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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research


Development
Volume 4, Issue 2, February -2017

DENSITY BASED WEIGHTED CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR MOBILE AD


HOC NETWORKS: A LITERATURE SURVEY
Manju Vishwakarma1, Partha Roy 2
1
Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Bhilai Institute of Technology, Durg, India
2
Associate Professors, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Bhilai Institute of Technology, Durg, India

AbstractMobile ad hoc network is self configuration network technology where the mobile terminal are Predefine
boundary area. The Mobile ad hoc network is dynamic nature due to the mobility of mobile node. The clusters heads form a
dominant set in the network they are determine the topology and its scalability. The cluster head responsible to maintain all
the mobile nodes. This paper provides an overview of Weighted clustering Algorithm for MANET. The proposed Weighted-
based distributed clustering algorithm take into -neighborhood, minpts mobility, and battery power of mobile nodes. The
non-periodic procedure for cluster head election is invoked on demand, and aimed to reduce the computation and
communication cost. This paper concentrates on Simulation experiments are to evaluate the performance of our algorithm in
terms of the number of cluster head, reaffiliation frequency and dominant set updates.

Keywords: ad hoc networks, clusters, clustering in MANET.

1. INTRODUCTION

Nowadays wireless cellular networks on the wired backbone by which all base station are connected, implying that networks
are fixed and constrained to a geographical are predefined boundary. Mobile multi-hop packet radio network architecture for
wireless networks also called as ad-hoc network and peer to peer network.fig1

Figure1 Multi hop communication in MANET

Important critical role play where wired (central) backbone is not available .such as disaster recovery situation, battle field
and so on. All the base station in node is mobile, and communication must be supported between any two nodes. Deployment
of such network takes time and cannot be set up in times of utmost emergency. The mobile node are dynamically adapt
change network with the help of mobility. Which node manage all the topology of network and responsible for the formation
of clusters its knows as cluster heads. All the set of cluster heads knows as dominant set. The cluster in use MANET because
the network topology is better performs. We believe a good clustering scheme should it structure when nodes are move and
the topology is slowly change. Self-stabilization when node are itself change and faults, it recovers automatically without any
human invention.
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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD)
Volume 4, Issue 2, February -2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406

In this paper, we propose a weighted clustering based algorithm which takes into parameters likes -neighborhood, minpt,
mobility and battery power. This node parameter improves the performance of the network. It is the performance of the
network is analyzed on the basis of number of cluster, reaffiliations frequency and dominant set update.

2. BACKGROUND

In the year 2000 Amis and R. Prakash in his paper [1] Propose an on-demand distributed clustering algorithm for multi-hop
packet radio networks. These types of networks, also known as ad hoc networks and dynamic in nature due to the mobility of
nodes. The proposed weighted based distributed clustering algorithm takes into consideration the ideal degree, transmission
power, mobility, and battery power of mobile nodes.

In the year 2013 Wojciech Bednarczyk , Piotr Gajewski in his paper [2] Propose that An enhanced algorithm for MANET
Clustering Based on Weighed Parameters, combined weight clustering algorithm to establish a stable clustering architecture.
the proposed algorithm structure that can maintain topology of MANET as stable as possible ,thereby optimizing network
performance and making efficient resource allocation for nodes. This makes it possible to maintain efficient and stable
topology in MANET environment. Due to the weight group, the cluster creation is done very quickly which causes the
network services to be more accessible.

In the year 1999 S.Basagni in his paper [3] a Distributed Clustering Algorithm (DCA) and A Distributed Mobility-Adaptive
Clustering (DMAC) algorithm are presented that partition the nodes of a fully mobile network into clusters, thus giving the
network a hierarchical organization.

In the year 2008 S.karunakaran and Dr.P.Thangaraj in his paper [5] Propose an Adaptive weighted cluster based routing for
mobile ad-hoc networks. The cluster head selection in the proposed approach was done by assigning a weight value (w)
based on the factors likes energy level, connectivity and stability. The nodes having minimum W is chosen as the cluster
head. When a node becomes the cluster head, they analysis the node or its members is marked as considered. Then the
election process is carried out with all unconsidered nodes. Once all the nodes have been the election algorithm gets
terminated.

