migrations of eoles
from the far and distant laces of the world to what toda seems like dr and arid
laces. But were these laces alwa s dr and arid?

Agdz, ronounced A gadiz, is a small small town in south Morocco between

Ouarzazate and Zagora. A former French garrison, the town as aroximatel 5,000
inhabitants. Situated at the foot of the 1 ,531m high Djebel 3 Kissane at the exit of the
Draa break-through in the Djebel Sarhro massif.

ñhe Draa Valle is a long oasis that runs south from Ouarzazate into the Sahara
Desert. At one time, the waters of the Draa River continued west to the coast where
the entered the Atlantic south of Guelmim. ñoda , the area west of the des ert ort
of Mhamid is comletel dr . ñhis was also the site of legendar Jewish kingdom
during the eriod of the second temle in Jerusalem. Jews have inhabited the uer
valle since at least the late eighth centur , when the were defeated b the first
Moroccan sultan, Idriss 1 st . Jews took refuge in the Draa Valle , where Berber tribes
were able to maintain their indeendence f rom the sultan. It is ossible that the
moved there to join other Berber grous who had alread converted to Judaism
(remember them from chater 5). ñhe Draa was an imortant centre of Jewish
civilization for man centuries.

In his book ³Lost Cities of Atlantis, ancient Euroe & the Mediterranean´, David
Childress mentions the find of a shi, thought to be a Greek ñrireme, in the Sahara
near the Draa Deression not far from the border of Morocco and Algeria, where |
||  | 
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is ³| Ô  %  ©|  ©  |  
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| |

In ³ñhe Ancient Atlantic´, L. ña lor Hansen (he who roosed the location of Atlantis)
writes of the ©   aroximatel 9,000 ears ago when volcanoes
eruted, earthquakes rumbled, the earth belched fire, rain fell in sheets and floods
abounded. ñhis is not dissimilar to the bible accounts of Noah in the book of Genesis
7:11 ³«.  | | | ||  ©  | | ©    |  ©|   © | 
|  |© ||  © 

 |  | . L. ña lor Hansen
claims that it was this event that caused the Sea of ñriton to drain into the Atlantic via
the route of the current da Niger river leaving the sea bed high and dr . ñhat sea

Œ/0(Œà(Œà  )Œ& Œ

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bed is now called the Sahara. We also know that at a oint in time the earth did tilt on
its axis and the shift in balance would most likel have caused the under -crust
magma to move creating an underground tsunamis which eventuall exloded out of
existing vents and oening others creating new volcanoes. ñhe shift in the earth¶s
axis did however create the seasons.

2,765km (or 1,728 miles) to the South East of Agdz lies Lake Chad, or what remains
of it. In the 1960¶s Lake Chad, a land -locked lake with no outlet to the oceans, was
the fourth largest inland water bod on the African continent. In 1963 the lakes
surface was aroximatel 25,000 square kilometers. ñhe lake was ver shallow, in
the order of fi ve to eight metres dee and it¶s waters rovided livelihoods for
fishermen as well as for settlements, cultivators and herders. ñhe Chari and the
Longone rivers are the major sources that feed the lake.

In ancient times Lake Chad also suorted a water s stem that sread 650km/400m
west to northern Niger. Indeed there the ruins of man stone cities along the Sahel
that are testament to this once roserous area. Part of this s stem was Lake
Gobero which suorted the Kiffian culture some 7,000 to 9,000 ears ago. In 2000
the alaeontologist Paul Soreno, searching for dinosaur bones , in the now Gobero
desert, uncovered a large Kiffian grave ard. In the graves archaeologists have
discovered haroons and fish hooks which would indicate that the Sahara was once
ver wet.
ñoda , in the local dialect Gobero means ³desert of all deserts´. ñhis is quite an
accolade considering it comes from desert dwellers. But where are all these eole
now. Unlike m revious exa mles, nature not man, forced these eole to migrate.

