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INFLUENCE OF MOBILE MARKETING ON

CONSUMER PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR IN ORGANIZED


INSTITUTIONS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA

BY

AKINBODE MOSUNMOLA OLUWAFUNMILAYO


(CU021120010)

MAY, 2014
INFLUENCE OF MOBILE MARKETING ON
CONSUMER PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR IN ORGANIZED
INSTITUTIONS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA

BY

AKINBODE MOSUNMOLA OLUWAFUNMILAYO


CU021120010

A PhD THESIS IN MARKETING SUBMITTED TO THE


DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, SCHOOL OF
BUSINESS, COLLEGE OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES,
COVENANT UNIVERSITY, OTA

SUPERVISOR: PROF. J. A. Bello

CO-SUPERVISOR: DR. C. L. Moses

MAY, 2014

ii
CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this thesis, written by AKINBODE Mosunmola


Oluwafunmilayo was supervised by me and submitted to the Department of
Business Management, School of Business, College of Development Studies,
Covenant University, Ota and has not been submitted in any other institution of
higher learning.

Prof. J.A. Bello


Supervisor Signature and Date

Dr. C. L. Moses
Co-Supervisor Signature and Date

Dr. O. S. Ibidunni
Head of Department Signature and Date

iii
DECLARATION

It is hereby declared that this thesis was undertaken by AKINBODE Mosunmola


Oluwafunmilayo. This research report is based on her original study, in the
Department of Business Management, School of Business, College of Development
Studies, Covenant University, under the supervision of Prof. J. A. Bello. Ideas and
views of this thesis are products of the original research undertaken by Akinbode, M.
O. and the views of other researchers have been duly expressed and acknowledged.

Akinbode O. Mosunmola
Researcher Signature and Date

The above declaration is attested to by:

Prof. J. A. Bello
Supervisor Signature and Date

Dr. C. L. Moses
Co-Supervisor Signature and Date

Dr. O. S. Ibidunni
Head of Dept. Business Management Signature and Date
Covenant University, Ota
Ogun State, Nigeria.

Prof. K. S. Adeyemi
Deputy Dean, School of Business Signature and Date
Covenant University, Ota
Ogun State, Nigeria.

Prof. I. O. Olurinola
Dean, College of Development Studies Signature and Date
Covenant University, Ota
Ogun State, Nigeria.

Prof. C. Ogbulogo
Dean, School of Post Graduate Studies Signature and Date
Covenant University, Ota
Ogun State, Nigeria.

iv
DEDICATION

This research project is dedicated to God Almighty for the grace, wisdom, strength
and ability afforded me to pull through despite the challenges and obstacles I
encountered during the course of this study. I say thank you Jesus.

v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I acknowledge God, the Almighty One, for being constantly faithful throughout this
research project. I owe you everything Lord, In you I live and have my being.

I acknowledge the Chancellor of Covenant University, Dr. David Oyedepo, for


receiving and running with the vision which gave me a place to be a partaker of that
mandate of rescuing the educational system of Africa from decadence. I say thank
you Sir.

My appreciation goes to the Management of Covenant University, starting from the


Vice-Chancellor, Prof. Ayo, C. K., the Deputy Vice-Chancellors, Prof. Abioye, T.
(DVC. Admininstration) and Prof. Atayero, A. A. A. (DVC. Academic), the
Registrar, Mr. Oludayo, O. A., the Dean of the College of Development Studies,
Prof. Olurinola, I. O., Deputy Dean of School of Business, Prof. Adeyemi, K. S. and
the Dean of School of Post graduate Studies, Prof. Ogbulogo, C., for their mentoring
role in ensuring that this thesis becomes a success and a reality.

My appreciation also goes to my ever energetic and impactful supervisor, Prof. Bello,
J. A. for constantly guiding me through the challenges I encountered in the course of
this research work. He made academics interesting by shedding light to the dark areas
of concerns. You are mostly appreciated Sir. To my co-supervisr, Dr. Chinonye L.
Moses, I cant but be grateful for your unending tutelage and mentorship before,
during and after the completion of this thesis, I say thank you Ma. To the Head of
Department, Business Management, Dr. Ibidunni, O. S., I want to appreciate you Sir,
for your support and help in making this thesis a success. I say thank you Sir. Also,
my gratitude goes to the professors in the Department of Business Management: Prof.
Adeyemi, K. S. and Prof. Dayo Ade-Turton. I.

Many thanks to lecturers in the department of Business Management, especially, Dr.


Worlu, R.E, Dr. Adegbuyi, O.A, Dr. Kehinde, O. J, Dr. Akinyele, S.T, Dr. Iyiola,
O.O, Dr. Osibanjo, A.O, Dr. Abiodun, A.J., Dr. Adeniji, A.A, Mr. Ogunnaike, O.O,
Mrs. Ogbari Mercy, Mrs. Borishade Taiwo, Mrs. Aka Deborah and Mrs. Adeniji
Chinerem for their constant support and guidance in making the completion of this
thesis a success, I say thank you all. To lecturers in other departments in the College
of Development Studies, who contributed in one way or the other to the successful

vi
completion of this thesis I say thank you to all most especially to: Dr. Gberevbie, D.,
Dr. Iyoha, F., Dr. Babajide, A., Prof. Gesinde, A. M., Dr. Oyero, O., Dr. Amodu L.,
Dr. Alege, P., Dr. Amoo, E., Dr. Adekeye, O., Dr. Idowu, A., Dr. Okorie, N., Mr.
Olorunyomi, B. for their support before, during and after this research work. To Dr.
Obamiro J. K. and Dr. Oyeniyi, O.I. of the Lagos State University Ojo, I say a very
big thank you for your unflinching support, assistance and mentorship in setting me
on the right track for academic excellence leading to the successful completion of this
thesis.

My profound gratitude goes to all my respondents (students of Lagos State


University, University of Lagos, Yaba College of Technology, Lagos State
Polytechnic and students of Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education) for their
support towards the completion of this thesis by providing me with the needed
information, I say thank you. Also, to all the authors whose materials and literature
were helpful to the success of this academic pursuit, you are most appreciated.

Many thanks go to the Covenant University Library, on-line libraries (Jstor, Sage,
EBSCO, etc) and reputable journals of higher learning, who provided me with
substantial information and materials relevant to the success of this thesis and thanks
for broadening my horizon of knowledge.

I cannot just forget my most wonderful, caring, loving and gracious father, G.A.T.
Akinbode, for his unflinching love and support to me, whose best legacy on earth to
any child is education. You made me what and who I am today by the help of God.
You are such a wonderful father and I am most thankful for constantly being there for
me. You are most appreciated.

Also, many thanks to my wonderful siblings, Mr. Akintokunbo and wife (sister
Kemi), sister Morenike and her husband (uncle Victor), sister Bukky and Olaoluwa,
you are just too wonderful and terrific. This project would have been almost
impossible without you all. My appreciation also goes to Praise, Precious, David and
Deborah, whom I fondly call my children, I love you all.

To my honey-pie and love Mr. Ademola Tosin Adeyeye, you are God-sent. Thanks
for your understanding and support in all situations culminating in the successful

vii
completion of this thesis. Thank you for your unflinching love and care towards me, I
will forever be grateful.

Special thanks to all my colleagues especially those in my department, Mr. Oludayo,


M, Mr. Agboola, G.M. and Mr. Epetimehin, S. for letting us move ahead in one spirit,
soul and body. I appreciate you. I cant just forget my good friend, Mr Ikioda
Emmanuel, for your continuous encouragement, support and care, you are such a rare
friend and a brother. I say a big thank you.

To all who have contributed in one way or the other to the success of this thesis, you
are appreciated and I say a big thank you.

Finally, to all my friends especially (Bunmi Ojo Kehinde, John David, Omole Yemi,)
and well-wishers who may have one way or the other contributed to the success of the
program and thesis, I pray that God will shower his blessings upon you all.

To my Rock of ages, my hope for years to come, the author and finisher of my faith, I
say thank you, Lord. It is in you I live and have my being, I appreciate you Lord
Jesus and I say thank you Jesus for how far you have brought me and the height you
are taking me to. All glory, honour and praise are ascribed to you and to your name
forever. Amen.

THANK YOU.

viii
ABSTRACT

Advances in Information and Communication Technologies are not only offering new
marketing channels of communication and interactivity to companies but also
significantly influencing the ways in which organisations conduct their businesses
and marketing activities. Marketing on Mobile devices has become one of the most
popular channels of communicating with intending and potential customers,
particularly in the form of text advertising through Short Messaging Service. This
study is aimed at examining the influence of mobile Marketing on consumer Purchase
Behaviour among mobile phone users in organized institutions in Lagos State. The
objectives of this study are to examine the effect of marketing messages on consumer
attitude, to identify the effect of marketing messages on purchase behaviour and to
examine consumer factors that significantly influence attitude towards mobile
marketing. To achieve the objectives, four hypotheses were formulated from the
structure of the research questions. This study was anchored on three theories:
learning theory, involvement theory, and theory of reasoned action. The study
employed cross-sectional survey design and the data required for this study were
gathered using a structured questionnaire. One thousand two hundred (1200) copies
of the questionnaire were administered to University students and employees in
selected organisations. One thousand and forty three (1043) copies were retrieved
out of which One thousand and twenty (1020) copies were used for analysis. Validity
and reliability of the research instrument was carried out using composite reliability,
content and construct validity. Multi-stage sampling and systematic random
sampling techniques were used to select the respondents for this study. Multiple
regression was used to test the stated hypothesis with the use of structural modeling
technique. The first hypothesis revealed that there is a significant positive effect of
marketing messages on consumer attitude (C.R values were greater than 1.96 and P
values less than 0.05). The second hypotheses revealed that consumer attitude
towards marketing messages have a positive influence on purchase behaviour (C.R
values were greater than 1.96 and P values less than 0.05). The third hypothesis
revealed that there is a significant positive effect of marketing messages on purchase
behaviour (C.R values were greater than 1.96 and P values less than 0.05). The
fourth hypothesis tested revealed that there is a significant influence of consumer
factors (except for innovativeness, existing knowledge and social norms) on attitude
towards marketing messages (C.R values were greater than 1.96 and P values less
than 0.05). Based on these findings, the study recommended that: (i) mobile
marketing managers should determine target customers and understand their
demographic characteristics in order to develop successful mobile marketing
programmes and strategies; (ii) Marketing messages should be personalized to
consumer needs in stimulating positive attitude and response towards the advertised
product/service; (iii) Marketers should frequently communicate with their customers
in order to build customer loyalty; (IV) organizations and advertisers should seek
consumers consent before sending them marketing messages, as mobile phones are
considered personal assets to the owners; (v) Organisations should ensure that their
marketing messages are creatively designed in order to yield value to the consumer.

ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Title Page ii
Certification iii
Declaration iv
Dedication v
Acknowledgements vi
Abstract ix
Table of Contents x
List of Tables xiii
List of Figures xvi
List of Charts xvii
List of Models xviii
List of Appendices xix
List of Abbreviations xx

CHAPTER ONE:
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem 3
1.3 Research Questions 5
1.4 Research Objectives 6
1.5 Research Hypotheses 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 6
1.7 Scope of Study 7
1.8 Outline of Chapters 8
1.9 Operationalization of Research Variables 9
1.10 Definition of Terms 11

CHAPTER TWO:
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Conceptual Framework 12
2.1.1 The Nigerian Telecommunication Industry 13
2.1.2 What is Mobile Marketing 15
2.1.3 Development of Mobile Marketing 17
2.1.4 Characteristics of the Mobile Phone 19
2.1.5 Mobile Marketing Tools 20
2.1.6 Short Message Service as a Mobile Marketing 21
2.1.7 Drivers of Mobile Marketing 22
2.1.8 Benefits of Mobile Marketing 22
2.1.9 Types of Mobile Marketing 26
2.1.10 Forms of Mobile Marketing Tools 27
2.1.11 Fundamental Issues in Mobile Marketing 33

x
2.1.12 Marketing Strategy in Mobile Marketing 39
2.1.13 Application of Marketing Mix Concept in Mobile Marketing 44
2.1.14 Consumer Behaviour 50
2.1.15 Marketing Communication Effects 73
2.1.16 Factors Influencing Attitude towards Mobile Marketing 76
2.1.17 Behavioural Intention 86
2.1.18 Relationship between Attitude, Intention and Purchase
Behaviour 87
2.1.19 Consumer Attitude Models in Mobile Marketing 88

2.2 Theoretical Framework 93


2.2.1 Theories of Mobile Service Adoption 93
2.2.2 Theories of Consumer Behaviour 100
2.3 Empirical Framework 109
2.4 Gap in Literature 119

CHAPTER THREE:
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Study Area 122
3.2 Research Design 123
3.3 Population of the Study 123
3.4 Sample Size Determination 124
3.5 Sampling Technique 124
3.6 Sampling Frame 127
3.7 Sources of Data 127
3.8 Data Collection Method and Procedure 128
3.9 Research Instrument and Design 129
3.10 Validity of Research Instrument 136
3.11 Reliability of Research Instrument 138
3.12 Method of Data Analysis 139

CHAPTER FOUR:
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF
RESULTS
4.1 Presentation of Data 142
4.1.1 Response Rate 142
4.2 Data Analysis and Interpretation 144
4.2.1 Analysis of Demographic Data 144
4.2.2 Descriptive Analysis of Data on Mobile Phone usage 147
4.2.3 Respondents Rate of Receiving Mobile Marketing Messages 158
4.2.4 Respondents Preference Density for Mobile Marketing Messages 161
4.2.5 Respondents Behavioural Response to Marketing Messages 167
4.2.6 Descriptive Analysis of data on Relevant Variables 172
4.2.2 Collation and Analysis of Open-ended Questions 183

xi
4.3.5 Descriptive Analysis of Variables 185

4.3 Validation of Research Model and Testing of Hypothesis 195


4.3.1 Test of Hypothesis One 202
4.3.2 Test of Hypothesis Two 205
4.3.3 Test of Hypothesis Three 206
4.3.4 Test of Hypothesis Four 208
4.3.5 Discussion of Results 210

CHAPTER FIVE:
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1.1 Summary of Work 215
5.2 Discussion of Findings 216
5.2.1 Summary of Theoretical Findings 216
5.2.2 Summary of Empirical Findings 218
5. 3 Conclusion 222
5.4.1 Implication of Findings 224
5.4.1 Implication for Practice 224
5.4.2 Policy Makers and Government 226
5.5 Recommendations 227
5.6 Limitations of the Study 228
5.7 Suggestions for Further Research 230
5.8 Contribution to Knowledge 232

REFERENCES 234

xii
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1: Legal Consideration for Mobile Marketing 38
Table 2.2: Comparison of Selected Age Cohorts across
Marketing-Related Issues 54
Table 2.3: Reference Group influence on Consumption 80
Table 2.4: Hierarchy of Effects of Different Involvement Levels 82
Figure 2.5: Summary of research findings on consumer attitude
towards mobile marketing 117
Table 3.1: Selected Sample of the Study 126
Table 3.2: Questionnaire Administration 129
Table 3.3: Measurement of Variables - Part 1- Section A 131
Table 3.4: Measurement of Variables - Section B 131
Table 3.5: Measurement of Variables - Part 2 132
Table 3.6: Source of Items Used in the Questionnaire 134
Table 4.1: Frequency Distribution by number of Questionnaires
Administered and Retrieved according to Organisations 143
Table 4.2: Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Socio- demographic
Characteristics 144
Table 4.3: Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Rate of Receiving
Marketing Message 159
Table 4.4: Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Preference Density to
Marketing Message 161
Table 4.5: Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Behavioural
Response to Marketing Message 167
Table 4.6: Percentage Distribution of Respondents Behavioural Response to
Marketing Messages by Gender 168
Table 4.7: Percentage Distribution of Respondents Behavioural Response to
Marketing Messages by Age 169
Table 4.8: Percentage Distribution of Respondents Behavioural Response to
Marketing Messages by Educational Qualification 170
Table 4.9: Percentage Distribution of Respondents Behavioural Response to
Marketing Messages by Occupation 171
Table 4.10: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Promotional
SMS Messages 172
Table 4.11: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Relational
SMS Messages 173
Table 4.12: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Personalization
of SMS Messages 173
Table 4.13: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Interactivity
of SMS Message 174
Table 4.14: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Frequency
of SMS Message 175
Table 4.15: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Brand Awareness 175
Table 4.16: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Intention/Actual
Purchase of Mobile Products 176
Table 4.17: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Loyalty 177

xiii
Table 4.18: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Consumer Attitude
to Mobile Marketing 177
Table 4.19: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Innovative Factor 178
Table 4.20: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Existing Knowledge of
Mobile Technology (EK) Factor 178
Table 4.21: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Attitude towards
Advertising 179
Table 4.22: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Privacy and
Permission Factor 179
Table 4.23: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Perceived
Credibility Factor 180
Table 4.24 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Perceived Risk Factor 180
Table 4.25: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Trust Factor 181
Table 4.26: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Perceived value Factor 181
Table 4.27: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Social Norms Factor 182
Table 4.28: Percentage Distribution of Responses to Consumer Satisfaction 183
Table 4.29: Respondents View on Challenges in Mobile Marketing
Practitioners 183
Table 4.30: Respondents Opinion on how Organizations using
Mobile Marketing can Improve on their services 184
Table 4.31: Descriptive Analysis of Promotional Variable 185
Table 4.32: Descriptive Analysis of Relational Variable 186
Table 4.33: Descriptive Analysis of Personalization Variable 186
Table 4.34: Descriptive Analysis of Interactivity Variable 187
Table 4.35: Descriptive Analysis of Frequency Variable 187
Table 4.36: Descriptive Analysis of Awareness Variable 188
Table 4.37: Descriptive Analysis of purchase intention and Actual purchase 188
Table 4.38: Descriptive Analysis of Loyalty Variable 189
Table 4.39: Descriptive Analysis for Innovativeness 190
Table 4.40: Descriptive Analysis for Existing knowledge of Mobile
Technology 190
Table 4.4: Descriptive Analysis for Attitude towards advertising 190
Table 4.42: Descriptive Analysis for Privacy and Permission 191
Table 4.43: Descriptive Analysis for Credibility 192
Table 4.44: Descriptive Analysis for Perceived Risk 192
Table 4.45: Descriptive Analysis for Trust 192
Table 4.46: Descriptive Analysis for Perceived Value 193
Table 4.47: Descriptive Analysis for Social Norms 193
Table 4.48: Descriptive Analysis for Consumer Attitude towards
Mobile Marketing 194
Table 4.49: Goodness of Fit Measures of the Research Models 196
Table 4.50ai: Reliability, Average Variance Extracted (AVE) and Correlation
Among Constructs in the model 197
Table 4.51bi: Factor Loadings of items included in the Model 198
Table 4.52ci: Average Variance Extracted (VE) and Squared Multiple
Correlations (SMC) of Items in the Model 198
Table 4.53a: Regression Weights for test of Hypothesis 1 202
Table 4.53b: Standardized Path Coefficients for test of Hypothesis 1 202

xiv
Table 4.53c: Squared Multiple Correlations for test of Hypothesis 1 203
Table 4.54a: Regression Weights for test of Hypothesis 2 205
Table 4.54b: Standardized Path Coefficient for test of Hypothesis 2 205
Table 4.55a: Regression Weights for test of Hypothesis 3 206
Table 4.55b: Standardized Path Coefficients for test of Hypothesis 3 207
Table 4.55c: Squared Multiple Correlations for test of Hypothesis 3 207
Table 4.56a: Regression Weights for test of Hypothesis 4 209
Table 4.56b: Standardized Path Coefficients for test of Hypothesis 4 209
Table 4.56c: Squared Multiple Correlations for test of Hypothesis 4 209
Table 4.57: Summary of Test of Hypotheses Findings 210

xv
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1: Mobile Advertising Value Chain 32


Figure 2.2: Framework of Mobile Marketing Environment 41
Figure 3.1 Stages of Sampling Technique 125
Figure 4.1 Test of Hypothesis 1 203
Figure 4.2 Test of hypothesis 2 205
Figure 4.3 Contribution of Marketing Messages to Purchase Behaviour 207

xvi
LIST OF CHARTS
Chart 2.1: The Learning Curve 60
Chart 4.1 Frequency distribution of Respondents by Mobile phone Usage 146
Chart 4.2 SMS Phone Usage by Gender 147
Chart 4.3 Voice calls Phone Usage by Gender 148
Chart 4.4 MMS Phone Usage by Gender 148
Chart 4.5 Videos Phone Usage by Gender 149
Chart 4.6 Usage of Mobile Phone News Service by Gender 149
Chart 4.7 Sports Phone Usage by Gender 150
Chart 4.8 Facebook Phone Usage by Gender 150
Chart 4.9 Mobile Web browsing by Gender 151
Chart 4.10 Mobile Phone Chatting by Gender 151
Chart 4.11 Mobile E-mail by Gender 152
Chart 4.12 Voice calls Phone Usage by Age group 153
Chart 4.13 SMS Phone Usage by Age group 153
Chart 4.14 MMS Phone Usage by Age group 154
Chart 4.15 Mobile Phone News Usage by Age Group 155
Chart 4.16 Mobile Chatting News Usage by Age Group 155
Chart 4.17 SMS Phone Usage by Occupation 156
Chart 4.18 Mobile Web browsing Usage by Occupation 157
Chart 4.19 SMS Service Usage by Educational Background 158
Chart 4.20 Respondents Preference Density for Marketing Messages
Ages (15-24) 163
Chart 4.21 Respondents Preference Density for Marketing Messages by
Ages (25-34) 164
Chart 4.22 Male Respondents Preference Density for Marketing Messages 165
Chart 4.23 Female Respondents Preference Density for Marketing Messages 166

xvii
LIST OF MODELS
Model 1.1: Research Hypotheses Model 10
Model 2.1: The Consumer Behaviour Model 50
Model 2.3: The Perceptual Process 64
Model 2.4 Stages in Consumer Decision-Making Process 69
Model 2.5 The Search for Information 70
Model 2.6 Security Risks in the Business Chain 85
Model 2.7 Brackett, and Carr (2001) Model of Consumer attitude
toward Web Advertising 89
Model 2.8 Tsang et al., (2004) Model of Consumer attitude
toward Mobile Marketing 89
Model 2.9 Haghirian and Madlberger (2005) Model of Consumer Attitude
Toward Advertising via Mobile Devices 90
Model 2.10 XU Model of Factors Affecting Attitude and Intention
toward Mobile Advertising 91
Model 2.11 Theory of Reasoned Action 94
Model 2.12 Theory of Planned Behaviour 95
Model 2.13 Technology Acceptance Model 96
Model 4.2 Research Model of the Study 195

xviii
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1 Research Questionnaire 274
Appendix II Reliability Analysis and Inter-item Correlation of
Questionnaire Items 287
Appendix III Principal Component Analysis of Variables 292
Appendix IV Measurement and Structural Model for Marketing
Messages and Purchase Behaviour Items 303
Appendix V Measurement and Structural Model for Factors Influencing
Consumer Attitude towards Marketing Messages 308

xix
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
SMS = Short Message Service
MMS = Multimedia Messaging Service
GSM = Global System for Mobile Communications
GPS = Global Positioning System
MMA = Mobile Marketing Association
WAA = Wireless Advertising Association
PDA = Personal Digital Assistant
IMC = Integrated Marketing Communication
GPRS = General Packet Radio Service
MM = Mobile Marketing

xx
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study


Advances in technology (especially information technology) and globalization have changed the
way in which the world conducts business and are increasingly providing consumers with greater
conveniences. The Industrial Revolution of the 18th century led to a new economy, which was
defined in terms of mass production of standardized products, mass distribution of these products
to consumers and mass media vehicles to carry standardized advertising messages (Godin,
1999). During this era, selling underwent a major transformation from personal one-to-one
persuasion to mass advertising campaigns designed for the consumers (Solove, 2004). The same
message was communicated to the consumers regardless of the difference in nature and
characteristics of each consumer. Mass marketing yielded only short term sales and not loyal
customers as these forced marketing firms to understand that consumers cannot be treated as a
homogeneous group (Doinita, 2012). Marketers had to develop targeted marketing
communications in order to build and maintain relationships with customers. Targeted marketing
became truly successful when it was associated with direct marketing, a database-driven
interactive process of directly communicating with targeted customers or prospects using any
medium to obtain a measurable response or transaction (Spiller and Baier, 2010).

The advent of internet facilitated targeted marketing which made it possible to send messages to
an individuals email. This facilitated the emergence of email marketing. The advent of the
internet provided marketers the opportunity to initiate and build relationships with their
customers via the use of computer networks. However, marketers desire real time interaction
with their customers and this increased the need for a mobile environment which provides the
most dynamic, effective and personal medium for marketing communication (Yaniv, 2008).

The emergence of the mobile phone device as a means of instant communication has changed the
way organizations interact with potential and existing customers (Grant and Donohoe 2007;
Siau, Sheng and Nah 2005). In recent years, the rapid adoption of mobile phone and other
mobile communication devices have created opportunities in the marketing and advertising

1
erena, by allowing companies to announce their products and services, develop customer
relationships through direct personalized and interactive message response from customers
(Sultan and Rohm, 2005).

Different reasons constitute the rise in the use of mobile devices. According to Grant and
Donohoe (2007), the combination of video and audio contexts in one mobile device absolutely
increased the usage of mobile devices, flexibility in communication and information sharing
have become possible with improvements in mobile technology and integration of internet and
computing into a mobile medium (Siau, Sheng and Nah 2005) and the possibility of reaching
information anytime and anywhere triggered the improvements of mobile devices (Deans, 2005)

The potential of interaction with consumers, target marketing and managing consumer
relationship made mobile devices an important channel for marketers (Grant and Donohoe,
2007). Mobile marketing have become powerful tool for marketing communication and
information dissemination (Nysveen, Pdersen, Thorbjornsen and Berthon, 2005). This has made
it easier for consumers to compare marketing information, product offerings, and prices before
significant purchase decisions is made by the consumers. With this level of information at
consumers disposal, consumer behaviour has become increasingly difficult to predict by
marketers (Urban, 2004), as consumers expect transparency and real-time interactions with the
organisation

The mobile phones are no longer used for communication alone, according to Michael and
Salter (2006), who stated that the world has entered a new era called, the all mobile era.
According to them, the mobile phones or rather said, smartphones, do it all, from browsing the
internet for information to ordering of online products, mobile banking and paying of bills.
The mobile phone is set to become the Third Screens after TV and computer, according to Asif
(2011). As with other traditional marketing programmes, consumer attitude play an important
role in determining the success of using the mobile device by marketers as a platform for
communicating, creating sales and building relationships with their consumers. The acceptance
of mobile device by consumers is influenced by, amongst others, the perceived utility of the
content and the perceived risk associated with data security and consumer privacy (Bauer,
Barnes, Reichardt and Neumann, 2005).

2
The mobile phone is seen as a personal device (Barwise and Strong, 2002; Tsang, Ho and Liang,
2004) and as such, marketing messages are expected to meet the individual need and possibly
take the form of permission marketing (a message either in form of SMS and MMS that has been
requested by the consumer as part of an opt-in scheme requiring the consumer to indicate their
consent to receive commercial messages and information of interest to them) in order to
stimulate a positive response from the consumer. A mobile device is a possession many people
carry with them and text messaging is generally used for one-to-one contact, which is why a
more personal approach seems to be required in mobile marketing in order to generate a
favourable attitude from the consumer (Barwise and Strong, 2002). Intrusion of marketing
messages into this personal device often lead to irritation, especially when the mobile phone is
seen as an extended self, of the consumer as identified by Kolsaker and Drakatos (2009).

Despite the huge marketing potentials of personalized and interactive messages presented by
communicating with customers using the mobile phone device, academic research in this area is
still in its early stages (Barnes and Scornavacca, 2004; Muk, 2007 and Carroll, Barnes,
Scornavacca, and Fletcher, 2007). A strong need for empirical research is articulated by
practitioners and academics. This thesis responds to this call for more research and theoretical
development in this area. Thus, this study contributes to the understanding of the influence of
mobile marketing messages on consumer purchase behaviour.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem


Attitude toward marketing activities and especially advertising in the traditional channel (print
and broadcast media), have been studied widely in the literature because they have a
considerable impact on measuring the effectiveness of these channels on consumer purchase
decisions. The findings have been controversial across various channels of traditional marketing
communication media (Moore, 1983; Zanot, 1984; Shavitt, 1998; Schlosser, 1999) as mobile
communicators cannot exactly predict or determine the influence of mobile marketing messages
on consumer attitude and purchase behaviour (Haghirian and Madiberger, 2005). Thus, this has
necessiatated the need to assess the influence of mobile marketing messages on consumer
purchase behaviour.

3
Consumer attitude towards marketing messages varies according to the communication media
used, message content and consumer factors. Advertising research has shown that the effects of
advertising activities on consumers are determined by the influence of advert message on
consumers attitude, the advertising company and the media (MacKenzie and Lutz, 1989;
Ducoffes, 1995). Thus, there is a need to identify and assess factors which contribute negatively
or positively to attitude formation of consumers towards mobile marketing messages.

Marketing communication strategy depends largely on consumer attitude and behaviour towards
the company and its product (Jun and Lee, 2007). The study of consumer attitude has become
imperative in a bid to ensure consistent purchase of marketing products/services. Consumers
attitude about marketing information are a direct indication of how they feel about the product
itself, which reflects in their decision on whether or not to purchase the advertised product
(Solomon, 2004). Given the mobile device as a new and emerging platform of marketing
communication, it has become imperative for this study to examine how marketing messages
through this new medium (the mobile phone) affects consumer attitude.

Substantial review of the literature (Haghirian and Madiberger, 2005; Tsang, 2004; James, 2004;
Jun, 2007 and Maneesoonthron, 2006) shows that little research has been conducted with regards
to the effect of marketing messages on consumer purchase behaviour. This is particularly
important because the success of marketing messages through the mobile phone device relies on
the responsiveness of consumers to such messages (Bauer, et al., 2005). Review of mobile
marketing literature has also shown that most of the studies were conducted in developed
countries where their findings, due to cultural differences and differences in the adoption rate of
technology, may not be directly applicable to the Nigerian context (Barwise and Strong, 2002;
Tanakinjal, Deans and Gray 2010;. Xu, 2006).

Consumers complex nature is shaped by many factors (personal beliefs, purchase experiences
and marketing programs and communication) which ultimately influences their decision making
process (Posavac, 2012). Consumers have different views on marketing messages received about
products/services which influences their attitude and ultimately translate into a particular action.
Thus, having a favourable attitude may not necessarily lead directly to purchase and a person
may have a negative attitude but a positive purchase or use behaviour (Copley, 2004).

4
Therefore, it becomes important to understand the effect of marketing messages on consumer
attitude and to know if such attitude will translate into a positive purchase or use behaviour.

Numerous factors such as consumer perceptions of the value of entertainment, informativeness,


irritation, credibility, perceived risk of data and privacy have been identified as influencing
factors on consumer attitude (Bauer et al., 2005; Barnes and Scornavacca, 2004). Studies on
these factors have been carried out in other countries like Asia and Europe (Haghirian and
Madlberger, 2005; Leppniemi and Karjaluoto, 2005; Leung and Cheung, 2004) but little in
Africa (Vanderwalt, Rebello and Brown, 2009) especially in West African countries. The
findings of these studies have been contradictory and none of these studies have assessed the
effect of mobile marketing messages on consumer purchase behaviour (Roach, 2009; Jun, 2007;
Haghirian and Madiberger, 2005; Tsang, 2004; Dickinger and Haghirain, 2004: Barnes and
Scornavacca, 2003).

1.3 Research Questions


Based on the statement of problem, the following research questions were raised:
(i) What is the effect of marketing messages (promotional, relational, personalization,
interactivity and frequency) on consumer attitude towards mobile marketing.?
(ii) What is the influence of consumer attitude towards mobile marketing on purchase
behaviour (Intention, actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty)?
(iii) Is there a significant effect of marketing messages (promotional, relational,
personalization, interactivity and frequency) on consumer purchase behaviour (Intention,
actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty)?
(iv) Do consumer factors significantly influence attitude towards mobile marketing?

1.4 Research Objectives


The main objective of this study is to determine the influence of mobile marketing on consumer
purchase behaviour. The specific objectives include the following;
(i) To examine the effect of marketing messages (promotional, relational, personalization,
interactivity and frequency) on consumer attitude towards mobile marketing.

5
(ii) To determine the influence of consumer attitude towards mobile marketing on purchase
behaviour (Intention, actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty).

(iii) To find out the effect of marketing messages (promotional, relational, personalization,
interactivity and frequency) on purchase behaviour(Intention, actual purchase,
satisfaction and loyalty).

(v) To examine consumer factors that significantly influence attitude towards mobile
marketing.

1.5 Research Hypotheses


To provide answers to the research questions, the following hypotheses were tested:
(i) H 0 : Marketing messages (promotional, relational, personalization, interactivity and
frequency) on mobile devices have negative effect on consumer attitude towards
mobile marketing.
(ii) H 0 : Consumer attitude towards mobile marketing have negative influence on purchase
behaviour (Intention, actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty)
(iii) H 0 : There is no significant effect of marketing messages (promotional, relational,
personalization, interactivity and frequency) on consumer purchase behaviour
(Intention, actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty).
(iv) H 0 : Consumer factors do not significantly influence attitude towards mobile marketing.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study is useful to the academia, industry managers, practitioners and policy
makers and to the general public in the following ways.

This study contributes to contemporary academic research on marketing activities carried out on
mobile devices by offering insights into factors that create positive attitude towards marketing
messages in the Nigerian context. Firstly, it contributes to consumer behaviour literature by
expanding the frontiers of knowledge in attitude formation towards marketing messages on
mobile devices. Secondly, it also contributes to literature in terms of theory development and

6
model validation in consumer behaviour and mobile service usage. This study helps to create
areas of further research in mobile marketing using other mobile devices.

The validated model in this study provides a useful framework for marketing managers
considering the possibility of using the mobile phone platform in dessiminating marketing
messages to their target customers. Findings from this study will assist managers in planning and
implementing their marketing campaigns on the mobile phone platform. The result of this study
will help marketing managers understand the behaviour of mobile phone users which will help
them in strategy formulation on how to target and stimulate a favourable purchase decision
towards their product/service. This study contributes to the understanding of consumer behaviour
towards marketing messages from the perspective of mobile phone users in the Nigerian context,
which may be applied by industry practitioners and telecommunication service providers.

This study is relevant to policy makers and government regulatory bodies in the
telecommunication, advertising and communication industry. These group is expected to utilize
the outcome of this research for operative and implementation of policies at both the macro and
micro levels that will protect the rights, privacy and personal data of the consumers and mobile
phone users especially in Nigeria, where marketing activities via the mobile phone device is an
emerging platform. The outcome of this study will provide areas for policy restructuring,
regulation and monitoring of mobile service providers, advertisers as well as organizations who
intend to use the mobile phone as a channel of communicating their products and services to
target consumers. The results of this study will be valuable for the government and policy
makers in developing policy about unsolicited messages in order to improve the business
environment for advertisers and marketers.

1.7 Scope of the Study


This study is aimed at assessing the influence of mobile marketing messages on consumer
attitude and purchase behaviour of mobile phone users in organized institutions in Lagos State.
Lagos State is chosen because Lagos is the microcosm of the Nigeria society. This is because it
includes all classes of people from different income groups and different cultural and religious
background . It is thus, a good representation of the Nigerian society.

7
This study covers mobile phone owners and users (cell phones and smart phones) in Lagos State.
This study focuses on cell phone and smart phone users because this class of phones allow basic
application of SMS, MMS and mobile internet facilities. These applications are suitable for
interactivity between the marketing firm and the mobile phone user. This study covers mobile
phone users of any of the four mobile telecommunication players (MTN, Glo, Airtel and Etisalat)
in Lagos State, who use mobile phone and have received marketing messages in form of adverts,
sales promotion information, product information, alerts/confirmation messages, competition and
poll voting messages, textto-win, call to action, mobile shopping and mobile web adverts on
their mobile phones.

Also, this study focuses on youths, and adult (young and old) who use mobile phone in Lagos
State. These classes of people have been identified as the major segments of interest for mobile
advertising and they constitute major users of mobile services. Teenagers and adults, especially
university students, are said to be more open and responsive to new information communication
technologies on mobile devices (Lightner, Yenisey, Ozok, and Salvendy, 2002; Pijpers,
Bemelmans, Heemstra, and Montfort, 2001), and as such, they constitute part of the focus of this
study.

1.8 Outline of Chapters


This thesis is divided into five chapters. It begins with chapter one comprising of background
oto study through to definition of terms. Chapter two contains comprehensive review of relevant
literature focusing on the area of study, in which conceptual, empirical and theoretical
framework were discussed. Chapter three presents the methodology which centers on the
research design, instruments and strategies adopted in carrying out the research. Presentation and
analysis of the data collected and test of hypotheses were carried out in Chapter four. Findings,
recommendations and contribution to knowledge were presented in Chapter five.

8
1.9 Operationalization of Research Variables

This study is comprised of the following constructs: mobile marketing, consumer attitude and
purchase behaviour. The relationship between these constructs can be expressed mathematically
as
y = f (x) . (1).
Where
y = Purchase Behaviour (dependent variable)
x =Mobile Marketing (independent variable)
Therefore,
Purchase behaviour = f (Mobile Marketing)
Where:
Mobile Marketing =f (Marketing Messages)
Purchase behaviour =f (Consumer Attitude)

Therefore,
Purchase behaviour = f (Marketing Messages and Consumer Attitude)

Where:
Purchase Behaviour (y) = y1, y2, y3, y4 y n.
y 1 = Intention
y 2 = Actual purchase
y 3 = Satisfaction
y 4 = Loyalty

Marketing Messages (x) = x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4 x n


x 1 = Promotional content
x 2 = Relational content
x 3 = Personalization
x 4 = Interactivity
x 5 = Frequency

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Model 1.1 Research Hypotheses Model

Marketing Purchase
H3
Messages Behaviour
Intention
Promotional
H1 Consumer H2
Relational Attitude Actual
Purchase
Personalization
Satisfaction
Interactivity
H4 Loyalty
Frequency
Factors Influencing Consumer Attitude
Innovativeness Privacy and Permission
Existing Knowledge Perceived Risk
Attitude to Advertising Trust
Entertainment Perceived Value
Social Norms

Source: Researcher 2013

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1.10 Definition of Terms

MMS : Multimedia Messaging Service. Standard for telephony messaging systems that enable the
sending of messages that include multimedia objects (images, audio, video, rich text).
SMS: Short Message Service. A standard for telephony messaging systems that allows sending
messages between mobile devices that consist of short messages. It is also a medium of
directly reaching customers through text messages.
Mobile Marketing: Application of marketing exercises that enable systems to communicate
and engage with their audience in an interactive and relevant way using any mobile
device or network (Mobile Marketing Association MMA, 2009).
Marketing on mobile devices: (MM) is any form of marketing, advertising or sales promotion
activity aimed at consumers and conducted over a mobile channel (Sinisalo, Salo,
Leppniemi and Karjaluoto, 2005).

Attitude: Consumer attitude is referred to as knowledge and positive or negative feelings about
an object or activity and it is also seen as an overall evaluation that expresses how much
we like or dislike an object, issue, person or action (Solomon, 2004; Pride and Ferrell,
1991).

Personalization is the ability to proactively tailor products and product purchasing experiences
to the tastes of individual consumers based on their personal and preference information
(Chellappa and Sin, 2005).

Interactive marketing: Is an integrated exchange process by which an organization uses the


understanding of customer behaviour, technology and other resources to create and
manage customer value.

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

This section is divided into; conceptual issues, theoretical literature and empirical literature.
Under the conceptual issues, the views of different authors in relation to marketing
communication, marketing mix, mobile marketing, consumer behaviour, and legal issues on
privacy and permission are discussed. The theoretical literature looks at the theories of mobile
service adoption and consumer behaviour theories. Empirical literature looks at the results of
previous works in the adoption of consumers to mobile service, acceptance of consumers to
receiving marketing messages on the mobile phone device and attitude of consumers towards
mobile advertising and marketing.

2.1 Conceptual Framework

This sections discusses concepts and issues in consumer behaviour that are relevant to the study.
It also comprises of mobile marketing issues, features and categories. It captures mobile
advertising by discussing its main characteristics, mobile advertising campaigns and forms and
the limitations of mobile advertising. The concept of attitude, attitude formation, change and
consumer attitude learning was discussed.

This chapter also focus on the consumer view of mobile marketing. In this context the
acceptance and efficiency of mobile marketing will be reflected in addition to consumer
perceptions, responsiveness and attitudes. Moreover, permission, privacy and perceived risk as it
relates to mobile marketing context will be reviewed among other factors influencing consumer
attitude formation towards mobile marketing.

2.1.1 The Nigerian Telecommunication Industry

The Nigerian telecoms market is the biggest and fastest growing in Africa, and the eighth fastest
growing in the world. Liberalisation of the market, strong independent regulator and dynamic
growth from mobile operators has brought about steady growth since the start of the decade. In
Nigeria, the mobile phone has been instrumental to the rapid increase in telecommunications
accessibility. Before digital mobile telephony was introduced in Nigeria in 2001, Nigeria had

12
less than 500 thousand telephone lines. Today the story is different with the number of telephone
lines in the country is now above 150 million for mobile (GSM) and over 12 million for mobile
(CDMA) as at July, 2013 (NCC Report July 2013). Also, as at July 2013, teledensity had reached
81.87%, up from 56.3% in April 2010 and from 0.73% in 2001 (NCC Report, 2013). The
Nigerian Communications Commission predicts that teledensity will reach 90-100% by 2020.

The provision of mobile telecommunications services in Nigeria first began in 1992, arising
from a joint venture between NITEL and Digital Communications Limited (DCL) of Atlanta
in the now famous Mobile Telecommunications Services Limited or MTS. MTS was therefore
the first and only provider of mobile (analogue) services from 1992 until 1995 when its services
were suspended following major disagreements between NITEL and DCL. In 1996 the Federal
Government incorporated the state-owned Nigerian Mobile Telecommunications company (M-
TEL) to continue the sole provision of national mobile services to the public.

The telecoms industry was liberalised in 1999, following the establishment of the sectors
independent regulator, the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) in 1992. In 2003, the
Nigerian Communications Act reduced the role of the Ministry of Information and
Communications to policy-making, thus giving the NCC the power to regulate the industry
without intrusion. In 2006, the NCC introduced technology-neutral Unified Access Service
Licences (UASL), so that providers can offer fixed, mobile and data services using the
technology of their choice. Nigerias telecoms policy was formulated in 2000, and to bring it into
line with developments since then, the Ministry of Information and Communications is in the
process of redrawing the policy. The government has identified several key policy areas to be
addressed: these include the phased adoption of sustainable energy in telecoms, to counter the
high energy costs that are adding to operating expenditure and being passed on to subscribers.
Other policy directions include the merger of the NCC with the Nigerian Broadcasting
Commission (NBC), to take into account the changing nature of modern media, the introduction
of number portability and the reduction of interconnection charges.

The NCC began licensing network operators in 1996. However, due to political setbacks caused
by the acting military government at the time, the markets potential was not exploited and it
continued to suffer from underinvestment. During the same year, Nitel was brought under the

13
supervision of the NCC, and a subsidiary, Mtel, was created to manage the companys mobile
service and network.

A new telecom policy was introduced in 2000 that commenced full liberalization of the industry.
In February 2001, the NCC awarded digital mobile licenses in the GSM900 and GSM1800 bands
for an initial period of 15 years to four companies: MTN, Communications Investment Limited
(CIL), Econet Wireless (formerly VMobile, Celtel, Zain and now Airtel) and Mobile
Telecommunications Limited (Mtel Ltd). Following CILs inability to pay the full sum of
$285m, it had its licensed revoked.

MTN and Zain launched service in May and August 2001, respectively, and have since deployed
their networks across Nigerias 36states. In September 2002, Glo Mobile also received a digital
mobile GSM license to provide service in all parts of the country. National carrier licenses were
issued to Glo Mobile and Nigerian Telecommunications (Nitel) in September and November of
2002 respectively. In the same year, both companies were also issued international gateway
licenses for 20 years, until 2022, along with Prest Cable & Satellite TV Systems. In January
2007, the Mubadala Development Company, a business development and investment company
based in Abu Dhabi, was issued a license for the provision of mobile, fixed and broadband
services. Etisalat joined Mubadala during the same year as its operational partner in Nigeria, and
the company launched mobile GSM service in October 2008.

In March 2007, the NCC awarded four UMTS licenses in the 2GHz band. Only four operators
bid for these licenses, including three mobile operators MTN Nigeria, Glo Mobile, Zain (now
Airtel Nigeria). To date, all licensed operators except Alheri Engineering have launched 3G
Services in Nigeria. In 2009, the NCC also announced plans to register all GSMenabled SIM
cards: starting in the first quarter of 2010, all unregistered SIM cards will be disconnected. The
NCC has also established a committee to implement mobile number portability (MNP) for
mobile networks in Nigeria, but no official date or specific plans have been communicated so far

Mobile Telecommunication sector have multiple positive effects in Nigeria. Their economic
benefits extend beyond the investment that network operators allocate to license fees, taxes and
network equipment to include: End user spend money on mobile telecom services, Telecom
operator spending on marketing, distribution, maintenance, training, support and network

14
enhancements have significant effects, Mobile operators create employment, both direct and
indirectly, and invest in the development of the labour force, Mobile services have a wider
economic impact, since they enable a different way of conducting business, reducing the time
and cost of transactions, improving access to markets, commoditizing information and generally
allowing businesses to operate more efficiently.
.
2.1.2 What is Mobile Marketing
In the same way that mobile commerce is an evolving field of research, mobile marketing is still
in its infancy. However, academic research in this field has been, to a large extent, inconsistent
and fragmented because the mobile phone is a relatively new channel for marketing
communication (Leppniemi, Sinisalo, and Karjaluoto, 2006). This is due to the fact that a
common conceptualization of the phenomenon is still missing. Furthermore, the overall
development of theory in mobile marketing communications is certainly needed (Leppniemi, et
al., 2006). However, that is not to say that the studies do not provide important insights into the
mobile marketing domain. Instead, great work has been done, and the existing literature
contributes substantially to the understanding of this complex, multidimensional phenomenon
(Venkatesh et al., 2003).