In the year 2011 Naveen Chauhan et al in his paper [4] proposed and implement a distributed weighted clustering algorithm
for MANET. The proposed approach is based on combined weighted metric in which system take parameter such as node
degree, transmission range, energy and mobility of nodes are considered. The cluster head can be determined using some of
these parameters in the metric depend on the type of application. when a packet is routed from source to destination more
cluster head will lead to extra number of nodes. This proposed scheme that the original distributed weighted clustering
algorithm (DWCA) was outperformed.

In the year 2010 S.Muthuramalingam, R.RajaRam, Kothai Pethaperumal in his paper [6] A Dynamic Clustering Algorithm
for MANET by modifying Weighted Algorithm with mobility Prediction. The proposed a Modified algorithm that uses
weighted clustering for cluster formation and mobility Prediction for maintenance. Effective utilization of power minimum
wastage of Bandwidth, More stable Cluster helps in improving the QOS in MANETs.WCA itself is improved with the use of
mobility prediction in cluster maintenance phase.

In this year 2009 M.rezee and M.Yaghmaee in his paper [7] proposed a cluster based routing protocol for mobile ad hoc
network. The proposed algorithm allocates weighted to every node. The weights are in the three groups in which each group
gives the credit measure of node to become cluster head. The nodes send message to the head. The node in the higher group
which delivers messages to the neighbor nodes is chosen as the cluster head .The weight each node is periodically calculated
using the parameter likes as number of neighbors of the nodes, the battery power, cumulative time and the transmission
power.

In this year 2008 Abdul. Rah man H.Hussein, Amen o.Abu Salem, Sufian yourself, in this paper [8] proposed to Flexible
Weighted Clustering Algorithm Based on Battery Power for Mobile Ad hoc Network. It lead to minimizing the number of
cluster and the overhead of clustering formation and maintence by a node with weak battery power from choose as a cluster
head. Simulation that show the performance of the proposed enhancement clustering in terms of the average number of
cluster. As result show better performance clustering algorithm on average.

In this year 2008 Likun Zou, Qishan Zhang, Jianwei Liu, in this paper [9] proposed on Improved Weighted-Based Clustering
Algorithm (IWCA) which can enhance the stability of the network by taking the mobility of node and its neighbors into

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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD)
Volume 4, Issue 2, February -2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406

consideration. IWCA is mainly focus on reduces the instability due to high speed moving nodes by taking relative mobility of
node and its neighbor into consideration.

In this year 2005 S.K. Dhurandher, G.V, in this paper [10] proposed Weighted Based Adaptive Clustering in wireless Ad hoc
Network. in this algorithm with the number of clusters formed ,number of reaffiliation and the time delay in the clustering
process. As result algorithm has also proved to be faster than the WCA algorithm in starting up the clustering process.

Sahar Adabi et al paper proposed a new Distributed score Based Clustering Algorithm (DSBCA) for Mobile Ad-hoc Network
.The propose that take parameter remaining battery , number of neighbors, number of members and stability are considered
by the clustering algorithm to calculate the nodes score with linear algorithm. The neighbors of the node are notified after
completion of independent node score each node calculated. The proposed algorithm results provide better end-to-end
throughput and overhead, a longer lifespan and a smaller number of clusters when compared to both WCA and DWCA.

S.Rohini, K.Indumathi, A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self configuring network of mobile device connected by
wireless links. In this proposed that achieve stable clusters, the cluster head maintaining the cluster should be stable with
minimum overhead of cluster re-elections. In this paper propose a Probability Based Adaptive Invoked Weighted Clustering
Algorithm (PAIWCA) which can enhance the stability of the cluster by take battery power of the node into consideration for
the cluster formation and electing stable cluster head using cluster head probability of a node.