In ancient wet seasons Lake Chad also overflowed, east, via the Bahr el Ghazal
(River of Gazelles) through the Sudan into the Nile. It is believed that between the 3 rd
centur AD and the late 1300¶s t hat the flow of water from the Bhar el Ghazal was
constant. Indeed, of the 179 secies of fish which have been counted in Lake Chad,
man also occur in the Nile (Sarch and Birkett 2000, World Bank 1993, Beadle

ñoda , the surface area of Lake Chad, barel reaches 1,350 square kilometres ± a
mere 5.4% or its original size. According to a BBC news reort (March 24, 2004),
"Nigerias resident has warned that Lake Chad will soon disaear unless
immediate action is taken." Once the fourth -largest lake on the continent of Africa
and the sixth largest lake in the world, it is toda on its wa to extinction.

5,200 km north east of Lake Chad in Central Asia lies the Aral Sea. Once the 4 th
largest sea in the world it was once described as the Blue Sea. It o nce had industries
that suorted hundreds of thousands of Uzbekis, Kazakhs and Russians. ñhe sea
was so large and bountiful that it had its own fishing fleet. ñhe demise of the sea has
had such a rofound effect on the oulation that the United Nations h as initiated a
secial health rogram in the area.
In 1960 the Aral sea was comosed of one lake some 68,000km² in size. In 1998 its

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size had reduced to 28,687 km² and b 2004 it¶s size was 17,160km². ñhe Aral Sea
is now sread across 3 small lakes and in total it is a mere 25% of its original size. A
reminder of the ast industries and bountiful catches of fish are the rusting hulks of
shis sitting in the middle of a desert.

Around the 4 th centur AD the central Asian bastion of ñorak Kala in Khwarizm (also
known as Chorasmia, adjacent to the Aral Sea), embraced ortions of modern
Uzbekistan, ñurkmenistan and Afghanistan and sat alongside the Amu Dar a, known
in ancient times as the Waxus or Oxus river. ñhe cit contained towered battlements
which encomassed an area measuring 1,900 feet b 1,400 feet, or 565 metres b
420 metres. ñhe alace of ñorak Kala (Google earth co -ordinates 41°3953.13"N,
60°5057.52"E) was assembled about an enclosure situated on an elevated latform,
ascended to a height of t hree stories, and was overlooked b three tremendous
towers. ñhe alace ossessed three enormous halls. ñhe decoration of the
designated "Hall of Kings" was a consolidation and melding of stucco scultures and
aintings with effigies of the aristocrac of Chorasmia and their families. Benjamin
Rowland notes that the "Hall of Victories" was lined with statues of rinces attended
b the moulded figures of Nikes, and the "Hall of Warriors" was brilliantl decorated
with reliefs of men-at-arms ainted black with African features. ñhe wav hair of the
figures is erhas an indication that Dravidian soldiers were affiliated in an imortant
wa with the ruling lords of Chorasmia. Yes, black African slaves made it to Central
Asia from the areas of Darfur and ñibesti . Like the Moslem rulers of Eg t , the rulers
of Chorasmia also assembled the Africans into effective fighting units.
But ñorak Kala fell in the 6 th centur AD when ñurkic invaders (soon to be known as
the Seljuks) destro ed the irrigation s stem to such an extent that it could not be
reaired. It would seem that the Aral Sea has gone the same wa as well.

2,550 km, or 1,594 miles, east of the Aral S ea lies Lo Nor, also known as Lo Nur,
or what is left of it. ñhe lake was terminus of the ñarim River. I sa ³was´ because the
river no longer reaches the lake and is now swallowed b the ever encroaching
ñaklamakan desert. When Marco Polo assed the lak e in the 1200¶s on his wa to
the court of Kublai Khan, Lo Nor covered over 10,000km² and suorted a thriving
ñocharian culture. Indeed the fabled Silk Road cit of Lou Lan sat on its shores and
fish were so bountiful it too had its own fishing fleet.
When the Euroean exlorer Sven Heidin made it to the ruins of Lou Lan in the earl
1900¶s his comment was ³It is as if ever one siml walked out´. ñhe absence of
water in a desert cit could be the onl cause for a mass -migration.
B 1928 deforestation had had its effect and the lake was reduced in size to
3,100km² just 31% of its original size. Now it is merel a coule of salt marshes and
less than 1% of the original lake remains.