The review of the mobile marketing literature has shown that practitioners and academics have
proposed numerous definitions of mobile marketing, but a common agreement on its definition is
still lacking. Mobile Marketing Association (2005) has suggested that mobile marketing is any
form of marketing, advertising or sales promotion activity aimed at consumers and conducted
over a mobile channel. Scharl, Dickinger and Murphy (2005) defined mobile marketing as
using a wireless medium to provide consumers with time- and location-sensitive, personalized
information that promotes products, services and ideas, thereby benefiting all stakeholders. Also,
Wireless Advertising Association (WAA) defines mobile marketing as releasing advertising
messages to mobile phones or PDAs through the wireless network (Xu, 2007). According to
Advertising age (2006), mobile marketing is defined as the use of wireless media as an
integrated content delivery and direct-response vehicle within a cross-media marketing
communications program.

15
According to Leppniemi et al. (2006), mobile marketing is the use of the mobile medium as a
means of marketing communications. Also, Mobile marketing or wireless marketing is a subset
of electronic-marketing and is defined by Dickinger, Murphy and Scharl (2004) as using a
wireless medium to provide consumers with time and- location-sensitive, personalized
information that promotes goods, services and ideas, thereby benefiting all stakeholders.
Mobile marketing can also be seen as: All activities required to communicate with customers
through the use of mobile devices in order to promote the selling of products or services and the
provision of information about these products and services (Ververidis and Polyzos, 2002).
Pousttchi (2006) argued that marketing experts consider that the mobile device is an extremely
promising marketing tool to overcome the major challenges of getting time and the attention of
consumers than the present mass media. Barwise and Strong (2002) also stated that the
importance of mobile phones to end users has certainly been recognised by marketers, who view
this as a communication channel with huge potential.

The Mobile Marketing Association (MMA, 2009) stated that the core of the definition of mobile
marketing must consists of at least two parts. The first part is set of practices including
activities, institutions, processes, industry players, standards, advertising and media, direct
response, promotions, relationship management, CRM, customer services, loyalty, social
marketing, and all the many faces and facets of marketing. The second part is to engage
which means to start relationships, acquire, generate activity, stimulate social interaction with
organization and community members, and be present at time of consumers expressed need
(MMA, 2009). According to Becker and Arnold (2010), mobile marketing is a set of practices
that enable organizations to communicate and engage with their audience in an interactive and
relevant manner through any mobile device.

An assessment of the various definitions above indicates that the attractiveness of mobile
marketing lies in its potential to target consumers in a specific content as identified by Barnes
(2002a) and Muk (2007). In this regard Sultan and Rohm (2005) suggest that mobile devices
allow marketers to deliver personalized, context and location based messages to a specific target
audience. Review of the literature shows that, four different terms, namely mobile marketing,
mobile advertising, wireless marketing, and wireless advertising, are interchangeably used to
define the concept of mobile marketing media. Putting all the definitions together, mobile

16
marketing can be referred to as marketing activities and programs performed via mobile devices
(mobile phones, PDA, I Pads, Tablets etc) in mobile commerce.

2.1.3 Development of Mobile Marketing


It has been suggested by academics and practitioners that mobile marketing is a subset of mobile
commerce (Barnes and Scornavacca, 2004; Varshney and Vetter, 2002: Venkatesh, Morris,
Davies and Davies, 2003). Rapid development of technology, especially in Information
Technology and the emergence of the internet, has caused new activities in marketing and
electronic commerce. The penetration of this new technology has evoked changes in advertising,
retailing and shopping in marketing. This led to the emergence of e-commerce and e-business.
Kalakota and Robinson (2002) defined e-commerce as the buying and selling of products and
services over the Web. He argued that e-business is the overall strategy for maximizing customer
value and profit with the help of technology.

The Mobile phone made a revolutionary contribution to fulfilling the anywhere and anytime
connectivity marketers wishes (Liang and Wei, 2004). The rapid growth of mobile phone has
also come up with a new term: mobile commerce. Numerous definitions of mobile commerce
have been proposed by academics and practitioners. Barnes (2002b), defined mobile commerce
as any transaction with a monetary value either direct or indirect that is conducted over a
wireless telecommunication network. This view is advocated by Yang (2005) who defined
mobile commerce as any means of direct or indirect transaction conducted and facilitated
through a wireless telecommunication network. Thus, mobile commerce refers to business
transactions conducted while on the move (Kalakota and Robinson 200). Similarly, Siau Lim
and Shen (2001) defined mobile commerce as a new type of e-commerce transaction conducted
through mobile devices using wireless telecommunication networks and other wired e-commerce
technologies. Dholakia and Dholakia (2004) describe mobile commerce as electronic commerce
transactions carried out via mobile phones and wireless terminals. Bai Chou, Yin and Lin (2005)
identified it as the transaction conducted over a wireless telecommunication network, either
directly or indirectly. Despite the emergence of mobile-commmerce, marketers demand was to
be able to communicate with potential customers and to contact them anywhere and anytime

17
(Yen and Chou, 2000; Aungst and Wilson, 2005). This led to the emergence of mobile
marketing.

Development in telecommunication industry especially the Mobile devices including the mobile
phone have facilitated the growth of mobile marketing. Initially, the wireless service delivered
analogus signals which transmitted voice calls only (MMA Global, 2008). The development of
the 2G services including global system for mobile communications (GSM) were expanded
widely, using voice and data transmission (Barnett, Hodges,and Wilshire, 2000). This led to the
use of only short messages, SMS, through mobile phones. In this era, mobile marketings main
means of communication was via text messages or SMS technology. This technology (SMS)
allows marketers to send messages to consumers via their mobile handsets (Zhang and Mao,
2008; Xu, 2006). Research during this era have shown that consumers response to mobile
marketing messages were negative and irritating (Muk, 2007) and consumers perceive the
various messages as invasion of privacy (Windham and Orton, 2002; Monk, Carroll, Parker, and
Blythe, 2004).

The next development was the 3G wireless services which enabled a higher data transfer rate and
a variety of multimedia communications (MMA Global, 2008). According to Zeng et al. (2009)
and Bao (2010), the 3G offered advanced voice capacity, video streaming, high quality image
transfer services, internet access and it provides various services such as web browsing, video
conferencing, e-commerce applications and personalized information services. These features
made mobile marketing attractive to marketers as its provides a wide array of opportunities to
communicate with their target market via the mobile phone (Yang, 2010).

Developments in mobile screen technology increased the resolution and provided an opportunity
for advertisers to implement higher quality images and banners on mobile devices (Mobile
Marketing Association, 2007). Consequently mobile advertisers can produce more efficient
advertisements with higher quality, richer and bigger screen (Varshney, 2008).

The 3G technology led to the emergence of Global Positioning System (GPS) which facilitated
the development of Location based marketing and proximity marketing (Liu et al., 2010) on the
mobile media. Location based marketing refers to targeting consumers with mobile marketing
messages in a particular location (Tsang, Shu and Ting, 2004; Leek and Christodoulides, 2009).

18
Proximity marketing refers to the delivery of marketing messages content to mobile devices
through the use of bluetooth (Becker and Arnold, 2010). The Latest development in mobile
technology that has influenced mobile marketing is the mobile application according to Ho,
Hui and Syu (2010). According to studies in the literature (Becker and Arnold, 2010; Ho et al.,
2010), mobile applications are used for branding and advertising purposes. And these have been
used both globally and locally. For example, organisations in the telecommunication industry
(MTN, Glo, Airtel and Etisalat) and banking sector have mobile applications for their products

2.1.4 Characteristics of the Mobile Phone Device as a Marketing


Communication Tool
The mobile phone as a marketing medium provides a wide range of opportunities to marketers,
marketing service providers and mobile operators (Clarke, 2001). Mobile devices, as a new
channel for marketing communication, have many new features and opportunities in comparison
with the traditional media (Karjaluoto, Leppniemi, and Salo, 2004). Compared with desktop
computers, mobile phone device have the following characteristics as identified by Barnes,
(2002) and Kannan Chang and Whinston (2001).
(i) Ubiquitous availability: Ubiquity is a primary advantage of the mobile device. It refers to
the ability of users to receive information and perform transactions wherever they are and
whenever they want (Clarke, 2001). According to Michael and Salter (2006), this ability
can be realised as the mobile device is portable and is switched on most of the time.
Leino ( 2010) further explained that mobile phone users carry their mobile phones with
them everyday and everywhere they go.
(ii) Personal usage: Handheld devices often carry the users identity and are often used in the
personal context. The mobile phone is highly personal, rarely used by anyone except its
owner (Bauer et al., 2005). It is also equipped with a SIM (subscriber identification
module) card that can store personal information and identity (Junglas and Watson,
2003). For teenagers, a mobile phone is used as a means of self-expression, as its features
(e.g. ringtone, display), are personalised to reflect the preferences of its user (Walsh and
White, 2007). For adults, the mobile medium becomes more personal when it contains
important information, such as contacts and messages (Bauer et al., 2005).

19
(iii) Two-way communication: Two-way communication is another feature that substantiates
the potential of mobile devices in marketing. Mobile devices allow for greater two-way
communication than any other tool because of their always on connectivity
(Schierholz, Kolbe and Brenner, 2007).
(iv) Localisation: Localisation refers to the ability to identify the geographical position of a
mobile user by locating the mobile device (Clarke, 2001). This feature has been made
possible through various location-based technologies, lead by GPS (global positioning
system) (Bruner and Kumar, 2007).

2.1.5 Mobile Marketing Tools


Certain technological tools have been identified to facilitate mobile marketing communication.
These mobile marketing tools consists of SMS, WAP, MMS, as identified by Grant and
ODonohoe (2007); Xu (2006) and Muk (2007). These mobile marketing tools are discussed
below.

(i) Short Message Service (SMS) is a digital cellular network feature, which allows users to send
and receive short text and numeric messages to and from digital cell-phones over the Internet
using e-mail and mobile phones based on public messaging gateways (Iddris, 2006). Users
can send plain-text messages to another mobile user by using the SMS protocol. This will in
effect facilitate viral marketing where the recipient of the advertising decides to send it
onward to his or her friends (Iddris, 2006). Text messaging has the ability to immediately
reach a customer anywhere and its low cost offers the ability to reach customers with a
personally targeted message delivered into their mobile phones in real time (Hill, 2006).

(ii) Wireless application protocol (WAP) is a technology that offers Internet browsing from
wireless devices (Turban and King, 2003). WAP can thus be used as a channel of
information between Internet and mobile devices. WAP enable the user to access e-mail,
the latest news, sports and other events, irrespective of location or time (Iddris, 2006).
With WAP service consumers use the normal mobile network with a special Internet
service provider (ISP) that offers mobile Internet facilities (Iddris, 2006).

(iii) Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS), like most messaging, is person-to-person


communication, with user-created content (Xu, 2006). Based on the SMS, the ability of

20
MMS adds pictures and sounds. It has enhanced graphics and sound that incorporate images
and jingles for introducing additional product or service, and it can also be used for the
display of a number of new product lines in merchandising (Mattheus in Inman, 2004).

2.1.6 Short Message Service (SMS) as Mobile Marketing Tool


The mobile phone has been seen as the most important and personal device to the user (Ross,
2004). According to De Reyck and Degraeve, in Haghirian and Madlberger (2005), mobile
marketing and advertising messages are usually transmitted via SMS, and the receiver of mobile
advertising messages is addressed specifically. Therefore, the introduction of the SMS
technology could be a more direct and ideal means of communicating (Muk, 2007). SMS, is
seen as an immediate, automated, reliable, personal, discreet and customized channel allowing an
efficient way to reach customers directly and providing cell-phone users with a direct call-to-
action that would be almost impossible via other channels. According to Xu (2006), there are six
ways of using SMS for advertising namely: brand building, special offers, timely media
teasers, competitions, polls/voting, products/ services information and requests. Rettie and
Brum (2001) identified intrusiveness, interactivity, immediacy and targeting by location as the
key advantages of communicating to target audience through SMS. Furthermore, SMS is an
extremely cost-effective, high-response-rate vehicle, which can help acquire and retain
customers, sell and promote products, drive loyalty, and reinforce branding efforts as identified
by Barnes (2002) and (Muk, 2007). Several characteristics of SMS as been identified in the
literature has a medium for marketing communication. These characteristics are as follows;
high reach, low cost, and high retention and response, ability for customization and automation
as identified by Botha, Bothma and Geldenhuys (2004); Haghirian and Madlberger (2005) and
Barnes (2002).

2.1.7 Drivers of Mobile Marketing


Several reasons account for the use of mobile devices as channels for marketing communication
and activities. (Leppniemi and Karjaluoto, 2008; Yiwen, 2012). The following constitute
drivers of mobile marketing. Firstly, the small size of mobile devices makes it portable and can
be easily carried around according to Hosbond and Skov (2007). The portability of the mobile
device makes it handy and always with its owner (Leino, 2010). According to Vrdoljak, Vrdoljak
and Skugor (2000), handheld devices builds intimacy with its owners and these offers marketers

21
an opportunity to a highly targeted and interactive marketing communication with target
audience. Furthermore, the portability of mobile devices has established the anywhere and at any
time mobile marketing communication with target audience (Ivanek, 2008; Vrdoljak, Vrdoljak
and Skugor, 2000).

Secondly, the development of mobile phones to support rich content also serve as a major driver
of mobile marketing (Sugai, 2007). Mobile device capabilities have been expanded with rich
functionalities (Voice calls, SMS, MMS, GPRS, and Mobile internet) to meet complex user
requirements (Kumar, 2004; Yang 2010; Bao 2010). These developments made available an all-
in-one device where mobility/functionalities have converged (Anderson, 2005) providing
opportunities for organisations to communicate more efficiently with their target audience
(Norris, 2007).

Thirdly, the personal nature of the mobile device ensures two-way communication and
interaction between target consumers (Braiterman and Savio, 2007; Gronroos, 2004). According
to Okazaki (2008), the efficiency and effectiveness of mobile marketing can be measured via
timely communication between consumers and the organisation.

2.1.8 Benefits of Mobile Marketing


Mobile marketing represents a great means of information sharing and knowledge acquisition
according to Asif (2011). The benefits of mobile marketing include access to timely information
high rate of personalisation, interactivity, and a low cost of reaching large target audiences at the
right time and in the right place as identified by Anckar and DIncau (2002); Michael and Salter,
(2006).

1) Interactivity

Although the topic of interactivity has been widely discussed in the past 20 years, variations still
exist in conceptualization of interactivity. McMillan and Hwang (2002) suggested that these
definitions can be categorized based on the primary focus of the author. Some researchers
defined interactivity as properties of a certain medium, either general characteristics such as user
control, reciprocal communication (Coyle and Thorson, 2001; Steuer, 1992) or specific features
such as chat room, registration form, and so on (McMillan, 2000). While others focused on

22
process-related variables (Heeter, 1989; Rafaeli and Sudweeks, 1997, 1988). Researchers in
marketing and communications argued that interactivity should not be measured by analyzing the
process or counting the features, but by observing how users perceive the interactivity during the
communication (Lee, 2005; McMillan and Hwang, 2002; Wu, 1999). Lee (2005) argued in his
studies that the perceptions of interactivity have a positive effect on customer trust in mobile
commerce environment. Furthermore, synergies between the mobile medium and traditional
mass-communications environments (TV) can be leveraged to lend interactivity to those
previously non-interactive media (Davis and Yung, 2005).

Classifications of interactivity in the literature has stern from two major areas which is context
awareness of interactivity and personalization of interactivity as identified by Chen and Kotzs
(2000), Barkhuus and Dey (2003). Studies in the literature (Wu, 1999; Yoo and Stout 2001)
have argued that these levels of mobile interactivity stem from classifications of interactions
rather than a clear understanding of the interactivity construct whch should come from users
perception of the utility of the mobile interactive features. As this has been regarded as the
crucial element of a successful mobile marketing strategy (Deighton, 1996; Hoffman and
Novak, 1995). McMillan and Hwangs (2002) study demonstrated that interactivity and
involvement with the subject of a site were two predictors of positive attitude towards the Web
site, and perceived interactivity accounts for more of the variance in attitude than involvement.
In this study, the perceptual perspective of interactivity was adopted.

Dimensions of Interactivity

Interactivity is generally believed to be a multidimensional construct (Ha and James, 1998; Liu
and Shrum, 2002; Steuer, 1992; Wu, 1999), but there are no general agreements regarding the
nature and the content of the interactivity dimensions. Gao, Rau, and Salvendy (2009) identified
five components of interactivity as dicussed below.
(i) User control.
This construct refers to the extent to which an individual feels in control of his/her interaction
experience (Liu and Shrum, 2002). Such control can be obtained by letting users choose the
content, timing and sequence of a communication (Dholakia, Zhao, Dholakia, and Fortin, 2000).
Steuer (1992) identified two areas of uers control namely; range and mapping. The former refers

23
to the number of options the environment provides the user to modify the task flow and the
environment, and the latter refers to the extent to which the controls and manipulations in a
mediated environment are similar to controls and manipulations in the real word (Steuer, 1992).
User control is also associated with minimizing effort in the achievement of a task and ease of
adding information (Heeter, 1989).

(ii) Two-way communication.


An interactive communication refers to a reciprocal communication of message in a sequence
that relate to each other (Rafaeli, 1988; Rafaeli and Sudweeks, 1997). In other words, the
environment facilitates the user to provide feedback based on the received messages (Day, 1998;
Ha and James, 1998). Mobile communication on handheld devices, especially cell phones,
provides abundant possibilities of two-way communication, because cell phones are designed for
two-way communication and voice service is part of the nature a two-way communication
(Dholakia, et al., 2000).

(iii) Synchronicity.
It refers to the speed at which the message can be delivered and at which persons can process
messages (Liu and Shrum, 2002). The faster the response, the less inhibited the user is, and the
more interactive he or she perceives (Dholakia et al., 2000). The time duration between sending a
message and receiving a response is often shortened in mobile communication (McMillan and
Hwang, 2002).

(iv) Connectedness.
This refers to the feeling of being linked to more resources related to the company and the
product outside the specific environment (Ha and James, 1998).

(v) Interpersonal communication.


This construct refers to the degree to which a media system resembles and facilitates
interpersonal communication (Yoo and Stout, 2001). The users perception of interactivity will
be improved if the company can utilize the device features to build certain kinds of
communication taking on some characteristics of interpersonal communication (Dholakia et al.,
2000).

24
2) Personalization
There are many concepts and definition of personalization in marketing, but few of them focus
on mobile marketing (Riecken, 2000). Personalization is the ability to proactively tailor
products and product purchasing experiences to tastes of individual consumers based on their
personal and preference information (Chellappa and Sin, 2005).

Personalisation in general means building customer loyalty by building a meaningful one-to-


one relationship; by understanding the needs of each individual and helping to satisfy a goal that
efficiently and knowledgeably addresses each individuals need in a given context (Riecken,
2000). Personalisation is about mapping and satisfying of customers goal in specific context
with a businesss goal in its respective context (Riecken, 2000). Personalisation thus means
understanding different kinds of individual preferences, needs, mindsets and lifestyles, and
culture as well as geographical differences, not only towards user goals in different contexts but
also towards personalisation itself (Leppniemi and Karjaluoto, 2005).

Personalization of marketing messages means customizing the content of the message precisely
to match individual preferences (Bauer et al., 2005). Personalized SMS are more relevant to the
consumer than non-personalized messages because of its ability to provide consumers with
personalized information according to where they are and their needs. Thereby, persuading the
receiver not only to accept the message, but also to take some action, now or in the future,
about goods, services and ideas (Saadeghvaziri and Seyedjavadain, 2011).

Personalization, also called message customization, generates significant potential for acceptance
of mobile marketing (Xu, 2006), and is considered as a prime prerequisite for consumers
willingness to permit the reception of advertising messages on their mobile phones (Bauer et al.,
2005). Barnes and Scornavacca (2004), argued that if mobile marketing messages are thoroughly
personalized, it will be perceived as valuable information as opposed to it been seen as an
interuption. Such customization helps to reduce the likelihood of a negative reaction (Bauer et
al., 2005).

Riecken (2000) identified that building customer loyalty and meaningful one-toone
relationships through the mobile media, requires an understanding of different kinds of

25
individual preferences, needs, lifestyles, cultural and geographical characteristics of the target
consumer. As Mobile users prefer marketing messages which are customized to their interests
and relevant to them (Robin, 2003; Xu, 2006).

In mobile advertising context, personalization enable social interaction between advertisers and
receivers by accommodating target customers needs in accordance to their demographic
profiles, preferences, shopping habits, location and time (Rao and Minakakis, 2000; Richards
and Curran, 2002; Varshney and Vetter, 2002; Yan et al., 2004). Personalized mobile advertising
means sending messages to mobile devices through wireless network, based on customers user
demographics, user preferences, context and content factors (Waton, Pitt, Berthon and Zinhan,
2002; Xu, 2006). Personalization has also been seen as a process including the elicitation of
consumer preferences and tailoring of product suggestions to the specific need of the consumer
(Kramer, et al., 2007). This means that personalization is based on individuals own preferences.

2.1.9 Types of Mobile Marketing

Generally, studies in the literature (Jelassi and Enders, 2004: Michelsson and Raulas, 2008)
have categorized mobile marketing into Pull and Push marketing campaigns.

1. Push-Marketing

Push mobile marketing refers to marketing messages that are delivered proactively to mobile
phones, intended to reach the target groups without customers explicit request (Peters and
Oslon, 2002). Push-messages are sent by the company at times when they consider that it might
be relevant to the customer, without prior consent from the consumer (Keskinen, 2001). If the
consumer does not consider the message relevant, it can easily be perceived as annoying and
intrusion into ones privacy (Keskinen, 2001). Studies in the literature have argued that as a result
of the personal nature of mobile phone, it is important for firms to seek consumers consent (opt-
in) to receive mobile marketing messages, as this process requires detailed information of the
mobile phone user (Jelassi and Enders, 2004).

According to Varnali, Toker and Yilmaz (2011), push-marketing can be used for customer
retention in delivering personalized service messages to consumers. Haig (2002) and Varnali et
al. (2011) have stated that push mobile marketing encourage impulse buying and can be

26
preselected by consumers to match their personal need. Several problems have been associated
with push marketing as identified by Haig (2002) and Keskinen (2001). These problems have
been identified as the task of inducing the consumer to act upon the message, wrong timing in
delivering the marketing messages and the risk that messages not perceived as relevant to the
consumers are often seen as spam, which discourages consumers from opting-in for the product.

2. Pull-Marketing

Pull mobile marketing involves requesting the consumer to indicate his interest/consent to
receiving marketing messages on his mobile phone (Peters, 2002). Through Pull marketing,
customers requests for precise information via their mobile phones (Haig, 2002). According to
Michelsson and Raulas (2008), the idea of pull marketing is that the customer is interested in
their own needs, and not the marketing organisations compelling them to buy their products or
service. Marketing firms need no other permission to send messages to target consumers in
pull-marketing, where the consumer has requests the marketing message specifying when they
wish to receive it (Keskinen, 2001). Consumers requests are often used in developing new
services as they serve as guide to consumers real interests and can be used for building customer
database and purchase profile which is more valuable to the organisation (Haig, 2002;
Michelsson and Raulas, 2008).

2.1.10 Forms of Mobile Marketing Tools

1. Mobile Advertising as a Mobile Marketing Tool

Yunos, Gao and Shin (2003) defined mobile advertising as any marketing and advertising
activities that deliver adverts to mobile devices using wireless network in order to promote
goods and services and build brand awareness. Parissa and Maria (2005) stated that mobile
advertising involves the usage of interactive wireless media (such as mobile phones) to transmit
advertising messages to consumers in the form of time and personalized information, with the
ultimate goal of promoting goods and services. Ayanwale, Alimi, and Ayanbimipe (2005) stated
that unlike traditional mass media advertising that is a non-personal means of conveying
messages to target, mobile advertising uses a personal and interactive media targeted to the
individual consumers mobile phone. Quah and Lim (2002) argue that the push model will

27
dominate mobile advertising since it saves consumer time and money compared to browsing
content.

Generally, mobile advertising uses both push and pull advertising strategies. Mobile
Marketing Association (2005) defined Push advertising as any content sent by the advertisers or
marketers to a wireless mobile device at a time other than when the subscriber requests it. Push
Messaging includes audio, short message service (SMS) messages, e-mail, multimedia service
messages, or any other pushed advertising messages or content (Quah and Lim, 2002).
Leppniemi and Karjaluoto (2005) stated that Push advertising may be unsolicited for espically
when promotional messages are sent to end-user within the context of an existing and established
relationship and solicited for, that is , customers agree to have certain promotional messages
sent on them at certain times. Another form of mobile advertising is pull advertising which can
be define as any content sent to the wireless subscriber on request shortly by the consumer
(Mobile Marketing Association, 2005). With pull advertising, mobile advertisers expects the
end-users request for advertisement instead of the company pushing it on the consumer
(Karjaluoto and Madlberger, 2005).

A. Characteristics of Mobile Advertising


Iddris (2006) identified four distinctive characteristics of mobile advertising, namely: ubiquitous
access, detailed user information, integrated response channel and a personal channel.
(i) Ubiquitous access
Cell-phone users always carry their mobile phones, have them on and they can be used almost
anywhere (Marla and Ronald in Iddris, 2006). This is particularly prevalent among youth and
teenagers who stay in touch with their peers via SMS. The cell-phone is therefore an obviously
popular student communication tool and an ideal channel to reach them. This posses a challenge
and an opportunity to advertisers. Based on the clear advantage of SMS such as being cost
effective, quick and direct, educational institutions can effectively promote their study
programmes to high school learners via SMS, since mobile communication are certainly a "new
way to go" as a part of student life. (Iddris, 2006; Posthumus, 2002).
(ii) Detailed user information
Mobile marketing campaigns can make use of detailed and individual information about each
user (such as gender, age, usage profile). A personalized SMS campaign can rely upon the

28
customer databases with enough active and potential clients to reach the target group profitably.
Such a database can facilitate the launching of targeted campaigns for a particular product or
service, which can then be tailored to suit the individual preference of the user. (Ahonen, 2002;
Iddris, 2006; Scharl et al., 2005).

(iii)Integrated response channel


Mobile devices makes it possible to directly interact with the user, while also receiving a
response from the user. This provides ability of two-way communication with customers, thus its
ubiquity and interactivity can help other one-way communication media such as television, radio,
print or packing to be interactive. Marketers can also measure the impact of their advertising
campaigns and adapt their strategy accordingly. People usually carry their mobile devices with
them almost all the time. Retailers can thus receive the first feedback from their campaigns while
they are still running, because mobile advertising has direct response and is measurable in term
of feedback. (Ahonen, 2002; Iddris, 2006; Salo and Thtinen, 2005).

(iv) Personal channel


The personal nature of a mobile device makes it possible to receive much more attention from its
user. This is more powerful than other less personal media platforms if it is well managed. With
mobile phones teenagers can take full control of communication without any limitations imposed
by home phones or computers; hence they have freedom to get information that will meet their
needs (Iddris, 2006). Therefore, unlike traditional media, mobile advertising has unique
advantages since marketers are able to target customers, build a customer database and increase
the customer-contact lifecycle by turning the customer into an active player rather than a passive
viewer (Salo and Thtinen, 2005).

B. Forms of Mobile Advertising


Mobile advertising service is simply a service in which consumers receive merchants persuasive
messages, typically SMS or MMS, on their mobile phones (Pagani, 2004). Marketers and
advertisers have considered that mobile advertising might be an optimal tool to send the right
message to the right person at the right time in order to affect consumers behaviour (Buckely,
2007). Pagani (2004) classified mobile advertising into three types namely: push messaging, pull
campaigns, and sponsoring.

29
Barnes and Scornavacca (2004) and Barwise and Strong (2002) grouped mobile advertising into
permission-based, incentive-based, or location-based. Permission-based advertising messages are
sent only to mobile service subscribers who have explicitly given their consent to receive the
mobile advertising messages (Leppniemi and Karjaluoto, 2005; Rettie, 2005). Usually, mobile
phone users often ignore the message when they get an unexpected advertisement. Incentive-
based advertisements add an incentive to the message with the aim to increase the willingness
and acceptance of consumers to receive and read the message (Barwise and Strong, 2002). While
Location-based advertisements are more time and space oriented and mostly aimed to increase
consumption during shopping (Tsang, et al., 2004). Both permission-based and incentive-based
advertising mechanisms are feasible for mobile advertising because the wireless technology
makes it possible to identify individual users (Tsang et al., 2004).

Generally, mobile advertising can take the form of competitions, location-based services and
advertising (Ahonen, 2002; Iddris, 2006).
I. Mobile Competition Advertising
Competition is the most popular form of mobile advertising as it attracts a high response rate
from consumers, providing mobile users with great incentives and facilitates contact with the
advertising organisation (Haig, 2002) . Different forms of mobile competitions have been
identified in the literature as: Simple entry, Text to win,Quiz, SMS voting (Buckely, 2007).
Strong and Barwise (2002) have stated that mobile competitions provides increasing marketing
opportunities to marketers, as mobile competitions can be used to: launch a service, build a
database and limit opt-outs cases of mobile consumers to advertising messages. According to
Haig (2002), mobile competition should however be relevant to mobile target audience and seek
to generate customers interest in the products offered, thereby build some level of relationships
with target customers in order to be able to send further advertising messages to customers.
2. Location-based Service (LBS) and Advertising
location-based services (LBS) which typically refer to mobile apps that provide information or
entertainment to users based on their location (Hopkins and Turner, 2012). Becker and Arnold
(2010) defined location based advertising as adverts received by consumers on their mobile
phone based on their location per time (Becker and Arnold, 2010). This adverts supplies the user
of these services with customized information according to their distinct position or nearest to a

30
retail outlets (Ververidis and Polyzos, 2002). Location-based advertising utilizes the location by
using individual consumers to target consumer in particular location Tsang, Shu and Ting
(2004).

2. Sales Promotion
Sales promotion is one of the promotional mix including coupons, discounts, rebates, free
samples, gifts and incentive items in order to have an immediate impact on sales (Kotler, 2000).
Mobile coupons in sales promotion are very important and marketers predict a higher usage of
mobile coupons compared to their paper-based equivalents (Leppniemi et al., 2005). Mobile
coupons have at least three advantages: targeting based on mobile phone numbers, time
sensitivity, and efficient handling by scanning the coupons bar code at the point of sale (Scharl
et al., 2005).

3. Mobile Entertainment
The mobile phone has become an important media and entertainment platform. In the mobile
entertainment industry, there are lots of entertainment services like listening music, playing
games, gambling, watching television, video and sport matches (Leppniemi and Karjaluoto,
2005).

4. Mobile Shopping
Mobile phone is an exciting tool used to expand customers shopping options after the Internet
(Tsang et al., 2004). The sudden growth of mobile shopping has allowed mobile phone users to
browse through available products and compare prices before making a purchase (Barwise and
Strong, 2002).

C. The limitations of Mobile Advertising


According to Haghirian and Madlberger (2005), the limitations of mobile advertising concern the
usability of mobile services and technology.
(i) Usability of mobile services and technology is one of the major hurdles marketing
managers need to overcome in the future. Companies have to know what aspects of
usability are important to users and how e-commerce related services could be adapted to
the wireless environment.

31
(ii) Technological limitations currently entail the difference between mobile and desktop
computer-based features such as the size of the screen of the mobile device, display
format and colour display. In addition, mobile devices are also limited in computational
power, memory, battery life and bandwidth.

D. Requirements for Successful Mobile Advertising


According to Leppniemi, Karjaluoto and Salo (2004), two distinct industries namely mobile
advertising and telecommunications have to be integrated into an advertising value chain. This value
chain can be represented as the five Cs in model advertising. Leppniemi et al., (2004) identified
the five Cs as content, cross-media marketing, campaign management, customer database and carrier
cooperation as shown in figure 2.1 below.
Figure 2.1 The Five Cs in Mobile Advertising Value Chain

Content Cross-media Campaign Customer Carrier


Marketing Management Database Cooperation

Source: Leppniemi et al., (2004)

(i) Content is a key factor in creating mobile marketing communication that attracts users
and keeps them coming back. According to (Iddris 2006), advertisers need to be cautious
about the content and the information when planning mobile advertisements in order to
get end-user's attention. The information delivered to consumers via mobile devices
needs to show qualitative features like accuracy, timeliness, and usefulness for the
consumers (Leppniemi et al., 2004; Haghirian and Madlberger, 2005).
(ii) Cross-media marketing refers to the idea that mobile media do not work alone but need
the traditional media in order to thrive (Leppniemi et al., 2004). Mobile advertisers can
use the other media to explain their service, and then use mobile media to remind people
to use it, or point out new, better features.
(iii) Campaign management. According to Leppniemi et al. (2004), mobile advertising
technology that enable campaign execution is one of the main success factors in mobile
advertising.

32
(iv) Customer database. Customer database refers to the fact that mobile marketing should be
permission-based. In most cases mobile advertising companies are prime providers of
mobile media sales, and act as aggregators of permission-based mobile numbers.
(v) Carrier cooperation. Carrier cooperation refers to the idea that carriers or network
operators have expertise and knowledge of mobile service delivery. They control the
distribution channel and location-based services by allowing for message delivery and
receipt..

2.1.11 Fundamental Issues in Mobile Marketing

A. Privacy issues, Control and Permission in Mobile Marketing

The mobile channel has enormous potential for marketing because it allows advertisers to target
customers precisely and customize their offerings based on customer preferences (Mishra, 2000).
In addition, the mobile channel makes it possible to reach consumers regardless of time and
space restrictions (Tsang et al., 2004). However, effective use of the mobile as marketing
channel requires that consumers provide personal data to marketers (Jayawardhena, Kuckertz ,
Karjaluoto and Kautonen 2009). This information can be used to build consumer profiles that
serve as a basis for targeting. The rate at which database marketing is being used by
organisations has made consumers conscious about how companies use their personal
information (Lhteenmki, 2004).

The mobile phone is seen as a personal technology, inducing a feeling of attachment and
companionship according to Jones and Marsden (2006). Buscher, Urry and Witchger (2011)
identified that these attitude may differ from one person to another. For some users, they may be
less attached to their mobiles than others and to some, it is an intimate companion according to
Buscher et al. (2011). Based on these, Mishra (2000) concluded that the importance attached to
the mobile phone determine consumers willingness to release their personal data in mobile
marketing.
1). Privacy Concerns
According to Strandburg and Raicu (2006), privacy is defined as the ability to control
disclosure and access to personal information. The emphasis in this definition is on the word

33
control which implies that consumers are not totally against information exchange with
marketers but they would like to control the type and nature of information disclosed. Strandburg
and Raicu (2006) emphasized that the need for a boundary between public and private is
essential. According to Bellotti (1997), in public and private places there are different more or
less implicit rules about acceptable behaviour and interpersonal access rights, when we break the
unwritten rules of private and public places, we become targets for disapproval and may be
regarded as threatening or even insane. Blellotti emphasized that when mobile marketing
breach this boundary, it is been regarded as too intrusive and these cause negative reactions
among many consumers.

Consumer privacy in the digital media has led to the emergence of three different perspectives
on consumer privacy according to Lester (2001) and these perspective emerge from: the
corporate, the activist and the centrist perspective. According to the proponents of the first
perspective, any restrictions placed on the corporations ability to access personal information
about consumers only compromises the corporations ability to operate efficiently in the
marketplace, and thus impedes its ability to fulfill its social responsibility (Lester, 2001).

On the other hand, the activist perspective argues that if free-market forces and advances in
technology are left unchecked, then information will be available to anyone for any purposes
which will violate the right to privacy as well as imposing harmful social costs on society
(Garfinkel and Russell, 2000).

The centrist approach comprises of a combination of the two perspectives above. According to
these proponents, corporate access to personal information must be balanced against the
legitimate right of consumers to their privacy and protection of which is afforded by self-
regulation, laws and technology (Culnan and Bies, 2002). Margulis (2003) stated that whether
the consumer like it or not, their personal data will always be in demand by orgnisation who
desire these information for marketing database and to make strategic decisions. In addition,
Margulis emphasized that high level of privacy may not be desirable either as some sort of
information disclosure may lead to companies serving customers better. According to Culnan
and Bies (2002), there should be a mutual agreement between companies and consumers, to
which individuals should be willing to disclose personal information in exchange for some
economic or social benefits subject to an assessment that their personal information will

34
subsequently be used fairly and they will not suffer negative consequences in the future. For
such an agreement to work, Culnan and Bies (2002) emphasized that it would be imperative for
companies to be open and honest about their information uses in order not to betray consumers
confidence.

According to Solove (2004), the main problem with regard to privacy concerns is that consumers
are more or less unaware, or not informed of what information is being gathered and for what
purpose. In order to address this situation, Hanley and Becker (2008), identified four steps which
organisations using mobile marketing have to undergo in order to ensure customers privacy:
(i) Choice: Giving the consumer the opportunity to opt-in or choose to participate in the
marketers initiatives or opt-out and choose to leave and revoke their participation in
the marketing initiative at any time.
(ii) Notice: The marketer must provide the consumer with notice, a stated privacy policy that
explain exactly what type of information the marketer is collecting, how this
information is to be stored, secured and used or combined with other online and
offline information, and shared or sold for the purposes of marketing to the consumer.
(iii) Value: Consumers should be given value for sharing information with firms. A typical
forms of value include the offering of a coupon, free minutes, free or discounted
content and monetary incentives (Becker and Arnold, 2010).
(iv) Access and Control: Give consumers access and control over their information so that
they can know what is being collected, correct any errors in the information or revoke
access permanently to parts or all of the information (Kautonen and Karjaluoto,
2008).

2). Fear of Spamming


Another aspect that may hinder the success of mobile marketing is fear of spamming. Mobile
spam has been defined as an unsolicited, unwanted communications in the form of e-mail, text
messages and multimedia messages (Becker and Arnold, 2010). According to Krum (2010),
organisations should have regard for customers space and should not interrupt by sending
advertising messages to them but seek to build a cordial relationship with their consumers. Scott
(2007) also emphasized that consumers want participation and not propaganda as consumers
desire strong relationship with the firm and a propaganda message make them become wary of

35
mobile marketing. In addition, Scott (2009) noted that organisations must consider important
issues such as timing, frequency and content of their marketing messages when communicating
with target audience espicailly for customers that have opted-in to receive marketing messages.
As consumers may be forced to opt-out of receiving further messages if received too often, or
received at an inappropriate time. Kavassalis (2003) have suggested that permission marketing
should be applied in the mobile marketing context.

B. The Concept of Permission Marketing


It has been stated that mobile marketing must be based on explicit permission. The concept of
"permission marketing" addresses the widespread problem of spam in new media
communication by demanding the explicit agreement of the addressee to receiving marketing
information (Kavassalis, Spyropoulou, Drossos, Mitrokostas, Gikas, and Hatzistamatiou, 2003).
This approach recognizes that the majority of anonymous mass advertising is despised by
consumers leading them to reject marketing messages (Godin, 2001).

According to Carrol, Barnes, Scornavacca and Fletcher (2007), Permission marketing is focued
on building a continous relationship with customers by obtaining customers consent to receive
information from the company. He emphasized that Permission is the commencement of two-
way mobile communications between the customer and the mobile marketer. In addition, Barnes
and Scornavacca (2004) stated that permission can be understood as the dynamic boundary
produced by the combination of consumer personal preferences. According to Kavassalis et al.
(2003), the concept of permission marketing is the idea that people will give their permission to
allow the marketer to inform them on its products. Tezinde, Smith and Murphy (2002) identified
that permission relationships start with the consumer explicit and active consent to receive
commercial messages and always give consumers the option to stop receiving further messages .
In this content, permission marketing offers the consumer an opportunity to volunteer to be
marketed to which guarantees that consumers will pay attention to the message (Godin, 1999).
Heinonen and Strandvik (2007) is of the opinion that permission is not necessarily a guarantee
that the consumer pays attention to the message, it is only a door opener and gives an indication
of the consumer potential area of interest.

36
Leppaniemi and Karjaluoto (2005) have identified that permission based marketing influences
mobile marketing effectiveness in two essential ways. Firstly, it grants consumers access to
information control and secondly it significantly reduces advertising clutter and marketing costs.
According to Phelps, Wowak and Ferrell (2000), the desire of consumers to want control over
their personal information dictates the purpose for collecting information and providing an opt-
out option. In addition, Phelps, et al. (2000) revealed that providing more control for the
consumer over his personal information influences consumer purchase intention significantly
especially in the mobile marketing context.

Basheer, Al-alak and Alnawas (2010) and Tanakinjal, Deans and Gray (2010) stated that trust
affects consumers intention to participate in permission based adverting programs especially in
mobile marketing, where risk and uncertainty is very high. Kautonen, Karjaluoto, Jayawardhena,
and Kuckertz (2007) identified personal and institutional trust as the two significant variables
that are direct antecedents of permission marketing. He noted that personal trust emerges from
the interaction between a customer and a company. As well as the experiences of friends and
family. He stated that Institutional trust on the other hand is concerned with a wider trust that a
consumer has on the institutional environment.

Kautonen et al. (2007) noted that in the context of mobile marketing, institutional trust are
mostly referred to as consumers media perception of the marketing organisation. In comparing
the importance of the two trust variables, studies in the literature have been contradictory.
Studies like Welter and Kautonen (2005) and Amir, Pejman and Farhad (2013) stated that when
considering mobile marketing experience as a whole category, personal trust play a more
important role than institutionally based. Where as according to Jayawardhena et al. (2009)
instituitional trust is the most important antecedents of mobile marketing permission.

C. Code of Conduct for Mobile Marketing

The Mobile Marketing Association (MMA, 2005) developed a Code of Conduct for organisation
using mobile marketing. According to MMA (2005), the Code of Conduct ensures reduction in
mobile marketing span. The Code of Conduct includes six principles which the MMA has
labelled as the six Cs of privacy namely:
1 Choice (mobile marketing is acceptable only to consumers that opt-in to receive it)

37
2 Control (consumers who opt-in must have any easy way to opt-out of all mobile marketing)
3 Constraint (consumers should be able to set limitations on messages received)
4 Customisation (analytical segmentation tools will help advertisers optimise message volume,
ROI, and relevancy to the consumer)
5 Consideration (consumers must perceive value in any mobile marketing campaign)
6 Confidentiality (privacy policies must be aligned between the carrier and the brand).

While mobile marketing involves the use of users personal information, privacy is the most
important regulatory issue that should be taken into account in developing mobile marketing.
according to (MMA, 2005). Norris (2003) identified that within the collection and processing of
location-based data, organisations should be guided by certain legislations that ensure that
consumers data cannot be collected or used without users explicit prior permission. Table 2.1
below indicate the legal considerations for Mobile Markers according to Norris (2003).
Table 2.1 Legal Consideration for Mobile Marketing
1 Data protection Use of customer data must comply with wide-ranging industry data
protection legislation.
2 Unsolicited commercial The European Unions Communications Data Protection Directive (CDPD)
communications removes all doubts as to whether senders of spam need prior consent from
recipients before sending anything. Under separate laws, anyone sending
spam needs to ensure recipients can immediately identify them as such.
Location data Location-Based Services (LBS) can only be provided where the data which
is involved has been made anonymous, or it has to have the prior consent of
the individual concerned (CDPD).
User must be informed of the data processing implications of the service.
4 Online contracting It is all too easy for mobile service providers to believe they have a contract
in place when they actually do not have one. Equally, many online traders
have found themselves in hot water by appearing to enter into contracts
when (according to them) they did not mean to. The inadvertent
advertisement of goods which have been priced wrongly is just one example
of this.
5 Information requirements Just as with the web, European-wide legislation requires mobile marketers to
name their organisation, and supply both contact details and information
relating to their membership of trade or professional bodies. These
information requirements can be more of an issue in the mobile context.
6 Distance selling Under European-wide distance selling legislation, businesses trading
electronically must provide information relating to key contractual terms,
contact details for customer complaints, information relating to warranties
and guarantees, and so on.
7 Industry codes There are likely to be several industry codes of practice applying to anyone
involved in mobile marketing, as well as a good number of other codes
which identify best practice that are worth complying with.
8 Contractual commitments You will almost certainly owe contractual obligations to your ISP about
what you can and cannot do online. Companies must comply.

38
Table 2.1 Contd.
9 Specific activities, markets or There are numerous other highly regulated and legally complex areas to be
products aware of. Common examples include the promotion or operation of online
competitions, lotteries, casinos, and other forms of gambling; contracting
with children (which may generally not be enforceable in many cases); and
the sale of certain products such as, for example, drugs, pharmaceuticals,
tobacco, and alcohol.
10 Roaming and cross-border risk Selling something to a particular group, or even at a certain time, could be
subject to differing laws in different countries.
Source: Norris (2003).

2.1.12 Marketing Strategy in Mobile Marketing


Marketing strategy is a cornerstone of firms marketing activities (Kotler, Wong, Saunders, and
Armstrong, 2005). Since 1960s the marketing mix approach has been the dominant design for
marketing strategy building and development. Broadly speaking, the marketing mix is the set of
controllable tactical marketing tools that the firm combines to produce the desired response
among the target audience (Kotler et al., 2005). The concept of marketing mix was introduced by
Borden (1964) but McCarthys (1960) introduced the 4Ps classification product, price, place,
and promotion and this has been the basic guideline for marketing research and practical
endeavors. Although the marketing mix approach is not without its critics (Waterschoot and Van
1992; Grnroos 1996, 1997), the adopted checklist approach still provides a usable device for
understanding the complex and interrelated nature of marketing activities. Specifically,
marketing communications mix consists of the specific combination of advertising, personal
selling, sales promotion, public relations, and direct marketing tools that a marketer uses to
pursue its marketing communications and overall marketing objectives (Kotler et al., 2005).

A. Integrated Marketing Communications Strategy

Marketing strategy drives integrated marketing communications (IMC) planning process and
ultimately leads to a plan that outlines decisions about marketing communications activities and
resource allocation. Thus, IMC plan sets guidelines for companys mobile marketing
communications activities. IMC has been defined as a concept of marketing communication
planning that recognizes the added value of using a comprehensive plan to evaluate the strategic
roles of a variety of communications disciplines (Peltier Schibrowsky and Schultz, 2003).
Hence, communicators with an IMC approach will consider all forms of communication, all
message delivery channels, customers and prospects, and all brand contact points, while they

39
plan and implement marketing and marketing communications strategies (Kitchen Brignell and
Spickett, 2004). Therefore, to develop an effective mobile marketing strategy, it is imperative to
consider not only the specific set of activities that a firm undertakes to perform a mobile
marketing campaign but also how the firm employs a combination of communication tools and
integrates its many communications channels to deliver a clear, consistent and compelling
message about the company and its products.

