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Type-2 fuzzy logic control of a DC/DC buck converter

J. Solano Martinez. D. Hissel. M-C. Pra.

*University of Franche Comt, FEMTO-ST UMR CNRS 6174


90010 Belfort, France
{jsolanom,daniel.hissel,marie-cecile.pera}@univ-fcomte.fr

Abstract: This paper presents a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) that performs the output voltage regulation
of a DC/DC buck power converter. As type-1 FLC are well known in this application, the objective is to
consider a type-2 FLC. The voltage controller is implemented, evaluated and compared (using a type-1
and a type-2 FLC) by simulation and by experimentation.
Keywords: Type-2 fuzzy logic, voltage control, buck converters, simulation and experimental validation.

1. INTRODUCTION
The concept of type-2 fuzzy logic systems, which handle the
A classical structure of fuzzy logic controller (FLC) as uncertainty, was introduced by Zadeh (1975). The first type-2
presented in Hissel (1998) is implemented to compare the logic system was developed and presented only 23 years later
performance of type-2 and type-1 FLCs. The voltage by Karnik and Mendel (1998). Type-2 fuzzy logic has been
controller is implemented, evaluated and compared (using used in different applications such as control of electrical
type-1 and type-2 fuzzy logic) by simulation and by machines Barkati et al. (2008), Barkat et al. (2011) speed
experimentation. The objective of this work is to study the control of diesel engines Lynch et al. (2006), power system
viability of the use of type-2 fuzzy logic to perform the stabilizers Robandi et al. (2008), or transformer diagnosis
voltage control of a buck power converter. The optimization Florez et al. (2008).
of the fuzzy logic system is then not considered.
2.1 Membership functions
This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents some
Membership functions (MFs) establish a relationship between
motivations to consider type-2 fuzzy logic controllers and
numerical values and linguistic labels. Type-1 fuzzy MFs
presents the membership functions used in fuzzy logic
(T1-MF) represent the membership degree for a variable x.
systems. Section 3 is devoted to the design of the voltage
Type-2 fuzzy MFs (T2-MF) also consider an uncertainty U of
controller. Finally, in Sections 4 and 5 simulation and
the membership degree. T1-MFs are a particular case of T2-
experimental results are provided and conclusions and
MFs where U is 0. Membership functions are classified as:
prospects are discussed.
Singleton, if is 0 but in a single point of the domain is 1.
2. TYPE-2 FUZZY LOGIC AND UNCERTAINTY
Interval type-1, if is 0 except in the interval [lb, rb] where
Fuzzy logic allows using linguistic labels and human
=1 if lb < x < lb
knowledge to represent or model physical process and to
design their control systems. Fuzzy control has been used in Type-1, if is a crisp value which varies between 0 and 1
different applications such as voltage control in power
converters or speed control in electric machines. Type-2, if is represented by a secondary degree :

Fuzzy sets as used in type-1 fuzzy logic do not represent the 1. Interval type-2 MFs if is an interval type-1 MF
uncertainty. This is the reason why Zadeh (1975) proposed to 2. General type-2 MFs if is a type-1 MF
represent it by using type-2 fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is
involved with any situation with some lack of information: it These membership functions are illustrated in Appendix A.
may be incomplete, imprecise, fragmentary, not fully reliable, Interval T2-MFs are easy to implement and then have been
vague, contradictory or deficient in some other way Klir used in almost all the works about type-2 fuzzy logic. For
(1995). Different authors define and classify different types simplicity reasons, interval type-2 MFS has been also
of uncertainty. The classification proposed in Ioos (2009) selected in this research.
illustrated in (Fig. 1) fits to describe uncertainty in electrical
engineering.
Uncertainty is also present in fuzzy logic systems as
explained by Mendel (2001): the uncertainty 1) about the
meaning of the words that are used in the rules, 2) about the
consequence that is used in a rule, 3) about the measurements
that activate the fuzzy logic systems and 4) about the data
used to tune the fuzzy logic system parameters
Fig. 1. Sources of uncertainty. - Adapted from Ioos (2009)
3. BUCK CONVERTER VOLTAGE CONTROLLER *
c ( k ) = c (k ) g m (6)
A DC/DC buck converter is used to couple a DC voltage
source to a load, while controlling the quantity of energy Finally, the relative change is integrated to find the duty cycle
supplied by the former by reducing the voltage. The buck of the converter by using an integrator as defined by (7).
converter structure as presented on (Fig. 2) allows transit of c (k ) = max(1, min (0, c (k ) + c (k ) Tech )) (7)
energy from the source to the load but not vice versa
The output voltage of the buck converter depends on different The whole fuzzy logic controller is illustrated in (Fig 4).
parameters and operation conditions as: the input voltage, the 3.3 Fuzzy logic system design (rules and MFs)
duty cycle, the switching frequency and, the inductance,
capacitance and load values. Generally, the switching Table 1 presents the considered classical anti-diagonal rule
frequency, the inductance and the capacitance values are base. The seven membership functions are: Negative High
constant. The input voltage can be also considered as (NH), Negative Low (NL), Negative Very Low (NVL), Zero
constant. As the load is imposed, the output voltage is (Z), Positive Very Low (NVL), Positive Low (PL) and
controlled by controlling the duty cycle. Positive High (PH). The input and output membership
functions are defined as classically done in this real-time
3.1 Overview application: triangular MFs for the two input fuzzy sets and
The voltage controller requires one single input which is the singleton MFs for the output fuzzy set.
error signal (e) between the reference and the measured The two input fuzzy sets (for e and de) are composed of
voltage (Vref and V0). The output of the controller is the duty seven membership functions. The MFs are symmetric around
cycle of the converter (c). The controller computes an output the zero axes and are defined in two steps by using only three
for a sample time denoted k. The sampling period (Tech) is parameters:
constant. The PWM is performed at a constant switching
frequency (fsw). 1. Seven type-1 membership functions (Uncertainty =0%) are
defined by two parameters as illustrated in (Fig. 5).
The objective is to evaluate different fuzzy logic controllers The MF Z has its peak at x = 0 and its right base at x = pvlx
using the same structure as shown in (Fig. 3). The difference
between the FLC is the uncertainty in their membership The MF PVL has its left base at x = 0, its peak at x = pvlx and
functions. The first FLC has an uncertainty of 0% (T1-FLC), its right base at x = plx
the second and the third consider an uncertainty of 20% and The MF PL has its left base at x = pvlx, its peak at x = plx and
50% respectively (IT2-FLC). This choice permits to evaluate its right base at x = 1
and compare type-2 and type-1 FLC under similar conditions.
The MF PH has its left base at x = plx, its peak at x = 1