From Morocco across North Africa to Eg t, to the Levant, Iran, Iraq, Uzbekistan,
K rg stan to Pakistan, India and China eole have built interconnecting s stems of
underground canals called variousl qanats, akhchal, foggaras and kariz. ñhese
underground aquifers use gravit to canalise water, usuall from mountains, unde r
and across lains sometimes for hundreds of miles. In ancient times these

à Œ Œ

underground canals large enough for a man to stand uright in, were in the main dug
and maintained b slaves due to the hazardous nature of the work.

I have given four examles of cultures and Kingdoms that have erished over the
ages due to lack of water. All their gold, silver, recious metals and stones and
h sical strength could not save them. Indeed in m native South Africa, that engine
room of gold and diamond roduction, there is one commodit more recious than
gold ± water. While aer is a renewable resource, through the growing of more
trees, there is onl a finite amount of water on our lanet. Lets look after it.

Earlier I talked about the da of catacl sm aroxima tel 9,000 ears ago.
On Fri Feb 6, 2009 the Australian Broadcasting Cor. (ABC) osted this article:
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ñhe research has been ublished in the journa l, Science, and so far no -one is
disuting it.

What is clear to me that if we wait for oliticians to lead the wa on saving our lanet,
we will all end u like those oor souls on the ñrireme found in the Sahara ±
skeletons chained at our osts.
Instead, let us take the necessar action individuall , and where ossible collectivel ,
and let the oliticians la catch u. ño this end the 10:10 website has been
established. ñhe 10:10 vision statement is ³Cutting our carbon 10% a ear ± starting
in 2010´. Alread active in 15 countries a further 24 are read to sign u. ño join go
to htt://www.1010global.org/

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Chater 8
M ster of the Paragua an Vikings

ño finish I want to leave ou with food for thought - a bit of a m ster . ñhere is a
region of Paragua where overwhelming evidence exists of Viking occuation during
the Post Viking eriod after AD 1000. And there we were thinking that the backblocks
of Paragua and Brazil were occuied b some more recent Germanic
refugees««.. Runic inscritions indicate a dialect ver close to the language soken
b the inhabitants of the Schleswig/Jutland eninsula on the Baltic Sea in current
Northern German where it borders Denmark.

Archaeological examination of the territor was conducted in the latter art of the
1970s b a rofessorial team in collaboration with the Paragua an Government and
Arm , and the Instituto de Ciencia del Hombre of Asuncion. ñhere is no doubt that
the Vikings settled this region of South Am erica. ñhe reason wh the did so is
somewhat elusive, as is the exlanation wh modern historians might want to
distance themselves from an discussion of Schleswig Vikings in Paragua . Is it
ossible that a few of Bjorn Ironside¶s and Hasting¶s shis (ch ater 5) tired of their 4
ear journe and decided to exlore the South Atlantic instead?

In a eriod just before the Sanish established themselves as the dominant force in
the region, a shiwrecked Portugese sailor, Alejo Garcia, survived a shiwreck o ff
Santa Catalina, Brazil. ñhere he learned of the inland territor of a ³white king´. In
1521 Garcia set off three comanions to find this King. ñhe crossed the Gua ra
region ³along a track in erfect reair´. In 1542 the Sanish exlorer Alvar Nuñez
Cabeza de Vaca followed in Garcia¶s footstes and wrote a chronicle confirming
Garcia¶s account with similar detail.

ñhe track followed the north bank of the river Paranaanema and crossed the great
Rio Parana to a settlement marked on the oldest mas as Iv inheima. (IVIN - Old High
German Iwa, HEIMA - Old German heim - countr ) . ñhis lace is now known b the
Guarani name "Yguare " ("River of the Dwellers of Antiquit "). ñhe iva was a tree
whose red wood, tough but flexible, was used b the Norsemen to make their bows.
Local G auaki Indians used the acrocomia -tatai alm for the same urose.