As depicted in Figure 2.2, firms must consider many critical issues when developing an IMC
strategy. The starting point of IMC planning process is an analysis of the overall situation of the
company/brand (e.g. competitors, consumers, markets and products). This analysis provides a
foundation for determining marketing communications target audience. Given that consumer
markets are highly fragmented and consumers differ in many terms (demographic, geographic,
geo demographic, psychographic, and behavioural), the identification of right customers is
increasingly challenging. However, with the help of Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
including database technologies and interactive media a firm can develop and implement
marketing communications strategies that are personalized to the specific needs of targeted
customers (Peppers, Rogers and Dorf 1999; Peltier et al., 2003).

Marketing communications objectives are hierarchically related with corporate objectives at all
levels of organization. In addition, it is also important to emphasize that the objectives and
strategies of all the individual marketing communications elements (and the tactics which follow
from them) are integrated and contribute to the achievement of the total marketing
communications objectives for individual products/brands and corporate marketing
communications (Pickton and Broderick, 2005). Marketing communications objectives typically
relates to awareness, information and attitude generation and/or affecting behaviour (Delozier,
1976).

40
Figure 2.2 Framework of Mobile Marketing Environment

Source: Leppniemi and Karjaluoto (2008)


41
Figure 2.2 Contd.

Source: Leppniemi and Karjaluoto (2008).

42
It is, however, important to highlight that the meaning of push/pull communications strategies
articulated above differ from that adopted in mobile marketing context. Push-based mobile
marketing refers to any content sent by or on behalf of advertisers and marketers to a mobile
device at a time other than when the subscriber requests it. Push-based mobile marketing
includes, audio, short message service (SMS) messages, e-mail, multimedia messaging, cell
broadcast, picture messages, surveys, or any other pushed advertising or content (MMA, 2006).
Pull-based mobile marketing is defined as any content sent to the mobile subscriber upon request
shortly thereafter on a one time basis (MMA, 2006). For instance, when a customer requests a
mobile coupon or whenever the content of the response, including any related marketing
communication, is pull-based mobile marketing.

There are many factors to be considered when designing marketing communications mix
strategies. The best blend of promotional tools depends on the type of product/market, buyer-
readiness stage and the product life-cycle stage (Kotler et al., 2005). First, there is a variety of
differences between consumer and business-to-business markets (Brugaletta, 1985; Gilliard and
Johnston, 1997) and therefore the importance of different promotional tools varies. The more
products fit into industrial-goods category, the more a company is usually investing in personal
selling. In contrast, the more a product fits into a consumer-goods category, the more advertising
is likely to play a primary role in the promotion mix.

With mobile marketing it would be extremely difficult (if not possible) to provide effective
means of communications to each of the buyer-readiness stages. In fact, it has been suggested
that mobile marketing works best among the target audience that is close to actual purchase.
Finally, it should be noted that marketing communicator need to be aware of the phase the
product or brand has reached within the development of the relevant product class (Fill, 2002).
This notion is based on the concept of the product life cycle (Levitt, 1965; Tellis and Crawford,
1986; Lambkin and Day, 1989) and the fact that the effects of different promotion tools vary
with stages of product life cycle.

43
2.1.13 Application of the Marketing Mix Concepts in Mobile Marketing

The marketing mix is a combination of tactical marketing tools that a firm uses to satisfy the
target market (Kotler and Armstrong, 2006). The marketing mix comprises the four Ps: product,
price, place, and promotion. The four Ps have also been extended to the seven Ps by further
including three elements: people, process, and physical evidence, for services although some
argue that these are already included in the four Ps (Smith and Chaffey, 2005).
The four Ps concept has been criticized for its product-oriented approach of not recognizing
customer needs, which is the essence of todays market (Chaffey, Ellis-Chadwick, Mayer and
Johnston, 2006). Consequently, the four Cs marketing mix model, which redefines the four Ps
from the customer viewpoint, was introduced by Lauterborn (1990). The four Cs are comprised
of customer needs and wants, cost to customer, convenience, and communication. Lauterborn,
(1990) further explained these elements. First, firms should sell only products that customers
actually want, as opposed to just anything they happen to produce. Second, consumers are more
concerned with total costs of ownership of a product, not only price. Third, firms should provide
consumers with the most convenient way possible for purchasing. Finally, firms should always
provide for and facilitate communication from customers. Smutkupt et al. (2010) has identified
the following as the application of marketing mix using the four Ps and the four Cs to mobile
marketing strategies.

(i) Product
Enhancements to the mobile handset and wireless networks allow new services to be created.
Among them, location-based services is seen as the killer application of mobile commerce
(Yunos, Gao, and Shin, 2003) and is thus worth mentioning. Marketers can make the best use of
this service by offering customers products or services that are relevant to their current location,
which could result in more traffic to local stores with an immediate purchase (Bauer et al., 2005;
Kannan, Chang and Whinston, 2001). Location-based services have already been used in a
variety of marketing applications. For example, Foursquare allows mobile users to share their
current location and opinions with social network friends. And the Fonecta directory service of
Finland helps customers find the nearest restaurants, shops, and banks (Pura, 2005).

44
The implications of mobile channels are evident not only for core products, but also for
augmented products. The mobile device is widely known for its effect in streamlining business
processes, particularly ones related to fieldwork. A number of studies have demonstrated these
benefits. For example, in a study of the value of mobile applications in a public utility company,
Nah, Siau and Sheng (2005) reported that mobile applications can improve efficiency by
increasing accuracy and saving time for its field workers in retrieving, updating and
communicating information while on the road. Similarly, Varshney and Vetter (2002) reported
that with the proper use of mobile devices, insurance companies can replace their traditional
claim payment process, which is usually time consuming and not very efficient, with quick on-
the spot claim adjustment and payment.

a) Branding as a Part of Product


According to Pousttchi and Wiedemann (2006), mobile marketing was mainly used for building
brand awareness, changing brand image, and enhancing brand loyalty. The effectiveness of
mobile channels in branding is commonly discussed in the areas of brand awareness and brand
associations. Through the use of SMS marketing, marketers are able to effectively establish
brand recognition and recall with push advertising. Sending advert text messages assures high
consumer exposure to the brand because messages are likely to reach the target almost every
time. After reaching customers, the messages are kept in the mobile phones storage and can be
read at customers convenience. Unlike e-mail, SMS does not have a subject line. Thus, the
message is guaranteed to be opened before being deleted (Rettie et al., 2005). SMS also supports
viral marketing (Doyle, 2000) which is beneficial to the brand not only in terms of increased
brand awareness but also peer influence (Scharl et al., 2005).

One of the primary functions of any marketing activity is to establish strong, favourable and
unique brand associations in the customers mind (Keller, 1993). With several value-added
features, mobile marketing is an ideal means to this end. The ability to provide time-sensitive
alerts to customers (credit card payment due dates), enable the brand to protect customers from a
potential loss, or other unnecessary problems caused by a lack of valuable information. In this
example, the ability to complete tasks as scheduled and have ones life run as smoothly as
possible, results in increased satisfaction with the brand, which in turn leads to a strong and

45
favourable brand association (Nysveen et al., 2005). Moreover, brands that employ mobile
marketing campaigns are usually perceived as innovative and high-tech leading to customer
perception of unique brand association (Ferris, 2007).
(ii) Pricing
Compared to the pricing strategy of traditional media, mobile retail prices (i.e., the prices that are
communicated by firms to customers mobile phones), can yield higher profits (Balasubramanian
et al., 2002). The authors indicate that through mobile devices, a consumer can be offered a
unique price without knowing what price another has received. This allows retailers to perform
first-degree price discrimination, which refers to each buyer being charged a customized price.
This pricing strategy is rarely if ever achieved in the general marketing environment, where
prices are public knowledge and every customer is charged according to menu-based pricing. As
such, in the mobile world, retail pricing and competition tend to be highly complex due to the
dynamic pricing model. It should be noted, however, that to effectively perform such a pricing
strategy, firms require extensive knowledge of customers and advanced applications, allowing
mobile prices to be incorporated into retail pricing strategies. A further benefit of mobile media,
with regard to pricing, is that through the use of the mobile Internet consumers are able to make
price comparisons between Internet retailers and brick and mortar stores while shopping at
physical locations.

(iii) Placement (Distribution Channels)


Mobile technologies help firms increase efficiency of product distribution. Some mobile
applications can be used to track current locations of rolling inventory, or multiple trucks
carrying a large amount of inventory while on the move. This allows a store to request just-in-
time delivery by locating the nearest truck when the need for certain items arise, thus reducing
the total amount of inventory space and costs (Varshney and Vetter, 2002). The advent of 3G
technology and smartphones, capable of handling richer information, has undoubtedly triggered
developments of new mobile contents in various formats, particularly in high resolution video
(Senn, 2000). It is predicted that future mobile content will be dominated by entertainment
(video-on-demand), distance education, and news services (Senn, 2000; Varshney and Vetter,
2002).

46
(iv) Promotion
The development of technology has not only enhanced the communication ability of existing
promotional tools (advertising, sales promotion and direct marketing), but has also provided new
channels for which these tools can be used (Harridge, 2004). These emerging channels, such as
the Internet, digital TV and mobile phones, have altered the way firms communicate and engage
with customers. Instead of focusing on the traditional campaign of simple mass communication,
marketers are now heading toward more directed and highly targeted activities (Karjaluoto et al.,
2004). Major impacts of mobile devices on the marketing communication mix appear in three
areas: advertising, sales promotion, and direct marketing (Leppniemi and Karjaluoto, 2008).
Mobile advertising offers marketers the potential to promote products and services in a
personalised and interactive way. Advertising content can be personalised based on a
combination of parameters, such as demographic profile, customer purchasing behaviour,
situation, and location (Clarke, 2001; Varshney and Vetter, 2002; Kim and Jun, 2008). Mobile
advertising can also be used to drive consumers to mobile commerce enabled sites, which will
further enhance a positive connection with preferred brands.

As sales promotions are commonly used to encourage the purchase of a product or service,
mobile sales promotions can help firms realise this objective more effectively. Customers might
find text-to-win campaigns more attractive than traditional approaches as they can participate
instantly, without involving the postal service. Time specific mobile coupons can be sent to
potential customers when it is most effective for the promotion of a product. Food coupons, for
example, can be sent out at lunch time, and movie rental coupons on weekend evenings
(Banerjee and Yancey, 2010). Mobile coupons usually provide high net returns because they
require only modest costs to implement (Shankar et al., 2010).

In general, the ultimate goal of direct marketing is customer response. And mobile media has the
potential to engender such more efficiently than any other media. Because a mobile phone is
always carried by its user, the channel provides marketers with almost permanent opportunities
to directly reach potential customers. The fact that changing ones mobile phone number is
troublesome helps validate the previous claim (Scharl et al., 2005). Moreover, mobile direct
marketing possesses quick response capability that enable firms to quickly respond to unforeseen
situations with new promotions or offers (Schierholz et al., 2007; Barwise and Strong, 2002).

47
While many marketers recognise the benefits of mobile direct marketing, this method is often
criticised for generating unwanted messages or spam, irritating customers, and raising privacy
concerns. Spam is seen as the strongest negative influence on consumer acceptance of mobile
marketing (Scharl et al., 2005). To deal with this issue, it is recommended that mobile direct
marketing and other marketing communication activities via the mobile media be operated only
with appropriate permission. This allow firms to contact only those customers who give consent,
and avoids others. Permission should be explicitly obtained, and customers should be given an
opportunity to stop receiving marketing messages at any time (Tezinde, Smith, and Murphy,
2002). Nonetheless, permission marketing requires a sophisticated management strategy, along
with efforts to consistently acquire broader permission (Kavassalis et al., 2003).

Despite having multiple channels with which to reach consumers (mobile messaging services,
mobile Internet, mobile video clips), campaigns utilising only the mobile-related channels may
not provide the most effective results (Karjaluoto et al., 2004). It is recommended that the mobile
channel be integrated into multi-channel marketing campaigns, and used to complement such
traditional media as TV, print, or radio, in order to enhance brand awareness (Kavassalis et al.,
2003; Ferris, 2007; Mort and Drennan, 2002).

(v) Customers
Offering products or services that meet customer needs and wants is an important part of
marketing (Bovee, Houston, and Thill, 1995; Kotler amd Armstrong, 2006). To achieve this,
marketers need a good database. The interactive capability of mobile marketing campaigns
allows marketers to build upto- date customer databases by inviting customers to sign up for a
campaign, or text back information in exchange for extra benefits. The value of the captured
information is then analyzed and used as the main factor in determining which products or
services should be offered, and to whom. The desired result is in personalised offers being sent to
individual customers, in response to specific customer needs and wants. Customised offerings
lead to positive consumer attitudes toward that which is advertised (Xu, 2007), an increase in
campaign response rates (Barutcu, 2007) and stronger relationships between firms and their
customers (Vesanen, 2007).

48
(vi) Cost and Convenience
As previously mentioned, price is no longer the only concern for customers when making a
purchase; the total costs of acquiring, using, and disposing a product are more important (Kotler
and Armstrong, 2006). These costs can take into account many factors, such as time, activity,
energy and/or opportunity. The mobile phone has the advantage of being able to reduce such
costs by providing more convenience to customers. Hence, the contribution of a mobile device to
cost and convenience will be discussed together. Convenience is a key advantage for customers
who use their mobile device to complete a broad range of activities in a more comfortable way,
thereby reducing costs and/or time. Consumers with time pressures may opt to browse for
products on a mobile phone to reduce searching costs (Kannan et al., 2002). Through the use of
certain mobile marketing services, consumers can now access detailed information about
products or services at the point-of-sale, allowing for a better purchasing decision to be made in
the moment (Mort and Drennan, 2002). When equipped with financial applications, such as
mobile banking or mobile micropayment, a mobile phone can turn into digital cash for small
payments of everyday tasks, such as car washes, subway rides, or purchasing from vending
machines (Balasubramanian et al., 2002), saving customers time for coin exchange or searching.
Mobile devices also save some quality time for customers by offering the opportunity to use
dead spots during the day to complete simple everyday activities (Anckar and DIncau, 2002).

(vii) Communications
The mobile device is unarguably an effective communication tool. It allows customers to reach
(or be reached by) firms anywhere and anytime, in real time. Such conditions are important,
particularly when there is time or location-sensitive information to be delivered (Clarke, 2001;
Anckar and DIncau, 2002). Through the use of the mobile Internet, consumers are able to access
important sources of information, communication and entertainment in the same way they do
with the PCs, but quicker (Barnes, 2002). In other words, the mobile phone increases consumer
connectedness (Clarke, 2001). In addition, the mobile phone allows for two way communication
(Gronroos, 2004). The business value of this feature lies in its ability to enhance customer
relations, build customer databases, and to instantly measure the results of a campaign. With
such benefits, marketers tend to incorporate a two-way aspect within mobile marketing
(Braiterman and Savio, 2007).

49
2.1.14 Consumer Behaviour
Consumer marketing strategies are based on determinants of consumer behaviour and this
involves those factors that explain how and why consumers behave in a certain way when
purchasing a product (Cant, Brink, and Brijball., 2006). The consumer decision-making process
and the continual changes in the behavioural patterns of consumers are strongly influenced by
various factors (Leon and Kanuk, 2000). The model below depicts the consumer behaviour
model. This model shows two main groups of factors these are internal and external influences.
These factors in turn may lead to the purchase and repurchase of a product or service (Cronje,
Toit, Maraais and Motlatla, 2004). The model has two-directional arrows indicating that each set
of factors interacts with each other.

Model 2.1 THE CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MODEL


External Internal
Influences Influences Personal
Family Motivation Characteristics
Reference Groups Attitude Race
Opinion Leader Perception Gender
Culture Learning Ability Age
Sub-Culture Emotions and Moods
Social Class Lifestyle

CONSUMER

Decision-Making Process
Awareness of a Need or Problem
Gathering Information
Evaluation
Action (buying)
Postpurchase Evaluation

Choice of a Market Offering

Source: Adapted from Cronje et al. (2004); Cant et al. (2006)

50
A. External Influences
The first set of factors depicted in Model 2.1 is external influences. External influences refer to
the influence of various groups on consumer purchasing patterns. These influences are also
referred to as the social and group factors influencing consumer behaviour (Cant et al., 2006).
As can be seen in the model, the different groups that can compel a consumer to conform to
group norms are the family, reference groups, opinion leaders, culture, and sub-culture groups
and social class.

1. The Family
According to Leon and Kanuk (2000), the family influences individual personality
characteristics, attitudes and values as well as the decision making process in the purchase of
goods and services. Family structure or behaviour of family members at each stage in the
decision making process is of fundamental importance to the marketers (Kotler, 2009). The
importance of the family in consumer behaviour is highlighted by the fact that many products are
purchased and consumed by a family unit and the buying decisions of members are influenced
by other members of the family (Cant, et al., 2006). According to Strydom, Jooste and Cant
(2000), of all the groups influencing purchasing behaviour, the individual maintains the closest
contact with the family. The family is the most obvious example of a strongly influential primary
reference group (Cant et al., 2006) on the individual purchase decision.

2. Reference Groups
A reference group refers to any person or group of people that significantly influences an
individuals behaviour (Engel, Blackwell and Miniard, 1994). According to Cant et al. (2006),
reference groups form part of group dynamics and can be defined as any person or group that
serves a point of comparison or referent for an individual consumer in forming certain values,
attitudes and behaviour patterns. Being a member of a certain group implies exhibiting similar
habits and purchasing patterns of the group (Cronje et al., 2004). Loudon and Della (2002)
identified the following as the different types of reference groups influencing consumers
purchase behavuior: formal and informal reference groups, primary and secondary reference
groups, membership and non-membership groups, aspirational and dissociative groups.

51
3. Opinion leaders
Personal influence on purchasing behaviour can also come through word-of-mouth
communication initiated by a person known as an opinion leader (Engel et al., 1994) . The
opinion leaders, are credible person who is accepted as a source of information about product
purchase and use (Leon and Kanuk, 2000). According to Cant et al. (2006), opinion leaders act
as a go-between in what is known as the two-step flow of communication . The information from
mass media is usually channelled by the opinion leader who interprets the information and then
relays the acceptance or rejection of the message to the other consumers in the target market
(Strydom et al., 2000). Every consumer is a member of different reference group and could be
an opinion leader for a certain product whilst being a follower for another (Cant et al., 2006). For
a product to be accepted within a market segment, marketers must identify a suitable reference
group and opinion leader for its product (Cronje et al., 2004).

4. Culture groups
Culture has been seen as one of the important factors that influence customer behaviour (Engel et
al., 1994; Strydom, 2004; Cant, et al., 2006). Culture refers to the values, ideas, artefacts and
other meaningful symbols that help individuals communicate, interpret and evaluate a
phemomena as members of society (Engel et al., 1994). Cultural groups comprises of these
values, norms and symbols developed in a society over time in which all its members share
(Cronje et al., 2004). These values are likely to affect consumer behaviour and set the choice of
criteria used by individual consumers (Leon and Kanuk, 2000). Mourali, Laroche, and Pons
(2005) noted that cultural values and norms serve as vehicles which transmit culturally-
determined knowledge from one generation to another. In addition, Leon and Kanuk (2000)
emphasized that transmitting cultural values from one generation to another will ensure that
these values are socialised and adapted into a particular group. According to Quester, Neal and
Hawkins (2007), cultural group will influence purchasing and consumption patterns of their
members as values and norms persist over time. This values will further influence consumer
choices and purchase decisions on products and services (Luna and Gupta, 2001).

5. Age-based Sub-Culture
The age-based subculture can be described as a generation or a group of people who have
experienced a common social, political, historical and economic environment (Cant and

52
Machado, 2004). Generations, which are roughly sub-divided into 20-year blocks can help
explain different consumer behaviours (Cant and Machado, 2004). According to Cant and
Machado (2004), there are five basic generations of consumers namely:

1. Pre-Depression Generation born before 1930 this is a generation that experienced the
Great Depression as children and who were adults during World War II. This generation
today are the people in old-age individuals (Cant and Machado, 2004). They have unique
needs, more related to health and trying to cope with an ever-increasing burden of
medical costs and trying to make ends meet (Cant et al., 2006).
2. The Depression Generation born between 1930 and 1946 this generation grew up in the
relative affluent years in the 1950s and 1960s. They are the grand parents of the
generation Y children. This generation is called the silent generation they believe in
hard work, are conservative in nature and likes order, rules and a clearly defined
hierarchy (Hawkins, Mothersbaugh and Best, 2010).
3. The Baby Boom generation born between 1947 and 1964 and are often referred to as .
Boomers, Me Generation, Baboo, and Sandwich Generation (Cohen, 2009). According to
Hawkins et al. (2010), Boomers value individualization, self-expression and optimism.
In terms of their characteristics, lifestyles, and attitudes, Boomers have defined
themselves by their careers and they are mainly workaholics (Cant et al., 2006). They
have a live for today attitude.
4. Generation X is the generation born between 1965 and 1978 (Cohen, 2009).
Generation X prefer an output driven system where they believe the organisation that
they work for has bought their output the mechanics on how and when they do their
work is irrelevant they want the freedom to do the work in their own time (Cant and
Machado, 2004). According to Hawkins et al. (2010), this group is the most price
conscious desiring that products and messages should be designed uniquely to suit their
asks and lifestyles. Information and technology are important factors determining their
demand for products and services (Rempel, 2009).
5. Generation Y this is the generation born between 1979 and 1994 (Schiffman and
Kanuk, 2010) and they are often referred to as Millennium Generation, Echo Boomers or
baby boomers (Williams and Page, 2011). They grew up with computers, the Internet

53
and saw their parents losing their jobs in an economic slowdown period. Generation Y
exuberate independence and are much more optimistic, confident and social than
previous generations (Laermer and Simmons, 2007; Cant et al., 2006). They are also
much more street smart and technology minded than the previous generations (Cortes,
2004).
The Generation Y, Generation X and Baby Boomers, as discussed above, differ in their
purchasing behaviour, attitudes towards brand, and behaviour towards advertisements. The main
differences of these groups are illustrated in Table below.

Table 2.2: Comparison of Selected Age Cohorts across Marketing-Related Issues


Themes Generation Y Generation X Baby Boomers
Purchasing Behaviour Savvy, pragmatic Materialistic Narcissistic
Coming of Age Computer in every home Microwave in every home Television in every home
Technology
Price-Quality Attitude Value oriented (weighing Price oriented (concerned Conspicuous consumption
price-quality relationships) about cost of individual (buying for indulgence)
items)
Attitude towards Brands Embracing brand Against branding Loyal to brand
Behaviour towards Rebel against hype Rebel against hype Respond to image-building
advertisements hype
Source: Adapted from Cant et al. (2006)

6. Social class
A social class is a group of people in a country who are considered equal in status or
community esteem who socialise together on a regular basis formally or informally, and who
share behaviour patterns (Cant et al., 2006).

Social classes have distinctive behaviour patterns that are a function of occupation, income and
education (Cant et al., 2006). According to Luna and Gupta (2001), social class strongly
influences consumer lifestyles and in general is a good indicator of the type of product that a
consumer would be interested in buying. Quester et al. (2007) identified that in order to advance
social standing in society, consumers of a particular class will buy specific products which tend
to reflect their social status in the society.

54
B. Internal Influences
Internal influences constitute a major determinant to consumer behaviour. Individuals differ in
many ways and that in turn affects their purchasing behaviour. Internal influences are also
referred to as psychological forces that influence consumer behaviour (Cant et al., 2006).
According to Leon and Kanuk (2000), motivation, attitudes, perceptions, learning ability,
personality, and lifestyle constitute variables of the internal influence.

1. Consumer Attitude
An attitude may be defined as a feeling of favourableness or unfavourableness that an individual
has towards an object (be it a person, thing or situation) (Hawkins best and Coney, 2005). It is a
learned predisposition to exhibit and act based on evaluation resulting in a feeling of like or
dislike towards and object (Kotler and Keller, 2009). Cant et al. (2006) emphasized that in terms
of consumer behaviour, consumer attitudes may be seen as an inner feeling of favourableness or
unfavourableness towards a product or service offering and the 4Ps. Schiffman and Kanuk
(2004) further stated that an Attitudes are an expression of inner feelings that reflect whether a
person is favorably or unfavorably predisposed to some "object" (e.g., a brand, a service, or a
retail establishment), and Attitude formation, in turn, is the process by which individuals form
feelings or opinions toward other people, products, ideas, activities, and other objects in their
environment. In addition, Hawkins et al. (2005) stated that attitude is reflective of a consistent
favourable or unfavourable feeling that a consumer or a prospect forms as a result of an
evaluation about an object; the object being, a product/service offering, brand, price, store and
dealer, salesperson, advertisement and promotion.

(i) Nature of Attitude


According to Cant et al. (2006), Consumer attitude can be better explained by understanding the
nature and characteristics of attitude. Generally, attitudes are composed of three components,
via, a knowledge or cognitive component, a feeling and affect component and a behavioural and
conative component (Cronje et al., 2004). It was further emphasized that in terms of consumer
learning, the attitude would express consumers feeling of like or dislike about a product or
service offering and the marketing mix. In addition, Leon and Kanuk (2000) stated that the
knowledge component is reflected in the learned knowledge that a consumer obtains from his

55
interaction with others as well as his own experiences. The feeling component is reflected in his
evaluation, and the resultant feeling of favourableness and unfavourableness attitude. While the
behavioural component is reflected in the predisposition to act (purchase) based on the
evaluation. According to Kotler and Keller (2009), the nature of attitudes can be elaborated as
follows:
1. Attitudes are directed towards an object (product/service offering, price, store, dealer,
promotion, advertisement etc.) about which a consumer has feelings and beliefs.
2. Attitudes have a direction; they could be positive or negative. A consumer could possess
feelings of like/dislike, favourableness and unfavourableness towards a product or service as
well as the mix. They vary in degrees and intensity.

3. Attitudes are consistent in nature, particularly with respect to the third component, i.e.
behaviour. Consumers are consistent with respect to their behaviour. However, they are not
entirely permanent and may change if the cognitive or the component is changed.

4. Attitudes are a learned predisposition. Attitudes are learned; they are formed as a result of i)
self experiences with the product/service offering and the mix; ii) interaction with other people,
be it family, friends, peers and colleagues; iii) information obtained from the marketer through
promotion particularly advertisements as well as dealers and salespeople.

5. Attitudes cannot be observed directly. While attitudes are comprised of three components,
behaviour is just one of them. It is only this component that can be seen; the cognitive and affect
components cannot be seen. Thus it is said that attitudes cannot be seen; they can only be
inferred from the manner in which an individual behaves.

6. While attitudes can be inferred from our behaviour, it is not synonymous to behaviour. It has
other components, and reflects a learned predisposition to act favourable or unfavorably towards
a product and service offering and the mix.

(ii) Functions of Attitude


Apart from helping a consumer make evaluations about a product/service offering ending up in
purchase decisions (to buy/not to buy), attitudes play other functions as well (Strydom et al.,
2000). Generally, attitude perform four basic functions according to Cronje et al. (2004) and
Cant et al. (2006) namely, utilitarian function, ego defensive function, value expressive function,
56
and knowledge function. The four functions are not mutually exclusive. In fact, they are related
to each other and consumer attitudes are illustrative of a combination of functions.
a) Utilitarian function: Consumers form positive attitudes towards product/service offerings
because they provide a utility, in other words, they provide a rewarding experience through the
benefits that they provide. Consumers learn to relate a reward with the use of the offering. On the
other hand if they do not offer a rewarding experience, consumers form a negative attitude
towards such an offering.
b) Ego defensive function: Consumers form attitudes as they help defend their ego, self-image
and self-concept. If a consumer is high on ethnocentrism, and patronizes Indian products, he
would have a positive attitude towards Indian brands. He would speak for and promote such
brands even if he knows that a foreign made product provides better value. Attitudes are formed
to protect the ego.
c) Value expressive function: Positive attitudes are formed when a product or service expresses
a personss values and lifestyle, personality and self image, and self concept. This is because
attitudes provide people with a basis for expressing their values. In cases where there is a
mismatch between the product image and a consumer self-image, a negative attitude is
developed. Attitudes are a reflection of value.

d) Knowledge function: Attitudes are formed when consumers want to reaffirm their knowledge
base, to finally help them simplify purchase decision making. If a consumer thinks positive about
a brand, it helps reaffirm his opinion, and makes decision making simpler and faster. Attitudes
help in decision making.

(iii) Attitude Formation and Change


Attitude formation is of prime importance to the marketer (Cronje et al., 2004) as the needs to
develop positive attitude for his product and service offering becomes necessary in order to gain
gain a competitive edge in the market place. According to Cant et al. (2006), attitude comprises
of three components, knowledge, feeling and behaviour; the knowledge and feeling component
remain hidden while the behaviour can be observed. In addition, Kotler and Keller (2009)
inferred that an attitude (whether positive or negative) is formed based on the observation of
ones behaviour. According to Schiffman and Kanuk (2004), once attitudes are formed (as a

57
result of learning), it is very difficult to change them. Attitudes are formed as a result of the
learning process (Cant et al., 2006).

(iv) Impact of Sources in Attitude Formation


While attitudes are formed as a result of learning, they are influenced by various sources (Cant et
al., 2006). Such sources according to Loudin and Bitta (2002) include self-experiences, as well
as direct and indirect influences; direct influences are influences from family and friends,
salespersons (direct marketers) as well as dealers; indirect influences include influences via mass
media, either print or audio-visual.

According to Loudin and Bitta (2002), self experiences have a major role to play in the
formation of attitudes. It was further emphasized that consumers form favourable and
unfavourable attitudes towards product and service offerings based on self experiences. They try
out product and service offerings and also evaluate them based on their self experience. Cronje
et al. (2004) further stated that direct influences through interactions with members of family as
also with friends, relatives, and primary reference groups impact the formation of attitudes. In
addition, Quester et al. (2007) noted that salespersons as well as dealers also play a key role in
the formation of attitudes. As these marketing representatives provide information to the
consumers and attempt to favorably influence potential customers towards their product and
service offerings. According to Cant et al. (2006), indirect influences in form of mass media,
either print or audio-visual provide information to the consumers and this helps in formation of
attitudes towards product and service offerings.

(v) Attitude Change


According to Cant et al. (2006) and Cronje et al. (2004), attitude once formed, are enduring and
consistent. Quester et al. (2007) noted that attitude can be changed in the same manner as they
are formed, i.e. through learning or indirect influences. It was also noted that attitude can be
changed by bringing about a change or alteration in any one or all of the components that make
up the attitude, i.e. knowledge, feeling and behaviour (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2004). Cant et al.
(2006) emphasized that changes in any or all of the tricomponents, requires immense effort on
the part of the marketer, who need to provide information through the marketing media as well
as use reference group appeals and opinion leaders so as to influence modification of attitude.

58
2. Consumer Learning
Learning, according to Strydom, Jooste and Cant (2000) can be defined as a result of a
combination of motivation, attention, experience and repetition. Learning is the process by
which individuals acquire the buying and consumption knowledge and experience they apply to
future-related behaviour (Cant et al., 2006).

Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in the behaviour that occurs as a result of
experience of self or others (Kotler and Keller, 2009). There occurs an enhancement of
knowledge, skills and expertise which are relatively permanent. According to Peter and Olson
(2005), consumer learning is defined as a process by which people gather and interpret
information about products and services and use this information/knowledge in buying patterns
and consumption behaviour. Schiffman and Kanuk (2004) defined consumer learning can be
thought of as the process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge
and experience that they apply to future related behaviour. Consumer learning may be
intentional, where learning is an outcome of a careful search for information; learning can also
be incidental, where learning occurs as a matter of chance, by accident or without much effort.
Chart 2.1 below shows the learning curve depicting the four learning stages.

59
Chart 2.1 THE LEARNING CURVE.
THE LEARNING CURVE

PHASE I PHASE II PHASE III


TRIAL REINFORCEMENT HABIT

P
r 10

o
9
b
a
8
b
i 7
l
i 6

t
5
y
4
o
f 3

R 2

e
1

Number of trials

Source: Ibidunni and Akinbola (2013).

Accoding to Ibidunni and Akinbola (2013), consumers of goods and services pass through the
following four learning stages to achieve brand loyalty: (i) knowledge of the existence of the
product, at the base of phase One, (ii) experience, positive or negative, having purchased and
used the product, at the end of phase One (iii) belief, having used and enjoyed the benefits

60
accruing from the product, at phase Two, and (iv) attitude formation, that is, phase 3, loyalty
stage to a product. At this stage, the product becomes a house-hold name to the consumers
(Howards and Irwin, 1963).

Basic Element, Nature and Characteristics of Consumer Learning


(i). Elements of Learning
According to Hawkins et al. (2005), the learning process is comprised of certain elements/
components, such as, motivation, cues, response and reinforcement as dicussed below.

a) Motivation: Generally, studies in the literature have defined motivation as a force (inter,
external) that stimulates and compels a behavioural response and provides precise action to that
response (Engel et al. 1994; Schiffman and Kunuk 2000; Hawkins et al., 2001). Schiffman and
Kunuk (2000) noted that when a consumer is faced with a need/want situation, there occurs an
urge within him to act towards fulfillment of the need/want through the problem solving/decision
making process. The consumer is motivated to search for information, either internally from his
memory or externally through commercial, non commercial and public sources or through
experience of self and others (Engel et al., 1994 ). Hawkins et al. (2001) emphasized that this
desire to search for knowledge and information about the product/service gets intensified with
the degree of relevance or involvement of the consumer.
b) Cues: Hawkins et al. (2005) defined cues as a weak stimulus that gives strength and direction
to the motives. According to Kotler (2000), all the 4Ps could act as cues and give direction to
consumers motives; eg. the packaging of the product (colorful design; easy to carry; reusable
containers), price (discounts, sales), place (store display, store layout, window dressing) and
promotion (advertisement).

c) Response: The behaviour of a person constitutes the response (Hawkins et al., 2005).
Schiffman and Kunuk (2000) also stated that how a person reacts to a drive or a stimulus,
reflects his/her response. Hawkins et al. (2001) noted that response could take various forms
namely:
- It may be overt and lead to an action; the consumer may decide to purchase the product/brand.
- The response may just be learning for the future, i.e. when purchase is postponed for future.

61
- A favourable image about the product/brand may be created; the consumer develops an
intention to buy; as and when the consumer decides to make the purchase, he would consider that
brand.

(ii) Nature and Characteristics of Learning

Peter and Olson (2005) identified the following as the nature and characteristics of learning

1. Learning involves a change in behaviour. In terms of consumer learning, consumer who is


exposed to the marketing stimuli, may react to it through its purchase and consumption; if his
experience is satisfying, he would repeat the purchase behaviour in favor of the brand. In case he
is not satisfied, he would switch over to another brand. Thus leaning involves a change in
behaviour.

2. The change in behaviour occurs because of experience, there has to be some kind of an
experience for learning to occur. This experience could be direct (self-experience) or indirect
(experiences of others, and word of mouth). A consumer learns about a product/service category
and the varying brands either on his own or from others. Pleasant experiences with the
product/service category, leads to a positive opinion about the brand, and would eventually
develop into brand loyalty. On the contrary, his unpleasant experience, leads to a negative word
of mouth and switchover to other brands.

3. Consumer learning also reflects the impact of (i) marketing (commercial) and non-marketing
communication (interpersonal/non-commercial), as well as (ii) background characteristics.
4. Learning is a cognitive process and can only be inferred through actions and behaviour.
Learning includes exposure to information, its processing and storage; this entire process cannot
be observed directly, and is only reflected in our behaviour.

5. Learning is a continuous process. A person is exposed to information/ knowledge


and/experiences all the time; he interprets these, learns from them and stores these in his memory
for retrieval. Thus, Consumer learning is seen as a continual process where knowledge is ever
evolving as a result of (i) marketing stimuli (watching or reading about newer products/services
and brands, their features, prices etc. and thinking about them); or, (ii) discussion with family,
friends, peers, colleagues, blogs and public forums; or, (iii) direct experiences (self) and indirect

62
experiences (Word-of-Mouth). This knowledge gets integrated into the memory with the other
information stored earlier, and this newly acquired information would alter/modify existing
information, and acts as a basis for future purchase

6. Learning may be specific/intentional, ongoing and incidental. Consumer learning is


specific/intentional when it is directed to a specific need and problem solving; it is deliberate in
nature and specific to the situation, where the person intends making an immediate purchase

3. Perception
Perception is the process of receiving, organising and assigning meaning to information or
stimuli detected by the five senses (Strydom et al., 2000; Kotler, 2000; Cant et al., 2006).
According to Hawkins et al., (2001), perception has been defined as the process by which an
individual selects, organises and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful mental
picture of the phenomena. Kotler (2000) emphasized that consumers are constantly bombarded
with marketing information every time and information processing is subject to consumers
perceptual defences, namely selective attention, selective perception and selective retention.
According to Singh et al., (2000), selective attention involves consumers inability to allocatt time
and effort in addressing all information received. This necessitates giving attention to only the
information that fascinates and addresses consumers need per time (Hawkins et al., 2001).

According to Kotler (2000), consumers are likely to perceive and interpret information that
they receive in a way that it will suit their personal lifestyle and their personal lifestyle and
preconceptions. Cant et al. (2006) noted that consumers will choose things they want to hear and
block-out any unwanted marketing message. It was further stated that in selective retention,
consumers tend to forget information and marketing messages that do not conform to their belief
system and attitude. Model 2.3 shows that the perceptual process consists of four stages, namely,
exposure, attention, interpretation, and memory (or recall) (Hawkins et al., 2001).

63
Model 2.3: The Perceptual Process

Exposure

Attention

Interpretation

Memory

Source: Adapted from Hawkins et al. (2001).

Information processing is selective and includes the following steps as shown in model 2.3:
Exposure: According to Hawkins et al. (200), consumers of product and services always seek
information that they believe will help them sustain and increase their level of satisfaction.
Attention: Hawkins et al. (2000) noted that attention is most likely to occur when the message is
of relevance and is determined by the individual, the stimulus and the situation.
Interpretation: According to Cant et al. (2006), interpretation refers to the way consumers
assign meaning to sensations and stimulus. Hawkins et al., (2000) emphasized that individual
related characteristics such as prior learning exercise a significant influence on consumers
interpretation to a given phenomensa.
Memory or Recall: According to Kotler (2000), prior learning experiences constitute the toal
accumulation of a persons memoery. Generally, there are two interrelated componenets of a
persons memory namely: short-term and long-term memory (Hawkins et al., 2000; Cant et al.
2006 and Kotler, 2000). Hawkins et al. (2000) noted that consumers make use of the longterm
memory when trying to recall marketing messages /information at the point of purchase. Cant et
al. (2006) further noted that marketing communication should be kept simple and have some
impact in attracting attention for it to be successful otherwise consumers might choose to ignore
it completely.
4. Perceived Risk
According to Assael (1992), while making a purchase decision and immediately after having
made a purchase, consumers experience a state of uneasiness and tension. The purchase process
64
results in a state of anxiety and tension with respect to the negative consequences that could
result from product usage. This state is known as perceived risk; it refers to a feeling of
uncertainty that arises within an individual when he fails to predict the consequences of product
choice, usage and resultant experience. This feeling arises because the consumer cannot judge
with certainty the consequences of their purchase decision. The circumstance that led to such a
state is lack of information, newness of the product/service offering, complexity of the offering,
high price
A. Types of Perceived Risk
The study of Peter and Olson (2005) and Kotler and Keller (2009) among others, have identified
the following as the various types of perceived risk.
1. Functional Risk: This refers to the risk which a consumer perceives when he/she is
uncertain about the products attributes, features and overall benefit; His doubt is whether
the product will perform as it is expected to perform.
2. Physical Risk: This kind of a risk is perceived when a consumer doubts about his and his
familys safety with respect to the usage of a product? It refers to the dangers that the
product usage could bring with itself

3. Financial Risk: This kind of a risk is perceived when a consumer doubts as to whether
the product is worth its cost? In other words, the consumer assesses the benefit versus
cost of the product?
4. Social Risk: This is the kind of risk that a consumer faces when he doubts the product
purchase and usage to sanctions and approval by the social group or class to which he
belongs.
5. Psychological Risk: This kind of a risk is perceived when a consumer fears social
embarrassment.
6. Time Risk: The consumer is uncertain and doubts whether his time has been wasted by
making a wrong choice or that he would have to spend time again if the product does not
perform as expected.
According to Schiffman and Kanuk (2004), perceived risk is subjective in nature and it varies
across people, product and situation. In other words, the degree and intensity of perceived risk
would be different for different people, it would be different for different products; and, it would

65
also change with the communication media. It is noteworthy that consumers perception of risk
is affected by personal characteristics.

B. Perceived Risk Reduction Method

Perceived risk can be lessened or even ignored, thereby ending the state of tension and anxiety.
Some risk-reduction measures that can be taken by the consumer and by the marketer are as
follows:

1. Information: Consumers can reduce the degree of perceived risk by acquiring more
information informally with his family, friends and peers, or an opinion leader, or with
experienced userin form of word-of-mouth communication helps to reduce the level of risk
considerably. The marketer can also play an important role by providing formal communication,
through his salespeople, his channel members (dealers) as well as through print, audio visual or
mobile media.

2. Brand loyalty: Consumers often decide to be brand loyal so as to escape feelings of


uncertainty. They are well informed about the brand and so have tried and tested it before.
Purchasing the same brand reduces or even eliminates any kind of negative consequences.

3. Brand image: Consumers may also decide to go by the brand image and make choices based
on product reputation of quality, credibility and dependability. They may decide to go in for a
trusted and well-known brand, rather than going in for lesser known or unknown brands.

4. loyalty and image: Similar to brand loyalty, some consumers try to be loyal to the store. They
believe in going to stores where they have been before and have built successful relationships
with the dealers or the retailers and the salespeople. Also, consumers often decide to go by the
store image and make choices based on store reputation of credibility and dependability. This is
particularly seen when consumers have no information or less information about the product or
service offering.

5. Consumer Emotions and Moods


I. Emotions
Hawkins et al. (2001) defined emotions as a strong, mental or instinctive feeling affecting
consumer behaviour due to the uncontrollable nature of the phemomena. In addition, Schiffman

66
and Kanuk (2004) noted that emotions are changes in the body state that impact psychological
processes thereby resulting in expression of feelings and observable behavioural reactions.
Emotion varies, and it has been categorized differently as follows; Lindquist and Sirgy (2003)
observed that emotions comprise pairs of opposite states, and there are three of such pairs, viz.
pleasantness/unpleasantness, tension/release and excitement/relaxation. Also, according Loudon
and Bitta (2002), there are eight kinds of emotions that can be grouped in four pairs of opposites,
viz., joy/sadness, acceptance/disgust, anger/fear and surprise/anticipation. Thus emotions can be
positive or negative; they can give happiness and pleasure or unhappiness and discomfort
According to Lindquist and Sirgy (2003), emotions are personal states, which is private and
subjective. A subjective state could change differently in response to the environment, as it
varies within a person and across persons, and gets reflected as a psychological arousal. While
some emotions are conscious and clear, others remain at the sub conscious level and are abstract.
Hawkins et al. (2001) also noted that emotions can be slight or intense and remain for short or
ling periods of time.

II. Moods
According to Hawkins et al. (2001), moods are defined as emotional states that are less intense,
transient and short term. They are also described on a continuum as good or bad, and thus have a
positive and negative valence (Hawkins et al., 2005). Like emotions, they are also triggered by
noticeable and unnoticeable stimuli, be it persons, objects and situations (Loudon and Bitta,
2002). However, consumers are more aware and conscious of emotions, than of moods
(Schiffman and Kanuk, 2010).
Consumer emotions towards product/service offerings and the 4 Ps can be positive or negative;
they can bring pleasure or discomfort; they can last for short or a long period of time. When they
are specific to a marketing stimuli and last for a short period of time, they are referred to as
moods (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2010). Also, a good understanding of these psychological states
can help a marketer design a stimulus/marketing programme that leads to positives states
(emotions) (Hawkins et al., 2005); and when a consumer is on a positive state as far as emotions
and moods are concerned, he would be more receptive to the product/service and the brand
offering (Hawkins et al., 2010) .

67
6 Personal Characteristics
Race, gender and age are the three personal characteristics that customers have no control over
(Cant et al., 2006). Each of these characteristics are addressed below.
Race
Race is a trait that marketers can use to establish sub-cultures and can be defined as the genetic
heritage group into which a person is born (Cant et al., 2006). Different racial groups have
different need and purchasing behaviour. The responsibility of the marketer lies in its ability to
identify and target each group with unique marketing communications.
Gender
Gender will also impact on consumers values and preferences. Gender most likely affect
purchasing patterns. According to Cant et al. (2006), differences occur in the loyalty patterns of
men and women. Men were more loyal to domestic or local retailers while women were more
responsive to international retailers and were a more attractive segment for the retailers entering
a country.
Age
Age is one, if not the most important factor that affects consumer behaviour. Age groups can be
divided into age cohorts that will allow a marketer to predict an age groups future attitudes,
values and behaviours. Different generations are most likely to exhibit different consumer
behaviours from the preceding one (Cant et al., 2006).

C. The Consumer Decision Making Process


Consumer decision making pertains to making decisions regarding product and service offerings.
As Marketers are interested in consumers purchase behaviours, i.e., the decision making
process. Thus, decision making is defined as a process of gathering and processing information,
evaluating it and selecting the best possible option so as to solve a problem or make a buying
choice (Hawkins et al., 2005).
The decision-making process involves a search by the consumer, the comprehension of
information obtained, perceptions of product or brand and the implications of attitude (Schiffman
and Kanuk, 2010). According to Wells, Burnett and Moriaty (1992), all purchase decisions are
not similar, as the effort put into each decision making is different. The purchase decision-
making model is presented in the figure below as identified by Strydom et al. (2000); Kotler
(2000) and Cant et al. (2006).
68
The decision making process consists of five steps as illustrated in model 2.4. This model
implies that consumers pass through all of these five stages in buying a product as identified by
Kotle (2000); Schiffman and Kanuk (2005) and Cant et al. (2006) as:
I. Need recognition: Individuals recognise that a need has to be satisfied
II. Information search: They look for information about possible solutions in the external
environment, or use the information stored in memory.
III. Evaluation of alternatives: They evaluate or assess the various alternatives, using the
information they have at hand to come to a decision
IV. Purchase decision: They buy the product they have chosen
V. Post-purchase behaviour: evaluation of satisfaction levels with it product usage

Model 2.4 Stages in Consumer Decision-Making Process

Need Recognition

Information Search

Evaluation of Alternatives

Purchase Decision

Post-purchase Behaviour

Source Adapted from Strydom et al. (2000); Kotler (2000); Cant et al. (2006)

1. Need recognition/Problem recognition:

Need recognition can defined as the perception of difference between the desired state of affairs
and the actual situation sufficient to activate the decision process (Strydom et al., 2000). The
recognition may come from an internal stimulus (such as hunger) or it may come from an
external stimuli (such as an advertisement). Either way, marketers need to make consumers
aware of unsatisfied or even dormant needs by using appropriate marketing messages (Strydom
et al., 2000). A need could be triggered off by internal stimulus or an external stimulus (Kotler,

69
2000; Hawkins et al., 2010) identified three factors that affect need recognition namely:
information stored in memory, individual differences and environmental influences. This process
involves perceiving a deficiency/need.