3.1 Voltage controller definition The uncertainty U in the membership functions is the third
considered parameter.
The error between the reference and measured voltage is
defined in (1) To construct the interval type-2 MFs, the type-1 membership
e( k ) = V ref (k ) V0 (k ) (1) functions are modified as illustrated in (Fig. 6). Here, three
different uncertainties were chosen: 0%, 20% and 50%.
The error variation is also considered and is defined in (2)
de(k ) = e(k ) e(k 1) (2)

The fuzzy logic controller handles normalized inputs (domain


[-1, 1]) as defined in (3) and (4).

e( k ) Fig. 2. Buck power converter


e* (k ) = max 1, min ,1 (3)
e
n
de(k )
de* (k ) = max 1, min ,1 (4)
den Fig. 3. Voltage controller structure
A FLC defines the relative change in the duty cycle as
defined in (5)
*
(
c ( k ) = f e* (k ), de* (k ) ) (5)

The output of the fuzzy controller is denormalized using a


denormalization factor gm to obtain the relative change in the
duty cycle as defined by (6).
Fig. 4. Fuzzy logic controller detail
Table 1. Fuzzy rules 1. Simulation setup: The fuzzy controller and the buck
converter are implemented in Matlab Simulink.
2. Experimental setup: The fuzzy controller is implemented
in Matlab and uploaded to a dSPACE programmable
controller which generates the signal to drive the transistors.
The experimental setup is presented in (Fig.7.)
The same parameters used in simulation are used in
experimentation as resumed in Tables 2 and 3.
4.1 Evaluation of the controller
The evaluation of the controller response is performed by
imposing an initial condition and three different operation
conditions:
1. Initialization: The output voltage reference is initially fixed
at 2.8 [V]
2. Start up: At t = 0 [s] the voltage reference changes to 5[V].
Fig. 5. Type-1 fuzzy membership functions The load is constant during this period (27.69).
3. Load regulation (-): At t = 1 [s]. The switchable load
resistance is switched off. (Load resistance from 27.69 to
120 )
4. Load regulation (+): At t = 1.5 [s]. The switchable load
resistance is switched on again. (Load resistance from 120
to 27.69 )
To compare the three fuzzy controllers, the Integral Absolute
Error (IAE) criterion is retained. IAE is defined in (8)
t
IAEV (t ) = Vref (t ) V0 (t ) dt (8)
0