3. CLUSTERING IN MANET

Clustering means a way to reconfigure all the nodes into divided small groups according to their surrounding area
neighborhood defined as cluster head and determined the cluster member with the same rule. Every clustering algorithm
consists of two mechanisms, cluster formation and cluster maintenances. In cluster formation, cluster head selected among
the nodes to form clusters.fig 3 show following as

Figure3.Clustering in MANET

Cluster Head is manages all the nodes of the cluster activities such as discovering of new routes, managing process cluster ,
updating routing table . The nodes other than the Cluster Head inside the cluster are Ordinary Node. Node having inter cluster
links which can communicate with more or other clusters are called Gateway Node.

Clustering is one of the important techniques which used are partitioning of network nodes into number of overlapping nodes
known as clusters. It deal with process of maintaining MANET to create an efficient network . Clustering method of
aggregation the nodes into cluster, which contained by network. Clustering provides several benefits in MANET defined as
follows:

1. It helps in improving scalability and throughput.


2. Mobility and Routing process improves.
3. It better perform resource allocation in more efficient manner.
4. Provides Hierarchical network architecture.
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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD)
Volume 4, Issue 2, February -2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406

In Clustering process three types of nodes are defined:

1. Cluster Head: These are defined a local coordinator for its cluster. It performs inter-cluster routing process , data
transmission and many other operations.
2. Gateway Nodes: It is a node can access that neighboring cluster and information forward between clusters.
3. Cluster Member or Ordinary Nodes: These Nodes are neither a cluster Head nor Gateway.

If the destination is inside the cluster, the ordinary nodes are send the packets to their cluster head that distributes the
packets inside the cluster, or if to be delivered to other cluster then forward to a gateway node. Cluster Head and
Gateway take part in the propagation of routing update or control messages.

This cluster reduces the overhead and also solves problem of scalability in dense networks. The next phase of cluster
maintenance comes into picture when there is the movement. so ,it needs to do re-affiliations among ordinary nodes and
cluster head. To avoid unnecessary computation in the cluster maintenance, current cluster structure should be conserved
as possible.

3.1 Advantages of Clustering:

1. Cluster in MANET network has many advantage .They as follow :


2. It helps to improve routing at the network layer by reducing the size of the routing table.
3. It helps to aggregation topology information as the nodes of a cluster are smaller when compared to the nodes of
entire network. Hence the nodes store only a fraction of the total network in routing information.
4. It allows the better performance of the protocol for the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer by increasing the
spatial reuse, throughput, scalability and power consumption.
5. Efficient handling of mobility management.
6. It has the ability to adapt ,depending on the policy management in the cognitive radio networks.

3.2 Disadvantages of Clustering:

A large number of mobile terminal are manage by a MANET using a cluster topology. The construction and protection of a
cluster structure require additional cost comparing with a topology control without cluster. Clustering are some drawbacks:

1. The maintenance cost requires explicit information exchange between mobile node for a large and dynamic mobile
network. As the network topology change fast and concerns many mobile nodes, the number of information
exchange increase to reach a critical point. It consumes a lot of network bandwidth and energy of mobile nodes.
2. The major drawbacks of clustering in MANET is that some nodes consume more power to compare as others nodes
in the same cluster.
3. A Special node such as cluster head and a gateway node manage and forward all information of local cluster their
power consumption will be high as compare the ordinary nodes.

4. CLUSTERING TECHNIQUES APPLIED IN MANET

Clustering techniques are designed by partitioning of the nodes in network as shown in figure 3.1.Based on the way of
aggregating the nodes into groups within several techniques are proposed. Some of the following clustering techniques are as
follows:

4.1 Lowest ID Heuristic:

It important technique as shown in figure4, in which every and each node assigned a unique identifier. Every node are
broadcast its their neighbors and decides to become cluster head when it has minimum among its neighbors. The
disadvantage of Lowest-ID heuristic is that there is no limitation to number of nodes attached to the same.

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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD)
Volume 4, Issue 2, February -2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406

Fig4.1 Lowest- ID heuristic Clustering

4.2 Highest Degree Heuristic:

This Clustering technique based on connectivity between node and its neighbors. Every nodes flood its connectivity to
neighbors within their transmission range. A node become cluster head by comparing the connectivity value of its neighbors
with its own value shown figure 4.2 and when it highest connectivity value in its neighborhood.