2. Pre-purchase information search:


After a need is recognized, the consumer goes for an information search, so as to be able to make
the right purchase decision (Hawkins et al., 2005 ). According to Solomon, Bamossy, Askegaard
and Hogg (2010), consumers will look for information from their environment in order to
facilitate their decision making process. Schiffman and Kanuk (2005) noted that the search
consumers engage in may be internal or external. Kotler (2000) emphasized that information is
either stored in memory (internal search) or is acquired through decision-relevant information
from the environment (external search), through group sources (family and friends), marketing
sources (advertisements), public sources (media reports), and experimental sources (trying out
the product). External search is thus affected by individual differences and environmental
influences. Model 2.5 below shows the search for Information.

Model 2.5 THE SEARCH FOR INFORMATION


Information Search

Individual Differences Environmental Influences

Consumer Resources Personal Information Sources


Motivation Marketing forces of Advertising
Knowledge Neutral Sources
Attitude Human Sources
Personality Social and Cultural Influences

Evaluation Decision

Source: Cant et al. (2006)

As indicated in Model 2.5 individual differences include consumer resources, motivation,


knowledge, attitudes, and personality. Environmental influences include personal information
sources, marketing forces of advertising (promotions and product information), neutral sources

70
(booklets and pamphlets), human sources (financial consultants) and social and cultural influences
(Cant et al., 2006). Solomon et al. (2010) noted that the consumer gathers information about the:
(i) Product category and the variations (ii) Various alternatives and (iii) Various brands. The
amount of information a consumer will gather depends on the following: i) the consumer:
demographics (age, gender, education), psychographics (learning, attitudes, involvement,
personality type), ii) product category: differentiation and alternative brands available, risk,
price, social visibility and acceptance of the product. iii) situation: time available at hand, first
time purchase, quantity of information required, availability of information. Consumer decisions
are generally based on a combination of past experience and relevant information at hand.
3. Evaluation of alternatives
Alternative evaluation refers to the process by which available alternatives are evaluated and
selected to meet consumer needs (Engel et al., 1995; Kotler, 2000). Once the consumer has
gathered the necessary information, he compares the different alternatives available on certain
criteria (Solomon et al., 2010). This involves: i) Generation of choice alternatives; ii)
Identification of evaluative criteria: Attributes and Benefits; iii) Application of Decision Rules.
I. Generation of choice alternatives: While generation of alternatives, a consumer moves
from an evoked set towards the choice set (Cant et al., 2006).
- Evoked set/Consideration set: This is the set of alternatives consumers consider while
making a purchase decision; these exist either in his memory or feature prominently in
the environment (Kotler, 2000). The consumer perceives them to be acceptable.
- Choice set: This comprises the final set of one or two brands from which the consumer
finally decides.
ii) Identification of Evaluative Criteria: Attributes and Benefits: These are objective and
subjective parameters of the brand that the consumer regards as important, and uses as standards
to discriminate among the various alternatives (Hawkins et al., 2001). The consumer evaluates
the different alternatives on one or few or many of these features and then makes a final choice
(Kotler and Keller,2009). According to Hawkins et al. (2005), there are certain features that a
consumer considers when choosing among alternatives; these could be functional/utilitarian in
nature (benefits, attributes, features), or subjective/emotional/hedonic (emotions, prestige etc.).
According to Hawkins et al. (2001), the major evaluative criteria are:
- Economic: Price, Value (Product Attributes, Brand image, Evaluation of Quality, Price, &

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Features).
- Behavioural: Need/motivation, Personality, self-concept and self-image, Lifestyle etc.
- Social influences: Group influences, environmental issues etc.
iii) Application of Decision Rules to make a final choice amongst alternatives: According to
Schiffman and Kanuk (2005), in decision rules consumers will have to make trade-offs between
the quality of their choice and the amount of time and effort to be expended in executing the
decision.
4. Purchase decision
These are objective and subjective parameters of the brand that the consumer regards as
important, and uses as standards to discriminate among the various alternatives (Cant et al.,
2006). The consumer evaluates the different alternatives based on certain features and then
makes a final choice (Hawkins et al., 2001). They are features that a consumer considers in
choosing among alternatives; these could be functional/utilitarian in nature (benefits, attributes,
features), or subjective/emotional/hedonic (emotions, prestige etc.) (Solomon et al., 2010). After
the consumer has evaluated the various alternatives, he selects a particular brand. Kotler and
Keller (2009) noted that consumer purchases may be trial/first purchases or repeat purchase.
Trials/First purchase: Trials could be elicited through market testing, or through promotional
tactics such as free samples, coupons, etc. Repeat purchases: If the consumer is satisfied, he
would buy the brand again.
5. Post-purchase outcome and reaction
According to Cant et al. (2006), the post purchase outcome and reactions contains two stages;
Stage I comprises Post purchase Cognitive Dissonance: This is a feeling of tension and anxiety
that a consumer experiences after the purchase of a product (Hawkins, 2005). The consumer
begins to have a feeling of uncertainty with respect to the performance of the product and begins
to doubt his purchase decision whether the decision was the right one (Solomon et al., 2010).
Stage II comprises Product usage and reaction: After the purchase, the consumer uses the
product and re-evaluates the chosen alternative in light of its performance viz. a viz. the
expectations (Strydom et al., 2000). Schiffman and Kanuk (2005) identified that this phase is
significant as it (i) acts as an experience and gets stored in the memory; (ii) affects future
purchase decisions; (iii) acts as a feedback.

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2.1.15 Marketing Communication Effects
When planning an advertising campaign the manager must specify the desired communication
effects (Kotler, 2009). According to Kotler and Keller (2009), there are five communication
objectives that can be achieved from engaging in marketing communication. These are: brand
awareness, brand attitude, Purchase intention, customer loyalty and satisfaction

1. Brand Awareness
Brand awareness is defined as the end-users ability to identify the brand. It is regarded as a
universal communication objective by Rossiter and Percy (1998) and therefore should be
included in intermediate measures of communication effectiveness (Kotler, 2009). In the same
way as Advert awareness, Brand awareness is measured in two ways, recall and recognition
(Kotler, 2000).
2. Brand Attitude
Brand Attitude is defined as the buyers evaluation of the brand in terms of its perceived
ability to meet a currently relevant motivation (Kotler, Armstrong, Saunders and Wang, 2002).
This measure is seen as an important construct since it is generally seen as an antecedent of both
intention to purchase and the actual purchase. Kotler et al. (2005) identified that brand attitude as
a universal communication objective of all advertising campaign which induce a positive attitude
towards the brand.
3. Purchase Behaviour
When evaluating advertising effectiveness many researchers as well as practitioners frequently
use a measure of Purchase behaviour (Kotler, 2009). According to Kotler et al. (2002), purchase
behaviour could also be used as a measure of advertising effectiveness. Purchase behaviour is
defined as the buyers self-instruction to purchase the product, or to take another relevant
purchase-related action (Kotler and Keller, 2009).
4. Customer loyalty
Customer loyalty is a very vital component of any successful business (Uncles, Dowling and
Hammond 2003). There are many definitions of loyalty. According to Inamullah (2012),
customer loyalty is the willingness of a consumer to purchase the same product and keep the
same profitable relationship with a particular company. In other words, it the continuous buying
of a consumer for a particular company brand and suggesting to other friends and family. There

73
must be something attractive in a brand which keep a customer to buy that product over period of
time without preferring ant other competitor brand.

Customer loyalty have been classified into two parts according to (Guilln, Nielsen, Scheike and
Marn, 2011). First part is consumer behaviour and the second part is consumer attitude.
These attitude involves the individuals feelings informing consumers attachment to products,
services or to the organization as a whole (Guillen et al., 2011); and behavioural loyalty
involves repeated purchases, expanded purchases, and recommendations (Hallowell, 1996).
Rauyruen and Miller (2007) stated in their study that customer loyalty may be informed by
rational or either emotional factors. Rational factors may be the characteristics of the product and
emotional factors are consumer feelings towards a product/service.

Consumer loyalty is a behaviour of a consumer indicating willingness to repurchase from a


company and continue relationships with that company in their future purchases (Uncles et al.,
2003) . Customer loyalty is the key factor under consideration of each and every firm (Vesel and
Zabkar, 2009).The primary overall objective of most companies is the maximization of
shareholders wealth (Dade and Lichtenstein, 2007). This is consistent with what most
executives set out to achieve been spelt out as strategic, tactical, or operational goals. Such goals
could include the maximization of sales through maximization of customer base (Dade and
Lichtenstein, 2007).

Loyalty is a feeling of duty, a feeling of devotion, duty, or attachment to somebody or


something. In the context of marketing, loyalty is something consumers sometimes choose to
exhibit to brands, services, stores, product categories, activities etc (Uncles et al., 2003). Uncles
et al. (2003) reiterated that there is no universally agreed definition to the concept of customer
loyalty. However they stated three popular standpoints including:
i. loyalty leading to attachment to the brand
ii. loyalty as it relates to trend of activities
iii. buying influenced by uniqueness of individuals
Accordinh to Ang and Buttle (2006), a loyal customer can be such influential to the organisation
that, through the emotional attachment, the customer might engage in activities of a sales
representative of the organisation that is, bringing other customers to the organisation. The word-

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of-mouth advertisement plays important role in reaching new customers which Steffes and
Burgee (2009) defined as an informal communication sent to the customers. Word-of-mouth as a
form of interpersonal communication among consumers is a dominant force in the market place
(Longart, 2010).

Customer loyalty is the key and important competitive advantage in current market situations
(Lin and Wang, 2006). Once a firm understands the mind of their consumer they can make a
long lasting profitable relationship with them and can make them loyal (Inamullah, 2012). It
takes a loyal customer as much time to engage in word-of-mouth advertisement as it requires an
attempt to persuade a friend or an affiliate to buy a new product or service (Hallowell, 1996).
Moreover, researchers argue that customers trust opinions of their friends and loved ones more
than marketing messages about products and services (Jurvetson, 2008 cited in Weber, 2011).

5. Customer Satisfaction
According to Gilmore and McMullan (2009), customer satisfaction comes when the outcome of
a transaction or interaction matches the expectation of the customer. In their work on scales in
service marketing, Gilmore and McMullan (2009) reiterated that customer satisfaction results
when companys promises/ customers expectations are met in services delivery. Although it
can be argued that organizations should be moderate in their promises to customers and rather
attempt to promise little, perform more (Sorescu et al., 2007), considering the intensity of
competition in the digital market, customers need lots of promises in order to maintain their
patronage. Moreover, heightened promises places the organisation on a pedestal of high
performance which would bring much satisfaction to the customer (Parasuraman et al., 1991).
Bagram and Khan (2012) defined satisfaction as features or characteristics that can fulfill either a
need or want of a consumer in better way than competitors. If a company provides a product
according to the requirements of their consumers it will lead to the satisfaction of those
consumers. The higher or lower satisfaction of a consumer will depends upon the quality of
brand characteristics that offered by a company (Gerpott, Rams and Schindler, 2001). This is the
consumer satisfaction which contribute for the future money making for a company (Hauser,
Semester and Wernerfelt, 1994).

75
For the retention of consumer, it is important to satisfy consumers (Guo, Xiao andTang, 2009).
The unsatisfied consumers of a company do not take time to switch that brand (Lin and Wu,
2011). Low quality services can also lead to dissatisfaction. A low quality service is that service
which does not fulfill the requirements (Rust and Zahorik, 1993). However it all depends upon
the segments a company is targeting and what are their expectations for that product (Auh and
Johnson, 2005). In the study by Anderson (1994) he explain that customer satisfaction is the key
factor which is used to measure the companys internal and external performances and assigning
funds to each and every activity.

Service is a key factor for consumer satisfaction although this is not the only factor which is
responsible for consumer satisfaction (Lin and Wu, 2011). Rust and Zahorik (1993) discussed in
their study that customer satisfaction has positive relationship on loyalty. Auh and Johnson
(2005) in their study identified a strong relationship between satisfaction and loyalty. Bodet
(2008) describe that affiliation exist between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Vesel
and Zabkar (2009) identified in their study that customer satisfaction is an important indicator for
the customer loyalty. Shankar, Smith and Rangaswamy (2003) also examine that there is certain
relationship between satisfaction and loyalty and this was supported by Kim, Jeong and Park,
(2007) who stated that customer satisfaction lead to customer loyalty.

2.1.16 Factors Influencing Attitude towards Mobile Marketing


Studies from the literature has shown numerous factors influencing attitude towards mobile
service and advertising. These factors range from entertainment, informativeness, irritation,
credibility, attitude towards the adverts, Innovativeness, Existing knowledge, perceived risk,
privacy and permission as factors contributing to consumers attitude.

(i) Informativeness
Informativeness can be defined as the ability of advertising to inform consumers of product
alternatives so that purchases yielding the greatest possible satisfaction can be made (Ducoffe,
1996; Waldt et al., 2009) and the ability to successfully give related information (Oh and Xu,
2003). In the context of this study, informativeness can be viewed as the ability of advertising to
deliver information to customers in order to satisfy their needs. Advertising plays a major role in
delivering information (Ling et al., 2010). Thus, advertisers in general want to transmit

76
information via advertising messages (Gordon and Turner, 1997). Information received by
consumers through mobile devices must demonstrate qualitative features like accuracy,
timeliness, and usefulness for consumers (Siau and Shen, 2003). Varshney (2003) suggested that
information is considered a valuable motivation that leads recipients to react very positively to
advertisements

(ii) Entertainment
Entertainment is defined as the ability to fulfill an audience needs for aesthetic enjoyment, fun
diversion, or emotional pleasure (Ducoffe, 1996). Perceived entertainment in advertising can be
defined as an amusing and pleasant experience through the use of media (Okazaki, 2005a).
Shavitt and Lowrey (1998) concluded that the pleasure one feels from advertisements plays the
most important role in his/her overall attitude toward advertisement. According to Haghirian et
al. (2005), perceived entertainment of mobile advertising is not only related to attitude, but also
adds perceived value of the advertisement by customer. Entertainment is considered as a
promotional mechanism to encourage mobile marketing communication. The very nature of
texting, with its own particular form of abbreviated language and more casual forms of
communication (such as text flirting) was seen as entertainment in its own right (Grant and
ODonohoe, 2007). In addition, the impulsive nature of phone-based entertainment supports this
construct (Wilska, 2003) as especially young people use of telephony services for fun and
enjoyment (Williams, Rice and Rogers, 1998). Entertainment is also considered as a crucial
factor for mobile marketing. It is essential that the message is concise and funny, and thus
immediately captures consumers attention (Haghirian and Madlberger, 2005; Katterbach,
2002). Entertainment services can increase customer loyalty and add value for the customer
(Haghirian and Madlberger, 2005).

(iii) Irritation
Irritation refers to any offending effects that may go against what a user values (Oh and Xu,
2003). In the context of advertising, irritation has been defined as employing tactics in
advertising that annoy, offend, insult, or are overly manipulative (Ducoffe, 1996; Waldt et al.,
2009). The tactics advertisers use when competing for consumers attention can be annoying to
the audiences. Taking this point further, irritation is a phenomenon whereby consumers tend to
refuse advertisements if they have the feeling that the advertisement is too intrusive. If an

77
individual feel indignity when being addressed by advertisements, this can mainly have an effect
on their attitude toward advertising (Shavitt, Lowrey and Haefner, 1998).
Moving in the mobile advertising context, most consumers are still quite uncomfortable with the
concept of mobile business and they are sceptical whether these businesses are feasible and
secure (Siau and Shen, 2003). Mobile advertising may provide an array of information that
confuses the recipient and can be distracting and overwhelming the consumer with information
(Stewart and Pavlou, 2002; Xu, 2006). Consumers may feel confused about them and react
negatively. Another point of possible annoyance is unwanted messages, commonly known as
spam (Dickinger, 2005). Spam intrudes into consumers privacy and hinder consumer acceptance
of the advertised product.
(iv) Credibility
In the context of advertising business, McKenzie and Lutz (1989) defined advertising credibility
as consumers perception of the truthfulness and believability of advertising in general. In
addition, Daugherty et al. (2007) viewed advertising credibility as an expression of consumers
expectations regarding the fairness and factualness of advertising. Advertising credibility was
proved to be significantly relevant to advertising value of web advertising (Brackett and Carr,
2001). Credibility is consumers confidence in the honesty and plausibility of the advertisement
(Chowdhury et al., 2006). Credibility also plays an important role in mobile advertising. If
consumers do not find the adverts to be credible, this will negatively affect their attitude towards
the adverts (Dahln and Nordflt, 2004).

(v) Relevancy of Message


Advertising relevancy has been defined as the degree to which message content are pertinent,
applicable, and related to consumers needs (Lastovicka, 1983). Relevance is a key concept in
understanding advertisements, because it is a primary component of all aspects of human
communication. In general, Consumers expect SMS advertising to be highly relevant to them as
the mobile phone has a personal nature (Barwise and Strong, 2002). High relevance can only be
achieved by using reliable information related to the consumers

(vi) Subjective Norms


Subjective norms are defined as the persons perception that most people who are important to
him think he should or should not perform the behaviour in question (Fishbein and Ajzen 1975).

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Subjective norms are intended to account for social influences that the persons attitude is
exposed to. Thus, performing a particular behaviour is influenced by others opinions about the
behaviour (Mansour, 2012). Many of the decisions made by consumers are taken within the
environment of the family and are thus affected by the desires and attitudes of other family
members (Evans et al., 2006), or are affected by what the consumers believe other people think
they should do (Solomon, 2004). The relationship between subjective norms and intention to
behave is originally depicted in the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), developed by Fishbein
and Ajzen (1975) and illustrates that intentions are shaped through attitudes and social norms
which in turn shape or even dictate an individuals behaviour. Subjective norms can also be
termed reference group (Bearden and Etzel in Evans et al., 2006).

According to Park and Lessig (in Evans et al., 2006), reference group influence is manifested in
three ways:
(i) An information influence, for example, when a consumer is considering buying a product
and seeks information from family, friends and perceived experts. In doing so, the
individual can also make inferences by watching the behaviour of others. This type of
influence works in order to be able to make informed decisions.
(ii) A utilitarian influence, which concerns a degree of conformity with the behaviour or
norms of a group with which the consumer wants to identify. This influence works well
if the individual perceives that his or her behaviour is visible or is known to others and
that the significant others in the group can mediate rewards or even punishment.
(iii) A value expressive influence, which occurs when consumers buy a brand or a product
which they think will enhance their image among others in the group. This influence
works particularly well when the individual likes those in the reference group.

The reference group influence varies depending upon whether the product category or brand is a
publicly consumed luxury, a privately consumed luxury, a publicly consumed necessity or a
privately consumed necessity (Evans et al., 2006). Table 2.3 indicates the effects of reference
group influences within different contexts.

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Table 2.3 Reference Group Influence on Consumption
Publicly consumed luxury Privately consumed luxury
Strong reference group influence on ownership or Strong reference group influence on product (everyone
specific brand (both the product and the brand are visible has it, so you have to have it), but a weaker influence on
to others). specific brand (because the brand consumption is hidden
from public).
Publicly consumed necessity Privately consumed necessity
Weak reference group influence on whether or not the Weak reference group influence on ownership and on
product owned (because you have to have it as everyone specific brand (neither product nor brand is visible to
has it) but strong influence on specific brand (because others).
everyone will see it).
Source: Adapted from Evans et al. (2006).

(vii) Innovativeness
Mobile marketing is an innovative strategy of marketing instrument for reaching the mass
market. Acceptances of these marketing instruments are influenced by consumers degree of
innovativeness. According to Foxall et al. (2005), the nature of consumer innovativeness
includes two interrelated concepts:
a) Innovation, which can be new products, new markets, new marketing channels, new
processes or new marketing concepts. Innovation can also mean major breakthroughs or
a stream of incremental changes (Doyle and Bridgewater, 1998).
b) Consumer innovativeness is the tendency to buy new products in a particular product
category soon after they appear in the market or relatively earlier than most other
consumers in the marketing segment (Foxall et al., 2005). It is also likely to apply to the
use of innovative concepts, such as accepting marketing via SMS.
Innovativeness is a continuous individual difference variable of the degree to which a person
likes to try new things. It is comparable to any other consumer characteristic such as lifestyle,
opinion leadership, and involvement. (Foxall et al., 2005; Solomon, 2004). Im, Bayus and Mason
(in Bauer et al., 2005) differentiate between innate innovativeness and actual innovativeness:
innate innovativeness constitutes the innovativeness that is part of each individuals personality;
while actual innovativeness refers to the actual adoption of a specific innovation by a particular
individual.

Steenkamp and Alii (in Roehrich, 2002) maintain that innate innovativeness is a predisposition
to buy new and different products and brands rather than remain with previous choices and
consumer patterns. Roehrich (2002) identified the following as forces of predisposition:

80
a) Stimulation need: need for stimulation may be perceived as an antecedent of new product
acceptance and adoption, either directly or indirectly, through innovativeness.
b) Novelty seeking: inherent novelty seeking is an internal drive or a motivating strength
which motivates the individuals search for new information.
c) Independence toward others communicated experience: it occurs when an individual
makes innovation decisions independently from the communicated experience of others.
d) Need for uniqueness: the need for uniqueness pushes the individual to distinguish
himself through the possession of rare items provided this is a socially acceptable
behaviour.
Innovativeness can be measured by three criteria as identified by Assael (1984).

a) Firstly, it is simply measured by adoption at a given time. Consumer innovativeness in


part accounts for the timing of the decision to adopt an innovation. More innovative
consumers are earlier to buy a new produce or service than less innovative consumers.
Innovative consumers are usually very knowledgeable about the product area and make
great use of speciality media in the product area. (Assael, 1984: Foxall et al., 2005).
b) A second criterion used to identify innovators is the number of new products adopted.
Such a criterion is useful in distinguishing between the product-specific and the
generalised innovator (Assael, 1984). For example, the innovator who is among the first
to consider buying a cell-phone is also likely to be among the first to consider using SMS
for mobile communication.
c) A third criterion used to measure innovativeness is how consumers see themselves on the
characteristic of innovative product usage. Such self-designating measures are used when
the researcher wants to determine the orientation of the consumer to new products rather
than measuring specific adoption (Assael, 1984). For example, a cell-phone user may feel
that using SMS only for personal communication is not enough; if they can receive more
business information via SMS then it may be better.

Higher Innovativeness is often displayed as a strong personal interest in the product field, which
links with high-involvement (Evans et al., 2006). Involvement is commonly defined as the
consumer personal interest in buying or using an item from a given product field, an approach
which nicely summarises the individual, experiential, and situational components of the

81
relationship (Evans et al., 2006). A persons level of involvement depends upon personal
relevance and the inherent interests, needs and values of the individual, with regard to the object
of involvement (Evans et al., 2006). Consumer motivation to process information is often
conceptualised in terms of their involvement with the information stimuli (Evans et al., 2006).
Table 2.4 illustrates the degree of involvement (more and less innovative) linked to the different
types of learning and different levels of product knowledge.

Table 2.4 Hierarchy of Effects for Different Involvement Levels


More innovative Less innovative
(High-involvement) (Low-involvement)
Cognitive learning Passive learning

High product knowledge Low product knowledge


(may lead to a central route to persuasion of
views attitude change)
Source: Adapted from Evans et al. (2006); Neal et al. (2004)

Table 2.4 shows that more innovativeness (high-involvement) with a strong personal interest
and cognitive learning lead to high product knowledge, and further leads to a central route to
persuasion. This indicates attitude change resulting from a persons diligent consideration of
information that he or she feels is central to the true merits of a particular attitudinal position.
Such consumers pay strong attention to the product-related features and other relevant factual
information and consciously elaborate potential outcomes (Evans et al., 2006). However,
innovativeness is secondary in explaining innovative behaviour and most of the explanatory
power may come from the way the new product or new marketing instrument is perceived or
from other intervening variables (Roehrich, 2002) such as existing knowledge.

(viii) Existing knowledge


Consumers are likely to conduct their behaviour according to their beliefs or knowledge (Kassarjian
and Robertson, 1991). A consumer existing knowledge determines his or her ability to understand
the features and usage of an innovation and see the value thereof (Bauer et al., 2005; Bennett, 1998).
Consumers often use existing knowledge to learn about innovative products or services. When
evaluating a new product or service, consumers try to form an evaluation of it by using their
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existing knowledge from multiple-product or service categories. More specifically, consumers
use information from a familiar domain (a base) and transfer it to the new domain (the target)
(Saaksjarvi, 2003).

In mobile communication literature, knowledge or experiences of mobile communication could


influence respondents attitude toward and acceptance of mobile marketing. According to
diffusion of innovation, an innovation is usually adopted by only a few people, then later by
more people at a greater rate (Foxall et al., 2005). This happens because individuals in the
social system have different initial opinions or beliefs about the attributes of the innovation, as
well as a greater uncertainty about the innovation. There is therefore a need for additional
information before the consumer can make a decision (Kassarjian and Robertson, 1991). Thus,
with more existing knowledge, the innovation can more easily obtain acceptance by consumers.

According to diffusion theory, complexity refers to the perceived difficulty of learning to use and
understand an innovation (Tisdell, 2003). Sheth (in Bauer et al., 2005) believes that an
innovation is perceived to be less complex if the consumer already possesses a certain amount of
knowledge about the innovation itself or about a product similar to it. Mobile communication
technology is the technological basis to support the use of mobile marketing. The existing
knowledge of mobile communication in general will influence the acceptance of mobile
marketing. In the technological market innovativeness is characterised by extensive technical
knowledge, confidence in independently operating new technology, and a willingness to learn
about technological innovations; and a more positive attitude towards technology is also
apparent (Saaksjarvi, 2003). According to Bauer et al. (2005), the relationship between the
perceived technological complexity of mobile communication and the attitude towards mobile
marketing can also be negative even if there is a high existing knowledge of mobile
communication among mobile phone users.

(ix) Attitude toward advertising

Friman (2010) states that the aim of advertisings is to influence consumer behaviour. The
attitude towards advertising (ATA) has been defined by Lutz (in Mehta and Purvis 1995) as a
learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavourable manner to
advertising in general. Mehta and Purvis (1995) believe that the attitude towards advertising in

83
general is expected to influence the success of any particular advertising. According to Bauer et
al. (2005), there are two attitudes associated with cell-phone users: the attitude towards
advertising in general and the attitude towards mobile marketing. The relationship of both
attitudes is that mobile marketing can be considered to be a subset of all available instruments for
communicating advertising content because mobile advertising messages are usually delivered
by using SMS to cell-phone users. Consequently, cell-phone users may be expected to hold a
stable and consistent attitude toward advertising in general (Bauer et al., 2005). Advertising in
general can thus be a basic strength to influence consumer attitude towards mobile marketing.

(x) Perceived Risk


This involves the amount of risk that consumers perceive to be present in the decision process
(Foxall et al., 2005). Risk can be financial, physical or social (Neal et al., 2004). Perceived risk
(PR) is commonly thought of as an uncertainty regarding possible negative consequences of
using a product or service (Featherman and Pavlou, 2002). If the perceived risk of the object is
low, it is more likely to be adopted, whereas a high level of perceived risk will generally have a
lower adoption rate (Evans et al., 2006).

Perceived risk has been closely identified with innovativeness (Assael, 1984). According to
Neal et al. (2004) and Assael (1984), there is a higher degree of risk associated with trying an
innovation because consumers lack information and prior experience; moreover, the product may
be technologically complex. In an attempt to reduce risk the consumer tends to rely on sources
of information with a high degree of credibility, such as friends who have purchased the product
or used the service (Assael, 1984). In addition, technological innovations usually involve a
substantial learning effort. Consumer education about a product or service is likely to reduce the
perceived uncertainty of adopting an innovation, since education could serve as a means for
companies to address potential adopter concerns about the perceived risk factors associated with
the adoption of innovations (Saaksjarvi, 2003). There are certain technical aspects of mobile
service security, as shown in model 2.6. In this business chain, the marketer serves as the
advertising content provider, who asks the telecoms service provider and carrier provider for data
transfer from the target consumer. During this process of data transfer, data will concern security
risk of data transfer and access level security.

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Model 2.6 Security Risks in the Business Chain
Content Provider

Data Transfer- Security risk

Service Provider

Data Transfer- Security risk

Carrier Provider

Access level Security

Subscriber

Source: Ahonen (2002)


Bauer et al. (2005) identified that the risk associated with mobile marketing is mainly perceived
to relate to data security. The three interrelated issues of security, trust and privacy are often
bundled together under the single heading of security (May, 2001). With the use of the mobile
device it is possible for marketers to reach consumers anytime and anywhere. Such a
characteristic provides the basis that accounts for consumer fear of privacy violations (Bauer et
al., 2005). The dread of unwanted messages (unwanted messages, is commonly known as
spam) and privacy fears may prevent consumers from opting in for mobile or SMS advertising
(Dickinger and Haghirian 2004). According to Bauer et al. (2005), risk perception can therefore
strongly influence consumer willingness to adopt mobile marketing as an innovation. The
negative relationship between risk perception and attitude towards mobile marketing among
mobile phone users must be recognised.

Privacy and Permission


Spam refers to unsolicited marketing messages sent via e-mail or to a mobile phone (Fuller,
2003). According to Fuller (2003), in an existing customer relationship, it is legal to approach
consumers via e-channels. Spam is closely related to the invasion of ones privacy. Fuller (2003)
indicated that spam needs to be defined from the users viewpoint. Therefore, each message the
user perceives as unwanted or unsolicited marketing is defined as spam.

Mobile spam (i.e. unsolicited SMS messages) raises privacy concerns related to the utilisation of
the personal and location data used to personalize mobile marketing messages (Leppniemi, et

85
al., 2006). Consumers may be reluctant to trust mobile marketing as a marketing communication
channel because of their perceived risk regarding the safety of their personal data and privacy.
Privacy issues are particularly sensitive with respect to mobile marketing due to the personal
nature of mobile devices (Brown, 2006). Besides worries of intrusion into ones private space,
mobile spam raises privacy concerns related to the utilisation of the personal and location data by
service providers to personalize mobile marketing messages (Leppniemi, et al., 2006).

Frequency of Exposure
The number of advertising messages received via mobile devices is an important factor that
influences the advertising value for the consumer (Haghirian and Dickinger, 2004). Ducoffe
states that informativeness and entertainment of advertising information should decline with
repetition because the information will be learned by the audience and thereby lessening its value
(Ducoffe, 1995). As the quantity of promotional message rises, the attitude of the individual
towards the promotional vehicle also worsens and leads to tedium from consumers point of view
(Ha, 1996; Tellis, 1997).

2.1.17. Behavioural Intention


Behavioural intentions are the possible behavioural inclination of an individual (Ajzen, 1991).
Behavioural intention refers to the strength of a persons conscious plans to perform the target
behaviour (Mykytyn, Mykytyn and Harrison, 2005). Also, behavioural intention according to
Joynathsing (2010) is seen as an individuals planned future behaviour. Furthermore,
consumers behavioural intentions were described by Cronin et al. (2000) as a set of multiple
(behavioural and non-behavioural) responses. Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) cited in Ravichandran
et al. (2010) suggested that behavioural intentions when correctly measured could predict actual
behaviour. Ajzen (2006) theorize that individuals behaviour is directed by three thoughts: first,
behavioural beliefs, which are beliefs about the outcomes of the behaviour and its evaluations;
second, normative beliefs, which are beliefs about others normative expectations and inspiration
to obey these expectations; third, control beliefs, which are beliefs about the presence factors that
might make easy or obstruct performance of the behaviour. So, attitude toward the behaviour
lead to the creation of a behavioural intention. Consequently, intention is assumed to be the
instant precursor of actual behaviour.

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2.1.18 Relationship between Attitude, Intention and Purchase Behaviour
Attitude towards a behaviour is determined by a belief about the consequences of the behaviour.
A belief is formed towards an object through learning either by observation or information given
by external sources. In the same way, subjective norm on the behaviour is affected by normative
beliefs about the behaviour. As suggested by TRA model, behaviout is influenced by intention
and subjective norm.

Over the years, attitudes toward advertising have been studied more than any other concept in the
marketing area (Mittal, 1994; Pollay and Mittal, 1993; Shavitt et al., 1998; Wang et al., 2002). In
particular, consumer attitude toward advertising has been largely examined because of its
relation to consumer responses towards advertisements (Schlosser et al., 1999) and its influence
on behavioural intentions (Bruner and Kumar, 2000; Goldsmith and Lafferty, 2002; Lutz, 1985;
McMillan et al., 2003; Mehta, 1994; Poh and Adam, 2002). Moving into the Internet advertising
context, existing perspectives of Internet advertising research suggest that consumer attitude
towards advertising is an important determinant of their responses and behaviours (Abd Aziz et
al., 2008; Chen and Wells, 1999; Stevenson, Bruner, and Kumar, 2000; Wolin, Korgaonkar,
andLund 2002).

Numerous studies in the field of general consumer and advertising research have indicated that
attitude towards advertisement has an impact on attitude toward the brand which in turn
influences purchase intentions (Shimp, 1981; MacKenzie, 1983). Also, It has been stated that a
favourable attitude towards the advertisement (Aad) helps to create a favourable attitude towards
the brand (Ab), which in turn has a favourable effect purchase behaviour (PB) (Heath and Gaeth
1993). Although these relationships may not be directly causal and there may be some
intervening components, the literature in support of this sequence of basic relationships is
extensive and the majority of findings suggest that the order of effects is robust (Brown and
Stayman 1992; Homer 1990; Lutz et al., 1983).

Advertising literature suggests that attitude towards the brand (Ab) and purchase behaviouir (PB)
are correlated constructs (Spears and Singh, 2004) since attitude towards the brand will motivate
consumers intention to react to a particular stimulus. Moreover, several studies have shown that
attitude towards adverts (Aad) can also have a direct impact on purchase intention, in addition to

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its indirect influence mediated by Ab (Cox and Locander, 1987; MacKenzie et al.,1986), since
consumers may decide what they will purchase without completely processing all brand
information (Biehal, Stephens and Curlo 1992). Although, SMS adverts provide limited
information, hence the evaluations stimulated by these adverts will more likely be affective in
nature and not largely analytical. This affective response may influence purchase intentions
directly, without all the effects being mediated by brand evaluations (Lafferty, Goldsmith and
Newell, 2002). The relationship between attitude and actual bahaviour has been viewed as been
positive and negative. Favourable attitude do not necessarily lead to faviourable behaviour in all
circumstances. But attitude often guide behaviour.

2.1.19. Consumer Attitude Models in Mobile Marketing

Studies from the literature revealed that the framework for the study of mobile marketing relies
on the models developed for the study of consumer attitude toward internet/web advertising and
advertising in general (Brackett and Carr, 2001). According to Varnali and Toker (2010), it is
more adequate to apply models developed for explaining the acceptance of information systems
and the development of attitude for studies in mobile marketing and mobile advertising In
addition, these models explain the intention to adopt mobile marketing based on theories related
to technology adoption (Pedersen and Ling, 2002).

Ducoffe (1996) developed a model depicting the perceptual antecedents of entertainment,


informativeness and irritation, used to determine consumers attitudes toward internet advertising
which formed the basis for the model developed by Brackett and Carr (2001) to test consumer
attitudes toward web advertising. The model, has the same three constructs identified in the
model developed by Ducoffe (1996) but it contains other additional constructs namely
credibility, which is an antecedent of consumer attitude towards an advertisement (Brackett and
Carr, 2001). This model as shown in Model 2.6 was used by Tsang et al. (2004) and Haghirian et
al. (2005) to test consumer attitudes toward mobile advertising.

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Model 2.7 Brackett and Carr's (2001) Model of Consumer attitude to Web Advertising
Entertainment

Informativeness
Attitude towards
Web Advertising
Credibility

Irritation

Source: Brackett and Carr (2001).

Tsang et al. (2004) used the theory of reasoned action (TRA) proposed by ( Fishbein and Ajzen,
1975) to examine the link between attitudes, intentions and behaviour related to mobile
advertising. Tsang presented a framework as shown in model 2.8 reflecting factors affecting
attitude and the relationship between attitude, intention to receive mobile advertisements and
user behaviour to reading and the timing for reading the advertised massage.

Model 2.8 Tsang et als. (2004) Model of Consumer attitude toward Mobile Marketing

Entertainment Permission

Informativeness
Attitudes

Credibility Intention Behaviour

Irritation

Incentives
Source: Tsang et al. (2004)

Tsang et al. (2004) found that the respondents in general held negative attitude toward mobile
advertising unless prior permission has been obtained. Entertainment, informativeness and
credibility were positively related to attitude toward mobile advertising while the irritation factor
was negatively related. The study also showed that the permission affects the attitude toward
mobile advertising. Both attitude and incentives affect the intention. The study also indicates that

89
consumers with a positive attitude are more willing to receive mobile advertisements. There is a
high correlation between intention and behaviour.

Haghirian and Madlberger (2005) investigate the attitude toward advertising via mobile devices
in Austria. The research used quantitative and qualitative method using questionnaire and
interviews with undergraduate students. In their model the characteristics of message content, the
consumer and frequency of exposure affect the advertising value and the attitude toward mobile
advertising. The advertising value affects the attitude toward mobile advertising. Haghirian and
Madlbergers (2005) model is presented in the model below.

Model 2.9 Haghirian and Madlberger (2005) Model of Consumer Attitude Toward
Advertising via Mobile Devices

Message Content

Entertainment

Informativeness

Irritation
Advertising Attitude toward
Value advertising via
Credibility
mobile devices

Age Attitude
toward
Privacy
Gender

Frequency of
Education
Exposure
Consumer

Source: Haghirian and Madlberger (2005).


The research found that the attitude toward mobile advertising and advertising value are strongly
related to message content as entertainment, informativeness and credibility have positive effect
and irritation has negative effect. The frequency of exposure has negative effect on the
advertising value. The research found that there is no effect of gender, age and education in the
attitude toward mobile advertising among Austrian mobile users.

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Xu (2007) model measured the effect of entertainment, personalization, informativeness,
irritation and credibility on the attitude toward mobile advertising. The research also examines
the effect of attitude on the consumer intention. The model 2.10 is shown below.

Model 2.10 XUs Model of Factors Affecting Attitude and Intention toward Mobile
Advertising

Entertainment

Informativeness
Attitude Intention
Credibility

Irritation

Personalization

Source: XU (2007)

Xu (2007) study found that entertainment, credibility and personalization are important factors
that have positive effects on attitude toward mobile advertising, while informativeness and
irritation are not important factor since they had insignificant effect on attitude. Also the research
found that the attitude toward mobile advertising is significantly directly linked to intention.

Bauer et al. (2005) used the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to measure attitude toward
acceptance of mobile advertising. Their model investigates the effect of Exciting Knowledge,
attitude toward adverting, perceived risk and perceived usefulness included entertainment,
information and social on the attitude toward mobile advertising. Also the model examines the
effect of attitude toward mobile advertising on the behavioural intention and social norms.
Bauer et al. (2005) found that the attitude toward mobile marketing strongly affect the
behavioural intention. Behavioural intention is slightly affected by social norms. Perceived
usefulness affected positively the attitude toward mobile advertising while perceived risk
affected negatively the attitude toward mobile advertising. The attitude toward advertising in
general has a slight effect on the attitude toward mobile advertising Standing et al. (2005) used

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unified model of user acceptance of IT to determine the factors that impact on the intention to
mobile marketing in Australia. The model suggests the intention as a predictor of behaviour with
no significance of attitude. In their model the benefits of receiving messages including
incentives, the effort of processing messages, social influence and permission affect the intention
which affect the usage behaviour. The research found that the benefits correlated positively to
intention. The social influence is significant to intention while the effort is not significantly
related to the intention. There is a positive reaction of the permission based marketing. The
intention affects positively the behaviour.

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2.2 Theoretical Framework
2.2.1 Theories of Mobile Service Adoption
The study of mobile marketing is based on several theoretical backgrounds and theories used in
mobile services. Studies on consumer attitudes toward mobile marketing, mobile advertising,
marketing messages and SMS advertising have used theories underlying mobile technology and
mobile service adoption. These mobile service adoption theories include: theory of reasoned
action (TRA) (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975), theory of planned behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991)
Innovation and Diffusion Theory (IDT) (Rogers, 1983) and technology acceptance model
(TAM) (Davies, 1989). These theories are the most frequently used and have been validated in
studies relating to online advertising, mobile commerce and mobile internet (Huang and
Symonds, 2009; Varnali and Toker, 2010). In addition to these, theories relating to consumer
behaviour such as learning theories and involvement theory are discussed below.

A. Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)

TRA was developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975, 1980) derived from social psychology,
particularly from previous research that started out as the theory of attitude, which led to the
study of attitude and behaviour. It is considered to be one of the most fundamental and
influential theories used broadly to predict and explain human behaviour in various domains
(Eagly and Chaiken, 1993; Chen et. al., 2002; Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, and Davis, 2003).
Research has shown that TRA can successfully predict and/or explain an individuals
behavioural intentions in a range of consumer-based contexts (Eagly and Chaiken, 1993;
Sheppard, Hartwick and Warshaw, 1988), including innovation adoption behaviours. The model
uses four factors, attitude, subjective norm, intention, and behaviour.

TRA remains an important model for measuring user behaviour (Wu and Liu, 2007; Wooley and
Eining, 2006; Song and Kim, 2006; Pak, 2000; Brewer, Blake, Rankin, and Douglas, 1999). It is
also one of the most systematic and widely used approaches to attitude conceptualisation and
measurement in marketing (Foxall, Goldsmith and Brown 2005). The basic assumption of TRA
is that individuals consciously decide on performing or not performing a specific behaviour and
they consider and evaluate various criteria concerning the behaviour before actually performing
it (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975). It suggests that behaviour is determined by behavioural intention,

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that is, if a person intends to do a behaviour then it is likely that the person will do it. In the
theory, behavioural intention measures individuals relative strength of intention to perform the
targeted behaviour (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). In turn, behavioural intention depends on
individuals attitude towards the behaviour and their subjective norm (Ajzen and Fishbein,
1980). The model 2.11 is shown below.

Model 2.11 Theory of Reasoned Action

Attitude toward the


Behaviour

Intention to Perform Behaviour


the Behaviour

Subjective
Norm

Source: Fishbein and Ajzen (1975).

In the model, attitude toward behaviour refers to an individuals positive or negative feelings
(evaluative affect) about performing the target behaviour (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975), while
subjective norm refers to the persons perception that most people who are important to him
think he should or should not perform the behaviour in question (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975).
Attitude consists of beliefs about the consequences of performing the behaviour multiplied by his
or her valuation of these consequences. Subjective norm is seen as a combination of perceived
expectations from relevant individuals or groups along with motivations to comply with these
expectations. The model links individual beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behaviour to describe
the process that mediates the observed relations between attitudes and behaviour (Fishbein and
Ajzen, 1975). TRA can predict consumers behaviour to perform or not perform in a situation
where the customer is solely and directly responsible for his own behaviour, and he is
considerate.
As one of the most systematic and extensively applied approach to attitude and behaviour
research, TRA has shown its strength in predicting the link between attitude towards the
behaviour and behavioural intention (Sheppard et al., 1988). However, this theory has been
criticised for its assumption that it is a complete theory and that any other factors will only have

94
indirect influences on behavioural intentions through the constructs of attitude and subjective
norms (Eagly and Chaiken, 1993). Additionally, in TRA: (1) behavioural intention cannot
change prior to performance of the behaviour; (2) the theory applies to behaviour that is under
the individuals volitional control and does not suit behaviours that may be mandated in some
way, or impeded by personal deficiencies and/or external obstacles (Ajzen, 1985).

B. Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)


Theory of planned behaviour was propounded by Ajzen (1980). Ajzens Theory of Planned
Behaviour (TPB) is an extension of Ajzen and Fishbeins TRA Model (1980;1985). TPB
includes the construct of perceived behavioural control, defined as the perceived ease or
difficulty of performing the behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) to overcome the original models limitation
in dealing with behaviours over which people have incomplete volitional control (Ajzen, 1985).
Ajzen (1991) revises TRA and proposes the inclusion of a third determinant of behavioural
intention; perceived behavioural control. According to Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB),
behaviour is determined by the intention to perform the behaviour. The behaviour itself is
determined by three factors: attitude toward the behaviour, subjective norm, and perceived
behavioural control (Mathieson, 1991). The model is shown below.

Model 2.12 Theory of Planned Behaviour

Attitude toward the


Behaviour

Subjective Intention to Perform Behaviour


Norm the Behaviour

Perceived Behavioural

Source: Ajzen (1991).


The TPB model, therefore, includes the constructs of attitude and subjective norm and perceived
behavioural control as factors that influence behavioural intentions. Perceived behavioural
control refers to an individuals perceptions of the existence, or nonexistence, of the resources,
skills, or opportunities required to use a system, or some feature of that system (Ajzen and
Madden, 1986). Ajzen (1991) shows in his TPB that attitude towards behaviour can be described

95
as an individuals favourable or unfavourable evaluation with using a service, while subjective
norm can be seen as the perceived social pressure to use or not to use this service. TPB extends
TRA to account for conditions where individuals do not have complete volitional control over
their behaviour (Taylor and Todd, 1995; Ajzen and Madden, 1986; Ajzen, 1991).