Fig. 6. From type-1 to interval type-2 membership functions Table 2. Buck converter - Validation parameters
Description Parameter Value
3.9.2.1 Parameters Series Inductance L 1 [mH]
The choice of the parameters (plx and pvlx) defining the fuzzy Parallel Capacitance C 1 [mF]
sets is based on previous works about fuzzy control of power Fixed load resistance R0 120[]
converters Hissel (1998): Switchable load resistance Rch 36 []
To guarantee a fast convergence of the controller, the PWM Switching frequency fsw 15 [kHz]
parameters ple and pvle which define the error (e) Input voltage Vi 10.4 [V]
membership functions are relatively close to zero. Values of Reference output voltage Vref 5 [V]
ple = 0.15 and pvle = 0.3 are retained.
Table 3. Fuzzy logic controller - Validation parameters
To reduce the noise amplification of the controller, the Description Parameter Value
parameters plde and pvlde which define the error differential
Processor sampling time Tech 100 [s]
(de) membership functions are relatively close to one. Values
of plde = 0.4 and pvlde = 0.7 are retained. Error normalisation en 3 [V]
Error differential normalisation den 5 [V]
Finally, and for simplicity reasons, the output fuzzy set is
Denormalization factor gm 0.004
composed by singleton membership functions. The singletons
are uniformly distributed around the domain of the fuzzy sets.
The selection of these parameters is obviously subjective but
at least it permits to have a set of parameters to evaluate and
compare the considered type-2 fuzzy logic controllers.
The considered fuzzy sets (for uncertainty values of 0%, 20%
and 50%) are presented in Appendix B.

4. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER VALIDATION


The proposed voltage controller is evaluated by two methods:
by computer simulations and experimentally. Fig. 7.Experimental setup
Fig. 9. Simulation results
4.1 Results 5. CONCLUSIONS
Simulation and experimental results are illustrated in (Figs. 9 In this paper, the voltage control of a DC/DC buck converter,
and 10) and resumed in Table 4. The voltage regulation is one of the classical applications of fuzzy control in electrical
performed as expected but the results are not in agreement (in engineering, was presented, developed and validated using
simulation the best results were found with an uncertainty of type-2 fuzzy logic. Simulation and experimental results
0.5, in experimental the best results were found with an suggest that T2-FL can be used in this particular application.
uncertainty of 0.2). The difference between simulation and However, it is too early to affirm that T2-FL controllers are
experimentation results could be explained by the fact that in better performing than T1-FL controllers. Future research at
simulation we do not model the noise, which is always FEMTO-ST will be focused on the study of the tuning and
present in experimentation. optimization of the parameters of type-2 fuzzy logic systems.
[V] V0 [V] V0
6 6

5 5

4 U=0% 4 U=0%
U=20% U=20%
3 3
U=50% U=50%
2 2
0 0.5 1 1.5 time [s] 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 time [s] 2

[ -] Duty cycle [ -] Duty cycle


0.8 0.8
U=0% U=0%
U=20% U=20%
0.6 U=50% 0.6 U=50%

0.4 0.4

0.2 0.2
0 0.5 1 1.5 time [s] 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 time [s] 2
[V s] V - Integral absolute error [V s] V - Integral absolute error
0.3
0.4
U=0%
0.3 U=0%
U=20% 0.2 U=20%
0.2 U=50%
U=50%
0.1
0.1

0 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 time [s] 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 time [s] 2
[V] V0 Start-UP detail [V] V0 Start-UP detail
6 6

5 5

4 U=0% 4 U=0%
U=20% U=20%
3 3
U=50% U=50%
2 2
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
time [s] time [s]
[V] V0 Load from 27.7 to 120 [] [V] V0 Load from 27.7 to 120 []
6 6
U=0% U=0%
U=20% U=20%
5.5 5.5
U=50% U=50%

5 5

4.5 4.5
0.96 0.98 1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.1 0.96 0.98 1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.1
time [s] time [s]
[V] V0 Load from 120 to 27.7 [] [V] V0 Load from 120 to 27.7 []
5.5 5.5

5 5

4.5 U=0% 4.5


U=0%
U=20% U=20%
4 4
U=50% U=50%
3.5 3.5
1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7
time [s] time [s]
Fig. 10. Experimental results Iooss, B. (2009) Contributions au traitement des incertitudes
en modlisation numrique. HDR thesis, Universit
Table 4. Validation results - IAE
Toulouse III.
Simulation Experimental Karnik, N. and Mendel, J. (1998). Introduction to type-2
Type-1 FLC U=0% 0.2194 0.2086 fuzzy logic systems. (1998) In: Fuzzy Systems
Type-2 FLC U=20% 0.2201 0.2059 Proceedings, IEEE World Congress on Computational
Type-2 FLC U=50% 0.2166 0.2581 Intelligence. vol.2 pp. 915-920.
Klir, G and Yuan, B. (1995) Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic:
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APPENDIX A. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MEMBERSHIP FUNCTIONS

(a) (b) (c)


Fig. 10. Membership functions (a) singleton, (b) Interval type-1, (c) Type-1.

(a) (b)
Fig. 11. Membership functions (a) Interval type-2, (b), General type-2.
APPENDIX B. MEMBERSHIP FUNCTIONS DESIGNED FOR THE VOLTAGE CONTROLLER

(a)

(b)

Fig. 12. Type-1 fuzzy membership functions (U=0%) to represent e (a) and de (b)

(a)

(b)

Fig. 13. Type-1 fuzzy membership functions (U=0%) to represent e (a) and de (b)

(a)

(b)

Fig. 14. Type-1 fuzzy membership functions (U=0%) to represent e (a) and de (b)