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Hyperbolic Functions Properties of Hyperbolic Functions

e x e x 1 sinh ( x ) sinh x cosh ( x ) cosh x


sinh x csch x
2 sinh x cosh x sinh x 1
2 2
1 tanh 2 x sech 2 x
e e x
x
1 sinh ( x y ) sinh x cosh y cosh x sinh y
cosh x sech x
2 cosh x cosh ( x y ) cosh x cosh y sinh x sinh y
sinh x cosh x
tanh x coth x
cosh x sinh x

Inverse Hyperbolic Functions Derivatives of Inverse Hyperbolic Functions


1
sinh x ln( x x 1), x R
2
sinh x
1 1
cosh x
1 1
cosh 1 x ln( x x 2 1), x 1 1 x 2
x2 1

tanh 1 x 12 ln ( 11 xx ), 1 x 1 tanh 1 x
1

1 x2

Limit of a Function
Continuous at a if lim f ( x) f (a), (i.e. f(a) defined,
lim f ( x ) L, x a! xa
x a
lim f ( x ) exists, and lim f ( x) f (a ). )
x a x a

Derivates of Hyperbolic Functions



f ( x h) f ( x ) sinh x e x e x
cosh x cosh x e x ex
sinh x
f ( x) lim . 2 2
h0 h
tanh x cosh
sinh x

x

1
cosh 2 x
sech 2 x

Constant Multiple Rule, Sum Rule, Difference Rule Product Rule, Quotient Rule
(cf ( x )) cf ( x) ( f ( x) g ( x)) f ( x ) g ( x ) f ( x ) g ( x)
( f ( x) g ( x)) f ( x ) g ( x )
f ( x) f ( x) g ( x) f ( x) g ( x)
( f ( x) g ( x)) f ( x ) g ( x ) g ( x ) ( g ( x )) 2

Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions Chain Rule


if F ( x ) ( f 1g )( x) f ( g ( x))
( sinx ) cosx; (cosx) sinx; (tanx ) sec 2 x
F ( x ) cos
f ( g2(xx)) g ( x )

Area Under a Curve


n n n
A lim Rn lim Ln A lim f ( xi )x lim f ( xi 1 )x f ( xi * )x,
n n n n
i 1 i 1 i 1
*
where xi is some sample point in the interval [xi,xi+1].

Definite Integral
b n

f ( x)dx lim f ( x ) x. , where xi* [ xi 1 , xi ] is a sample point and


*
i
n
a i 1

ba
x . x0 a, xi a i x, xn b.
n
Properties of Sigma Notation Additional Properties of Sigma Notation
n n
n( n 1)
c nc i
i 1 2
i 1
n n n
n( n 1)(2n 1)
ca i c ai i
i 1
2

6
i 1 i 1
2
n(n 1)
n n n n

(ai bi ) ai bi
i 1 i 1 i 1

i 1
i 3

2


n n n

(ai bi ) ai bi
i 1 i 1 i 1

Properties of Definite Integrals


a b a b

b
f ( x)dx f ( x) dx
a

a
f ( x) dx 0 c
a
dx c (b a )

b b b

( f ( x) g ( x))
a
dx f ( x)
a
dx g ( x) dx
a
b b

cf ( x)
a
dx c f ( x) dx
a
b b b

( f ( x) g ( x))
a
dx f ( x)
a
dx g ( x) dx
a

Midpoint Rule Properties of Indefinite Integrals

c f ( x)dx c f ( x)dx
b n
( f ( x) g ( x))dx f ( x)dx g ( x)dx
f ( x)dx f ( x
a i 1
i ) x.
( f ( x) g ( x))dx f ( x)dx g ( x)dx
Table of Indefinite Integrals

kdx kx C
x n 1 1
x dx C, n 1 x dx ln x C
n

n 1
ax
e dx e C a dx C
x x x

ln a
sin x dx cos x C cos x dx sin x C
sec x dx tan x C csc x dx cot x C
2 2

1 1
x 2
1
dx tan 1 x C 1 x 2
dx sin 1 x C

tan xdx ln sec x C


sec xdx ln sec x tan x C
Substitution Rule Substitution Rule for Definite Integrals
If u=g(x) - differentiable on an interval I, f(x) If g(x) continuous on [a,b], f(x) continuous on the range of
continuous on I, then u=g(x), then
f ( g ( x )) g ( x ) dx f (u )du
b g (b)


a
f ( g ( x)) g ( x) dx f (u )du
g (a)

Substitution Rule Inverse Substitution Rule

f ( g ( x )) g ( x ) dx f (u ) du f ( x )dx f ( g (t )) g (t ) dt
du g ( x ) dx, u ( x ) g ( x ) x g (t ), dx g (t ) dt