According to Ajzen (1991), the construct of perceived behavioural control is the aggregate effect
of two components. The first component is self-efficacy, which comes from Social Cognitive
Theory (Bandura, 1977, 1986) referring to individuals subjective evaluation of his or her ability
to perform the required task or behaviour. That is, it presents the conviction that one can
successfully execute the behaviour required to produce the outcome (Bandura, 1986). The
second component relates to facilitating conditions or situational factors. These involve an
individuals assessment of the importance of his or her resources in order to perform the
behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). Resource refers to the availability of circumstances that allow the
intention to be carried through to the actual behaviour (Ajzen, 1991).

C. Technology Acceptance Model

Theory of Acceptance Model (TAM) is grounded in the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein
and Ajzen, 1975) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). TAM was initially designed
by Davis (1989) to predict users acceptance of information technology and usage on the job.
The model is presented below.

Model 2.13 Technology Acceptance Model

Perceived
Usefulness
Intention to perform the Behaviour
behaviour
Perceived
ease of use

Source: Davis et al. (1989).

In Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), a users intention is explained by two major


perceptual factors: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Perceived usefulness is
defined as the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his
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or her job performance, while perceived ease of use is defined as the degree to which a person
believes that using a particular system would be free from effort (Davis, 1989). In a comparison
to TAM and TPB conducted by Mathieson (1991) TAM was found to be easier to apply and
have a slight empirical advantage over TPB but only supplies very general information on users
opinion about a system. However, it has been suggested that TAM may be too parsimonious and
that technology acceptance models should include a richer set of antecedent beliefs about
adopting an innovation, such as the work by Moore and Benbasat (1991). Additionally,
researchers argued that technology acceptance models should be supplemented and extended
through the inclusion of social variables such as subjective norms (Mathieson, 1991; Taylor and
Todd, 1995; Venkatesh and Davis, 2000).

D. Diffusion of Innovation Model Rogers (1995)


Diffusion of Innovation theory was propounded by Rogers (1983). Diffusion of Innovation
theory is a theory of communication and adoption of new ideas and technologies (Rogers, 1995).
Rogers (2005) defined innovation as an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an
individual or other unit of adoption. Rogers (1983) defined diffusion as the process by which
an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time and among the members of a
social system. In other words, the diffusion of innovation evaluates how, why, and at what rate
new ideas and technology are communicated and adopted. Rogers (20003) identified five factors
that strongly influence whether or not someone will adopt an innovation. These factors are:
relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, trial ability and observability.

The relative advantage is the degree to which the adopter perceives the innovation to represent
an improvement in either efficiency or effectiveness in comparison to existing methods. The
majority of studies have found that the relative advantage is significant (Teo and Tan, 2000;
Premkumar and Ramamurthy, 1995). Ilie et al. (2005) found that relative advantage was
significant for men, but not for women. The complexity is the degree to which the innovation is
difficult to understand or apply. The compatibility refers to the degree to which an innovation is
perceived as being consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential
adopters. Premkumar and Ramamurthy (1995) found that the greater the complexity the slower
the rate of adoption (Premkumar and Ramamurthy, 1995). Ilie et al. (2005) found that when
referring to instant messaging, women placed more importance on the ease of use than the men.

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Trialability refers to the capacity to experiment with the new technology before adoption.
Observability or visibility refers to the ease and relative advantage with which the technology
can be seen, imagined, or described to the potential adopter. Ilie et al., (2005) found another
variable, critical mass, to be the most significant predictor for the use of instant messaging.
According to Rogers most innovations diffuse over time in the shape of a cumulative S- shaped
curve (Rogers, 1995). Critical mass occur when enough individuals have adopted the innovation
and its further rate of adoption becomes self-sustaining. Essentially, the diffusion process for all
innovations consists of individuals talking to one another about the new idea, thus decreasing the
perceived uncertainty of the innovation.

Rogers identified four main elements that affected the adoption of innovation: (1) the innovation,
(2) communication channels, (3) time, and (4) the social system. The innovation is the new
product or service. The communication channel is the means by which messages are transmitted
from one individual to another. Time refers to the amount of time it takes to adopt the new
innovation. The social system is the set of interrelated units that are devoted to joint problem-
solving, to accomplish a common goal (Rogers, 1995).

Implication of Mobile Service Adoption Theories

The three theoretical models (the theory of reasoned action, the technology acceptance model,
and the theory of planned behaviour) have formed the basis for the theoretical framework of
mobile services (Varnali and Toker, 2010). Among the mentioned models, the technology
acceptance model (TAM) (Davis, 1989), appears to be the most cited and widely replicated
empirically (Agarwal and Prasad, 1999; Lin et al., 2007). The TAM proposes that an
individuals intention to adopt new technology is not only guided by attitude but also beliefs the
individual hold about its perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. The TAM includes five
concepts: perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude towards use, intention to use and
actual use.

The model, TRA includes four concepts: behavioural attitudes, subjective norm, usage intention
and actual use. The inclusion of subjective norm is a crucial addition to the model since it fills
the gap in TAM, the effect of social influences. Researchers have recently acknowledged the

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limitations of TAM and included additional aspects as components affecting behaviour, e.g
subjective norm, perceived enjoyment, facilitating conditions (Legris et al., 2003; Nysveen et al.,
2005). TAM will restrict the understanding of attitude towards mobile advertising. TRA
examines the influence of various beliefs affecting attitudes but TAM only limits the choices on
the two innovation belief components, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness.
Moreover, perceived ease of use is not applicable in receiving and reading mobile advertisements
as these actions do not involve new technology and difficulty in using the technology. Perceived
ease of use is defined as the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system
would be free from effort (Davies, 1989).

The two determinants of innovation; perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness are too
parsimonious, which makes the models ability to explain intention to use various form of
technological products or services limited to cognitive beliefs with no account of other factors that
may provide richer explanations of adoption behaviour in mobile services (Nysveen et al., 2005;
Venkatesh and Davis, 2000). Because of the personal, universal accessibility and multipurpose
characteristics, mobile technology are expected to be associated with a set of adoption drivers that
are different in part from those identified for traditional innovations (Hong and Tam, 2006; Nysveen
et al., 2005). Neglecting other factors determining innovation adoption and simply focusing on only
perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness may be inappropriate and may fall short of more
accurately explaining what consumers reaction will be in accepting mobile device as a platform for
marketing products and services (Hong and Tam, 2006).

Mobile advertisements has existed for some period of time and consumers have been accustomed
to receiving and reading it. It is very easy for general mobile phone user to receive and read
advertisements in their mobile phones. They only need to press a button to open and read the
advertised messages. Testing the effect of perceived ease of use on attitude seems redundant and
it would limit the understanding of consumers attitude towards mobile advertisements. Theory of
Innovation Diffusion predicts that media and interpersonal contacts provide information,
influence opinion and judgment. Innovation can be observed in four stages: invention, diffusion
through the social system, time and consequences (Rogers, 1995). Rogers suggested that there
are five adopter categories in the diffusion process; innovator, early adopter, early majority, late
majority and laggard. The diffusion theory has received criticism for relying too much on the

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innovators and early adopters to market services to consumers who may hold different value
perceptions and need to use the services (Moore, 1991).

The TPB was as an extension of TRA to account for conditions in which people do not have
complete control over their behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). Perceived control is defined as the
perception of a person of the ease or difficulty of performing the act of interest (Ajzen, 1991).
The concepts seems not suitable in this study because receiving and reading mobile
advertisements do not count for the additional variance, which is the degree of personal control
but behavioural beliefs and behavioural attitude.

Therefore, TRA was employed to study consumers attitude and predict their purchase bahviour
to receive and read mobile advertisements. TRA model can predict an individuals attitude,
subjective norm and their influences on intention and behaviour. Attitude, intention and
behaviour are eventually determined by an individuals beliefs. TRA has been used to study
consumer purchase intention and buying behaviour in marketing (Chan and Lau, 1998; Shimp
and Kavas, 1984)

2.2.2 Theories of Consumer Behaviour


A. Learning Theories
Generally, there are two approaches to the study of learning; the behavioural approach to
learning, and the cognitive approach to learning (Solomon et al., 1999; Schiffman et al., 2008).
According to the behavioural theorists, learning takes place in response to events/happenings in a
persons external environment (Schiffman et al., 2008). On the other hand, the cognitive theorists
believe that learning takes place as a result of a persons conscious and deliberate information
processing and storage activity (Solomon et al., 2010) .

a) Behavioural Learning Theory


The approach defines learning in terms of an association between stimulus and response, where
the stimulus is an external object/person/situation that a person senses and perceives, and
response is the behaviour of the person that occurs in reaction to the object/person/situation
(Schiffman et al., 2008).
According to Solomon et al. (1999), behavioural learning theories are based on the assumption
that:
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a) People learn to associate the stimulus and response.
b) They begin to relate the stimulus and response and they generalize the relationship, across
situations; whenever the stimulus occurs, there is a similar response.
c) Observable and predictable responses to specific external stimuli are reflective and symbolic
of learning having taken place.

These behavioural theories are also referred to as stimulus-response theories (Solomon et al.,
1999). Behavioural theorists do not concentrate on the dynamics of the learning process. Their
major concern is on viewing learning as a response to events/happenings in a persons external
environment (Schiffman et al., 2008). The main proponents of this approach was Pavlov, who
proposed the theory of classical conditioning, and Skinner, who proposed the theory of
operant/instrumental conditioning (Solomon et al., 1999). While they both spoke of the
relationship between the stimulus and response, they differed on the cause and effect
relationship; while Pavlov believed in the Stimulus leading to Response relationship Skinner
spoke of Response leading to Stimulus relationship (Solomon et al., 1999).

I. Theory of Classical Conditioning


Proposed by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian psychologist, in the 1920s, this pioneering work was based
on the famous experiments that were conducted on dogs. According to (Solomon et al., 1999),
Pavlov believed the following:
a) All living beings are passive in nature; they can be taught how to behave through repetition or
conditioning; and,
b) learning occurs as a repeated connection/association between stimulus and response
(Stimulus Response) or (S - R).
c) learning takes place through conditioning; as such classical conditioning also came to be
known as respondent conditioning. And also that repetition increases strength of associations
and reduces forgetfulness but over time may result in advertising wearout.

d) learning becomes conditioned when a stimulus that is paired with another stimulus that leads
to a known response serves to produce the same response when used alone.

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According Solomon et al. (1999), classical conditioning occurs when a person learns to relate
an unrelated stimulus with a particular behavioural response that was previously elicited by a
related stimulus. Schiffman et al. (2008) noted that there are three basic fundamental concepts to
classical conditioning namely: repetition, stimulus generalisation, and stimulus discrimination.
Consumers respond to learning via classical conditioning when:

a) The level of perceived risk is low (and cognitive effort is not required)
b) Products are low on differentiation
c) Purchases are routine; good for convenience goods and impulse items.

An Assessment of the Theory


Pavlovs theory was a pioneering piece of work, and has contributed immensely to the theory of
learning (Solomon et al., 1999). Pavlov proposed that living entities are passive beings who react
with predictable responses to a stimuli after a number of repetitions and trials. But consumption
patterns and consumption behaviour of an individual is much wider, broader and less predictable
(Schiffman et al., 2008). Thus, it has been argued that the theory is inadequate, in the sense that
learning is not just a reflexive process; there is always an element of cognition (Schiffman et al.,
2008). This cognition, leads to a learning of associations among the stimulus and response that
allows a living entity to anticipate the environment and react accordingly. Further, the neo-
Pavlovian theorists believe that consumers are active entities rather than passive ones, who are
information seekers who could relate this to extensive problem solving or purchases made after
careful evaluation of alternatives (Schiffman et al., 2008). However, what still misses out is the
impact of pleasant experiences and rewards on subsequent purchase, something that falls within
the theory of operant/instrumental conditioning (Solomon et al., 1999).

2. Operant or Instrumental Conditioning

Operant Conditioning was attributed to the work of Burrhus Frederic Skinner. An American
psychologist of the 1950s, he emphasized on the role that consequences have to play on the
process of learning. He spoke of a response-stimulus connection (Response Stimulus) or (R-
S), rather than the S-R connection as proposed by Pavlov.
According to Solomon et al.,(1999), instrumental conditioning occurs as the individual learns to
perform behaviours that produce positive outcomes and to avoid those that yield negative

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outcomes. Skinner concluded that a living entity, be it animals or human beings, act
instrumentally; they would act out certain behaviour that would make them feel rewarded and get
them what they want; on the other hand, they would avoid those acts of behaviour that would be
punishing and not get them what they want (Schiffman et al., 2008). The operant theory is based
on the assumption that: behaviour is a function of its consequences.

According to Solomon et al. (1999), operant conditioning can occur in three different ways
namely: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment. The operant or
instrumental conditioning occurs when person learns to act out behaviours that are positively
reinforced, and avoids those acts of behaviour that lead to punishment or yield negative
reinforcement (Schiffman et al. 2008). In such cases, consumers tend to form attitudes based on
the reinforcement that they receive (Solomon et al., 1999). Schiffman et al. (2008) emphasized
that the acts of purchase and consumption are followed by a rewarding experience in terms of
consumer satisfaction, the development of a positive attitude towards the product or service
offering or the brand, and those which are followed by dissatisfaction and punishment, will be
less likely to occur again.
Assessment of the Theory
The theory of operant or instrumental conditioning highlighted the impact that reinforcement has
on learning (Schiffman et al., 2008). However, it has been argued that apart from reinforcement,
there are other elements that lead to learning, like for example, people also learn by observing
others, copying others and modeling (Schiffman et al., 2008).

b) Cognitive Learning Theory


Cognitive theorists believe that a persons learning is a complex mental process (Solomon et al.,
1999). Cognitive learning place as a result of a conscious and deliberate information processing
and storage activity that takes place within living beings (Schiffman et al., 2008). Solomon et al.
(1999) emphasized that cognitive learning focuses on the gathering and processing of
information, storage in memory and final retrieval of knowledge from a persons memory. Thus,
cognitive theorist is on the thinking rather than the doing of the behavioural scientists as
identified by (Schiffman et al., 2008). According to Schiffman and Kanuk (2010), attitudes in
cognitive theory are formed on the basis of information that a person collects about a product or
service offering or a brand from his environment. Such information could be specific to the
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product or service, or may be incidental, that gets stored in his memory. The consumer forms
positive or negative attitudes based on information gathering, storage and retention, and on the
basis of knowledge and beliefs (Schiffman et al. 2008). In addition, Schiffman and Kanuk,
(2010), noted that marketers are to provide knowledge about their product and service offerings,
through the various mass and personalized media or through their salespersons and dealers.
However, the marketing information should focus on few relevant features of the brand/product
rather than providing excessive information that could lead to perceptual blocking of the
consumer (Schiffman et al., 2008) .

1. Involvement Theory

Based on the cognitive theory, the involvement theory stems out from the body of research
referred to as the split-brain theory or hemispherical lateralization (Solomon et al., 1999).
According to the split-brain theory, the human brain can be divided into the right and left
hemispheres, each of which specializes with different kinds of information (Schiffman et al.
2008) .

The right side is emotional, intuitive, metaphoric and impulsive; it concerns itself more with non-
cognitive, non-verbal, pictorial (images, colors) and audio-visual information; it deals more with
situations of low-involvement and passive learning, where lesser information evaluation is
required (Solomon et al., 1999). The right brain processing falls in line with classical
conditioning, and the person learns via repetition (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2010).

The left side of the brain is rational, logical and realistic; it concerns itself with cognitive
information in form of alphabets, letters and words in print; it deals with cognitive activities like
reading, speaking and writing; it concerns itself more with situations of high-involvement and
active learning, where more of cognition is required (Solomon et al., 1999).

Assessment of the Theory


The involvement theory, in particular the split-brain theory has been critically assessed by
researchers (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2010). And it has been argued that the processing of
information takes place together and the two sides of the brain do not act independently
(Schiffman et al., 2008). It was further stated that some consumers have the ability to use both
the right and left hemispheres together, and they are integrated processors (Schiffman et al.,
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2008). It is also been argued that despite hemispherical specialization, both the right and the left
sides of the brain are capable of both kinds of involvement, high and low; the left side of the
brain specializes in high and low cognition, the right side in high and low affect (Schiffman et
al., 2008). Nevertheless, three theories emerge from within the cognitive theories, especially with
reference to high and low involvement purchase situations, these are; routes to persuasion theory,
elaboration likelihood model and the social judgment theory (Solomon et al., 1999).

a) Route to Persuasion Theory

The theory holds that consumers attach a degree of relevance to a purchase situation, which
could take the form of a high involvement purchase or a low involvement purchase; consumers
put in a lot of effort in information gathering, processing and storage when the situation is one of
high involvement; the amount of cognitive effort that is put is much more when a purchase is of
relevance to them and the involvement is high (Schiffman et al., 2008). This is in contrast to
situations of low involvement, where the purchase is of low relevance, and therefore, information
processing and evaluation is much low (Solomon et al., 1999). In addition, the central route to
persuasion, works in case of high involvement purchase situations, and the peripheral route to
persuasion, works in case of low involvement purchases (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2010). Drawing
a parallel from the right split-brain theory and from high and low involvement media strategy,
the central route basis itself on cognition, rationality and logic, verbal cues and print media
(Solomon et al. 1999). The peripheral route, on the other hand, basis itself on affect, emotions
and intuition, non-verbal cues and the audio-visual media (Schiffman et al., 2008).

b) Elaboration Likelihood Model


The Elaboration Likelihood Model bases itself in line with what has been said about high and
low involvement as well as the route to persuasion theory. According to this theory, the degree of
relevance that a person attaches or the level of involvement that a person holds, determines
which route to persuasion would be more effective (Schiffman et al., 2008); in cases of high-
involvement, where a consumer would put in more cognitive effort, the consumer would follow
the central route to persuasion and focus on the message content (Solomon et al., 1999); on the
other hand, in cases of low involvement, the consumer would follow the peripheral route to
persuasion and focus on the message context, excitement, entertainment and fun the consumer
hope to derive from the product/service (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2010).

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c) Social Judgment Theory
The theory holds that, it is the degree of involvement that determines how an individual would
process information; when faced with alternatives, when highly involved with an
issue/object/person/situation/product and when there are very few alternative opinions (Solomon
et al. 1999). According to Schiffman et al. (2008), such people are said to possess narrow
latitude of acceptance and wide latitude of rejection. Schiffman and Kanuk (2010) emphasized
that highly involved individuals will be assimilating in nature, i.e., they would readily interpret
and accept a message that is in line with and congruent with what they believe in and what they
support (assimilating effect).
Implication of Consumer Behaviour Theories

According to Schiffman et al. (2008); Schiffman and Kanuk (2010), Operant Conditioning
theory, contributes to the understanding of consumer behaviour in the following light.
Consumers respond to learning via instrumental conditioning when:

a) Trial can be attempted before purchase


b) Purchases are linked to desirable affective experiences
c) There is higher involvement and greater cognitive activity

Schiffman et al. (2008) noted that this theory emphasis the reason why mobile marketing
communicators usually include incentive to their mobile marketing messages in response to a
call to action or text and win in form of free downloads of ringtones, free SMS and MMS, free
air time and free MB data for browsing. Also, the excitement and fun in participating in mobile
competition and lottery leaves a pleasant experiences in the mind of the consumer thereby
increasing their reinforcement to engage more in such programmes (Solomon et al., 2010).

However, there is much more that exists beyond the purview of rewards and reinforcements.
People do not always look at rewards or the opportunity costs. They often make rational
purchase decisions irrespective of rewards (Solomon et al., 2010). They also act out of emotional
pressures. They are also driven out of social forces, as most consumers of mobile marketing
product/services are subjected to the perception of the friends, peer group and families before
buying or taking part in the mobile communication programmes or products (Schiffman et al.

106
2008); they would want to imitate the behaviour of their parents, friends, colleagues, reference
group, and buy certain brands or shop from certain stores.

Cognitive learning focuses on the gathering and processing of information, storage in memory
and final retrieval of knowledge from a persons memory (Solomon et al., 1999). A consumer
first gathers information from the mobile communication platform and then processes it. This
information gathering and processing depends on the complexity of information as well
consumers cognitive ability (Solomon et al., 1999). Cognitive ability differs from person to
person, so does imagery. Imagery is a perceptual process that enable formation of mental images
within a person; these images relate to a stimulus and influence a persons ability to recall
information (Schiffman et al., 2008). Once the information has been processed, the consumer
organizes it by associating it with various other cues, and creates mental images, and finally
stores it in his memory (Schiffman et al., 2008). Memory involves the process of gathering,
processing and storing information over time so that it will be available when required (Solomon
et al. 1999). As and when required to solve problems, the information is retrieved this from his
memory (Schiffman et al., 2008).

The process is continuous; on a regular basis, the person is confronted with new inputs that he
integrates with the existing knowledge that he already has in his memory; this may require
addition/deletion/modification of existing information (Schiffman et al., 2008). Further more,
consumers are exposed to information about new product/services or changes in existing
products/services on a day to day basis via their mobile phones in form of SMS messages;
marketers also constantly update them about their brands like the attributes, features, price
reduction and promotions, and comparison with other brands (Solomon et al., 2010). In addition,
consumers are informed about any change that is bought about by any of the 4Ps; viz., product
attributes, benefits, features, price, discounts, availability etc. The consumer also forms mental
images about the various brands through imagery, which leads to easy recall later on (Schiffman
et al. 2008).

The involvement theory has implications for selection of a media strategy and in terms of
consumer behaviour (Solomon et al., 2010). Non-verbal and pictorial cues trigger right brain
processing, and impact recall and familiarity. With involvement being low; people passively
process and store nonverbal, pictorial information (Solomon et al., 1999), as TV being an audio-

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visual medium, watching it is regarded as a right-brain activity, and a low-involvement medium
(Solomon et al., 1999).

Verbal or cognitive cues trigger left brain processing and impact evaluation, recall and
familiarity (Solomon et al., 1999). With involvement being high; people passively process and
store verbal and written information (Schiffman et al., 2008). Thus, the mobile phone and other
pint media type (i.e. newspapers, magazines, journals, brochures etc) is regarded as a high-
involvement media, and reading and comprehending is regarded as a left-brain activity (Solomon
et al., 2010). If a consumer resorts to information processing for purchasing a product then he is
considered to be high on involvement; if not, he is said to be low on involvement (Schiffman et
al., 2008).

For low-involvement purchases, marketing communication through TV is the right media;


consumers learn via repetition, i.e. exposure to the same message over TV again and again
(Solomon et al., 1999). On the other hand, in cases of high-involvement purchases, the mobile
media acts as right choice for media selection (Solomon et al., 2010). The consumer has access
to information on his mobile phone, where he can go through the information again and again
and process it better for product/brand evaluation and choice.

According to Schiffman et al. (2008), the central route to persuasion operates in cases of high
involvement purchases. Solomon et al. (2010) noted that high involvement purchases require
cognitive processing, as such, mobile communicators messages should be designed based on
logic and rationality. Stating the product attributes, features and benefits to be gained. On the
other hand, the peripheral route to persuasion operates also in cases of low involvement
purchases, which do not require cognitive processing, as consumers are less motivated to think
(Solomon et al. 1999). Schiffman et al. (2008) emphasized that this will require mobile
communicators to send marketing messages in form of SMS: advertisements, product
information, sales promotion, competition and lottery based on emotional appeals, social
appeals, fun, fantasy and humor to mobile phone users.

According to Solomon et al. (2010), the social judgment theory relates to mobile
communication, as consumers, who are highly involved with a product category (text and win
games, mobile competition and lottery, mobile poll voting, are narrow categorizers) they find

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very few media/ platform to engage in activities like this. They are likely to be brand loyal and
would tend to patronize selected brands, based on their past experiences and resultant attitudes
(Solomon et al., 2010). On the contrary, uninvolved consumers are broad categorizers, and
would find many brands as acceptable (Solomon et al., 1999). They are essentially brand
switchers and not interested in such mobile products/service (Schiffman et al., 2008).

2.3 Empirical Framework.


2.3.1 Factors Affecting Consumers Attitude towards Mobile Marketing

A survey with 143 respondents in mainland china found that personalization affected attitude
towards mobile marketing positively (Xu et al., 2008). A British study showed that young
respondents agreed that personalized mobile commerce messages were interesting and useful
(Leek and Christodoulides, 2009). A study about website interactivity showed that as the level of
personalized messages increased, the responses from the internet users were enhanced (Song and
Zinkhan, 2008). Personalized advertising would enhance consumer satisfaction (Rao and
Minakais, 2003).

Scharl et al. (2005) indicate that there exist positive relationship between SMS personalization
and consumer acceptance of this message. In addition, Xu (2006) empirically found that
personalization is significant factor that influences consumer attitude towards SMS advertising.
Findings from literature shows that personalization of marketing message content to end users
fields of interest will have a significant influence on the consumer as such message will be
perceived as a valuable service (Haghirian et al.,2005; Merisavo et al., 2007; Vatanparast, 2007;
Xu et al., 2008). For example, Bauer et al., (2005) found that consumers developed a positive
attitude toward mobile marketing if marketing messages were creatively designed, interactive
and proved a high information value. Personalization of marketing messages has been found to
have a significant positive influence on consumers attitudes in existing literature.

According to Haghirian et al., (2005) findings, complex mobile advertising message can cause
irritation among consumers, and this disturbance decrease the value of the advertising for
consumers and may cause negative reaction toward mobile advertising. This finding has been
previously confirmed by Tsang et al. (2004) who asserted that there is a negative relation

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between attitude toward mobile advertising and irritation. Timerelated information is closely
linked with the location dimension.

Study of relevant research found that perceived advertisement credibility was among the first
constructs that were empirically tested and found to exert influence on consumers attitudes
towards the advertising (MacKenzie and Lutz, 1989). Taking this point further, research
conducted by various researchers has identified that there is a positive correlation between
consumer perceptions of the credibility of an advertisement and consumer attitudes towards the
advertisement (Brackett and Carr, 2001; Dahln and Nordflt, 2004). If consumers do not find
the ad to be credible, this will negatively affect their attitude towards the ad (Dahln and
Nordflt, 2004). Moving into the credibility concept within the mobile marketing context, it was
found that consumers perceptions of the credibility value of SMS advertisements are positively
correlated to consumers overall attitudes towards SMS advertisements (Friman, 2010;
Haghirian and Madlberger, 2004; Tsang et al., 2004; Waldt, et al., 2009).

Previous studies show that consumers utilize SMS on the basis of fun and entertainment (Grant
and ODonohoe, 2007; Haghirian and Madlberger, 2005; Waldt et al., 2009). For instance, an
empirical study conducted by Tsang et al. (2004) shows that entertainment is a significant factor
affecting respondents attitudes toward mobile advertising. Moreover, it is found that
consumers perceived entertainment utility of mobile marketing has a positive influence on
consumers perceptions of the overall utility of mobile marketing, which in turn has a positive
influence on consumer attitudes towards mobile marketing (Bauer et al., 2005).

Previous research demonstrated that informativeness of the advertising message in the traditional
and mobile context, was found to be among the strongest influential factor on consumers
perceptions and attitudes (Bauer et al., 2005; Ducoffe, 1996; Haghirian et al., 2005; Luong,
2007; Merisavo and Kajalo, 2007; Oh and Xu, 2003; Siau and Shen, 2003; Sultan et al., 2010;
Tsang et al., 2004; Xu, Liao, and Li, 2007). For example, Oh and Xo (2003) found that the
advertising message is perceived as valuable as long as it provides information and thus creates
some benefit for the consumer. Taking this point further, Haghirian et al., (2005) found that the
higher the informativeness of mobile advertising messages, the higher the perceived advertising
value of the consumer.

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According to Tsang et al. (2004), perceived informativeness of mobile advertising has a direct
positive effect on attitude toward mobile advertising. Consistent with this view, other studies
conducted by Bauer et al. (2005); Merisavo and Kajalo (2007) identified information value as
one of the strongest drivers of mobile advertising acceptance. They further argued that
consumers develop a positive attitude toward mobile advertising, which in turn leads to the
behavioural intention to use mobile services only if mobile advertising messages are providing a
high information value.

Researchers have evaluated relevance of content of SMS advertisements from two viewpoints:
firstly, sending SMS adverts relevant to end users field of interest will have a significant
influence on perceiving SMS advertising as valuable service (Haghirian et al., 2005; Merisavo et
al., 2007; Vatanparast, 2007; Xu et al., 2007). Secondly, SMS adverts will provide more value
for end users if they are received at the appropriate times and location (Merisavo et al., 2007;
Carroll et al., 2007; Vatanparast, 2007; Xu et al., 2008); however, there are few empirical
researches do not support the second viewpoint (Muk and Babin, 2006; Drossos, Giaglis,
Lekakos, Kokkinaki, and Stavraki, 2007).

Other researchers such as, Carroll et al. (2007); Pagnani (2004) and Nasco and Bruner (2008)
found that consumers were more likely to accept the messages when the content was relevant to
them. In particular, it is suggested that the relevancy of SMS ads is found to have a significant
positive influence on consumers attitudes towards SMS advertising.
Several studies indicated that subjective or social norms influence consumer acceptance of SMS
advertising. For instance, in their empirical studies, Mansour (2012) found that subjective norms
which were positively and significantly related to attitude toward mobile advertising, whereas
Bauer et al. (2005) implied that mobile marketing social norms have only a slight direct
influence on the behavioural intention towards it. Another study conducted by Soroa-Koury and
Yang (2010) demonstrates that misperceptions of social norms predicted consumers' perceived
usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU) of mobile advertising, where both PU and
PEOU are critical variables predicting consumers' attitude towards SMS advertising.

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2.3.2 The Role of Age and Level of Education

Other surveys have also found that there is a tendency for differences to only exist between the
youngest age group (under 20) and the oldest age group (55 or over) (Hyvnen and Repo, 2005).
Interestingly, the panel data obtained by Carlsson, Hyvnen, Repo and Walden (2005) reveals
that gender and education are strong determinants of mobile service usage. The panel data
showed that males are more active in using mobile services such as mobile e-mail and
personalized information services than females, except in using MMS, ringtones and logos. The
impact of education was not a very strong determinant. A series of survey studies conducted on
behalf of the National Consumer Research Centre in Finland found that income seems not to be
related to mobile service usage (Hyvnen and Repo, 2005).

2.3.3 Perceived Trust, Risk, Privacy and Permission.

Perceived risk has been identified by many researchers as a significant contributor to negative
attitudes toward mobile advertising acceptance. Bauer et al. (2005) confirmed that perceived risk
has a negative influence on the attitude toward mobile marketing. The risk associated with
mobile marketing was perceived mainly as data security. Users of digital communication
devices, like mobile phones, have concerns about viruses, spam, unauthorized access of data, and
tracking of usage patterns. Mitchell (1999) found that consumers risk perception can determine
this behaviour. This is especially true when adopting or using a new technology because
consumers often lack the knowledge or experience needed and find themselves in situations of
high risk. The result can be a refusal to try new innovations or, in the case of mobile phones, to
accept mobile ads.

Van et al. (2005) looked at two antecedents of attitude toward using a mobile information
service: perceived risk and context relevance. They found there was a significant negative
influence of perceived risk on utilitarian value, although none on hedonic value. Carol et al.
(2007) also identified and demonstrate four factors that have a significant impact on mobile
advertising acceptance: Permission, content, wireless service provider control, and delivery of
message. The implication of these is that those who considered the service to be a greater risk
also perceived it to be less useful. In consumer research, perceived risk has been defined as the

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users subjective function of the magnitude of adverse consequences and the probabilities that
these consequences may occur if the product is acquired (Dowling and Staelin, 1994).

Maneesoonthorn and Fortin (2006) studied the role of permission and control in a mobile
advertising context. The results indicate that consumers in general have a neutral attitude toward
mobile marketing but they support permission-based advertising. In addition, the results revealed
differences regarding message control between two mobile user groups; heavy and light users.
Heavy users of the mobile phone demand more ability to control incoming text messages where
as light users demand less control. The authors hypothesize that as light users receive less text
messages they are less inclined to be irritated by text message advertising. Heavy users, on the
other hand, may wish to receive more precisely targeted text message advertisements.
Leppniemi (2008) hypothesizes that permission to receive mobile advertising messages and
privacy of personal data are factors which influence consumer intentions to receive mobile
advertising. The results of a survey study conducted in Finland confirmed that a negative
relationship exists between permission and intention. This indicates that there is a strong need for
prior permission.

2.3.4 Consumer Attitude and Behaviour towards Marketing Messages.


The study of attitude toward marketing communication programmes is an important concept in
research on marketing and information systems (Tsang and Liang, 2004). Attitudes toward
advertisements are consumers inclinations to react to a particular message in a positive or
negative way (Chakrabarty, 2005). In the same light, attitudes toward marketing messages are
the consumers propensity to react positively or negatively to specific mobile adverts
(Chowdhury, 2006).

Attitudes are mental conditions used by people to understand and react to situations,
circumstances objects, or ideas (Chowdhury et. al., 2006). Attitudes toward advertisements are
consumers` inclinations to react to a particular message in a positive or negative way
(Chakrabarty and Yelkur, 2005). Positive result has been found by most of the researchers
(Calfee et. al., 1993; Rotzoll et. al., 1986). Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) in their study, states that
attitude affects behaviour through intention. Tsang and Liang (2004) by using this theory,

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claimed that there was a positive relationship between attitude and intention for consumers to
accept mobile advertisements and that intention affects consumer behaviours significantly.

One of the theories used to explain the intentions for SMS advertising via the mobile phone is
Rogerss Innovation Diffusion Theory. Rogers (2003) proposes that adoption behaviours are
influenced by beliefs related to five attributes of innovation. These include relative advantage,
compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability and are used to explain user adoption
and the decision- making process. In addition, the Innovation Diffusion Theory predicts the
implementation of new technological innovations and clarifies how these variables interact (Wu
and Wang, 2005).

The other theory used to explain consumer attitudes toward SMS advertising is the Theory of
Reasoned Action (TRA). Attitude, intention, and behaviour are its three major constructs. TRA
links individual beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behaviour to describe the psychological process
that mediates the observed relations between attitudes and behaviour (as cited in Tsang et al.,
2004). The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) theorizes that an individual behavioural
intention to use a system is determined by two beliefs, namely, perceived usefulness and
perceived ease of use (Vankatesh and Davis, 2000).

In the literature there are distinctive studies about attitudes toward SMS advertising. Muk (2007)
tries to examine the differences between American young consumers and their Korean
counterparts regarding the interest in accepting SMS advertising via a mobile phone. In the
research, Muk (2007) tries to explain the acceptance of wireless adverts by discussing related
attitudes and subjective norms. For attitudes, he uses Rogers (2003) five innovation attributes as
behavioural beliefs. According to Muk (2007) findings, consumer beliefs about attributes
associated with successful innovations significantly relate to attitudes toward acceptance of SMS
advertising. These attitudes are predictors of the intention to adopt/accept SMS advertising.
Okozaki, Katsura and Nishiyama (2007) argue that trust in mobile advertising directly and
positively affects attitudes toward mobile advertising. Their findings support the claim that the
effects of mobile advertising trust on the attitudes toward mobile advertising is both significant
and strong.

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Ducoffes (1996); Bracket and Carrs (2001) models have been adopted for mobile advertising
by Tsang et al., (2004). Tsang et al. (2004) use entertainment, informativeness, irritation,
credibility, and permission as variables that affect attitudes. Entertainment, informativeness, and
credibility have positive correlations with attitudes, while irritation has a negative correlation.
Additionally consumers generally have negative attitudes toward mobile advertising unless they
have specifically consented to receiving it; there is a direct relationship between consumer
attitudes and consumer behaviour. According to Tsang et al. (2004), permission is an important
variable and it is not a good idea to send SMS advertisements without prior permission from the
related target audience.

Carol et al. (2007) identify and demonstrate four factors that have a significant impact on mobile
advertising acceptance: Permission, content, wireless service provider control, and delivery of
message. Wu and Wang (2004) present and extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM),
which integrates innovation diffusion theory, perceived risk, and cost into the TAM to
investigate what determines user mobile commerce (MC) acceptance. They use perceived risk,
cost, compatibility, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use as variables that affect
behavioural intention to use and actual use in their model. According to their findings all
variables except perceived ease of use significantly affect user behavioural intent. Among these
findings, compatibility has the most significant influence.

Stevenson et al. (2000) found that a negative attitude towards advertising was related with a
negative consumer behavioural response towards the advertising, while Wolin et al. (2002) found
that consumers, who held positive attitude towards Internet advertising, were more likely to
respond favourably towards the advertisements. Mehta (2000) argued that consumers who had
positive attitudes towards advertising were more likely to be persuaded by advertising. Support
for this view is provided by Korgaonkar and Wolin (2002) finding that positive attitudes towards
Internet advertising were more likely to foster higher behavioural intentions.

Consumer attitude toward mobile marketing has been a popular topic among several researchers
with a particular focus on SMS advertising (Tsang et al., 2004; Xu, 2007; Haghirian and
Madlberger, 2005; Haghirian et al., 2008; Brackett et al., 2001; Dickinger et al., 2004). For
example, Haghirian and Madlberger (2005) found that attitude toward mobile advertising and

115
advertising value are strongly related to message content as entertainment, informativeness and
credibility have positive effect and irritation has a negative effect

In a more recent study, Xu (2006) found that the entertainment, credibility and personalization
are the important factors that affect the attitude toward mobile advertising, while informativeness
and irritation are not important factor. Other studies have demonstrated that there is a direct
relationship between consumer attitudes and consumer behaviour within the SMS advertising
context (Haghirian and Madlberger, 2005; Tsang et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2007). This view was
further supported by Lee and Juns (2007) findings that consumer attitudes are directly linked to
behavioural intentions for mobile advertising, such as getting free coupons, calling back, sending
text messages, visiting specific shops, and allowing messages. Okozaki (2004) suggests that
attitudes toward wireless ads have two antecedents - perceived infotainment and perceived
irritation. These results (Okazaki, 2004) show that perceived infotainment positively influences
attitude towards wireless ads, while perceived irritation negatively influence attitude toward
wireless ads

Pagani (2004) suggests a model of consumer adoption of 3G mobile media services and
empirically tests it in the Italian market. She states that perceived usefulness, ease of use, price,
and speed of use are the most important determinants of adoption of multimedia mobile services,
in that order (Pagani, 2004). The results of this study also indicate that the importance of
determinants differs by age groups or segments (Pagani, 2004). According to Okazaki,
Katsukura and Nishiyama (2007), the perceptions of both the mobile media and the content of
advertising affect a mobile campaign's recall. On the other hand, Drossos et al. (2007)
investigated the significance of a number of factors associated with SMS advertising
effectiveness through an experimental study. Their findings indicate that incentive, interactivity,
appeal, product involvement, and attitude toward SMS advertising in general directly influence
attitude toward the advertisement, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention (Drossos et
al., 2007).

Meanwhile, Tsang et al. (2004) suggest that consumers generally have negative attitudes toward
mobile advertising unless they have specifically consented to it, and there is a direct relationship
between consumer attitudes and consumer behaviour. Consumers are more likely to trust

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messages coming from their service providers than anywhere else, and so it is important that
service providers offer a high level of filtering and protection as reassurance for their users
(Carrol et al., 2007). Chowdhury, Parvin, Weitenberner, and Becker (2006) suggest that
consumers will not be annoyed, and there is a fair possibility that they will gradually like the
mobile advertisements if mobile advertisers can present mobile ads pleasingly, with appropriate
information. Furthermore, credibility, a construct in their study, has been found to be the most
significant of the factors affecting respondents attitudes toward mobile advertising
(Chowdhuryet al., 2006). The table below shows the findings of research studies carried out on
consumer attitude towards mobile marketing.

Table 2.5 Summary of research findings on consumer attitude towards mobile marketing
Research Topic Authors Research Finding
Determinants of Consumer Chia-Ling et. al. (2012) This study found that infotainment and credibility are
Perceptions toward Mobile key factors predicting advertising value among
Advertising A Comparison Austrians and the Japanese. However, our findings
between Japan and Austria show that Japanese customers are more irritated by
mobile advertising than are Austrian respondents.
Attitude towards mobile Punyatoya and Durgesh Authors found that message credibility, consumer
advertising: A study of Indian (2011) perception of message customization, message content,
Consumers and consumer ability to use mobile phone positively
influence their attitude towards acceptance of mobile
advertising. But consumer inertia negatively influence
consumer mobile advertising acceptance
Generation Y Attitudes Koo (2010) Entertainment, informativeness, irritation and
Toward Mobile Advertising credibility are effective factors on consumers attitudes
toward mobile advertising in clothes industry and such
factors are different between American and Korean
respondents
An empirical study of factors Koury and Yang (2010) The study found that perceived usefulness (PU) of
affecting use of mobile mobile advertising predicted attitude toward mobile
advertising advertising, whereas perceived ease of use (PEOU) of
mobile advertising did not predict attitude toward
mobile advertising. Lastly attitude towards mobile
advertising significantly predicted the intention to
adopt mobile advertising
Entertainment and Informativeness Blanco et. al. (2010) Firstly the results suggest that the entertainment and
as Precursory Factors of Successful informational aspects perceived by consumers in
Mobile Advertising Messages mobile advertising affect their attitudes. Secondly there
is an impact of general opinion about advertising on
mobile attitudes
Effective factors on mobile Rabiee and Khoshelhan Perceived usefulness and ease of use are factors which
advertising acceptance (2009) can impact customers' attitude toward mobile
Table 2.5 Contd. advertising
Mobile advertising ; Sadeghvaziri (2008) Consumers generally have positive attitudes toward
consumer attitude and mobile advertising, and personalization and monetary
effective factors in creating benefit of mobile advertising have positive affect in
positive attitude creating positive attitude toward mobile advertising.

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Costumer attitude toward Haghirian and Madlberger Users attitude toward mobile advertising is negative
advertising via mobile devices. An (2005) and ads value and message content have the most
empirical investigation among impact on the attitude
Austrian users
An exploration of texting Maneesoonthern and Fortin Respondents have negative attitudes toward mobile
behaviour and attitudes toward (2004) advertising and requesting permission has important
permission-based advertising impact on users tendency for receiving mobile
in new Zealand advertising
Consumer Attitudes Toward Mobile Tsang et al. (2004) Consumers generally have negative attitudes toward
Advertising: An Empirical Study mobile advertising unless they have specifically
consented to it and there is a direct relationship
between consumer attitudes and consumer behaviour.
Attitudes of young Consumers Vander et al. (2009) Consumers perceptions of the entertainment value,
towards SMS Advertising informativeness and credibility of SMS advertisements
are positively correlated to consumers attitudes. Also
consumers perceptions of the irritation aspect of SMS
advertisement is negatively correlated with consumers
attitudes
Text Message Advertising: Rettie et al. (2005) The study found out that interest, relevance and
Response Rates and Branding monetary incentives were the main reasons that
Effects encouraged consumer acceptance to test message
advertising.
Consumer Perceptions and Attitudes Carroll et al. (2007) Permission, control, content, delivery and wireless
towards SMS Advertising: Recent service provider control are the main determinants
Evidence from New Zealand behind consumer acceptance of SMS advertising
Wireless Advertising Effectiveness: Anderson and Nilsson The study found out that SMS advertising had a
Evaluation of an SMS Advertising (2000) positive impact on increasing brand awareness and
Trial. purchase intention.
Driving Consumer Acceptance of Bauer et al. (2005) The study found that consumers who were more
Mobile Marketing. familiar with mobile communications perceived the use
of mobile marketing services less difficult compared to
consumers who were unfamiliar.
An Investigation and Conceptual Dickinger et al. (2004) The study found that advertising value and content are
Model of SMS Marketing. the main factors that influence the acceptance of SMS
ads concluded that the fear of spam had a strong
negative influence on customers' attitudes to accept
SMS advertising. Also, sending games and prizes to
the target groups mobile phones was a successful way
to attract and keep customers.
Prioritization of Factors Affecting Javid et al. (2012) The study confirmed that all four factors of SMS
Consumers Attitudes toward characteristics (i.e., entertainment, informativeness,
Mobile Advertising irritation, and credibility) affect customers attitude and
Table 2.5 Contd. among them entertainment is one of the most effective
factors.
Mobile Media Use And Its Impact Jong and Sangmi (2007) The study found that mobility, convenience and
On Consumer Attitudes Toward multimedia service were positively related to attitudes
Mobile Advertising. toward mobile advertising, which in turn lead to
favourable behavioural intentions.
Consumer Attitude toward Mobile Chowdhury et al. (2006) The study found that when mobile advertisers
Advertising in an Emerging Market presented mobile adverts that are pleasingly, with
appropriate information, consumers would not be
annoyed and there was a high possibility that they
would like the adverts.
Source: Compiled by the Researcher.

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2.4 Gap in Literature

Since the mobile phone is a relatively new channel for marketing communication, academic
research in this field has been, to a large extent, inconsistent and fragmented (Leppniemi, 2006)
and studies relating to the Nigeria context is scanty and minimal.

Studies in the mobile marketing literature and mobile advertisements are based on technology
acceptance model theory, Theory of Reasoned action, Planned Behaviour (Davis, Bagozzi and
Warshaw, 1989; Adams, Nelson and Todd, 1992; Subramanian, 1994; Legris, Ingham and
Collerette, 2002; Olson and Boyer, 2003; Venkatesh and Davis 2000). These theories contribute
to the understanding of the adoption process of new information communications technologies.
But, the researcher could not find any study using consumer behaviour theories (Involvement
theory, Elaboration Likelihood Model, Social judgement theory, Learning theories). Consumer
attitude is an aspect of consumer behaviour thus, consumer behaviour theories should be used in
understanding consumer attitude formation towards marketing communication programmes and
campaign. As this will give a deeper insight in to why consumer behave and react to certain
marketing stimuli the way they do. Thereby, exposing marketing practitioners to how consumers
process marketing stimuli and react to organization products and services.

Few recent studies have focused on consumer attitude towards mobile marketing (Barwise and
Strong, 2002; Tsang, 2004; Jun and Lee, 2007). However these studies have mainly been
concerned with finding antecedents to successful mobile marketing and using mobile marketing
as a whole without using mobile marketing components (promotional, relational, personalization,
interactivity and frequency). Also, these studies have only looked at the pheripheral effect of
attitude on purchase intention without assessing the purchase behaviour dimensions (Intention,
actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty) of the mobile phone user to mobile marketing
messages. And non of these studies have focused on studying how mobile marketing messages
components (promotional, relational, personalization, interactivity and frequency) affects
consumer attitude and purchase behaviour (Intention, actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty)
dimensions of the mobile phone user. This study fills this gap by assessing the influence of
mobile marketing messages on consumers attutide and purchase behaviour. The model below

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depicts the conceptual model of the study showing the interactions between mobile marketing
variables and consumers purchase behaviour.