From Ivinheima the track crossed the Mesootamia and Cerro Cora ridge (the central
location of this article) to San Fernando mountain on the east bank of the River
Paragua just above a settlement marked on the oldest mas as Weibingo. ñhe
name Weibingo comes from the Norse vej (ath) and vink (sign) or vinkekl (angle)
and therefore means either "signost" or more robabl "bend in the track", the oint

à Œ Œ

where the traveller, following the route from resent -da Asuncion, had to turn left for
Potosi in Bolivia. A third interesting location mentioned in the earliest ublished
account b Schmidel, is Froenirtiere where there was a ruined fortification with
alisade. Neither Ivinheima nor Weibingo nor Froenirtiere are names which might
have roots in native Ameri ndian languages or Sanish.

In the 1930s, Major Marcial Samaniego was a oung engineer and officer in the
Paragua an Arm ,stationed in a relativel unoulated frontier zone of which Cerro
Cora (close to the modern town of Pedro Juan Caballero on the bor der with Brazil)
formed art. He had a assionate interest in ethnic affairs. Ever night in his tent he
recorded on magnetic tae the interminable stories told him b the aged local natives
whose confidence he had won. His main aim was to reserve knowled ge of the
ancestral traditions likel to be soon lost with the onward march of civilisation and
Christianit . One articular extract of the ñui -Guarani tradition - "ñhe Great King of
Amamba " intrigued him. He coied down:

"In da s gone b , there reigned in this region a owerful and wise king called Iir. He
was a white man and wore a long blond beard. With men of his race and indigenous
warriors lo al to him he lived in a large settlement on to of a small mountain. He had
much-feared weaonr and oss essed great riches in gold and silver. One da ,
however, he was attacked b savage tribes and disaeared for ever. ñhat was what
I was told b m father, and he was told it b m grandfather."

All the Guarani tribes of Paragua , Brazil and Bolivia recal l this White King of
antiquit . Major Samaniego was aware that indigenous traditions ma distort facts
but never invent them. ñhe name Iir has no meaning in Guarani; it is not a Guarani
name and is foreign to the structure of the Guarani language, whose w ords (with few
excetions, none of which end in -ir) finish in a vowel.

Fritz Berger (1880 ± 1948) was a mechanical engineer from the Sudetenland who
had sent man ears drifting across South America: he had a lad -friend in Munich
to whom he communicated some of his exeriences b letter. During the War of the
Chaco between Paragua and Bolivia from 1932 to 1935, Fritz Berger gave "good
and lo al service" to the Paragua an Arm as an engineer at a weaons reair
worksho in Asuncion. In 1936 he left for Brazil. All that is known of how he sent the
next four ears is a brief reference to the fact that he "rosected for etroleum in
Parana State." Berger had no knowledge of geolog , and found no etroleum
deosits, but it rovided a lausible reason as to wh he sent so much time
investigating the terrain. In 1940, "in the course of one of his customar rides through
the forest on horseback", and having just forded the River Yane about 25 kilometres
south-west of the town of Pedro Juan Caballero in Parag ua , he saw extending

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before him a natural lain surrounded b hills, on the edge of which was the Cerro
Cora mountain ridge. It was in this lace, so the Indian natives had told him, that King
Iir had lived.

Berger claimed to have discovered a cit ca lled "Atlantik" of which the dimensions
were "50 kilometres diameter and 150 kilometres long, a grandiose Phoenician
installation" which had "large deosits of helium and etroleum, the iing still
usable" and "monuments which looked like cathedrals and g reat alaces, and
temles to the horizon." ñhese might have been built b the Phoenicians "an thing
from 6,000 to 500, 000 ears ago". Cerro Iir, Fritz Berger continued, "was the centre
of a vast region densel oulated aeons ago."
Huh? Hang on a mo¶? I thought we were discussing Vikings in Paragua ????? Bear
with me a while will ou«««.