Integrals of Symmetric Functions Integration by Parts


f(x) continuous on [-a,a].
1) If f even (f(-x)=f(x)) then
a a f ( x) g ( x)dx f ( x) g ( x ) g ( x ) f ( x ) dx

f ( x)dx 2 f ( x)dx
a 0
2) If f odd (f(-x)=-f(x)) then
a

f ( x)dx 0
a

Trigonometric Integrals
cos 2 x sin 2 x 1
cos cos 2 cos cos
2 2
1 cos 2 x
sin x cos cos 2 sin

sin
2 2 2
1 cos 2 x
cos x sin sin 2 sin cos
2 2 2

sin x cos n xdx :


m

sin x cos 2 k 1 xdx sin m x (cos 2 x ) k cos xdx sin m x (1 sin 2 x ) k cos xdx
m

a.
u sin x, du cos xdx u
m
(1 u 2 ) du
k

sin x cos n xdx (sin 2 x ) k cos n x sin xdx (1 cos 2 x ) k cos n x sin xdx
2 k 1

b.
u cos x, du sin xdx (1 u
2
k
) u n du

sin
2 k 1
c. x cos 2 l 1 xdx either a. or b.
k l
1 cos 2 x 1 cos 2 x
sin x cos xdx (sin x) (cos x) dx
2k 2l 2 k 2 l
d. dx
2 2

1
sin mx cos nxdx 2 sin( m n) x sin(m n) x dx
1
sin mx sin nxdx 2 cos(m n) x cos(m n) x dx
1
cos mx cos nxdx 2 cos(m n) x cos(m n) x dx
Trigonometric Integrals (Continued)

tan x sec n xdx :


m

tan x sec 2 k xdx tan m x (sec 2 x ) k 1 sec 2 xdx tan m x (1 tan 2 x ) k 1 sec 2 xdx
m

a.
u tan x, du sec 2 xdx u
m
(1 u 2 )
k 1
du

tan x sec xdx tan x sec x tan x sec xdx


2 k 1 n 2 k n 1

b. (1 sec x) sec x tan x sec xdx


2 k n 1

u sec x, du tan x sec xdx (1 u ) u du 2


k
n 1

Trigonometric Substitution

a 2 x 2 : x a sin , : use 1 sin 2 cos 2 : a 2 x 2 a cos ;
2 2

a 2 x 2 : x a tan , : use 1 tan 2 sec 2 : a 2 x 2 a sec ;
2 2
3
x 2 a 2 : x a sec , or : use sec 2 1 tan 2 : x 2 a 2 a tan ;
2 2 2

Volume of Solid by Circular Cylinders Volume of Solid by Cylindrical Shells


b b b
V A( x)dx or V A( y )dy
a a
V 2 x f ( x)dx
a

Length of a Curve Approximate Integration


n b b n
L lim 1 ( f ( xi* )) 2 x 1 ( f ( x)) 2 dx
f ( x)dx f ( xi )x, xi [a, b].

n
i 1 a a i 1

Trapezoidal Rule Error Bound (Trapezoidal Rule)


n
f ( xi 1 ) f ( xi ) f ( x0 ) If f f((xx) ) K x [a, b],
n 1
Tn x x f ( xi ) n

i 1 2 2 i 1 K2(b a )3 K (b a ) 3
ET 2
and EM
12n 24n 2

Simpsons Rule Error Bound (Simpsons Rule)


n
1
n
1 If f ( 4 ) ( x ) K x [ a, b],
x 2 2
Sn f ( x0 ) 4 f ( x2i 1 ) 2 f ( x2i ) f ( xn ) K (b a ) 5
3 i 0 i 1 ES
180n 4
Improper Integrals (Type I: Infinite Interval)
t t
a ). If
a
f ( x) dx exists t a
a
f ( x)dx lim f ( x)dx;
t
a
b b b
b). If
t
f ( x)dx exists t b

f ( x)dx lim f ( x)dx;
t
t
a
c). If a f ( x)dx and f ( x)dx
a
convergent



f ( x)dx

f ( x)dx f ( x)dx.
a

Improper Integrals (Type II: Discontinuous Integrand)


b t

a). If f continuous on [a,b) and discontinuous at b f ( x)dx lim f ( x)dx;


a
t b
a
b b
b). If f continuous on (a,b] and discontinuous at a f ( x)dx lim f ( x)dx;
a
t a
t
c b

f ( x)dx and f ( x)dx


a c
convergent
c). If f discontinuous at c(a,b) and
b c b

a
f ( x ) dx f ( x ) dx f ( x ) dx.
a c

First Order Linear Differential Equations


dy
P( x) y Q ( x ) P, Q continuous
dx
Find I(x) s.t. I ( x ) ( y P ( x ) y ) ( I ( x ) y ) I ( x) Q( x ) through I ( x ) e P ( x ) dx

Integrate ( I ( x) y ) I ( x ) Q ( x ) I ( x ) y I ( x) Q( x)dx C

Second Order Linear Differential Equations


d2y dy
P ( x) 2 Q( x ) R( x) y G ( x) P, Q, R, G continuous
dx dx
For second order linear homogeneous differential equations with constant coefficients, ay by cy 0.
rx
2

e ar br c 0, e 0 ar br c 0 auxiliary (characteristic) equation
rx 2

If the auxiliary equation yields two unequal real roots, the general solution is y C1e r1x C2e r2 x .
If the auxiliary equation yields one real root, the general solution is y C1e rx C2 xe rx .
If the auxiliary equation yields two complex roots, the general solution is y ex C1 cos x C2 sin x .