Model 2.14 Conceptual Model of the Study

Marketing Purchase
Messages Behaviour
Intention
Promotional Consumer
Attitude
Relational Actual
Purchase
Personalization
Satisfaction
Interactivity
Loyalty
Frequency Factors Influencing Consumer Attitude
Innovativeness Privacy and Permission
Existing Knowledge Perceived Risk
Attitude to Advertising Trust
Entertainment Perceived Value
Social Norms

Source: Researcher (2013).

The model presented above shows the interactions between mobile marketing messages,
consumer attiude and purchase behaviour. The model consists of mobile marketing message
content (promotional, relational, personalization, interactivity and frequency), consumer attitude
and purchase behaviour (Intention, actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty). In the model above,
mobile marketing messages is expected to directly influence purchase behaviour or indirectly
through consumer attitude. Consumer attitude is expected to moderates the effect of mobile
marketing messages on purchase behaviour through the influence of some factors
(Innovativeness, privacy and permission, existing knowledge of mobile technology, perceived
risk, attitude to advertising, trust, entertainment, perceived value). Previous studies in mobile
marketing have mainly assessed the effect of these factors on consumer attitude in isolation
without integrating the impact of mobile marketing activities in determining consumers
responsiveness to the marketing communication. Also, this model depicts the interaction of each
marketing message content on purchase behaviour components (Intention, actual purchase,

120
satisfaction and loyalty). This aspect has been practically absent from previous studies in mobile
marketing, as purchase behavuior has been assessed as a whole variable without examing the
effect of marketing communication strategies on each purchase behaviour components. Thus,
this study presents an integrative model of the interaction between mobile marketing message
content and consumer purchase behaviour.

Most research concerning demographic differences in mobile service usage has been conducted
by practitioners and marketing research institutes. Academic literature on mobile commerce is
still scarce, and limited to certain areas (Okazaki, 2005) such as adoption and diffusion of mobile
commerce and technological issues. Many scholars have proposed that there is a need for more
rigorous studies in the field of mobile marketing that will give a deeper understanding of
consumer behaviour (Pagani, 2004) and differences in user characteristics in particular
(Nysveenet al., 2005a, 2005b). There is still confusion over whether socio-demographic factors
are strong determinants of mobile service usage. Some studies have proposed that socio-
demographic factors are not significant (Hyvnen and Repo, 2005) but this is in contrast to the
studies mentioned above and theories such as Rogers diffusion theory (Rogers, 1995). The lack
of clarity on this issue indicates that further studies are required to investigate the impact of
demographics in understanding consumers attitude towards mobile marketing (Hyvnen and
Repo, 2005).

In the review of literature, it was discovered that there was lack of sufficient studies performed
on the younger segment. As this segment is been captured as a target market for mobile
marketing. It therefore needs attention among other age-group to understand how the younger
consumers perceive mobile marketing. The impact of demographics on mobile marketing
acceptance has not yet been studied very extensively and the results are somewhat surprising.
Haghirian, Madlberger and Tanuskova (2005) found that age does not influence the recipients
perception of mobile advertising significantly. Similarly, Okazaki (2004) studied mobile
advertising and found no significant influence of age or gender on attitude toward the mobile
adverts. Overall, these findings contradicts traditional advertising studies where age has a
definite influence on the consumer attitude (Alwitt and Prabhaker, 1992; Shavitt, Lowrey and
Haefner, 1998). Findings from studies on the influence of younger consumers attitude to mobile
marketing conducted to date highlight that further research is still required in this area.

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CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

This chapter describes the plan of execution of the study. The methodology adopted ensured that
information relevant to the research problem was obtained by objective and systematic
procedures (Green and Tull, 1990; Beri, 1993). The selection of methodology is based on the
research problem and stated research questions. Justification for all adopted methodological
choices are given in each section. The research methodology describes the research design,
which was used to accomplish the above objectives. The issues covered in this section are the
nature of the research study, Population of the study, Sample size Determination, Sample
Techniques, Sample Frame, Research Instruments, Administration of Research Instrument,
Validity of Research Instrument, Reliability of Research, Sources of Data , Method of and data
presentation and Analysis. Each of these sections is presented below:

3.1 Study Area

Background of the study Area

This study was carried out in Lagos State which lies in the Southwestern part of Nigeria. Lagos
State was created on 27th May, 1967 by Decree No 14 of 1967. Lagos State was founded in the
fifteen century as a Portuguese trading post, exporting ivory, peppers and slaves. Among the
other six states in the South-West Nigeria, Lagos is the most populous city in Nigeria. It has
twenty local Government area which include; Agege, Mushin, Alimosho, Oshodi-Isolo, Ikeja,
Lagos Mainland, Lagos Island, Epe and others. Its metropolitan area is estimated at 300 square
kilometers and it is endowed with creeks and a Lagoon. Lagos State is a sprawling urban centre
in which its unique endowments and strategic location have created an attraction and
international immigration, producing a mega city of immense dynamism, complexity and
opportunities. It has been recognized for its highly populated business activities. Rapid economic
growth in Lagos State creates various opportunities for employment, education, cultural
experiences and services. In Nigeria, Lagos is known as one of the highly industrialized states.
All the sectors of the economy such as agricultural, oil and gas, trade, banking, insurance,
telecommunication, transportation and others have their industries fully represented in Lagos

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State. The four major telecommunication players (MTN, Globacom, Airtel and Etisalat) have
their headquarters in Lagos and their market penetration started from Lagos State.

3.2 Research Design

Research designs are considered as the blue print of any research dealing with at least four
problems: which questions to study, which data are relevant, what data to collect, and how to
analyze the results (Hair, Bush and Ortinau, 2000). According to Asika (1991), the best design
depends on the research question. Considering the research objectives of the study and associated
problems, this research takes the form of a quantitative research design, which is descriptive in
nature.

This research is quantitative in nature because of the following: hypotheses were carefully
generated to indicate the relationship between identified variables, the development of
appropriate research instruments focusing on specific and narrow questions, collection of
primary data and analysis of data using statistical tools. This study is descriptive in nature
because it describes how marketing messages on mobile devices influences purchase behaviour.

A cross sectional survey method was also adopted because in this study, data were gathered once
from the population sample, at a single and specific point of time period.

3.3 Population of the Study

The study population comprises of mobile phone users in organized institutions in Lagos State
within the ages of 15-44years. This study population is chosen because studies in the marketing
literature focusing on mobile devices (Cant et al., 2005: Macgregor, 2004: Ligerakis, 2004) have
identified this target group are the most frequent users of mobile services using it as a way of
socializing and maintaining real-time relationship. This age group, are said to be more open to
new information communication technologies (Lightner, Yenisey, Ozok and Salvendy, 2002;
Pijpers, Bemelmans, Heemstra and vanmontfort, 2001). The usage of the mobile phone for this
target group has become an integral part of their world, seen as a necessity and not a luxury
(Taiwo, 2010). Persons in organized institutions in Lagos State within this age group who own
and have access to a mobile phone were eligible to participate in this study. When this study was
conducted, it was estimated that this age group constituted about half of the Lagos State

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population (National Population Commission, 2009). As at date, there is no available data on
mobile phone users based on demographic indices in Nigeria.

3.4 Sample Size Determination

The data for this study was derieved from a sample size of a thousand and two hundred (1,200)
mobile phone users in Lagos State. A sample size of 400 mobile phone users were selected from
each senatorial district in Lagos State, using a standard formula for a sample size: SS=
Z2(p)(1-p)/C2, which is used for an infinite population (where the population is greater than
50,000 (Freedman, Pisani, and Purves, 1997) or 10,000 (Babalola, 1998).

SS = Z2(p)(1-p)
C2
SS = Sample Size
Z = Z-value (e.g., 1.96 for a 95 percent confidence level)
P = Percentage of population picking a choice, expressed as decimal
C = Confidence interval, expressed as decimal (e.g., .05)

SS= 1.962.5.5 =3.8416 .25 = 384 respondents


0.052 .0025

Calculated sample size was increased to 400 for replacement of likely non-response or missing
responses, as well as to increase the adequacy of the sample. A sample of equal number of 400
respondents from each of the 3 senatorial districts, making a total of 1200 respondents constitute
the sample size used in this study.

3.5 Sampling Technique

Sampling technique consist of the method used to select a subset of population that really
represents the whole population (Saunder, Lewis and Thornhill, 2003). The choice of sampling
technique specifically depends upon researchers' concerns about three factors, which are time,
cost/approach and generalizability (Sekaran, 2003). If researchers are more concerned about
generalizability, the choice of probability sampling will be made, on the other hand, if
researchers are more concerned about time, cost (and have limited approach) and less concerns
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for generalizability, the choice of non-probability sampling may be made (Sekaran, 2003). In
this study, the choice of sampling technique is guided by the concern for generalizability and
proper representation of the population.

This study adopted a multi-stage sampling technique in selecting the survey respondents for this
study. Considering the population of this research work, the researcher deemed it appropriate to
use the multi-stage sampling method inother to achieve the goal of generalizability. The stages
are graphically represented in the figure below.

Figure 3.1 Stages of Sampling Technique

Senatorial LGA LCDA Institutions Respondents


District

Source: Researcher, 2013

Stratified, cluster, systematic random sampling methods were used in selecting the appropriate
survey respondents for the study. Stratified sampling was used to group Lagos State into three
(3) senatorial districts. Cluster sampling method was used to identify and group each Local
Government area into the three senatorial districts. Systematic random sampling method was
used by the researcher in selecting Local Government Areas and Local Council Development
Areas and from each cluster. Details of these can be seen in table 3.1. Systematic random
sampling was used inother to achieve the principle of randomization which is a procedure of
giving every respondent in the study population an equal chance of appearing in the selection
(Asika, 2000). Adoption of these sampling techniques increased the precision and efficiency of
the estimates and ensured that sample represents the target population of the study.

The first stage of the sampling process involved stratification of Lagos State into three (3)
senatorial district comprising of Lagos Central, Lagos East and Lagos West clusters. In the
second stage, researcher identified and grouped the Local Government Areas into the three
senatorial districts. Lagos Central cluster comprised of the following Local Governments Areas;
Lagos Island, Lagos Mainland, Surulere, Apapa and Eti-Osa. Lagos East cluster comprised of
Shomolu, Kosofe, Epe, Ibeju-Lekki and Ikorodu Local Government Areas. While Lagos West
cluster comprised of Agege, Ifako-Ijaye, Alimosho, Badagry, Ojo, Ajeromi/Ifelodun, Amuwo-
Odofin, Oshodi/Isolo, Ikeja and Mushin Local Government Areas.

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The third and fourth stage involved the use of systematic random sampling method with an
interval of two in selecting local government areas (LGAs) and local council development areas
(LCDA) from the cluster. This resulted in the selection of five local government areas from the
three clusters of senatorial district. Two LGAs (Lagos Mainland and Eti-Osa) were selected from
lagos Central, One LGA (Ikorodu) was selected from Lagos East and two LGA (Ojo, Ikeja) was
selected from Lagos West.

In the forth stage, systematic random sampling method with an interval of two was also applied
in selecting local council development area (LCDA) from each local government area (LGA).
This resulted in the selection of six local council development areas. From Lagos mainland
LGA, Yaba LCDA was selected; From Eti-Osa LGA, Iru- Victoria Island LCDA was selected;
From Ikorodu LGA, Ikorodu North LCDA was selected; From Ojo LGA, Ojo town and Oto
Awori LCDA was selected and Ikeja was selected. In the fifth stage, systematic random
sampling method with an interval of two was also applied in selecting organized institutions
from each local council development area (LCDA). Details of this is shown in table 3.1 below.

Table 3.1 Selected Sample of the Study

S/N Senatorial Composition LGAs LCDAs Selected Institutions


District
Selected
1 LAGOS LAGOS ISLAND, LAGOS YABA UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS ( UNILAG)
CENTRAL LAGOS MAINLAND, MAINLAND YABA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY
SURULERE, APAPA, (YABATECH)
ETI-OSA
IRU MTN NIGERIA, GLOBACOM
ETI-OSA VICTORIA- NIGERIA, FIRST BANK, STERLING
ISLAND BANK,KEYSTONE BANK,SGS
DESTINATION,
2 LAGOS SHOMOLU, KOSOFE, IKORODU IKORODU LAGOS STATE POLYTECHNIC
EPE, IBEJU-LEKKI, NORTH (LASPOLY)
EAST
IKORODU

3 LAGOS AGEGE, IFAKO- OJO OJO TOWN LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY (LASU)
WEST IJAYE, ALIMOSHO, OTO-AWORI ADENIRAN OGUNSANYA COLLEGE
BADAGRY, OJO, OF EDUCATION (AOCOED)
AJEROMI/IFELODUN.
AMUWO-ODOFIN, IKEJA IKEJA IBTC BANK, STYE BANK, NOBLE
OSHODI/ISOLO, SHOLTON, GUARANTY TRUST
IKEJA, MUSHIN BANK.
Source: Lagos State Government, 2011; LASIEC, 2012; Researcher 2013

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In identifying survey respondents from the organized institutions selected, the researcher ensured
that all sampled respondents went through a two-stage selection process which arre: (i)
respondents must be between the ages 15-44 years, (ii) respondents must own and have access to
a mobile device and respondents must have received marketing messages on their mobile phone
within the last three months.

3.6 Sample Frame

The sample frame for this study consists of mobile phone users in organized institutions in Lagos
State. Lagos state constitute the case study, senatorial district, local government areas and local
council development areas constitute units and properties of the sample. The local government
areas and Local council development areas used as the sample frame of this study were selected
with the use of systematic random sampling method.

3.7 Sources of Data

Both primary and secondary sources were used for the data collection. The primary data were
obtained mainly through the instruments of a structured questionnaire. Questionnaires were
administered to 1,200 mobile phone users in Lagos State. Information on mobile phone usage
pattern, preference density for marketing messages, behavioural response to marketing messages
and so on were gathered through the instrument of the questionnaire. Secondary data were
obtained from published documents and reports of National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), Nigerian
Population Commission (NPC), International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and National
Communication Commission (NCC). Articles in academic journals and other published
materials relating to the subject matter were sourced from on-line University database and the
internet. Additional information was also sourced from University Libraries (Covenant
University and other on-line University libraries) and other relevant materials were sourced from
the internet.

3.8 Data Collection Method and Procedure


Structured questionnaire was used to collect data needed for the study. The researcher with the
assistance of four trained research assistants distributed copies of the questionnaire, and the
researcher was able to observe respondents overt behaviour while filling the questionnaire which

127
increased the quality of the research findings. This supports the position of McDaniel and Gates
(2004), who stated that structured questionnaire is deemed more appropriate for an attitudinal
study as respondents behaviour can be observed while filling the questionnaire. In order to
ensure speedy collection of accurate and reliable data, some steps were taken. These include the
selection and training of four (4) field research assistants, in the administration of the
questionnaire to key informant.

Four field research assistants were recruited and paid for the purpose of supporting the researcher
in the administration of the research questionnaire. Although, the research assistants were
graduates with good spoken and written communication skills, there was still the need for them
to be trained and given instructions regarding questionnaire administration as well as field
procedures and a detailed review of the items on the questionnaire for clarity purpose and to put
respondents through any area of misunderstanding or misconception of the questionnaire items.
The researcher also ensured that the field research assistants were conversant with Lagos
environment.

The first step in the administration of the questionnaire was introduction and purpose of the
research to the respondents. Respondents were informed of the research objectives, emphasizing
that the research was purely an academic exercise and not for commercial or monetary gain.
Respondents support and cooperation was also solicited. This procedure took a lot of persuasion
for some of the respondents to agree to participate in filling the questionnaires. Selection of the
appropriate respondent to be contacted is important. Hence, key informant approach was used.
According to Gupta, Shaw and Delery (2000), key informant approach ensures that the target
respondents are knowledgeable regarding the area of the study and are able to provide an
objective response to the questions listed in the questionnaire. Key informants were identified by
asking potential respondents if they owned or have access to a mobile phone and if they had in
the last one month received marketing messages on product/services on their phones.

The administration of the questionnaire took almost two month from the 25th of February
through to the 19th of April, 2013. The researcher and the field research assistants administered
the questionnaires in a locality per time. For the tertiary institution students, administered
questionnaires were retrieved the same day, but retrieval of questionnaires administered to
respondents working within an organisation took a span of one to two weeks as constant calls
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and follow-up reminders had to be employed. One thousand two hundred (1,200) questionnaires
were administered to key informants. The questionnaires took an average of 15-35 minutes to
answer. Administration of the questionnaires took place within the working days as this was the
best and appropriate time to access key informants. Table 3.2 below shows the distribution of
the respondents and number of questionnaire administered.

Table 3.2 Questionnaire Administration


Number of Questionnaires
S/N Respondents
Administered
1 20
MTN NIGERIA
2 20
GLOBACOM NIGERA
3 15
FIRST BANK PLC
4 15
STERLING BANK PLC
5 15
KEYSTONE BANK PLC
6 15
SGS (Clearing & Forwarding) PLC
7 25
GUARANTY TRUST BANK.
8 25
SKYE BANK PLC
9 25
IBTC BANK PLC
10 25
NOBLE SHOLTON (Auditors) LTD
11 150
UNILAG
12 150
YABA TECH.
13 150
LASU
14 150
AOCOED
15 400
LASPOTECH.
TOTAL 1,200

Source: Field Survey 2013.

3.9 Research Instrument and Design

The research instrument for this study was a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire as the
survey instrument of this study comprised of structured and unstructured questions. The
questionnaire included a cover letter that briefly introduced the researcher, the study, the
purpose of the research and provided an assurance of respondents confidentiality. The nature of
the research instrument is explained below:

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(i) Questionnaire

Survey formed an important aspect of collecting quantitative data with the use of a questionnaire.
The questionnaire served as the primary instrument used in this study. Questionnaire as an
instrument for data collection was chosen because it will assist in eliciting objective and more
precise responses to the research questions outlined in the study. The design of the questionnaire
was made simple and respondent-friendly. The questionnaire was designed to collect information
on respondents mobile phone usage pattern, responses to marketing messages. The Questions
were formulated so as to elicit information on respondent profile, preference density for
marketing messages, and influence of marketing messages on attitude and purchase behaviour.

The questions were divided into three parts. Each part of the questionnaire had a specific
purpose. Part one has two (A and B)sections; Section A comprises of questions relating to
respondents personal bio-data which includes; sex (two measurement items), age (four
measurement items), educational background (five measurement items), marital status (five
measurement items), number of dependants, occupation (three measurement items) , student
status and job position (four measurement items).

Section B comprises of questions on mobile phone usage pattern (measurement items ranges
from very often, often, sometimes, rarely and never), frequency of receiving marketing messages
(measurement items ranges from once a month, once a week, daily, many times a day, several
times a week), preference density for marketing messages (measurement items ranges from daily,
weekly, monthly) and behavioural response to marketing messages (measurement items ranges
from ignore, read, delete). Part two comprised of four (C, D, E and F) sections. The
measurement variable for these sections was five-point Likert-scale items ranging from strongly
agree to strongly disagree.

Section C entailed questions relating to marketing message variables such as promotional,


relational, personalization, interactivity and frequency of the message. Section D relates to
questions focusing on purchase behaviour variables such as brand awareness, intention to
purchase, actual purchase and loyalty. Section E entailed questions focusing on factors
influencing consumer attitude such as innovativeness, existing knowledge, attitude towards
general advertising, privacy and permission, credibility, perceived risk, trust, perceived value and

130
social norms. Section F relates to questions focusing on consumer satisfaction with receiving
marketing messages on their mobile phones. Part three covers open- ended questions on
challenges relating to the use of marketing messages and possible solutions.

Part one of the questionnaire which contains section A and B comprises of dichotomous
questions, multiple choice questions, semantic differential and contingency questions. Part two
of the questionnaire contains section C, D, E and F comprises of five-point Likert-scale questions
and part three of the questionnaire which is section G comprises of the open-ended questions.

The five-point Likert-scale questions range from strongly agree to strongly disagree (5 =
Strongly Agree, 4 = Agree, 3 = Undecided, 2 = Disagree and 1 = Strongly Disagree) was
used to reflect the level of agreement of the respondents to the questions. Likert scales questions
are widely used in most research in marketing and for measuring attitudinal items according to
Malhotra and Birks (2006). To elicit the cooperation of the respondents, the nature and purpose
of the research were made known to the respondents and anonymity was assured. The table 3.3
below, indicates variables used in this study and the questionnaire items. A copy of the
questionnaire is attached as appendix I.

Table 3.3 Measurement of Variables - Part 1- Section A


Respondents Demograhpic data
Variables Description
Sex Two items: Male, Fmale
Age Four items: 15-18, 19-24, 25-44, 45-54
Marital Status Five items: Single, Married, Divorced, Widow, Widower
Educational Background Five items: WASC, BSc, MSc, MBA and others
Number of Dependants Three items: 1-3, 4-6, 7 and above
Occupation Four items: Student, Employer, Employee, Business owner
Student Status four items: Undergraduate: fulltime/part time, Post graduate: fulltime/part time
Job Position Four items: Managerial, Supervisory, Clerical and other
Table 3.4 Measurement of Variables - Section B
Mobile phone Usage and usage pattern:
Respondents were asked to indicate their type of Mobile phone Usage and usage pattern. The questions include; voice
calls, SMS, MMS, videos, games, music, news, breaking news, sports, face book, twitter, mobile web browsing, mobile
chatting and email. The rating scale ranges from very often, often, sometimes, rarely and never
Marketing Messages
Respondents were asked to indicate how frequently you receive the following mobile marketing messages on their phone.
The questions include: product/service information, promotional messages, incentives, entertainment, general information
on (weather, job vacancy and traffic flow), invitation to vote in a TV show or contest, music downloads, caller/ring tunes
downloads, braking news, sports, inspirational quotes, and lifestyle The rating scale ranges from once a month, once a
week, daily, many times a day, several times a week.
Behavioural Response to SMS adverts.
Respondents were asked to indicate what they do when they receive SMS adverts of product/service. The options include;

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Table 3.4 Contd.
ignore it completely, read it completely, read it immediately, read it when I have time, read and use, read and accept, read
and ignore, delete it immediately.
Preference Density to Receive Marketing Messages:
Respondents were asked to indicate how often they will like to receive the following marketing messages on their phone.
The questions include: product/service information, promotional messages, incentives, entertainment, general information
on (weather, job vacancy and traffic flow), invitation to vote in a TV show or contest, music downloads, caller/ring tunes
downloads, braking news, sports, inspirational quotes, and lifestyle The rating scale ranges from Daily: once, twice, thrice
or more, Weekly: once, twice, thrice or more, Monthly: once, twice, thrice or more
Table 3.5: Measurement of Variables - Part 2
Respondents were asked to indicate to the statements below by ticking (). The rating scale ranges from 5-strongly
agrees, 4- agrees, 3-undediced, 2-disagree to 1-strongly disagree.
Section C: Marketing Messages
Variable Item no Item question
1 I like to receive SMS of products / services on price discounts
Promotional 2 I like to receive SMS adverts on free calls
3 I like to receive SMS of product/service granting me free access to downloads
4 SMS provides me timely information about new product/service.
Relational 5 SMS keeps me up-to-date with latest news in areas that matter to me.
6 SMS is a good source of information on product/service usage tips
7 I like to receive SMS adverts of products / service which are relevant to my need
8 I like to receive SMS adverts of products / services to which I personally subscribe
Personalization 9 I like to receive SMS of product /service which tells me the exact store the product is
10 I like to receive SMS of products /service at my convenient time.
11 I enjoy freedom to select the form (SMS, MMS, voice call) of advertising message I receive.
12 I like to receive SMS adverts which involve downloading of items
13 I like SMS adverts inviting me to send my vote to a TV show
Interactivity 14 I like sending SMS to Radio talk shows
15 I like to receive SMS advert which allows me communicate with the advertiser.
16 I find participating in text to win SMS exciting
17 I receive regular SMS information on price discounts of product/service
Frequency 18 I do receive regular SMS information on new product/service
19 I receive regular SMS on invitation to vote in a TV show
20 I often receive SMS on product/service usage tips.
Section D: Purchase Behaviour
1 I am informed about product/service promotional offers through mobile advertising
Awareness 2 I am aware of new product/services through marketing on my mobile phone.
3 I am informed about the latest news in sport/entertainment through SMS
4 I have gained knowledge about product/service through SMS
5 I do receive product/service usage tips on my mobile phone
6 I will buy a product/service introduced to me in an SMS advert.
Intention 7 I am interested in buying SMS product/services that meet my need.
8 I will respond to a text message promotion sent to my phone
9 I subscribe to receiving latest news on my phone after receiving an SMS advert.
10 I do use SMS marketing messages to get information that I need
11 I have downloaded Ringing tunes on my phone after receiving an SMS advert
Actual 12 I have had occasions to vote through SMS for my favorite contestant in a TV show
purchase 13 I am currently using my phone to receive information that I need
14 I have had occasion to participate in a promotional programme after receiving an SMS advert
15 I have purchased a product /service after receiving an SMS advert
16 Text-to-win SMS builds relationship between the brand and the customer.
17 I will continue to use SMS to vote for my favourite contestants in a TV show
18 I will continue to buy product/service that sends me information on their promotional offers
Loyalty 19 I will regularly buy product/service that gives me timely information that I need

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Table 3.5 Contd.
20 I will recommend to my friends product/service SMS that provide sales information
21 I forward SMS of product/service that I like to my friends.
22 I will continue to use product/service SMS that I like
Consumer Attitude
Attitude 1 To me SMS adverts of product/services are disturbing
2 To me many SMS adverts of product/services are informative.
3 To me many SMS adverts of product/services are confusing
4 To me many SMS adverts of product/services are misleading
5 I like to receive marketing messages on my mobile phone.
6 I find mobile advertising messages useful
7 I am happy to receive SMS marketing messages that are relevant to my need
Section E: Factors Influencing Attitude
1 Among my friends, I am usually the first to try out a new product.
Innovativeness 2 I like to experiment with new mobile phone technology
3 I learn fast on how to use new mobile phone services
4 I have a good knowledge about mobile communication
Existing 5 It is easy for me to use mobile phone services
Knowledge 6 Within my circle of friends, I am an expert in mobile phone service
7 Within my circle of friends, I am quick to know about the latest mobile phone applications
8 I like advertisements
9 I consider advertising useful as it promotes the latest product/service.
Attitude to 10 I enjoy reading different advertisements in order to compare product offers
Advertising 11 I appreciate advertising because it assists me in my buying decision
12 Advertising is a good thing because it gets me informed
13 I want my mobile Service Provider to seek my consent before giving my details to a third party
14 It is important for me that I can easily stop receiving SMS messages when I choose to
Privacy and 15 I count it important that I can choose the exact time to receive SMS marketing messages
Permission 16 I consider it important for companies to seek my permission before sending me SMS message
17 I like to receive SMS adverts of products which reveal how I can stop receiving further messages
18 I will give my permission to receive SMS marketing messages that are relevant to me
19 I like to receive SMS adverts of product/ service sent by an established brand
Credibility 20 I like to receive SMS adverts of product/ service from companies that I know
21 I fear my personal data can be misused when using mobile marketing services
Perceived risk 22 Some unwanted SMS-messages could come to me when using mobile marketing services.
23 I see SMS based advertisements as reliable sources of information
24 I will welcome SMS adverts of product/service from organizations that have good reputation
Trust 25 Promises in SMS marketing messages of various services are mostly
26 I will endorse SMS sales promotion offers that are of genuine benefit
27 I find SMS marketing messages as believable sources of reference for purchase
28 I find SMS marketing messages as a good source of up-to-date sales information
29 I believe SMS marketing messages make sales information immediately accessible.
Perceived 30 I find SMS marketing messages as a convenient source of product/service information
Value 31 I see SMS marketing messages as a good source of getting latest news
32 I find SMS messages of product/services entertaining.
33 I find receiving advertising messages on my mobile phone exciting.
Entertainment 34 I enjoy participating in TV shows by texting my vote for my favourite contestant
35 I find mobile phone entertainment services interesting
36 I look smart to my colleagues because I use mobile marketing services
37 Most of my friends think that SMS advertising is useful.
Social Norm 38 My immediate family members think it is a good idea to respond to SMS marketing messages
39 Because of my friends, I have been involved in SMS product competition
40 The opinion of my friends inform my decision to use SMS marketing messages
41 Because of my friends, I have voted in my favourite TV show

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Table 3.5 Contd
Section F: Satisfaction
1 I enjoy receiving entertainment messages on my phone
2 I am satisfied with voting for my favourite contestants in TV show through SMS
3 I am satisfied with receiving SMS of product/service promotional offers
Satisfaction 4 I am satisfied with receiving information on product/service usage tips through SMS
5 I am satisfied with receiving latest SMS news /information in areas of my choice

6 SMS marketing messages do meet my need for timely information


7 Overall, I am satisfied with SMS marketing messages
Source: Field Survey, 2013

Most of the questions in the questionnaire were modified and adapted from previous studies
through review of relavant literatures of all constructs used in this study. Some questions were
developed specially for this study after review of the relevant literature such as (Soberman, 2004;
Kotler and Keller, 2006; Ducoffe, 1995). New items based on previous literature (Interactivity,
promotional and relational content) were also incorporated in this research to fulfil the research
requirements of the model. Questions adopted from previous studies relating to the subject area
are as follows: direct marketing (Tripp et al., 1993; Schlosser, Shavitt, and Kanfer 1999; Mehta
and Sivadas, 1995), consumer acceptance of mobile marketing (Bracket and Carr , 2001; Carol
et al., 2007; Tsang et al., 2004), traditional advertising (Ducoffe, 1996 and Hess, 1995),
consumer adoption of mobile marketing (Barnes and Scornavacca 2003; Dickinger et al., 2004;
Wu and Wang, 2005; Carroll et al., 2005). Table 3.6 indicate the source document of question
items used in th questionnaire for this study.

Table 3.6 Source of Items Used in the Questionnaire


S/N CONSTRUCT Scale items LITERATURE SOURCE
1 Promotional SMS on price discounts, SMS on free calls, SMS on The researcher
free access to downloads.
2 Relational Timely information on product, up-to-date with latest The researcher
news, good source on information on product usage
tips.
3 Personalization Relevant to users needs, Relevant to location of Barutcu (2008) Yan et al.
purchase, receiving time chosen by (2004); Xu (2007); Rao
recipient and Minakakis (2003) and
Robins (2003)
4 Interactivity Like SMS on downloading of items, Like SMS on The researcher
invitation to vote in a TV show, Like sending SMS to
Radio talk shows, Participating in text-to win SMS,
like SMS that allows communication with the
advertiser.
5 Frequency Regular SMS on : price discounts, New products, The researcher
usage tips

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Table 3.6 Contd.
6 Brand Awareness Knowledge gained about product through SMS, The researcher
awareness of new product/services, awareness about
promotional offers.
7 Intention to purchase I will buy product and services introduced to me in an XU (2007); Jun and Lee
SMS advert. I am interested in buying SMS (2007); The researcher
products/services that meet my need.
8 Actual Purchase I have purchased a product after receiving SMS Leppniemi 2008
adverts on product/services, I have had occasions to:
participate in a promotional programme, to vote for my The researcher
favorite contestants I am currently using my phone to
receive information that I need, I have downloaded
ring tunes on my phone
10 Satisfaction I an satisfied with receiving; sales promotional Mosavi and Ghaedi, 2012
messages on my phone; latest news in areas of my
choice, mobile marketing satisfies ny need for timely
information, Generally, I am satisfied with mobile
marketing services.
11 Loyalty I will buy more of the product that sends ne timely Mosavi and Ghaedi (2012)
information, I will forward SMS product/service that I
li to my friends, I will continue to use SMS of
product/service eto geet information in the future.
12 Consumer Attitude I am happy to receive marketing mesages, SMS Leek and Christodoulides
adverts of products and services is confusing, (2009); Tsang, et al.
informative, misleading. (2004); Mehta (2000)
1I Innovativeness First to try out new product, Experiment with new Bauer et al. (2005)
mobile technology, Fast to know about new mobile
services
12 Existing Knowledge Good knowledge, Expert in mobile service usage, Flynn and Goldsmith
knowledge about latest mobile phone application. (1999); Bauer et al.
(2005)
13 Attitude towards Like advertisements, Usefulness of adverts, Enjoy Pollay and Mittal,(1993)
advertising in general reading different adverts, Appreciates advertising,
advertising is a good thing.
14 Entertainment Enjoyable; Entertaining; Interesting; Exciting Ducoffe (1996);
Tsang, et al. (2004);
Bauer et al. (2005)
15 Privacy and Mobile service provider to seek consent, Ability to Merisavo et al. (2007);
Permission stop receiving, companies to seek permission, choose Karjaluoto et al. (2007)
of exact time to receive messages, Option to opt out

16 Credibility Established brand, Familiarity with companies Goldsmith et al., (2000);


Choi and Rifon, (2002)
17 Perceived Risk Fear of personal data, Unwanted messages Hess, (1995)
18 Trust Reliable; believable, Good reputation, Genuine Karjaluoto et al. (2007);
Benefits, Promises mostly true. Saleh (2010)
19 Perceived value Good source of up-to-date sales information; Makes Ducoffe (1996); Mehta
sales information Immediately accessible; Provides (2000)
timely information, Convenient source of sales
information;
Supplies relevant sales information
20 Social Norm Bauer et al., (2005)

Source: Compiled by the Researcher.

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3.10 Validity of Research Instrument

Validity is the degree to which a research instrument measures what it is designed to measure
(Asika, 1991). Validity can be carried out using the content, criterion and construct validity
approach. This study used content and construct validity.

The content validity was used in order to ensure that the measurement procedures are relevant
and representative of the constructs that was used in this study. Content validity is a judgment
evaluation of the content of the scale. It requires that, the scale items be reviewed by experts in
the field (Malthota et al., 1996). To ensure content validity of the research instruments, senior
academics in marketing and the researchers supervisor made their inputs and judge the
appropriateness of the items in the instrument. They ensured that the questionnaire meets the
objective of the research. Also, in order to ensure content validity, some items in the
questionnaire were adapted from previous studies such as Barutcu (2008); Xu (2007); Merisavo,
et al. (2007); Bauer et al. (2005).

However, measuring content validity is a subjective test and not a sufficient measure of the
validity of the scale. A more formal evaluation of the validity of each of the measure was carried
out using the construct validity.

Construct validity is the extent to which a measure is related to other measures in a manner
consistent with theoretical based concepts. According to Asika (1991), construct validity
attempts to measure the adequacy of an instrument in measuring the actual meaning of a
construct or concept. There are two types of construct validity: convergent and discriminant
validity were both examined in this study with the use of factor analysis.

Factor analysis is meant to reduce or summarize data using a smaller set of factors or
components. There are two main approaches to factor analysis which was adopted in this study:
exploratory and confirmatory. Exploratory factor analysis is often used in the early stages of
research to gather information about the inter-relationships among a set of variables (Tabachnick
and Fidell, 1996).

To explore data patterns, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to reveal patterns among
the inter-relationships of the items. EFA was used in order to extract the minimum number of

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factors needed to reproduce the variation present in a set of observed variables (Heck, 1998).
EFA was carried out using IBM SPSS statistics 19.

The 97 items on the likert measurement scale were subjected to principal component analysis
(PCA) with varimax rotation, using the IBM SPSS Version 19. Prior to performing PCA, the
suitability of data for factor analysis was assessed. The Kaiser-Meyer-Oklin (KMO) value for
marketing messages was .811, purchase behaviour was .861 and that of factor influencing
attitude was .849. All KMO values exceeded the recommended value of .60 (Hair, et al., 2006)
while Bartletts Test of Sphericity reached statistical significance (Chi Square=3239.563, df=78
p<0.05) for marketing messages items, (Chi Square=3972.497, df=78 p<0.05) for purchase
behaviour items and (Chi Square=7497.599, df=253 p<0.05) for factors influencing attitude
items, (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). See appendix III for details of the principal component
analysis result.
The following items (1, 6, 7, 12, 19 for marketing messages; 7, 11, 12, 15 for purchase
behaviour; 1 and 2 for satisfaction and items 3, 6, 8, 13, 14, 19, 20, 23, 24, 34, 36, 37 for factors
influencing attitude) were excluded from analysis because of the low communality value of those
items (Pallant, 2007). Consumer attitude items 1 and 4 were excluded from analysis because of
low communality value of those items while items 2 and 3 were excluded from analysis because
these items are complex items. The following Items (10 and 11 for marketing messages; 13 and
14 for purchase behaviour; 6 and 7 for satisfaction and items 7, 12, 17, 18, 25, 28, 35, for factors
influencing attitude) were excluded from analysis because these items are complex items
(Tabachnick and Fidell, 2007).

Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the
construct measures (Churchill, 1979). CFA was used to confirm the validity of factors and
variables constructed/chosen to measure those factors (Bryant et aI., 1999). Convergent validity
was undertaken to examine the extent to which the item correlates positively with other measures
of the same construct. Discriminant validity examines the extent to which a measure did not
correlate with other constructs from which it was supposed to differ. Confirmatory factors
analysis was carried out using AMOS 18.0 software. Factor loadings show the strength of the
relationship between an item and a particular construct or factor. The higher the loading the
better the representation of that particular item on the factor. A minimum factor loading of 0.30

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has been recommended in literature and 0.50 was considered significant (Hair et al., 1998). All
items used for the validity test had a strong factor loading on their respective construct.
Convergent and discriminant validity was assured for all items used for the analysis. See Table 4.
3.2 for more details. All the Items which did not meet the principal component analysis test were
not included in the test for convergent and discriminant validity.

3.11 Reliability of the Research Instrument

Reliability is the extent to which measurement of the test can be repeated. This means that
measuring instruments result should be consistent when the instrument is repeated (Asika, 1991).

The reliability of the scales in the research instrument was tested by using the Cronbach alpha
coefficient to determine the degree of internal consistency between the multiple measurements.
In other to also ensure the reliability of the research instrument, a pilot study of the research
instrument were tested on a sample of 50 respondents from the 3 senatorial district in Lagos
State. The purpose of the pilot study was to (i) determine the willingness of the respondents to
participate in the study (ii) to have pre-knowledge of the reactions of the respondents and (iii) to
determine the suitability and reliability of the research instrument. The results of the pilot study
showed that the respondents understood the question items in the questionnaire. This showed
that the measuring instrument not only measured what it was set out to measure, but that it is
consistent in doing that. The reliability test was used to compute the pre-test reliability, and the
result proved positive as all variables exceeded the minimum acceptable value of 0.60 (Pallant,
2007). After the pilot study, question items in the questionnaire were constructed and clarified
for the final survey.
The literature reveals that acceptable reliability should fall between 0.50 0.60, although 0.70
and above is desirable (Hair et al., 1998), also 0.70 is recommended by (Nunnally and Berstein,
1994; Hair et al., 2006 and Pallant, 2007). A high value of Cronbach`s alpha test indicates that
the stability, dependability and predictability of the measuring instrument is very certain (Asika,
1991). The reliability scores of constructs and Inter-inter correlation of items in the questionnaire
are shown in appendix II.

The Cornbachs alphas of the different constructs range from 0.534 to 0.842. Majority of the
construct have their reliability scale value above 0.70. Some measures with reliability scale

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below 0.7 was as a result of small number of items in the scale. Cronbach's alpha values are,
however, quite sensitive to the number of items in the scale. With short scales, it is common to
find Cronbachs values that are quite low (Nurosis, 1993; Pallant, 2007). It has been
recommended that in such situations, it is more appropriate to report a mean inter-item
correlation. Recommended optimal range for the inter-item correlation is .2 to .4 (Pallant, 2007).

Also, the item-total correlation can be used to improve the level of the Cronbach alpha,
considering a minimum value of .3 (Nurosis, 1993). The mean item-total correlation values for
all items exceeded the recommended value except that of credibility. Credibility construct was
the only item that had to be deleted and was not used in the analysis due to a low level of item
total correlation value with a minimum value of less than 0.3 and a maximum value less than 0.4
as shown in appendix II.
The Cronbach Alpha test has been criticized to underestimates reliability of research instrument
(Smith, 1974). As such, the use of composite reliability has been suggested (Jreskog, 1971) to
support the result of cronbach, using a cut-off value of .6 (Nunnally, 1994). Composite reliability
test using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was carried out to support the result of the
cronbach alpha test. The results were satisfactory (see Table 4.3.2) as all values were greater than
the benchmark of .60 as recommended by Bagozzi and Yi (1988).

3.12 Method of Data Analysis

The data collected for this study was presented using tables and charts. Data analysis were
conducted using IBM SPSS v.19 and AMOS 18 software. Descriptive statistics were used in
analyzing the collected data (Otokiti, Olateju and Adejumo, 2007). Descriptive statistics was
used to determine the mean and standard deviation scores of the marketing messages dimensions,
attitude, purchase behaviour dimensions and factor influencing attitude. Frequency and
percentage distribution were used to analyze the demographic characteristics, mobile service
usage patterns, preference density and behavioural response to marketing messages. Collation
and analysis of the open-ended questions were carried used to identify similar patterns in
respondents views to stated questions.

Factor analysis was carried with the use of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory
Factor Analysis. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to reduce the items in the

139
questionnaire and to indicate variables that can be grouped into a smaller set of underlying
factors. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to test the validity of the measurement
scales. Principle component analysis with Varimax rotation was used. The Bartlett test of
sphericity was employed to indicate the statistical probability that the correlation matrix has
significant correlations among some of the variables (Hair et al., 2006). Confirmatory factor
analysis is a statistical tool/technique which was used to verify the factor structure of the
observed variables/constructs. It was also used to tests whether a specified set of constructs is
influencing responses in a predicted way (Brown, 2006). CFA was used to test if there exist a
good relationship between observed variables and their underlying latent constructs. Knowledge
from the literature, theories, models and EFA was used to postulate the relationship pattern of the
factors measured by the measuring variables (questions).

Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was also used to test the fit of factor model in the study. This
was done by using Goodness-of-fit indexes: goodness of fix index (GFI), adjusted goodness of
fit index (AGFI), normed fir index (NFI), comparative fit index (CFI), standardized root mean
square (SRMR) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) (Hair, et al., 2006). The
fit guidelines were also used to assess the validity of the proposed model by examining the
goodness-of-fit and significance, direction and size of structural parameter estimates (Hair et al.,
2006).
Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) using Amos 18 software was used to perform multiple
regression analysis in testing the research hypotheses and in validating the research model.
AMOS is a powerful and graphical, easy-to-use structural equation modeling (SEM) software. It
creates much realistic models than standard multivariate statistics or multiple regression models.
It is used to estimate, assess, and then present a model in an intuitive path diagram to show
hypothesized relationships among variables (Byrne, 2001).
.
Structural equation modeling (SEM) allows separate relationships for each dependent variable
set, and provide very efficient estimation procedure for many and separate multiple regression
equation that are estimated simultaneously (Hair et al., 2006). It consists of two components;
structural model & measurement model, where structural model is a path model which
relate/associate dependent with independent variables (marketing messages variables as
independent & purchase behaviour as dependent variable in this study). The measurement model

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was used in assessing the validity and reliability of each indicator item to measure the
independent/dependent variables (Hair et al., 2006). The use of SEM is justified by the following
reasons.
(i) This study deals with the measurement of many factors (marketing messages factors (5),
purchase behaviour factors (3) and 9 variables measuring factors influencing attitude)
through different variables/questions, therefore multivariate analysis has been chosen
through structural equation modeling (SEM). Multivariate analyses are statistical
techniques that simultaneously analyze multiple measurements on individuals/objects
under study (Byrne, 2001).
(ii) SEM has been widely adopted by marketing and consumer behaviour researchers. As
one of most popular data analysis method adopted in articles in the leading marketing,
consumer behaviour journals relating to attitude towards marketing actitives on mobile
phone device and information system journals (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988;
Baumgartner and Homburg, 1996).
(iii) SEM is able to deal directly with how well the measures reflect their intended constructs
by applying one of its applications, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). CFA is both
more rigorous and more parsimonious than other statistical techniques in estimating the
reliability and construct validity of measures (Kelloway, 1998; Black, 1999).
(iv) SEM also provides flexible and powerful means of simultaneously assessing the quality
of the research model and examining the relationships among its constructs (Byrne,
2001). It tests hypotheses by explicit tests of both the overall quality of the factor
solution and the specific parameters composing the model (Kelloway, 1998).

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CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF


RESULTS

4.0 Introduction

This chapter deals with presentation, analysis and interpretation of data gathered from the
respondents for the purpose of this research work. The analysis and interpretation of data in this
section was based on the questionnaire administered and gathered from sample respondents. This
chapter commences with the analysis and presentation of questionnaire retrieved, followed by
presentation of demographic data through the use of tables and graphs, analysis and presentation
of data relating to mobile phone usage and respondents preference density to marketing
messages, presentation, interpretation of Likert-scale statements and test of hypothesis.

4.1 Presentation of Data

The data obtained for this study were presented using tables specifying relevant information on
the amount of questionnaires distributed and retrieved from respondents. Details of these can be
seen in table 4.1.

4.1.1 RESPONSE RATE

The field work commenced on the 25th February, 2013 through to 19th April 2013. A total of One
thousand two hundred (1,200) questionnaires were administered to employees, employers and
tertiary institution students in Lagos State. A total of One thousand and forty three (1,043)
questionnaires were retrieved from respondents.

Sorting the questionnaires was carried out after retrieval, a total of Twenty three (23) out of One
thousand and forty three (1,043) questionnaires retrieved were not usable, and these constitute
only 2% of the total questionnaires retrieved. Some of the questionnaires retrieved were partially
usable as few respondents did not completely fill up the questionnaire. Some questions mostly in
the section B part were left blank without ticking any option. These only constitute 12% of the
total questionnaires retrieved. Details of response rate analysis are shown in the table 4.1.