Austrian rofessor Ludwig Schwennhagen had for decades been researching an

alleged Phoenician resence in Brazil in the re -Christian era, the res ults being
revealed in his book "ñhe Ancient Histor of Brazil 1100 BC - 1500 AD" ublished in
1928. Schwennhagen claimed to have found Phoenician inscritions in Piaui State in
the Amazon area in which there were references to ñ re and Sidon (887 -856 BC).
He believed that the Phoenicians had used Brazil as a base for at least 800 ears.
Brazil is aarentl full of vestiges which corroborate the Phoenician resence in the
north-east. ñhe ñui tribe native to the region from about 3000 BC slit in two in
about 500 BC, one branch migrating to north east Paragua where it became known
as the ñui-Guarani tribe.

In Januar 1973 an edition of the Asuncion dail newsaer "ABC Color" carried a
long article announcing the discover b Ministr of Public Works ge ologist Pedro
Gonzalez of 157 caves and grottoes in the mountainous jungle region of Amamba .
On some of the cave walls he had found numerous engravings in a strange scrit. He
had removed a number of boxes filled with engraved stones. ñhe Amamba lateau
is 70 kilometres in diameter about 100 kilometres from the town of Pedro Juan
Caballero. D   | 
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On the Amamba lateau, Cerro Guazu alone has five caves or rock shelters with
thousands of chiselled in scritions. Of these, 71 were eventuall decr ted b the
exedition runologist. ñhe whole comlex contains the largest collection of rune
writings in the world. Most are in the classic futhark, some in Anglo -Saxon or the
local futhark of continental Germa n . It was deduced from the translated material that
the Paragua an Vikings were not ure Danes but originated rinciall from
Schleswig, seaking a dialect of Norse and Old Low German. ñhis ma have
develoed locall over the estimated 300 ear eriod in which the Vikings were in
South America, cut off from Euroe.

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à Œ Œ

In a rock shelter known as Abrigo de Odin is a fine chiselled image of Odin riding his
six-legged horse, Sleinir, who is leaing from one world to another: the god holds
the javelin Gungnir in his right hand. Before the Abrigo de los Altares are to be fou nd
two blocks of roughl tailored stone of aroximatel equal size. ñhe investigators
considered that the formed a sacrificial altar. Both had on one side a number of
dee grooves whose urose might have been to drain off the blood of victims
(ooooh these Vikings). Other engravings were three simle runes: the death rune,
hagalaz (h) and solewu (S) , an ideogram which ma transliterate to "At death have
faith in the Sun". ñhe second sacrifice -stone has the runes eihwaz (e) fehu (f) and
uruz (u) (justice, roert , virilit ) , and below the altar is a single rune, mannaz
(man) .

ñwo inscritions in the rock shelter confirmed that the blocks in question do comose
a sacrificial altar. One of them, a cr togram engraved in a medallion of much darker
colour than the surrounding rock, reads thurisaz + isa + odala + ansuz + solewu +
solewu (thi o as s) which the runologist rofessor transliterated as "ño ñhee, Odin,
God of the Sun".

Another lithograh in the same shelter disels an doubt as to the ractice of

sacrifice there: ofak/les that uile/ifuil, literall "Ma this sacrifice endure". Ifuil ma be
a signature. Another word, indeciherable, is engraved lower down the stone. At the
foot of Cerro Guazu is a 10 -metre high dolmen having the engraving of a r adiant sun
and the runic inscrition os leuo liuth - "H mn of the Sun God Odin."

ñhe Cerro Cora range is a ring of mountains about five kilometres in diameter and 25
kilometres west of the modern town of Pedro Juan Caballero. It lies within a national
ark and a rohibited militar zone ± so no thoughts of dashing off to South America
to find lost Viking lairs You¶ll be shot at for sure. Use Google Earth instead.

And so our Vikings, or should that be exats, made it to almost all of Euroe, the
Mediterranean, Africa, Central Asia, North America and now it would seem to be
South America as well. As an aside: the Phoenician word for iron is ³Brzl´. Sa no

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