Fig4.2Highest-degree heuristic Clustering

4.3 Weighted Clustering Algorithm (WCA):

Distributed Mobility Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (DMAC) based on weighted value, which have proposed. In WCA
cluster heads are elected by considering aspects related to efficient functioning of system components. In this algorithm
optimize usage of battery power, the concept of load balancing and MAC functionality, a node is chosen to be cluster head
according to number of nodes can handle, mobility, battery power and transmission power.

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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD)
Volume 4, Issue 2, February -2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406

Weighted Clustering Algorithm (WCA) Steps

1. Compute the degree d each node v.

d v | N (v ) | '
dist v, v tx
'
'
range
v V, v v

2. Compute the degree-difference for every node

= | |

3. Compute the sum of the distance D with all neighbors

= (){ , }

4. Compute the average speed of every node; gives a measure of mobility M

1
= =0 1 + 1

Component with less mobility is a better choice for cluster head.

5. Compute the total (cumulative) time P a node acts as cluster head.

Battery Drainage = Power consumed

6. Calculate the combined weighted W, for each node

= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4

For each node.

7. Find min W; choose node v as the cluster head, remove all neighbors of v for further WCA.

8. Repeat step 2 to 7 for the remaining nodes.

5. CONCLUSION

We proposed a weighted based distributed clustering algorithm (WCA) which can dynamically adjust itself with the changing
topology of ad hoc networks. It has the flexibility of assign different weighted and takes into parameter effect such as ideal
degree, transmission power, mobility and battery power of the nodes. The algorithm is executed only when there is a demand,
i.e. when a node is no longer capable to connect itself to any of the accessible cluster heads. This algorithm tries to
distribute the load as much as possible. We determined that is a example of how the Load Balance Factor changes to
distributed the load. The LBF increase due to the diffusion of the nodes between the clusters.
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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD)
Volume 4, Issue 2, February -2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406

6. FUTURE SCOPE

The weighted clustering algorithm in MANET we proposed to better performance take parameter -neighborhood, minpts,
battery power and mobility in terms of the number of cluster heads, reaffiliation frequency and dominated set updates. We
observe load balance factor changes to distribute the load.

7. ACKNOWLEGEMENT

I would like to express my thanks to Prof. Partha Roy for his scholarly advice, their Inspiring encouragement and support
towards the completion of this survey.

REFERENCES

Amis and R. Prakash, Load-balancing cluster in wireless ad hoc network, in: Proceedings of ASSET 2000,
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Wojcieiech Bednarczyk, Piotr Gajewski, An Enhanced Algorithm for MANET Clustering Based on Weighted
Parameters, Universal Journal of Communications and Network 1(3): 88-94, 2013.

S.Basagni, Distributed clustering for adhoc network, in: Proceedings of International Symposium on parallel
Architectures, Algorithms and Networks, June 1999, pp.310-315
N. Chauhan, L. K. Awasthi, N.Chand, V. Katiyar and A. Chugh,A distributed weighted cluster based routing
protocol for MANETs, Wireless Sensor Network, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 54 60, 2011.
S. Karunakaran and P. Thangaraj, An adaptive weighted cluster based routing (AWCBRP) protocol for mobile ad-
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S.Muthuramalingam, R.RajaRam, Kothai Pethaperumal and V.Karthiga Devi, A Dynamic Clustering Algorithm for
MANETs by modifying Weighted Clustering Algorithm with Mobility Prediction, International Journal of
Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 709-714, 2010
M.rezee and M.Yoghmaee,cluster based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Hussein A. H, Abu Salem A.O, Yousef S.(June 30 2008- July 2 2008). A flexible weighted clustering algorithm
based power for Mobile Ad hoc Networks. IEEE International symposium on Industrial Electronics.

Likun Zou, Qishan Zhang, Jianwei Liu. (12-14 Oct 2008). An Improved Weight-Based Clustering Algorithm in
MANETs. 4th International Conference on Wireless Communication, Networking and Mobile Computing.

S.K. Dhurandher, G.V. Singh, Weight Based Adaptive Clustering in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks ", IEEE
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