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Table 4.1 Frequency Distribution by Number of Questionnaires Administered and Retrieved
According to Organisations
Percent
NumberRetur Num Percent
Percent Num Percent Num Percent Retur ned & ber Percent Total
Num Num Retrie ber Not ber Retur ned & Partially Retur Returned Usable
ber ber ved Not Retur Retur ned Not PartiallyUsable ned & & Fully Number
Distri- Retrie retur ned ned Not Usable Usable Fully Usable Total
S/N
Organisations buted ved ned Usable Usable Usable
MTN
1 NIGERIA 20 18 90 2 10 1 6 3 17 14 77 17 78
GLOBACOM
2 NIGERA 20 18 90 2 10 1 6 4 22 13 72 17 94
FIRST BANK
3 PLC 15 14 93 1 7 1 7 4 29 9 64 13 93
STERLING 15
4 BANK PLC 12 80 3 20 1 8 1 8 10 83 11 91
KEYSTONE
5 BANK PLC 15 12 80 3 20 1 8 3 25 8 67 11 91
SGS
(Clearing &
Forwarding)
6 PLC 15 13 87 2 13 1 8 2 15 10 77 12 92
UNILEVER
7 NIGERIA PLC 25 22 88 3 12 1 5 5 28 16 73 21 95
SKYE BANK
8 PLC 25 23 92 2 8 1 4 8 35 14 61 22 96
IBTC BANK
9 PLC 25 23 92 2 8 2 9 9 39 12 52 21 91
NOBLE
SHOLTON
10 (Auditors) LTD 25 24 96 1 4 1 4 7 29 16 67 23 96

Source: Field Survey 2013.

One thousand and twenty (1020) copies out of one thousand two hundred (1200) questionnaires
administered to sampled respondents were duly completed and useable for this study. This
constitute 85per cent response rate. The high response rate of 85 per cent achieved in the study is
due to the persistent calls made on respondents and possibly because of the high interest the
respondents had in the study.

143
4.2 Data Analysis and Interpretation

4.2.1 Analysis of Demographic Data

This section comprises of respondents demographic data, frequency distribution of data relating
mobile phone usage and respondents preference density to marketing messages. Details of this
are shown in table 4.2 below.

Table 4.2 Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Socio- demographic Characteristics


ITEM Frequency Percent
Male 511 50.1
SEX Female 509 49.9
Total 1020 100
15-24 577 56.6
AGE 25-34 337 33
35-44 106 10.4
Total 1020 100
WAEC 657 64.4
B.Sc. 209 20.5
QUALIFI CATION M.Sc. 47 4.6
MBA 30 2.9
O.N.D 77 7.5
Total 1020 100
Single 790 77.5
MARITAL SATUS Married 224 22
Others 6 0.6
Total 1020 100
Undergraduate Full time 538 52.7
Undergraduate Part time 230 22.5
Post graduate Full time 38 3.7
STUDENT STATUS
Post graduate Part time 48 4.7

Total 854 83.7


Student 840 82.4
Employer 15 1.5
OCCUPATION Employee 151 14.8
Business Owner 14 1.4
Total 1020 100
Managerial 69 35.4
Supervisory 65 33.3
JOB POSITION Clerical 61 31.3
Total 195 100
Note: Frequency is for available data
Source: Field Survey 2013.

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Table 4.2 shows that respondents for this study include 511 (50.1%) of males and 509 (49.9%) of
females. This indicates that respondents for this study were evenly distributed into male and
female.

The respondents were distributed in 3 age groups as illustrated in Table 4.2.1; the age structure
of the respondents reveals that the largest age group is ages (15-24) group representing 577
(56.6%) followed by ages (25-34) group representing 337 (33%) and ages (35-44) representing
106 (10.4%) of the total sample. It can be concluded from Table 4.2, that most of the respondents
for this study fall into the younger age-group who are familiar with mobile services and
knowledgeable about new mobile technologies.

Table 4.2, also shows educational background of the respondents. With majority of the
respondents having at least WAEC certificate representing 657 (64.4% ) of the total sample.
Followed by respondents having B.Sc. degree representing 209 (20.5%) of the total sample.
Respondents having O.N.D certificate represents 77 (7.5%) of the total sample, and respondents
with M.Sc. and MBA degree represent 47 (4.6%) and 30 (2.9%) of the total respondents. It can
be concluded from Table 4.2 that the respondents were primarily well educated and should have
a basic understanding of mobile marketing services.

Table 4.2 shows that 77.5% which constitute 790 respondents of the total sample were single
while 224 (22%) of the respondents were married and only 6 (0.6%) of the respondents
represents others. This indicates that majority of the respondents were single and will probably
respond more to marketing messages.

Table 4.2 shows that respondents that were undergraduate full-time students constitute 538
(52.7%). Respondents that were undergraduate part-time students constitute 230 (22.5%).
Respondents that were postgraduate full-time students constitute 38 (3.7%) and 48 (4.7%)
represent postgraduate part-time students. This indicates that majority of the respondents were
undergraduate full-time students. Table 4.2 illustrates that 840 (82.4%) of the total sample of
respondents are students, 151 (14.8%) were employees, 15 (1.5%) employers while 14 (1.4%) of
the total sample are business owners. It can be concluded from Table 4.2 that the respondents
were primarily students who were more familiar with mobile phone services and usage. The

145
Table also shows that 69 (35.4%) of the respondents held managerial positions, 65 (33.3%) held
supervisory positions while 61 (31.3%) of the respondents held clerical positions.

4.2.2 Descriptive Analysis of Data on Mobile Phone usage.

This sections entails analysis of respondents type of mobile phone usage and usage patterns.
Details of this is shown in chart 4.1 beleow.

Chart 4.1 Frequency distribution of Respondents by Mobile phone Usage/Usage Pattern

Source: Field Survey 2013.

Charts 4.1, reveals that respondents mostly use their phones for SMS with 787 usage rate for
very often category, 774 for music, 737 for voice calls and web browsing, 691 for facebook, 675
for chatting, 591 for news and 517 for breaking, all in the very often category. This finding
implies that respondents were major users of SMS services. And that respondent may be
receptive to receiving SMS marketing messages on their phones as this is a major tool being used

146
by them. Also respondents may become sensitive to the kind of messages received through SMS
text as this is their most frequently used medium for communication.

4.2.2.1 Respondents Mobile Phone Usage Pattern by Gender.

This section entails the percentage distribution of respondents mobile phone usage and usage
patter by gender. This analysis was carried out in order to identify whether mobile phone users
gender influence their usage pattern of mobile phone services. Details of this is shown in chart
4.2 - 4.11.

Chart 4.2 demonstrates the different usage of SMS among gender groups. For the female gender,
82% use SMS very often, 16% use it sometimes and 2% never use this service.

Chart 4.2 SMS Phone Usage by Gender

Total 100% 100%


(n=504) (n=504)

Source: Field Survey 2013.

Whereas for the male gender, 74% use SMS very often while 23% use it sometimes and 3%
never use it. This shows that female gender are regular users and are more familiar with the use
of SMS services than the male gender. This implies that advertisers should communicate more
using SMS services to their female potential and intending customers.

Chart 4.3 demonstrates the different usage of voice calls among gender. For the female gender,
76% use MMS very often, 14% use it sometimes and 10% never use this service.

147
Chart 4.3 Voice calls Phone Usage by Gender

Voice calls /Gender


100
80
percentage 60
40
20
0 Very often
Male Female
Sometimes
Very often 79 76
Never
Sometimes 14 14
Never 7 10
Total 100% 100%
(n=500) (n=499) Usage Pattern

Source: Field Survey 2013.


Whereas for the male gender, 79% use voice calls very often while 14% use it sometimes and
7% never use it. This shows that the male gender are regular users of voice calls services and are
more familiar with this service than the female gender.

Chart 4.4 MMS Phone Usage by Gender

MMS/Gender
70
60
50
Percentage 40
30
20
10
0 Very often
Male Female
Sometimes
Very often 29 66
Never
Sometimes 47 18
Never 24 16
Total 100% 100% Usage Pattern
(n=492) (n=499)
Source: Field Survey 2013.

Chart 4.4 demonstrates usage of MMS among gender. For the female gender, 66% use MMS
very often, 18% use it sometimes and 16% never use this service. For the male gender, 29%
use it often, 247% use sometimes while 24% never use this service. This indicates that the
female gender constitute regular users of MMS phone service. This implies that the organisations
can communicate with their female customers through the use of MMS service.

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Chart 4.5 demonstrates the usage of phone videos among the gender group. The table shows that
both male and the female gender are regular users of phone video service.

Chart. 4.5 Videos Phone Usage by Gender

Videos/Gender
60
50
40
Percentage 30
20
10
0 Very often
Male Female
Sometimes
Very often 46 51
Never
Sometimes 42 40
Never 12 9
Total 100% 100% Usage Pattern
(n=492) (n=487)
Source: Field Survey 2013.

Chart 4.6 Usage of Mobile Phone News Service by Gender

News/Gender
80
60
Percentage 40
20
0
Male Female Very often
Very often 65 54 Sometimes
Sometimes 31 37 Never
Never 4 7
Total 100% 100% Usage Pattern
(n=495) (n=494)

Source: Field Survey 2013.

Chart 4.6 demonstrates gender usage of mobile phone news service. The figure shows that the
male gender often use the news service than the female gender while the female genders are
sometimes users of this service than the male gender. This implies that both genders constitute a
market target for organisations in delivery news services both more focus should be made on the
male gender.

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Chart 4.7 Sports Phone Usage by Gender
80
70
60
50
Percentage 40
30
20 Very often
10 Sometimes
0
Male Female Never
Very often 67 37
Sometimes 28 44
Never 4 19
Total 100% 100% Usage Pattern
(n=495) (n=494)

Source: Field Survey 2013.


Chart 4.7 shows that the male genders are regular users of mobile phone sports service with 67%
male respondents indicating their usage for the very often category and only 37% female
respondents indicating their usage for this category. These indicate that the male gender will be
more receptive to receiving marketing messages on sports information than the female gender.

Chart 4.8 Facebook Phone Usage by Gender

Facebook/Gender
80
60
Percentage 40
20
0
Male Female Very often
Very often 70 69 Sometimes
Sometimes 25 25 Never
Never 5 6
Total 100% 100% Usage Pattern
(n=498) (n=494)
Source: Field Survey 2013.
Chart 4.8 indicates that both the male and the female gender often use mobile phone facebook
service. But the male gender constitutes a more frequent user than the female gender. Both
gender constitute a target market for organizations using the facebeook platform in
communicating their product and service to their respondents, as both the male and the female
gender often use their mobile device in assessing their facebook page.

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Chart 4.9 demonstrates gender usage of mobile web browsing. The chart shows that both genders
browse the internet with their mobile device on a regular basis. This implies that

Chart 4.9 Mobile Web browsing by Gender

Web browsing/Gender
100
80
60
Percentage 40
20
0 Very often
Male Female
Sometimes
Very often 79 70
Never
Sometimes 17 23
Never 4 7
Total 100% 100% Usage Pattern
(n=495) (n=491)

Source: Field Survey 2013.


Organizations can communicates timely and relevant marketing information to their target
markets using this platform as both genders are regular users of the web via their mobile devices.

Chart 4.10 Mobile Phone Chatting by Gender

Chatting/Gender
80
60
Percentage 40
20
0
Male Female Very often
Very often 69 68 Sometimes
Sometimes 26 25 Never
Never 5 7
Total 100% 100% Usage Pattern
(n=496) (n=494)

Source: Field Survey 2013.

Chart 4.10 demonstrates gender usage of mobile phone chatting. The figure shows that both
genders often use their mobile device in chatting. With the male gender having 69% responses
for the very often usage and 26% responses for the sometimes usage. And the female gender
having 70% for the very often usage and 25% for the sometimes usage. This implies that
organizations can engage both their male and female customers on interactive discussions on

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timely and relevant issues regarding their products and services and also create a chat room for
discussions among their customers.

Chart 4.11 Mobile E-mail Usage by Gender

E-mail/Gender
70
60
50
Percentage 40
30
20
10 Very often
0
Male Female Sometimes
Very often 61 58
Never
Sometimes 33 33
Never 6 9
Total 100% 100% Usage Pattern
(n=497) (n=492)
Source: Field Survey 2013

Chart 4.11 shows gender usage of mobile e-mail. The chart shows that both genders often use
their mobile device in assessing their e-mails. The male gender more often uses their mobile
device in assessing their e-mails than the female gender. This implies that organisations can
communicate timely and relevant marketing information to both genders using e-mails as they
(both genders) are regular users of mobile e-mails.

4.2.2.2 Respondents Mobile Phone Usage Pattern by Age group

This section entails the percentage distribution of respondents mobile phone usage and usage
pattern by age group. This analysis was carried out in order to know whether the age bracket of
mobile phone users influence their usage pattern of mobile phone services. Details of this is
shown in chart 4.12 - 4.16.

Chart 4.12 demonstrates mobile voice calls usage pattern of respondents by age group. Details of
the result is shown in Chart 4.12.

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Chart 4.12 Voice calls Phone Usage by Age group
100
90
80
70
60
Percentage 50
40
30 Very often
20
10 Sometimes
0
15-24 25-34 35-44 Never
Very often 75 80 86
Sometimes 16 12 10
Never 9 10 4
Total 100% 100% 100% Usage Pattern
(n=569) (n=326) (n=121)

Source: Field Survey 2013

From chart 4.12, age group 18-24 use voice calls more often than other age group. For the age
group15-24, 75% out of the total number of 569 use the service very often, a rate extremely
larger than the 25-34 age group, and 35-544 age group. This implies that as the age is rising,
voice calls is declining. Organisations should focus more on the younger age-groups, as they
constitute are more familiar and are more receptive to new technologies.
Chart 4.13 demonstrates gender usage of SMS services. The chart indicates that for the age
group15-24, 79% of the total number of 568 use the service very often, a rate extremely larger
than the 25-34 age group, and 35-44 age group.

Chart4.13 SMS Phone Usage by Age group

SMS/Age group
100
80
60
Percentage 40
20
0 Very often
15-24 25-34 35-44
Sometimes
Very often 79 79 70
Never
Sometimes 19 18 26
Never 2 3 4
Total 100% 100% 100% Usage Pattern
(N=568) (N=331) (N=105)
.
Source: Field Survey 2013
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This shows that as the age is rises, SMS usage is declines. This indicate that the younger users
are more familiar with the use of SMS than the older users of which the ability to gain new
capabilities is declining through the years. Findings from these implies that organisations
intending to and are using marketing messages need to consider the demographic variables of
their current and potential customers in using SMS service in communicating to their target
markets.

Chart 4.14 shows MMS mobile phone usage by age group. The findings in this section is similar

Chart 4.14 MMS Phone Usage by Age group

MMS/Age group
60
50
40
Percentage 30
20
10
0 Very often
15-24 25-34 35-44
Sometimes
Very often 30 24 33
Never
Sometimes 48 48 41
Never 22 28 26
Total 100% 100% 100% Usage Pattern
(n=560) (n=312) (n=100)
Source: Field Survey 2013.

to that obtained for SMS service usage. The age-group 15-24, are the major users of MMS
service compared to the other age-group. It was also noticed that as the age is rising, MMS usage
decreases. This shows that there is an inverse relationship between MMS usage and age.
Younger age-group will be more receptive and will have more positive attitude towards using
MMS service than the older age-group. Orgainsations should focus more on using the MMS
service in communicating marketing messages to the younger age-group as they are more
familiar and are regular users of this service than the older age group.

Chart 4.15 demonstrates gender usage of mobile news service. For the age group18-24, 58%
out of the total number of 566 use the service very often, a rate extremely larger than the 25-
34 age group, and the 35-44 age group. Also for age-group 15-24, 36% out of the total

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number of 566 use the service sometimes, this rate is higher than 105 of age-group 25-34 and
age-group 35-44.
Chart 4.15 Mobile Phone News Usage by Age Group

News/Age group
70
60
50
Percentage 40
30
20
10
0 Very often
15-24 25-34 35-44
Sometimes
Very often 58 62 61
Never
Sometimes 36 33 34
Never 6 5 5
Total 100% 100% 100% Usage Pattern
(n=566) (n=312) (n=101)
Source: Field Survey 2013

This implies that the younger age-group will have a more positive attitude and will be more
willing to receive marketing messages relating to news and information than the older age-group.

Chart 4.16 demonstrates the use of mobile chatting by different age-group. The findings in this
chart are similar to the findings of SMS and MMS service usage by age group.

Chart 4.16 Mobile Chatting Usage by Age Group

Total 100% 100% 100%


(n=566) (n=321) (n=103)

Source: Field Survey 2013

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For the age group15-24, 73% use the service very often, a rate larger than that of the 25-34
age group, and 35-44 age group. This shows that younger age-groups will be more receptive to
engage in interactive chat room discussions via their mobile device. Findings from the above
figures indicate that the younger age-groups are the prevent users of mobile technologies as they
are more familiar with the usage of mobile services than the older ones. Organisations
communication through the mobile device will become more effective, efficient and productive
if marketing messages are tailored to the appropriate age-groups.

4.2.2.3 Respondents Mobile Phone usage by Occupation

This section entails the percentage distribution of respondents mobile phone usage and usage
patter by occupation. This analysis was carried out in order to know whether the occupation of
mobile phone users influence their usage pattern of mobile phone services. Details of this is
shown in chart 4.17 and chart 4.18.

Occupation was used in assessing mobile service usage pattern of respondents. The result in
chart 4.17 shows that students are regular users of SMS services. For the student occupation
group, 79% out of the total number of 826 use the service very often, a rate larger than that of
Employee occupation group, employer group and the business owner occupation group.
This shows that the student group are the most frequent users of SMS nobile serive usage.

Chart 4.17 SMS Phone Usage by Occupation

SMS/Occupation
100
80
60
Percentage 40
20
0
Business Very often
Student Employee Employer
owner Sometimes
Very often 79 71 93 86 Never
Sometimes 18 29 7 14
Never 3 0 0 0
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% Usage Pattern
(n=826) (n=149) (n=15) (n=14)

Source: Field Survey 2013

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This is because students are more familiar with the use of SMS services and are more
knowledgeable in mobile service technology than any other group. But the student are not
earning large income compared to the working group as only few of them constitute the student
working group. Organizations can develop marketing programmes that will suit their income
level as the student group constitutes a large target market that cannot be ignored.

Chart 4.18 shows respondents web browsing usage by occupation. This finding is similar to the
findings of respondents SMS usage by occupation. The student group constitutes the major user
of mobile web browsing. For the student group 74% out of the total number of 816 use the
service very often, compared to other occupation category.

Chart. 4.18 Mobile Web browsing Usage by Occupation

Web browsing/Occupation
90
80
70
60
Percentage 50
40
30
20
10
0 Very often
Business
Student Employee Employer Sometimes
owner
Very often 74 76 85 67 Never

Sometimes 20 22 15 25
Never 6 2 0 8
Total 100% 100% 100% 100%
Usage Pattern
(n=816) (n=145) (n=13) (n=12)

Source: Field Survey 2013

This implies that students are more familiar with mobile service usage. They are information
seekers, innovative and are more receptive to ideas and mobile technologies. The student group
constitutes vibrant and promising target markets for organizations to communicate and
interactive with using the mobile web, as the students are major users of mobile web browsing

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4.2.2.4 Respondents Mobile Phone usage Pattern by Educational Background

This section entails the percentage distribution of respondents mobile phone usage type and
pattern by educational background of the respondents. This analysis was carried out in order to
know whether educational background of mobile phone users influence their usage pattern of
mobile phone services. Details of this is shown in chart 4.19.

Chart 4.19 SMS Mobile Usage by Educational Background


100
90
80
70
60
Percentage 50
40
30
20 Very often
10
0 Sometimes
WAEC O.N.D B.Sc. M.Sc. MBA
Never
Very often 78 92 73 15 87
Sometimes 19 7 27 81 13
Never 3 1 0 4 0
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
(n=75) Usage Pattern
(n=646) (n=204) (n=46) (n=30

Source: Field Survey 2013

Results from chart 4.19 shows that respondents with WAEC qualification have 78% out of the
total number of 646 represents those that use the service very often. This rate is extremely higher
than that of B.Sc. holders, O.N.D holders and MBA holders looking at the total number of
respondents. This indicates that there is an inverse relationship between SMS usage and
educational qualification. This implies that the lower the educational level the more active people
are with SMS usage and the more responsive they are to mobile marketing activities. This is so
because people with higher educational qualification tend to be more informed, and conscious of
their privacy and perceive marketing messages not opted for as intrusion into their personal lives.
4.2.3 Respondents Rate of Receiving Mobile Marketing Messages

This sections entails the percentage distribution of respondents rate of receiving mobile
marketing messages. Respondents were asked to indicate the rate at which they receive
marketing messages on their mobile phones. Details of this is shown in table 4.3 below.

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Table 4.3 Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Rate of Receiving Marketing Messages
S/N Marketing Messages Daily Many Once a Several Once a Do Not
times a Week times a Month receive
day Week
% % % % % %
1 Product information 7.5 7.6 8.3 11.9 6.7 3.4
2 Promotional Messages (text-2- 4.5
win) 7.8 8.1 8.1 12.7 6.3
3 Free: SMS, call credit, internet
services 8.1 7.3 7.8 8.5 7.4 2.3

4 Entertainment (jokes, games, Chat) 7.2 7.9 9.0 9.2 6.6 4.5
5 Information (weather, job Vacancy,
traffic flow) 6.7 6.6 7.7 7.2 8.6 9.1
6 Invitation for voting in a TV show 12.5
5.4 5.7 6.7 6.2 10.8
7 Invitation for voting in a TV
contest/game 5.4 7.2 7.3 5.9 10 14.8
8 Music downloads 8.3 10.8 6.9 6.9 7.5 6.8
9 Caller/Ring tunes download
8.7 9.7 6.7 6.5 7.7 4.5
10 Breaking news 9.4 7.5 7.5 6.1 7 8.0
11 Sports 8.7 7.1 7.8 6.0 7.3 9.1
12 Inspirational (Quotes, devotional)
8.4 7.7 8.7 5.8 6.7 10.2
13 Lifestyle (Health/fitness, fashion,
love tips) 8.4 6.7 7.6 6.1 7.5 10.2
Total 100% 100% 100 % 100% 100% 100%
(n=3150) (n=831) (n=3557) (n=100) (n=4038) (n=88)
Note: Frequency is for available data
Source: Field Survey 2013

Tables 4.3 indicates that respondents receive daily, weekly and monthly mobile marketing
messages on their phones. Respondents getting mobile marketing messages once a day ranges
from 5.4% to 9.4%, respondents for many times a day messages ranges from 5.7% to 10.8%,
respondents for once a week messages ranges from 6.7% to 9%, respondents for several
messages in a week ranges from 5.8% to 12.7% and respondents for once a month message
ranges from 6.3% to 10.8% respectively. This indicates that respondents receive regular
marketing messages on their mobile device. Implying that Marketing strategies utilizing the
psychology of advertising posit that what potential consumers receive by way of messages can
influence their purchase behaviour. Therefore, the data displayed in table 4.3 on rate of receiving
mobile marketing messages also presents an alternative scenario of the possibility of received
messages leading to increased consumer interest that may beget purchase behaviour.

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According to Venkatesh and Kumar (2004), repeating marketing messages to customers will
translate into awareness, interest and learning, possibly bringing about a state of elation and more
positive attitude towards the brand or product, and this may eventually result in a purchase
action. This is possible where consumers of marketing messages already have a predisposition to
welcome and utilize such messages. There is the likelihood of such messages generating
increased consumers interest. Broussard (2000), stated that effective frequency in brand
communication is focused on achieving changes in awareness levels at the beginning of sending
marketing messages to consumers otherwise, increased frequency in brand communication will
lead to loss of interest in the product and the marketing messages becomes annoying and
offensive to the consumers.

Repetition of marketing messages is effective only to an extent that the positive effects of
repetition may increase up to a certain level, until such marketing messages start to wear-out, and
it may no longer have an effect or the effect may be negative. As a result, the consumer may
delete or ignore such marketing messages. At this point, the relationship between the rate of
receiving marketing messages and behavioural response will be negative, resulting in an
unfavourable attitude.

4.2.4 Respondents Preference Density for Mobile Marketing Messages

This sections entails percentage distribution of respondents preference density to receiving


mobile marketing messages. Findings in this section provides information on mobile phone
users opt in demand for marketing messages. Respondents were asked to indicate how often they
would like to receive marketing messages on their mobile device. Details of their responses are
shown in the table 4.4 below.

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Table 4.4 Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Preference Density to Marketing Messages
Daily Weekly Monthly

Do not
S/ Twice or Twice or Twice or want to
n Marketing Messages Once More Once More Once More receive
% % % % % % %
Product information
1 10.6 6.2 7.8 7.1 7.4 8.6 5.4
2 Promotional Messages 6.8 7.4 8 9 7.9 11.1 8.1
Free: SMS, call credit,
3 internet services 7.8 8.8 6.9 8.6 5.4 8.1 5.4
Entertainment (jokes,
4 games, Chat) 7.5 8.5 9.3 7.1 5.4 7.2 8.1
Information job
(Vacancy weather,
5 traffic flow) 8.1 8.2 6.9 8.8 6.3 5.7 8.1
Invitation for voting in
6 a TV show 6.5 5.6 9.5 11.5 9.1 8.1
Invitation for voting in
7 a TV contest /game 6.1 5.5 9.7 8.1 12.5 8.6 8.1
8 Music downloads 7.4 7 8.1 8.4 9.2 5.6 10.8
Caller/Ring tunes
9 download 6.4 7.5 7.2 7.6 10.5 6.4 8.1
10 Breaking news 8.7 9.5 5.1 6.4 6.2 6.8 8.1
Sports
11 8.4 8.2 6.7 6.6 7.1 7.5 8.1
Inspirational (Quotes,
12 devotional) 8.2 9 7.1 7.4 5.1 8.6 5.4
Lifestyle(Health/fitness,
13 fashion, love tips) 7.4 8.8 7.8 8 5.5 7.7 8.1
Total
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
(n=2933) (n=4232) (n=1544) (n=1316) (n=2018) (n=440) (n=37)
Note: Frequency is for available data
Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.4 shows that respondents have preference for receiving more of daily marketing
messages than receiving weekly and monthly mobile marketing messages. From the table,
401(9.5%) respondents indicated their preference for receiving twice or more daily marketing
messages. Respondents with preference for getting inspirational messages include 379 (9%),
while 372(8.8%) of the respondent indicated their preference for getting discounts and lifestyle
marketing messages.

Respondents with preference for receiving entertainment messages include 360(8.5%),


316(7.5%) respondents indicated their preference for music downloads while 295(7%) of the
respondents indicated their preference for getting caller/ring tunes. Respondent who showed
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preference for getting sports messages include 349(8.2%) while 345(8.2%) of the respondents
indicated preference for receiving informational marketing messages. The table also shows that
262 (6.2%) of the respondents indicated preference for receiving product information messages.
A total of 252 (12.5%) of the respondents indicated preference for getting monthly marketing
messages on competition while 233(11.5%) respondents indicated preference for receiving
invitation for voting in a TV show/game messages.

Findings from table 4.4 indicate that respondents were willing to receive twice or more daily
marketing messages on breaking news, inspirational and lifestyles, coupons and discounts,
entertainment, general information, sports and product information. This implies that Consumers
desire marketing messages that meet their need for news, entertainment (Music, ring tunes,
games, jokes, sports, competition), information (weather, traffic, flight), lifestyle, promotions,
discounts and product/service information.

The findings of table 4.4, reflects that consumers have a positive predisposition to getting mobile
marketing messages that are relevant to their work, personal life and wellbeing. The implication
of these findings is that mobile marketers can induce a favourable purchase behaviour from
customers by sending to them relevant marketing messages that meet their needs. And as such,
mobile marketers can achieve their goal of locating, reaching and building brand relationship
with customers.

4.2.4.1 Respondents Preference Density for Marketing Messages by Age group.


This sections entails the frequency distribution of respondents preference density to receiving
mobile marketing messages by age group. This was carried out in order to know which age
group is more receptive and willing to receive mobile marketing messags on their phones.
Details of their responses are shown in chart 4.20 and chart 4.21.

Chart 4.20 reveals the age group (15-24) of respondents preference density for marketing
messages. The tables depict respondents willingness to receive the various marketing messages
based on their age groups. For the age group 15-24, 186 indicates their preference to receive
product information once daily, 135 indicate their preference to receive promotional messages
thrice or more daily,127 indicate their preference to receive entertainment messages thrice or
more daily. Also, 120 respondents indicates their preference to receive general information on

162
(weather, job Vacancy, traffic flow) once daily, 107 indicate their preference to receive invitation
to vote in a show/contests once daily,130 indicate their preference to receive messages on
music downloads once daily.

Chart 4.20 Respondents Preference Density for Marketing Messages by Ages (15-24)

Source: Field Survey 2013

In this age group, 117 indicate their preference to receive messages on download (caller tunes)
once daily, 147 indicate their preference to receive messages on breaking news thrice or more
daily, 147 indicate their preference to receive sports information once daily while 132 and
120 indicate their preference to receive messages on inspirational quotes and life styles thrice or
more daily. Results from this chart show that age-group 15-24 are receptive to receive
frequent marketing messages in areas that are relevant to their need for information,
entertainment, fun, pleasure and lifestyle.

Chart 4.21 depicts preference density for marketing messages of respondents within the age
group 25-34. For once daily message, 104 indicate preference to receive product
information, 98 indicate preference to receive messages on general information, 100 indicates
preference to receive breaking news messages, 80 for sports information, 82 for quotes and 77

163
for lifestyle messages. For thrice or more daily message, 77 indicate their preference for
breaking news, 63 for sports information, 68 for quotes and 58 for lifestyle messages. For once
a month Message, 103 indicate preference for invitation to vote in a contest/show, 90 indicate
preference for ring tunes downloads and 72 for music downloads.

Chart 4.21 Respondents Preference Density for Marketing Messages by Ages (25-34)

Source: Field Survey 2013

Findings from chart 4.21 show that the young adults were more interested in receiving frequent
messages on breaking news, sport and lifestyle information. These findings indicate that age-
group 25-34 is more sensitive to frequency of marketing messages. There exist an inverse
relationship between age and attitude to frequent marketing messages. The findings from chart
4.21 indicates that the higher the age, the less positive people become to receiving frequent
marketing messages. And the higher the age, the more the perceive risk and concern for privacy
issues.

164
4.2.4.2 Respondents Preference Density for Marketing Messages by Gender
This sections entails the frequency distribution of respondents preference density to receiving
mobile marketing messages by gender. This was carried out in order to know whether
respondents preference density for mobile marketing messages differ based on gender. Details of
their responses are shown in chart 4.22 and chart 4.23.

Chart 4.22 demonstrates male gender preference density for marketing messages. Details of their
responses are shown in the chart below. For once daily message, 148 indicates their preference
to receive product information, 94 indicates their preference to receive promotional messages,
124 indicates their preference to receive general information (weather, job vacancy, traffic flow),
97 for music downloads, 121 for sports information, and 128 indicates their preference for
quotes.

Chart 4.22 Male Respondents Preference Density for Marketing Messages

Source: Field Survey 2013

For thrice or more daily messages, 105 indicates their preference for entertainment, 100 for
ring tune downloads and 136 indicates their preference for breaking news. The result of these
findings implies that the male gender have preference to receive marketing messages in areas of

165
entertainment, music and ring tune downloads, breaking news and sports information. Findings
from chart 4.22 also show that the male gender are sensitive to the type of marketing messages
received. As they only indicates willingness to receive more messages that are of relevance to
their informational and entertainment needs.

Chart 4.23 depicts female respondents preference density for marketing messages. Details of
their responses are shown in the chart below. Chart 4.23 reveals that the female gender are
receptive to receiving frequent marketing messages on their mobile devices. Marketing messages
for thrice or more daily includes entertainment, breaking news, inspirational quotes and
lifestyle messages. Messages for once daily range from product information, promotional
messages, entertainment, general information (weather, job vacancy), invitation to vote in a
show/contest, music and ring tunes downloads, breaking news, quotes and lifestyle messages.

Chart 4.23 Female Respondents Preference Density for Marketing Messages

Source: Field Survey 2013

Findings from chart 4.23 implies that the female gender like to receive frequent marketing
messages on entertainment, inspirational quotes and life styles, promotions, invitation to vote in

166
a show/contests, breaking news, music and ringing tune downloads. They have less negative
attitude to frequency of marketing messages. The female gender are more receptive to
entertainment and lifestyle messages.

Findings from the analysis above indicates that organisations need to consider the demographic
variables of mobile phone users who constitute their target markets in planning mobile marketing
messages and advertising programmes intended for mobile phone users.

4.2.5 Respondents Behavioural Response to Marketing Messages

This sections entails the frequency distribution of respondents behavioural response to marketing
messages. This analysis was carried out in order to evaluate how mobile phone users respond to
marketing messages sent to their mobile phone device. Details of their responses are shown table
4.5.

Table 4.5 shows respondents behavioural response to marketing messages. The table shows that
64 (6.3%) of the respondents would delete the message immediately, 67(6.6%) would ignore the
message completely, 120(11.8%) would read it occasionally, 126(12.4%) would read and accept
the message, 179(17.5%) would read and reject and 457(44.8%) would read the message
immediately without taking any action.

Table 4.5 Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Behavioural Response to Marketing


Messages
Response to Marketing Messages Frequency Percent
Ignore it completely 67 6.6
Read it Occasionally 120 11.8
Read it Immediately 457 45.1
Read and accept 126 12.4
Read and reject 179 17.7
Delete it immediately 64 6.3
Total 1013 100
Note: Frequency is for available data
Source: Field Survey 2013

The table depicts that mobile phone users are open to marketing messages as majority of them
read such messages immediately they are received. The low behavioural response to accepting
marketing messages could imply that consumers perceives the mobile phone device as an

167
extension of their personal life and as such organization should always seek their consent and
permission before sending such messages. As consumers only value messages that are of
relevance and personalized to meeting a specified need. Organisations must consider various
factors that could \deter or generate favourable response to marketing messages in planning
marketing strategies for mobile services.

4.2.5.1 Respondents Behavioural Response to Marketing Messages by Demographic


Variables.

This section entails the percentage distribution of respondents behavioural response to marketing
messages by demographic characteristics of the respondents. This analysis was carried out in
order to identify whether differences will exist in respondents behavioural response to marketing
messages based on their demographic characteristics. Details of their responses are shown in
table 4.6 - table 4.9.

Table 4.6 shows the percentage distribution of respondents behavioural response to marketing
messages by gender. This analysis was carried out in order to assess whether there will be a
difference in respondents behavioural response to marketing messages based on gender category.
Details of this are shown in the table 4.6 below.

Table 4.6 Percentage Distribution of Respondents Behavioural Response to Marketing


Messages by Gender
Gender
Response
Male Female Total
Ignore it Completely 55 45 100%
(n=67)
Read it Occasionally 62 38 100%
(n=120)
Read it Immediately 48 52 100%
(n=457)
Read and accept 51 49 100%
(n=126)
Read and reject 44 56 100%
(n=179)
Delete it Immediately 53 47 100%
(n=64)
Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.6 show that both male and female gender have similar behavioural response pattern to
marketing marketing. For ignore it completely response pattern, 55% responded for male and

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45% for female. For read it occasionally response pattern, 62% for male and 38% for female.
For read and accept response pattern, 51% responded for male and 49% for female. For
delete it immediately response pattern, 53% responded for male and 47% for female. These
findings indicate that both genders are likely to read marketing messages immediately and they
will both participate in marketing programmes. Findings from this table reveal that there is no
gender differences in behavioural response to marketing messages. As both genders are likely to
react similialy to marketing messages received on their mobile device.

Table 4.7 presents the percentage distribution of respondents behavioural response to


marketing messages by age group. Analysis of this table will help to assess whether
behavioural response to marketing messages and mobile phone users age are related. Details
of this are shown in the table 4.7 below.

Table 4.7 Percentage Distribution of Respondents Behavioural Response to Marketing


Messages by Age
Age
Response
15-24 25-34 35-44 Total
Ignore it Completely 72 22 6 100%
(n=67)
Read it Occasionally 48 37 15 100%
(n=120)
Read it Immediately 59 33 8 100%
(n=457)
Read and accept 55 30 15 100%
(n=126)
Read and reject 57 33 10 100%
(n=179)
Delete it Immediately 45 41 14 100%
(n=64)
Source: Field Survey 2013

Results from table 4.7 show that for age-group 15-24, 59% responded to read it
immediately a rate extremely larger than 33% of age-group 25-34 and 8% of age-group 35-
44. From the table, it can be seen that age-group 15-24 had the highest response rate for all
categories and held a more positive response compared to other age-group. This finding reveals
that the younger age group are more responsive and hold a more positive behavioural response to
marketing messages. And that there is an inverse influence of age on behavioural response to
marketing marketing. This indicates that as mobile phone users get older, they tend to be less
responsive to marketing marketings.

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Findings from table 4.7 also indicate that behavioural response to marketing messages differs
according to age -group. As there exist significant differences in mobile service usage between
young people and older age groups. The first two groups whose ages are less than 34 are more
actively involved in mobile marketing and held more favourable behavioural response to
marketing messages than the age group above 34. Organizations or marketers planning to use
the mobile devices in communicating with their target markets might consider this study that
young people are the most active users of mobile services. They are more familiar with mobile
messages and hold more favourable response to marketing messages.

Table 4.8 depicts the percentage distribution of respondents behavioural response to marketing
messages by educational qualification. This analysis was carried out in order to assess whether
educational qualification of mobile phone users will cause a difference in their behavioural
response to marketing messages. Details of this is shown in table 4.8 below.

Table 4.8 Percentage Distribution of Respondents Behavioural Response to Marketing Messages


by Educational Qualification
Response Educational Qualification
WAEC B.Sc. M.Sc. MBA O.N.D Total
Ignore it Completely 70 19 3 0 8 100%
(n=67)
Read it Occasionally 51 35 4 4 6 100%
(n=120)
Read it Immediately 67 18 5 3 7 100%
(n=457)
Read and accept 64 18 4 4 10 100%
(n=126)
Read and reject 69 15 6 3 7 100%
(n=179)
Delete it Immediately 52 31 6 3 8 100%
(n=64)
Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.8 reveals that respondents with lower educational qualification participated more in
marketing messages and held more favourable response compared to those with higher
qualifications. This finding indicates that there exist differences in behavioural response to
marketing messages based on level of educational qualification of the mobile user. The
Behavioural response of people with lower educational status differs significantly from those
with higher educational status. Respondents with lower educational status hold a more
favourable response rate than those with higher educational status. Organizations or marketers

170
planning to use the mobile service platform might consider that people with higher educational
status are the ones that earn more money and such people can also form part of their targets
markets.

Table 4.9 depicts the the percentage distribution respondents of behavioural response to
marketing messages by occupation. This analysis was carried out in order to assess whether there
exist differences in mobile phone users behavioural response to marketing messages based on
occupation. Details of this is shown in table 4.9 below. Table 4.9 shows that students have the
highest response rate to marketing messages compared with others.

Table 4.9 Percentage Distribution of Respondents Behavioural Response to Marketing


Messages by Occupation
Response Occupation
Business
Student Employer Employee Total
Owner
Ignore it Completely 92 0 8 0 100%
(n=67)
Read it Occasionally 70 2 26 2 100%
(n=120)
Read it Immediately 84 1 13 2 100%
(n=457)
Read and accept 87 1 11 1 100%
(n=126)
Read and reject 85 1 14 0 100%
(n=179)
Delete it Immediately 67 6 25 2 100%
(n=64)
Source: Field Survey 2013
Table 4.9 shows that students are more active in the usage of mobile services. The above also
indicate that the student category are more responsive and hold a more positive behavioral
response to marketing messages than any other group. This finding depicts that students
constitute a promising segment that organizations or marketers should consider when planning
marketing and advertising programmes on mobile devices. Also, this finding indicate that there
exist differences in behavioural response to marketing messages based on occupation. Students
are more responsive to marketing messages than any other group.

Organizations or marketers planning to use mobile services in communicating and engaging its
target markets may need to know that students do not usually have steady sources of regular
income. Few of these students earn their living by combining work and study. A message sent to

171
them for free will have more impact on their attitude than the one that requires payment. Their
behaviour towards marketing messages may be affected by increase in income or steady source
of income which may culminate in favourable response.

Findings from the above analysis reveal that demographic variables of mobile phone users have a
significant impact on the various dimensions of experience and behavioural responses to mobile
communications and marketing messages.

4.2.6 Descriptive Analysis of Data on Relevant Variables


This section focuses on respondents responses to questions relating to marketing messages,
consumers attitude and purchase behaviour. Respondents were requested to answer the questions
by indicating whether they strongly agree, agree, Undecided, disagree, or strongly
disagree with the given statements.

4.2.6.1 Analysis of Data on Promotional Messages


The first set of questions relates to promotional marketing messages. Responses from
respondents in table 4.10, below show that respondents agree that promotional information on
products and services are received on their mobile device.

Table 4.10 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Promotional SMS Messages


Responses SMS on price discounts SMS adverts on free calls SMS on access to downloads
Strongly disagree 19.9 3.7 2.9
Disagree 2.2 6.8 6.8
Undecided 4.5 9.6 10.6
Agree 12.3 47.8 45.2
Strongly agree 61.2 32.1 34.5
Total 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.

Table 4.10 above indicates that over 73.5% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that
they like to receive promotional marketing messages, while 22.1% disagreed with this statement.
From these finding, it can be deduced that respondents are receptive to receiving promotional
messages of products and services on their mobile phones. And that respondents view marketing
messages as a good source of getting promotional information on products/services.

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4.2.6.2 Analysis of Data on Relational Messages
Responses from respondents in table 4.11, below show that respondents agreed that
product/service information are received on their mobile device. The table below indicate details
of their responses.

Table 4.11 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Relational SMS Messages


Timely information Information on Latest Information on product
Responses on new product news usage tips
Strongly disagree 3.3 3.8 2.5
Disagree 9.2 11.0 7.5
Undecided 12.5 11.2 9.6
Agree 54.3 45.8 53.1
Strongly agree 20.7 28.2 27.2
Total 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.
Table 4.11 shows that over 70% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that they like to
receive relational SMS messages of products/service, while over 10% disagreed and were
undecided with this statement. From these finding, it can deduced that respondents are receptive
to receiving relational marketing messages. And that respondents perceived marketing messages
as a good source of getting product/service information.

4.2.6.3 Analysis of Data on Personalization of Messages


Table 4.12 indicates respondents responses to five questions relating to personalization of
marketing messages. Responses from sampled respondents showed that they are receptive to
receiving marketing messages that are personalized to their needs, subscribed by them and the
ones they are at liberty to determine the time and form of delivery. Details of their responses are
shown below.

Table 4.12 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Personalization of SMS Messages


Responses I like to receive I like to receive I like to I like to receive I like the
SMS relevant SMS which I receive SMS SMS delivered at freedom to
to my need personally on store myconvenient select the
subscribe to. location time form of SMS
Strongly disagree 2.7 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3
Disagree 7.3 9.5 7.9 11.8 13.5
Undecided 9.5 8.5 11.1 16.0 17.9
Agree 47.5 47.5 54.1 48.4 44.3
Strongly agree 33 30.4 22.8 19.6 19.9
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.

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Table 4.12 shows that over 60% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that they like to
receive personalization of marketing messages, while over 10% disagreed and are undecided
with this statement. From these findings, it can deduced that respondents are more likely to
welcome marketing messages tailored towards their personal needs and to which they have
indicated interest.

4.2.6.4 Analysis of Data on Interactivity of Messages


Table 4.13 indicates respondents responses to five questions relating to interactivity of
marketing messages. Analysis from the table showed that sampled respondents are receptive to
receive marketing messages that will enable them interact the organization. Details of their
responses are shown below.

Table 4.13 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Interactivity of SMS Message


SMS involving SMS to vote SMS on a SMS aiding SMS on
downloading of in a TV show radio talk communication text-to-win
Responses items show with the advertiser
Strongly disagree 4.5 9.6 7.6 6.1 12.5
Disagree 15.0 27.1 23.2 16.1 22.8
Undecided 18.0 18.7 21.0 16.8 18.3
Agree 44.6 33.8 35.5 47.5 34.8
Strongly agree 17.8 10.8 12.6 13.6 11.6
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.
Table 4.13 show that over 40% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that they like to
receive marketing messages that engages them in an activity, while over 15% disagreed and over
5% strongly disagreed with this statement. It can be deduced from these findings that
respondents are more likely to welcome marketing messages that engages them in an activity.

4.2.6.5 Analysis of Data on Frequency of Messages


Respondents were asked four questions relating to frequency of marketing messages. Analysis
from their responses showed that respondents are willingly to receive regular marketing
messages that facilitate purchase decision. Details of their responses are shown in the table
below.

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Table 4.14 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Frequency of SMS Message
Regular SMS on Regular SMS on new SMS on invitation to SMS on product
Responses price discounts product information vote usage tips
Strongly disagree 6.4 5.9 8.1 4.5
Disagree 26.5 21.3 31.6 23.2
Undecided 14.7 12.8 15.9 16.6
Agree 42.5 48.5 34.7 44.2
Strongly agree 9.9 11.5 9.7 11.5
Total 100% 100% (n=1020) 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.
Table 4.14 shows that over 50% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that they like to
receive regular marketing messages relating to product/service information, while over 20%
disagreed and over 4% strongly disagreed with this statement. Respondents disagreed to
receiving regular invitation to vote with 31.6% and strongly agreed with 9.7%. These findings
indicate that sampled respondents are only interested in marketing messages that facilitate their
purchase decision of product/service.

4.2.6.6 Analysis of Data on Brand Awareness


Respondents were asked five questions relating to brand awareness through mobile marketing.
The results indicated that sampled respondents are aware of activities of organizations
product/service through mobile marketing. Details of their responses are shown in the table
below.

Table 4.15 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Brand Awareness


Awareness on Awareness of Reports on Knowledge gained Knowledge gained
Responses promotional offers new product sport news through SMS on usage tips
Strongly disagree 4.0 3.9 3.7 4.7 3.7
Disagree 17.1 18.2 18.5 15.1 19.0
Undecided 11.6 15.8 11.7 10.5 13.2
Agree 55.4 48.8 51.6 52.8 50.1
Strongly agree 12.0 13.2 14.5 16.9 13.9
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.
Table 4.15 shows that over 60% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that mobile
marketing creates brand awareness through information about: promotional offers; new product
and product/service usage tips, while over 15% disagreed and over 3% strongly disagreed with
this statement. These findings indicate that consumers are informed and aware of product/service
through marketing messages on their mobile device.

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4.2.6.7 Analysis of Data on Purchase Intention and Actual Purchase
Respondents were asked questions relating to their purchase intention and actual purchase of
mobile marketing product/service. Details of their responses are shown in the table below.

Table 4.16 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Intention/Actual Purchase of Mobile


Products
Intention Interest Intention Response to Regular Downloading Usage of Usage of Participati
to buy in to SMS text usage of ring tunes SMS in SMS to on in SMS
Responses buying subscribe SMS voting receive promo
information
Strongly 6.1 4.0 6.3 8.5 7.0 8.8 9.3 3.9 9.1
disagree
Disagree 23.2 13.2 23.5 18.0 23.1 23.5 23.8 15.1 26.3
Undecided 28.4 19.5 19.0 24.8 18.9 14.0 15.7 11.0 16.1
Agree 33.3 51.9 39.6 38.8 39.5 41.9 40.3 51.8 36.7
Strongly 8.9 11.4 11.6 9.8 11.5 11.8 10.8 18.2 11.9
agree
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.

Table 4.16 indicates that 42.2% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that they will buy
SMS product introduced to them while 29.3 disagreed and strongly disagreed to that statement.
The table also reveal that 63.3% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that they are
interested in buying SMS product that meets their needs, 53.7% of the respondents agreed and
strongly agreed that they have downloaded ringing tunes on their phones after receiving an SMS
advert, 70% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that they are currently using their
phones to receive information that they need while 51.6% of the respondents agreed and strongly
agreed that they have had occasions to vote in a TV show using SMS.

Findings from these table indicates that sampled respondents have intention to purchase and are
purchasing products that are relevant to them and that meet their personal need through their
mobile device.

4.2.6.8 Analysis of Data on Loyalty


Respondents were also asked seven questions relating to their loyalty to mobile marketing
product/service. Details of their responses are shown in the table below.

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Table 4.17 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Loyalty
SMS builds Continuity Continuity in Regular Recommenda Recommendation Continuity
relationship in SMS using SMS for purchase of tion of SMS of mobile product in using
with brand voting information SMS product for sales to friends product
and the with timely information SMS
Responses customer information
Strongly 7.1 7.2 5.7 3.4 4.2 8.7 4.7
disagree
Disagree 17.7 20.3 19.0 14.5 12.9 17.6 12.2
Undecided 18.5 25.7 27.0 20.1 21.2 14.8 18.1
Agree 43.5 35.6 36.8 49.0 47.8 46.9 51.2
Strongly 13.0 11.3 11.6 12.9 13.8 12.0 13.8
agree
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.

Table 4.17 indicates that 56.5% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that SMS builds
relationship between a brand and the customer. Also, the table reveals that 61.9% of the
respondents agreed and strongly agreed that they will continually buy mobile marketing product
that gives timely information that meets their need and 61.6% of the respondents agreed and
strongly agreed that they will recommend to their friends marketing messages that gives sales
information about their product. Respondents responses from the table also show that 65% of the
respondents agreed and strongly agreed that they will continue to use SMS product that they like.
These findings indicate that sampled respondents will and are loyal only to brands of products
that meet their needs, provide information and the brand of product that they like.

4.2.6.9 Analysis of Data on Attitude towards Mobile Marketing Marketing


Sampled respondents were asked questions relating to their attitude towards marketing on mobile
devices. Details of their responses are shown in the table below.

Table 4.18 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Consumer Attitude to Mobile Marketing


SMS of SMS ofproduct SMS of SMS of product SMS of I enjoy partici SMS
product is is informative product is is misleading product is pating in SMS adverts is
Responses disturbing confusing entertaining voting useful
Strongly 6.7 3.2 4.5 6.7 5.0 8.7 3.2
disagree
Disagree 26.3 15.9 26.1 26.7 20.3 22.7 10.7
Undecided 17.6 13.7 21.7 21.0 24.6 20.6 18.8
Agree 39.3 52.9 37.0 36.9 38.8 38.7 54.2
Strongly agree 10.1 14.2 10.8 8.8 11.3 9.2 13.0
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.

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Table 4.18 indicates that 49.4% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that SMS of
product is disturbing while 47.8% agreed and strongly agreed that SMS of product is confusing
and 48.7% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that SMS of product is misleading. The
table also show that over 60% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that SMS of
product is informative, interesting and that they find mobile advertising messages useful.
Findings from this table reveals that sampled respondents have a positive and favourable attitude
towards receiving and responding to marketing messages that meet their needs.
4.2.6.10 Analysis of Data on Factors Influencing Attitude towards Mobile Marketing

Sampled respondents were asked questions relating to factors that influence their attitude
towards mobile marketing. Questions relating to consumers innovativeness constitute the first
part of this section. Details of their responses are shown in the table below.

Table 4.19 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Innovative Factor


Ability to try out Ability to experiment with Knowledge on how to use
Responses new product new mobile phone services mobile services
Strongly disagree 6.7 4.0 2.3
Disagree 27.5 14.9 8.9
Undecided 23.0 16.6 12.3
Agree 33.6 49.2 56.7
Strongly agree 9.2 15.3 19.9
Total 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013
Table 4.19 shows that 42.8%, 64.5% and 76.6% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed
that they like to experiment and learn fast on how to mobile services. Findings from this table
reveal that sampled respondents are innovative with the use of mobile services.

Respondents were also asked questions relating with their existing knowledge of mobile
technology. Details of their responses are shown in the table below.
Table 4.20 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Existing Knowledge of Mobile Technology
(EK) Factor
knowledge about Easy of using mobile Expertise in mobile Knowledge on latest
Responses mobile communication. phone services phone service usage mobile applications
Strongly disagree 6.7 4.0 2.3 6.7
Disagree 27.5 14.9 8.9 26.7
Undecided 23.0 16.6 12.3 21.0
Agree 33.6 49.2 56.7 36.9
Strongly agree 9.2 15.3 19.9 8.8
Total 100% 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013

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Table 4.20 shows that 81.6%, 83.5%, 62.3.6% and 59.7%of the respondents agreed and strongly
agreed that they good knowledge about mobile technology. Findings from this table reveal that
sampled respondents are conversant with mobile phone technology.

Respondents were asked questions relating to their attitude towards advertising in general.
Details of their responses are shown in the table below.

Table 4.21 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Attitude towards Advertising


I like Advertising I enjoy reading I appreciate Advertising is a good
advertising is useful different Advertisements thing
Responses advertisements
Strongly disagree 2.5 2.1 3.0 1.9 2.0
Disagree 9.2 6.6 9.7 9.8 6.0
Undecided 14.5 12.5 17.0 15.4 11.7
Agree 53.2 55.2 51.9 54.1 56.0
Strongly agree 20.5 23.6 18.3 1.8 24.4
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.
From table 4.21, 73.7% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that they like
advertisement, 78.8% agreed and strongly agreed that advertising is useful, 70.2% of the
respondents agreed and strongly agreed that they enjoy reading advertisements and 70.4% agreed
and strongly agreed that advertising is a good. Findings from this table indicate that sampled
respondents have a positive attitude and are receptive to receiving and using advertisement
messages.

Respondents were also asked questions relating to their privacy and permission to receiving
marketing messages on their phones. Details of their responses are shown in the table below.

Table 4.22 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Privacy and Permission Factor


Service provider Ability to Ability to choose Organisation Marketing I will give
should seek stop the exact time to should seek Messages should permission to
consent from receiving receive messages permission contain opt out SMS messages
mobile phone messages before sending option that are relevant
Responses users SMS messages
Strongly disagree 2.2 2.0 3.2 4.2 3.3 2.5
Disagree 7.5 10.7 13.8 16.1 11.4 10.3
Undecided 14.0 16.2 19.7 18.6 17.5 16.5
Agree 42.8 44.0 43.2 37.1 43.9 47.9
Strongly agree 33.5 27.2 20.0 24.0 23.9 22.7
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.

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Table 4.22 show that over 70% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that they want
marketing organizations to seek their consent before sending marketing messages to them and
they should be given the opportunity to opt out of receiving marketing messages that are not
relevant to them. Findings from this table reveals that sampled respondents will only be
responsive to marketing messages that seek their permission and consent. And will be willing to
give their consent to receiving marketing messages that are relevant to their need.

Respondents were also asked questions relating to their perceived credibility of the marketing
messages. Details of their responses are shown in the table below.

Table 4.23 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Perceived Credibility Factor


SMS should be sent by SMS should be sent by
Responses established brand companies that I know
Strongly disagree 3.0 3.4
Disagree 9.5 14.6
Undecided 19.5 16.8
Agree 51.0 46.9
Strongly agree 17.0 18.3
Total 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.

Table 4.23 shows that 68% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that they like to
receive SMS of product sent by an established brand and 65.2% agreed and strongly agreed that
they like to receive SMS of product/service from companies that I know. Findings from this table
reveals that sampled respondents are more likely to be more responsive to marketing messages of
familiar brands and organizations.

Respondents were asked questions relating to perceived risk associated with mobile marketing.
Details of their responses are shown in the table below.

Table 4.24 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Perceived Risk Factor


Responses Fear of personal data can be misused Fear of Unwanted messages
Strongly disagree 6.4 7.2
Disagree 22.7 19.5
Undecided 20.0 14.6
Agree 37.5 43.9
Strongly agree 13.4 14.8
Total 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.

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Table 4.24 shows that 50.4% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that they fear their
personal data can be misused when using mobile marketing and 58.7% agreed and strongly
agreed that unwanted messages could come to them when using mobile marketing messages.
Findings from this table indicate that sampled respondents may be reluctant in responding to and
using marketing messages has they stand the risk of intrusion into their personal data.
Respondents were also asked questions relating to their perceived trust in mobile marketing
messages. Details of their responses are shown in the table below.

Table 4.25 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Trust Factor


SMS of products is a I will welcome SMS Promises made in I will endorse sales SMS marketing is
reliable source of from firms with SMS marketing are promotions offers a believable
Responses information good reputation mostly true with genuine benefit source of reference
Strongly disagree 3.2 2.5 7.5 4.4 6.0
Disagree 10.9 8.6 21.7 10.6 15.1
Undecided 21.3 15.2 26.3 17.5 22.3
Agree 47.6 51.0 35.2 53.2 45.4
Strongly agree 17.0 22.6 9.4 14.3 1.3
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.

Table 4.25 shows that 64.6% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that they see SMS
of product as a reliable source of information while 73.6% agreed and strongly agreed that they
will welcome SMS from organizations with good reputation. Also, the table reveals that 67.5%
of the respondents are willingly to endorse sales promotion offers with genuine benefit and
56.8% agreed and strongly agreed that SMS marketing messages are a believable source of
reference for purchase. Findings from this table indicate that sampled respondents trust mobile
marketing messages as a source of reliable information that facilitates purchase decision.
Respondents were asked questions relating to their perceived value of mobile marketing
messages. Details of their responses are shown in the table below.
Table 4.26 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Perceived value Factor
SMS marketing is a SMS marketing make SMS marketing is a SMS marketing is a good
Responses good source of sales sales information convenient source of source of getting latest
information easily accessible product information news
Strongly disagree 3.5 2.8 2.6 3.2
Disagree 10.9 11.5 10.0 10.62
Undecided 21.0 20.7 17.9 16.1
Agree 48.8 50.7 54.0 54.4
Strongly agree 15.8 14.3 15.4 16.1
Total 100% 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.

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Table 4.26 shows that 64.6% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that SMS marketing
is a good source of sales information and 65% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed
that SMS marketing makes sales information easily accessible. From the table, 69.4% of the
respondents agreed and strongly agreed that SMS marketing serves as a convenient source of
product information and 70.5% agreed and strongly agreed that SMS marketing serves as a
source of getting latest news. Findings from this table indicate that sampled respondents have a
positive value of mobile marketing. Respondent perceived SMS marketing as good source of
timely sales information, convenient source of product information as well as a good source of
getting latest news.

Respondents were asked questions relating to how social norms have influenced their decision to
use mobile marketing. Details of their responses are shown in the table below.
Table 4.27 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Social Norms Factor
I look smart to Most of my My family I have been The opinion of I have voted using
my colleagues friends think members think it involved in SMS my friends SMS because of my
for using that SMS is a good idea to product compete inform my friends
mobile marketing is respond to SMS tion for my friends decision to use
Responses marketing useful marketing SMS marketing
Strongly 3.2 3.3 4.9 8.2 7.9 11.6
disagree
Disagree 16.0 12.5 18.1 26.7 23.8 28.0
Undecided 23.6 21.7 27.5 21.7 23.0 14.3
Agree 41.1 47.8 34.9 33.0 34.6 35.6
Strongly 16.1 14.6 14.5 10.4 10.6 10.4
agree
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.

Table 4.27 indicates that over 45% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed that their
friends and family members inform their decision to use mobile marketing. Respondents strongly
agreed to the statement that I look smart to my colleagues for using mobile marketing and
these statement gained the highest response of 164 (16.1%) compared to other statements
measuring social norm variable. Findings from this table indicate that social interactions of
sampled respondents influence their responsiveness to mobile marketing messages.

Respondents were also asked questions relating to their satisfaction with mobile marketing
services. Details of their responses are shown in the table below.

182
Table 4.28 Percentage Distribution of Responses to Consumer Satisfaction
Satisfaction Satisfaction Satisfaction Satisfaction with Satisfaction Satisfaction with Overall, I
with SMS with SMS with SMS information on with receiving SMS timely am satisfied
entertainment voting promo product usage tips SMS latest information with Mobile
Responses news marketing
Strongly 4.3 6.7 5.0 4.0 3.1 2.9 2.8
disagree
Disagree 10.7 17.5 11.3 13.5 9.8 18.4 13.3
Undecided 13.5 19.3 19.8 19.0 14.3 23.5 16.7
Agree 53.4 44.0 49.2 49.1 54.1 41.6 49.1
Strongly 18.0 12.5 14.7 14.3 18.6 13.5 18
agree
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
(n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020) (n=1020)
Source: Field Survey 2013.

Table 4.28 show that over 50% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreed to the statement.
Findings from this table indicate that sampled respondents are more satisfied with mobile
marketing messages tailored towards their personal need.

4.2.7 Collation and Analysis of Open-ended Questions

Table 4.29 depicts the result of collation of the open-ended question contained in the research
questionnaire of this study on the major challenges faced by organisations engaging in mobile
marketing.

Table 4.29: Respondents View on Challenges faced by Mobile Marketing Practitioners


Statement Frequency Percentage (%)
Bad network and service failure 119 16.8
Lack of trust 61 8.6
High cost of SMS 30 4.2
Lack of clarity in communication and inadequate information 68 9.6
Language barrier 42 6.0
Lack of identification of customers needs 15 2.0
Deception and lack of credibility 40 5.6
Frequency of SMS 24 3.4
Illiteracy on the part of the consumer 52 7. 3
Poor timing of SMS leading to ignorance of the message 96 13.5
Irrelevant and annoying messages 13 1.8
Poor message content 24 3.4
Lack of consumers interest leading to deleting and ignoring the SMS 68 9.6
Poor knowledge on mobile technology usage 6 0.8
Perceived risk of personal data/information usage by fraudsters 13 1.8
Poor Government regulation 11 1.6
Late response/ No feedback/ Indecisiveness 27 3.8
Total 709 100
Source: Field Survey, 2013

183
Table 4.29 shows that majority of the respondents 119 (16.8) responded that bad network and
service failure was the major challenge in mobile marketing, this was followed by poor timing of
delivering marketing message which constitute 96 (13.5%), lack of interest in the message, Lack
of clarity in communication and inadequate information constitute 68(9.6%). Lack of trust
constitutes 61 (8.6%), language barrier constitute 42(6%), Deception and lack of credibility
constitute 40(5.6%) and high cost of SMS charges constitute 30 (4.2%). Other challenges
identified by respondents are as follows: frequency of marketing messages, irrelevant and
annoying messages, poor message content, poor knowledge of mobile technology usage, risk of
personal data, misuse of information by fraudsters and poor government regulation.

4.2.7.1 Collation and Analysis of Respondents Views on how to Improve the Effectiveness
of Mobile Marketing
Table 4.30 shows the responses of respondents to the question how do you think organizations
using mobile marketing can improve on their services? Out of the total number of 585
responses, provision of more incentive and increase in promotional messages has the highest
point of 137 (18.3%). This was followed by Sending adequate and informative messages on
products/services which constitute 69 (11.8%), increase in interactivity level constitute 58
(9.91%), effective communication by improving advent and message content constitute 55
(9.4%), good network service constitute 47 (8%), short and simple message constitute 39
(6.67%), identification and personalization of SMS to consumers needs constitute 38 (6.55%).

Table 4.30: Respondents Opinion on how Organizations using Mobile Marketing can
Improve on their services
Statement Freq. Per. (%)
Provision of more Incentives and increase in promotional messages 107 18. 3
Good network service 47 8.03
Reduction in SMS tariff 36 6.15
Right timing of SMS message delivery at receivers convenience 20 3.42
Identification and personalization of SMS to consumers needs 38 6.50
Marketing relevant information on products/service 23 3.93
Short and simple message 39 6.67
Truthful and credible messages 33 5.64
Reduction in frequency of SMS messages 32 5.47
Seeking receivers consent before sending in SMS messages 10 1.71
Sending adequate and informative messages on products/services 69 11.80
Conformity of SMS advert or message to suit consumers literacy level 18 3.08
Increase the level of interactivity 58 9.91
Effective communication by improving advent or message content 55 9.40
Total 585 100
Source: Field Survey, 2013.

184
The followings also constitute ways in which organizations using mobile marketing can improve
on their services as identified by the respondents: sending truthful and credible messages,
reduction in frequency of messages, reduction in cost of subscribing for the message, sending
relevant information, privacy and security, opt in and opt out option should be included in each
message.

4.2.8 Descriptive Analysis of Variables


This section presents the mean scores and standard deviation obtained for each variable and
item linked to Section C of the questionnaire. This section reports on the findings with respect to
marketing messages variables, factors influencing consumers attitude towards marketing on
mobile devices and purchase behaviour variables.

4.2.8.1 Descriptive Analysis of Mean scores of Marketing Messages Variable.


Marketing messages variable include promotional content, relational content, personalization,
interactivity and frequency of marketing messages. In Section C of the questionnaire, the above
variables were measured by questions one to twenty (Q1-20). Analysis of the mean score and
standard deviation of these variables is shown in the tables below.

Table 4.31 Descriptive Analysis of Promotional Variable


Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Means Deviation Mean Deviation variance
1 SMS on price discounts 3.93 1.591
2 SMS on Free calls 3.98 1.011 3.9732 .928 .862
SMS on free access to 4.02 .993
3 downloads
Source: Field Survey 2013.

Table 4.31 shows that the mean scores of all the items representing promotional variable were
higher than 3.0. This indicates that a positive response was obtained for all the statements
relating to promotional variable. The table also reveals that the means of all statement and total
mean are more than the standard deviation, with the statement: SMS on free access to
downloads having the highest mean of (4.02) and standard deviation of (0.993).

185
Table 4.32 Descriptive Analysis of Relational Variable
Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Means Deviation Mean Deviation variance
Relational SMS on timely 3.80 .980
4 product/service information
Relational SMS on up-to date 3.84 1.073 3.8608 .779 .607
5 latest news
Relational SMS on 3.95 .947
6 product/service usage tips
Source: Field Survey 2013.

Table 4.32 reveals that a positive response was obtained for all statements related to relational
variable because the means of statements and total mean are more than the standard mean of 3.0.
The table also shows that the highest mean score was for item (6) with statements: Relational
SMS on product/service usage tips having a mean score of (3.95) and standard deviation
(0.947).

Table 4.33 Descriptive Analysis of Personalization Variable


Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Means Deviation Mean Deviation variance
SMS of product/service 4.01 .982
7 relevant to my need
SMS of product/service to 3.91 1.060
8 which I personally subscribe
SMS of product/service which 3.84 .997
9 indicate store location 3.8096 .711 .505
SMS of Product/service at my 3.67 1.049
10 convenient time
Freedom to select the form of 3.62 1.079
11 marketing messages
Source: Field Survey 2013.

Table 4.33 reveals that a positive response was obtained for all statements related to
personalization variable because the means of statements and total mean are more than the
standard mean of 3.0. This is because respondents are more interested in receiving mobile
marketing messages that are tailored to their needs. The table also shows that the highest mean
score were for item (7) with statements: SMS on product/service relevant to my needs having a
mean score of (4.01) and standard deviation (0.982).

186
Table 4.34 Descriptive Analysis of Interactivity Variable
Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Means Deviation Mean Deviation variance
SMS involving downloading of 3.56 1.084
12 items
SMS invitation to vote in a TV 3.09 1.191
13 Show
SMS invitation to vote in a Radio 3.22 1.162 3.2886
14 Show .829 .687
SMS which allows communication 3.46 1.099
15 with the advertiser
16 Participating in a text-to-win SMS 3.10 1.236
Source: Field Survey 2013.

Table 4.34 reveals that a positive response was obtained for all statements related to
personalization variable because the means of statements and total mean are more than the
standard mean of 3.0. The table also shows that the highest mean score was for item (12) with
statements: SMS involving downloading of items having a mean score of (3.56) and standard
deviation (1.084).

Table 4.35 Descriptive Analysis of Frequency Variable


Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Means Deviation Mean Deviation variance
Regular SMS information on 3.23 1.135
17 price discounts
Regular SMS information on 3.38 1.116
18 new product/service
Regular SMS on invitation to 3.06 1.172 3.2569
19 vote in a TV show .828 .685
Regular SMS on 3.35 1.092
20 product/service usage tips
Source: Field Survey 2013.
Table 4.35 reveals that a positive response was obtained for all statements related to
personalization variable because the means of statements and total mean are more than the
standard mean of 3.0. The table also shows that the highest mean score was for item (18) with
statements: Regular SMS on new product/service having a mean score of (3.38) and standard
deviation (1.116), followed by item (20) with statement Regular SMS on product/service usage
tips having a mean score of (3.35) and standard deviation (1.092). This indicates that sampled
respondents are receptive to receiving mobile marketing messages that will educate and facilitate
their purchase decision.

187
4.2.8.2 Descriptive Analysis of Mean scores of Purchase Behaviour Variable

Purchase behaviour variables include Awareness, purchase intention/actual purchase and loyalty
In Section D of the questionnaire, the above variables were measured by questions one to twenty
(Q1-22). Analysis of the mean score and standard deviation of these variables is shown in the
tables below.

Table 4.36 Descriptive Analysis of Awareness Variable


Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Means Deviation Mean Deviation variance
1 Awareness of promotional offers 3.54 1.035
2 Awareness of new product/service 3.49 1.056
3 Awareness on latest news 3.55 1.065 3.5431 .765 .585
4 Knowledge about product/service 3.62 1.076
5 Awareness on product/service usage tips 3.51 1.065
Source: Field Survey 2013.

Table 4.36 reveals that a positive response was obtained for all statements related to awareness
variable because the means of statements and total mean are more than the standard mean of 3.0.
The table also shows that the mean scores of the four items are within the same range of (3.54,
3.49, 3.55, 3.62 and 3.51), this is because sampled respondents sees mobile marketing as a good
medium of creating awareness about the marketing activities of a product/service. The reveals
that highest mean score was for item (4) with statements: Knowledge about product/service
having a mean score of (3.62) and standard deviation (1.076).

Table 4.37 Descriptive Analysis of purchase intention and Actual purchase


Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Means Deviation Mean Deviation variance
6 Intention to buy product/service 3.16 1.069
Interest in buying product that meet my 3.53 .992
7 need
8 Subscribe to receiving latest news 3.27 1.129
9 Respond to text message promotion 3.23 1.117
10 Use of SMS Marketing Messages 3.25 1.140
11 Downloaded ringing tunes 3.24 1.192 3.2835 .720 .517
Have had Occasions to vote in a TV 3.19 1.187
12 show
Currently using my phone to receive 3.65 1.063
13 product Information that I need
Participate in promotional programme 3.16 1.202
14
15 Actual purchase of product/service 3.14 1.159
Source: Field Survey 2013.

188
Table 4.37 reveals that a positive response was obtained for all statements related to purchase
intention and actual purchase because the means of statements and total mean are more than the
standard mean of 3.0. The table also reveals that highest mean score was for item (13) with
statements: Currently using my phone to receive product information that I need having a
mean score of (3.65) and standard deviation (1.063).

Table 4.38 Descriptive Analysis of Loyalty Variable


Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Means Deviation Mean Deviation variance
16 Text-to-win SMS builds relationship 3.38 1.130
17 Continuity in voting in a TV Show 3.24 1.114
Continuity in buying product that sends 3.30 1.078
18 information on promotional offers
Continuity in purchase of Product that 3.54 1.002 3.4163 .715 .511
19 sends timely information
Recommendation of Product/service to 3.54 1.019
my friends that provides sales
20 information
I will forward SMS of Product that I like 3.36 1.160
21 to my friends
I will continue to use Product SMS that 3.57 1.024
22 I like
Source: Field Survey 2013.

Table 4.38 reveals that a positive response was obtained for all statements related to purchase
loyalty variable because the means of statements and total mean are more than the standard mean
of 3.0. This indicates that sampled respondents will be loyal to brands that they like and the ones
that send them timely product/service information. The table also reveals that highest mean score
was for item (19 and 20) with statements: Continuity in purchase of product that sends timely
information and Recommendation of product/service to my friends that provides sales
information having a mean score of (3.54), and standard deviation (1.002 and 1.019).

4.2.8.3 Descriptive Analysis of Mean scores of Factors Influencing Consumer Attitude


towards Mobile Marketing

The mean scores and standard deviation were obtained from each of the questions linked to
section E of the questionnaire. This section presents the findings of various factors (consumer-
based factors, innovation based factor) that influence consumer attitude towards mobile
marketing. Analysis of the mean score and standard deviation of these variables is shown in the
table below.
189
Table 4.39 Descriptive Analysis for Innovativeness
Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Means Deviation Mean Deviation variance
Among my friends, I am usually the 3.11 1.130
1 first to try out a new product
I like to experiment with new 3.57 1.114 3.5039 .800 .635
2 technology
I learn fast on how to use a new 3.83 1.078
3 mobile phone service
Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.39 reveals that a positive response was obtained for all statements related to
innovativeness because the means of statements and total mean are more than the standard mean
of 3.0. The table also reveals that highest mean score was for item (3) with statements: I learn
fast on how to use a new mobile phone service having a mean score of (3.83), and standard
deviation (1.078).
Table 4.40 Descriptive Analysis for Existing knowledge of Mobile Technology
Standard Total
Deviatio Total standard Total
S/N Item Means n Mean Deviation variance
8 Good knowledge about mobile communication 3.94 1.002
Ease to use mobile phone services 4.00 1.019
9 3.7782
Within my friends, I am an expert in mobile 3.61 1.160 .740
10 phone service usage .546
I am quick to know about the latest mobile phone 3.56 1.024
11 application
Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.40 reveals that a positive response was obtained for all statements related to Existing
knowledge of Mobile Technology as the means of statements and total mean are more than the
standard mean of 3.0. The table also reveals that highest mean score was for item (9) with
statements: Ease to use mobile phone services having a mean score of (4.00), and standard
deviation (1.091).
Table 4.41 Descriptive Analysis for Attitude towards advertising
Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Means Deviation Mean Deviation variance
8 I like advertisement 3.80 .953
9 Advertising promotes latest product 3.92 .897
10 I enjoy reading different advertisement 3.73 .971 3.8351 .700 .483
11 I appreciates advertising 3.78 .925
12 Advertising is a good thing 3.95 .880
Source: Field Survey 2013

190
Table 4.41 reveals that a positive response was obtained for all statements related to attitude
towards advertising as the means of statements and total mean are more than the standard mean of
3.0. The table also shows that there is a slight difference between the mean scores of the four
items (3.80, 3.92, 3.73, 3.78 and 3.95), this is because sampled respondents hold a positive
attitude towards advertising. The table also reveals that highest mean score was for item (12)
with statements: Advertising is a good thing having a mean score of (3.95), and standard
deviation (0.880).

Table 4.42 Descriptive Analysis for Privacy and Permission


Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Means Deviation Mean Deviation variance
My mobile service provider should seek 3.98 .984
my consent before giving my details to a
13 third party
It is important for me that I can easily 3.84 1.006
stop receiving SMS messages when I
14 choose to
I count it important that I can choose the 3.63 1.051 3.7619
exact time to receive SMS messages on
15 product/service .801 .484
Companies should see my permission 3.61 1.138
before sending me SMS messages on
16 their product
I like to receive SMS of product which 3.74 1.049
reveal how I can stop receiving further
17 messages
I will give permission to receive product 3.78 .993
18 SMS that are relevant to me.
Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.42 reveals that a positive response was obtained for all statements related to consumer
privacy and permission as the means of statements and total mean are more than the standard
mean of 3.0. The table also shows that there is only a slight difference between the mean scores
of the six items (3.98, 3.84, 3.63, 3.61, 3.74 and 3.78), this is because sampled respondents
agrees to the statements on privacy and permission factor. . The table also reveals that highest
mean score was for item (13) with statements: My mobile service provider should seek my
consent before giving my details to a third party having a mean score of (3.98), and standard
deviation (0.984).

191
Table 4.43 Descriptive Analysis for Credibility
Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Means Deviation Mean Deviation variance
I like to receive SMS adverts of product 3.69 .962 3.6569
19 sent by an established brand .808 .653
I like to receive SMS adverts of product 3.62 1.049
20 from companies that I now
Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.43 reveals that a positive response was obtained for all statements related to credibility
as the means of statements and total mean are more than the standard mean of 3.0. The table also
shows that there is only a slight difference between the mean scores of the two items (3.69 and
3.62), this is because sampled respondents agreed to the statements on credibility factor. The
table also reveals that highest mean score was for item (20) with statements: I like to receive
SMS adverts of product sent by an established brand having a mean score of (3.69), and
standard deviation (0.962).

Table 4.44 Descriptive Analysis for Perceived Risk


Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Mean Deviation Mean Deviation variance
21 Fear of personal data being misused 2.71 1.146 2.6574 .970 .942
22 Unwanted messages could come to me 2.60 1.165
Source: Field Survey 2013
Table 4.44 reveals that negative response was obtained for all statements related to perceived
risk factor as the means of statements and total mean are less than the standard mean of 3.0. This
is because sampled respondents disagreed to the statement relating to perceived risk.

Table 4.45 Descriptive Analysis for Trust


Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Mean Deviation Mean Deviation variance
I see SMS based adverts as reliable sources of 3.64 .991
23 information
I will welcome product/service SMS from 3.83 .961
24 reputable organisations
Promises made in SMS marketing messages 3.17 1.102 3.5351
25 are mostly true .708 .493
I will endorse sales promotion offers of 3.62 .999
26 genuine benefit
I find SMS marketing messages as believable 3.41 1.063
27 sources of reference for purchase
Source: Field Survey 2013

192
Table 4.45 reveals that a positive response was obtained for all statements related to trust as the
means of statements and total mean are more than the standard mean of 3.0. The table also
reveals that highest mean score was for item (24) with statements: I will welcome
product/service SMS from reputable organisation having a mean score of (3.83), and standard
deviation (0.961).

Table 4.46 Descriptive Analysis for Perceived Value


Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Means Deviation Mean Deviation variance
SMS marketing messages is a good source of 3.62 .990
28 up-to-date information
SMS marketing messages makes sales 3.62 .960
29 information accessible
SMS marketing messages is a convenient 3.70 .938 3.6600
30 source of product/service information .750 .561
I see SMS marketing messages as a good 3.70 .965
31 source of getting latest news
Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.46 reveals that a positive response was obtained for all statements related to perceived
value as the means of statements and total mean are more than the standard mean of 3.0. The
table also shows that there is only a slight difference between the mean scores of the items and
there is similarities in the mean scores (3.62 and 3.70), this is because sampled respondents
agreed to the statements on perceived value. The table also reveals that highest mean score was
for two items (30 and 31) with statements: SMS marketing messages is a convenient source of
product/service information and I see SMS marketing messages as a good source of getting
latest news having a mean score of (3.70), and standard deviation (0.938 and 0.965).

Table 4.47 Descriptive Analysis for Social Norms


Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Mean Deviation Mean Deviation variance
I look smart to my colleagues because I use mobile 3.51 1.042
32 marketing services
33 Most of my friends think that SMS advertising is useful 3.58 .994
My family members thin it is a good idea to respond to 3.36 1.086 3.2946
34 SMS marketing messages .830 .690
Because of my friends, I have been involved in SMS 3.11 1.154
35 product competition
The opinion of my friends inform my decision to use 3.16 1.141
36 SMS marketing messages
37 Because of my friends, I have voted in a TV show 3.05 1.232
Source: Field Survey 2013

193
Table 4.47 reveals that a positive response was obtained for all statements related to social norms
as the means of statements and total mean are more than the standard mean of 3.0. The table also
shows that there is a slight difference between the mean scores of the six items (3.51 3.58, 3.36,
3.11, 3.16 and 3.05), this is because sampled respondents agreed to the statements on social
norms.

4.2.8.4 Descriptive Analysis of Mean scores for Consumer Attitude towards Marketing
Messages

In Section D of the questionnaire, questions relating to consumer attitude towards mobile


marketing was asked from Q23-33. Details of sampled responses are shown in the table below

Table 4.48 Descriptive Analysis for Consumer Attitude towards Mobile Marketing
Total
Standard Total standard Total
S/N Item Mean Deviation Mean Deviation variance
SMS adverts of Product/ Service is 2.80 1.135
23 disturbing
24 SMS adverts of Product/ Service informative 3.59 1.019
SMS adverts of Product/ Service confusing 2.77 1.090
25
26 SMS adverts of Product/ Service misleading 2.85 1.111
27 SMS marketing messages is entertaining 3.31 1.071
28 SMS Advertising messages exciting 3.24 1.079 3.2649 .532 .283
I like to receive marketing messages on my 3.37 1.061
29 phone
I enjoy participating in a TV show by texting 3.17 1.142
30 my vote for my favourite contestant
I find Mobile phone entertainment services 3.50 1.039
31 interesting
32 Mobile advertising messages is useful 3.63 .950
I am Happy to receive SMS marketing 3.68 .996
33 messages that are relevant to me
Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.2.48 reveals that a positive response was obtained for statements related to consumer
attitude as the mean of statements and total mean are more than the standard mean of 3.0. The
table also shows that three items (23, 25 and 26) have mean scores less than 3.0 (2.80, 2.77 and
2.85,) this is because these are negative statement and sampled respondents disagreed with these

194
statements. The table also reveals that highest mean score was item (33) with statements: I am
happy to receive SMS marketing messages that are relevant to me having a mean score of
(3.68), followed by item (32) with statement Mobile advertising messages is useful having a a
mean score of (3.63).

4.3 Validation of Research Model and Testing of Hypothesis


Confirmatory factor analysis using Structural equation modeling (SEM) software was conducted
to test and validate the research model of the study. Structural equation modeling provides model
fit criteria used to determine the extent to which a hypothesized model fits in or adequately
describes the sample data (Byrne, 2001). The research model of the study is presented below. Six
common model-fit measures were used to assess the models overall goodness of fit: the ratio of
x2 to degrees-of-freedom (d.f.), Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) adjusted goodness-of-fit index
(AGFI), normalized fit index (NFI), comparative fit index (CFI), and root mean square error of
approximation (RMSEA). Table 4.49 present the result of goodness of fit test of the research
model.

Model 4.2 Research Model of the Study

Marketing Purchase
Messages H3 Behaviour
Intention
Promotional
H1 Consumer H2
Attitude
Relational Actual
Purchase
Personalization
Satisfaction
Interactivity H4
Loyalty
Frequency
Factors Influencing Consumer Attitude
Innovativeness Privacy and Permission
Existing Knowledge Perceived Risk
Attitude to Advertising Trust
Entertainment Perceived Value
Social Norms

Source: Researcher 2013.

195
Table 4.49 Goodness of Fit Measures of the Research Model
Model Fit Indices Recommended Measured
Criteria Value
CMIN/DF <3 3.564
Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) >0.90 0.960
Adjusted goodness-of-fit index (AGFI) >0.90 0.931
Normed fit index (NFI) >0.90 0.933
Tucker Lewis index (TLI) >0.95 0.924
Comparative Fit Index (CFI) >0.95 0.951
Root mean square of approximation (RMSEA) <0.06 0.050
Source: Field Survey 2013
GFI (Goodness of Fit Index) is a measure indicating how well any model is fitted for the overall
data. It also measures the percent of observed covariances explained by the covariances implied
by the model. The GFI should be between 0 and 1 where 1 indicates a perfect fit. The
recommended model fit cutoff value is 0.9 (Gefen, et al., 2000). For this study the GFI is .960,
above the recommended value of >.90.The Adjusted Goodness-of-Fit Index (AGFI) is adjusted
for the degrees of freedom of a model relative to the number of variables, and should be above
0.90 (Chin and Todd, 1995; Segars and Grover, 1993). For this model, the AGFI was 0.931,
above the recommended value of >.90.

NFI (Normed Fit Index) compares the improvement in the minimum discrepancy for the
specified (default) model to the discrepancy for the independence model. A value of the NFI
below 0.90 indicates that the model can be improved. Value between .90 and .95 is acceptable;
above .95 indicates good fit. CFI (Comparative Fit Index) is the difference between the two
models chi-squares divided by the chi-square for the independence model (with a noncentral
chisquare). It ranges from 0 to 1, like the NFI, and .95 (or .9 or higher) indicates good fit. RMR
(Root Mean-Square Residual) is the square root of the average amount that the sample variances
and covariances differ from their estimates. Smaller values are better. Acceptable values are
ranged from 0.05 to 0.08 (Browne and Cudeck, 1993)

CMIN/DF is the ratio of the minimum discrepancy to degrees of freedom. Values should be
close to 1.0 for correct models. The chi-square index is not an appropriate measure to determine
the goodness of fit of the model because it is known that chi-square statistic is sensitive to
sample size and is increased abnormally where the sample size is over 200. As such, the
goodness-of-fit index (GFI), normed fit index (NFI), and comparative fit index (CFI) are more

196
appropriate for assessing model fit here (Bagozzi and Yi 1988; Bearden, Sharma, and Teel
1982).

As shown in Table 4.49, all the model-fit indices exceeded the respective common acceptance
levels suggested by previous research, demonstrating that the measurement model exhibited a
good and satisfactory fit with the data collected. Therefore, we proceeded to evaluate the
psychometric properties of the measurement model in terms of reliability, convergent validity,
and discriminant validity.

4.3.1 Test of Reliability and Validity of Constructs in the Research Model.

The data obtained for each construct in the model was tested for reliability and validity using
confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Details of the result are shown in the tables below (table
4.3.2ai-iii, table 4.3.2bi-iii and table 4.3.2ci-ii) indicating the reliability, average variance
extracted and factor loadings of constructs in the research model.

Table 4.50ai. Reliability, Average Variance Extracted (AVE) and Correlation Among
Constructs in the Model
Promo Rela Persona Inter Freq Inten Actual Loy
CR AVE MSV ASV CS tional tional lization activity uency CA tion Purchase alty
Consumer
Satisfaction
(CS) 0.781 0.545 0.362 0.230 0.738

Promotional 0.671 0.505 0.453 0.168 0.337 0.711

Relational 0.641 0.472 0.453 0.200 0.367 0.673 0.687

Personalization 0.669 0.509 0.288 0.167 0.409 0.537 0.536 0.713

Interactivity 0.712 0.453 0.433 0.262 0.480 0.441 0.420 0.472 0.673

Frequency 0.678 0.415 0.352 0.201 0.434 0.220 0.379 0.321 0.466 0.644

Consumer

Attitude (CA) 0.708 0.546 0.471 0.287 0.602 0.327 0.408 0.356 0.538 0.467 0.671

Intention 0.542 0.474 0.316 0.380 0.519 0.265 0.326 0.292 0.608 0.584 0.611 0.612

Actual Purchase 0.619 0.448 0.316 0.393 0.578 0.300 0.381 0.276 0.576 0.593 0.639 0.347 0.670

Loyalty 0.720 0.462 0.437 0.272 0.520 0.379 0.437 0.384 0.509 0.441 0.658 0.612 0.661 0.680

Composite Reliability (CR), Maximum Shared Variance (MSV), Average Shared Variance (ASV), Consumer Attitude (CA),
Consumer Satisfaction (CS)
Source: Field Survey 2013

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Table 4.50aii. Reliability, Average Variance Extracted (AVE) and Correlation Among
Constructs in the Model
CR AVE MSV ASV EN EK PP AA PR TR PV SN IN

EN 0.707 0.448 0.397 0.185 0.669

EK 0.761 0.614 0.177 0.080 0.211 0.784

PP 0.625 0.457 0.077 0.027 0.025 0.256 0.676

AA 0.751 0.502 0.382 0.162 0.436 0.370 0.097 0.709

PR 0.583 0.412 0.058 0.029 -0.158 -0.140 -0.125 -0.125 0.642

TR 0.620 0.450 0.536 0.182 0.448 0.258 0.093 0.618 -0.240 0.671

PV 0.742 0.490 0.536 0.197 0.513 0.305 0.112 0.606 -0.162 0.732 0.700

SN 0.826 0.545 0.397 0.160 0.630 0.197 0.154 0.268 -0.202 0.372 0.416 0.738

IN 0.638 0.471 0.397 0.167 0.602 0.421 0.278 0.346 -0.168 0.265 0.322 0.630 0.686

Source: Field Survey 2013.

Item Log
EN Entertainment AA Attitude to Advertising in PV Perceived value
EK Existing Knowledge PR Perceived Risk SN Social norms
PP Privacy and Permission TR Trust IN Innovativeness

Table 4.51bi. Factor Loadings of items included in the Model


Factor
Observed Variable Loadings CA1 Consumer Attitude 0.714
PO2 Promotional 0.705 CA2Consumer Attitude 0.724
PO3 Promotional 0.513 CA3 Consumer Attitude 0.563
R1 Relational 0.522 IT1 Intention 0.539
R2 Relational 0.65 IT2 Intention 0.677
I1 Interactivity 0.672 AP 1Actual Purchase 0.669
I2 Interactivity 0.614 AP2Actual Purchase 0.670
I3 Interactivity 0.728 CS1 Satisfaction 0.653
P1 Personalization 0.594 CS2 Satisfaction 0.795
P2 Personalization 0.815 CS3 Satisfaction 0.759
F1 Frequency 0.632
L1 Loyalty 0.619
F2 Frequency 0.716
L2 Loyalty 0.735
F3 Frequency 0.576
L3 Loyalty 0.681
Source: Field Survey 2013 Source: Field Survey 2013

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Table 4.51bii. Factor Loadings of items included in the Model
Factor TR1 Trust 0.629
Observed Variable Loadings TR2 Trust 0.710
EN1 Entertainment 0.524 IN 1 Innovativeness 0.618
EN2 Entertainment 0.679
EN3 Entertainment 0.649 IN2 Innovativeness 0.748
EK1 Existing Knowledge 0.767 PV1 Perceived value 0.643
EK2 Existing Knowledge 0.800 PV2 Perceived value 0.727
PP1 Privacy and Permission 0.612 PV3 Perceived value 0.726
PP2 Privacy and Permission 0.734 SN1 Social norms 0.707
AA1 Attitude to Advertising 0.635 SN2 Social norms 0.819
AA2 Attitude to Advertising 0.751 SN3 Social norms 0.763
SN4 Social norms 0.654
PR1 Perceived Risk 0.632
Source: Field Survey 2013
PR2 Perceived Risk 0.651
Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.52ci. Average Variance Extracted (VE) and Squared Multiple Correlations (SMC) of
items in Model
Observed Variable SMC AVE Consumer Attitude 1 0.317
Consumer Attitude 2 0.523 0.45
Promotional 1 0.497 Consumer Attitude 3 0.509
Promotional 2 0.513 0.505 Intention 1 0.29
Relational 1 0.522 Intention 2 0.509 0.374
Relational2 0.423 0.472 Actual Purchase 1 0.448
Interactivity 1 0.451 Actual Purchase 2 0.488 0.448
Interactivity 2 0.377 Satisfaction 1 0.576
Interactivity 3 0.529 0.453
Satisfaction 2 0.632
Personalization 1 0.353
Personalization 2 0.665 0.509 Satisfaction 3 0.427 0.45
Frequency 1 0.399 Loyalty 1 0.383
Frequency 2 0.513
Loyalty 2 0.541
Frequency 3 0.332 0.415
Loyalty 3 0.464 0.462
Source: Field Survey 2013 Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.52cii Average Variance Extracted (VE) and Squared Multiple Correlations (SMC) of
Items in Model
Observed Variable SMC AVE Innovativeness 1 0.560
Entertainment 1 0.432 Innovativeness 2 0.382 0.471
Entertainment 2 0.350 Perceived value 1 0.413
Entertainment 3 0.563 0.448 Perceived value 2 0.529
Existing Knowledge 1 0.640 Perceived value 3 0.527 0.490
Existing Knowledge 2 0.588 0.614 Social norms 1 0.500
Privacy and Permission 1 0.375 Social norms 2 0.583
Privacy and Permission 2 0.539 0.457 Social norms 3 0.671
Attitude to Advertising 1 0.403 Social norms 4 0.427 0.545
Attitude to Advertising 2 0.565 0.502 Source: Field Survey 2013
Perceived Risk 1 0.399
Perceived Risk 2 0.424 0.412
Trust 1 0.395
Trust 2 0.504 0.450

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Validity was evaluated through convergent and discriminant validity. Convergent validity
assumes that the set of indicators uniquely represents the underlying construct. These was
examined by using the composite reliability (CR) and average variance extracted (AVE) from
the measures. The average variance extracted (AVE) was considered to measure the variance of
the indicators of the reflective construct relative to the total amount of variance, including the
variance of the measurement error.

Composite reliability was estimated to evaluate the internal consistency of the model. The
interpretation of the resultant coefficient is similar to that of Cronbachs alpha, except that it
takes into account the actual factor loadings rather than assuming that each item is equally
weighted in the composite load determination. The rule of thumb for a good reliability estimate
is 0.7 or higher, which means that all items consistently represent the same latent construct. But
Hair et al. (2006) also asserted that reliability between 0.6 and 0.7 may be acceptable given that
other indicators of convergent validity (i.e. standardized factor loadings in the measurement
model and AVE) are good, i.e. above 0.50. In this study, some of the composite reliability did
not meet the first rule observation. However, as suggested by Hair et al. (2006) these values were
considered acceptable as they fulfill the other limit of acceptability as shown in Table 4.51bi and
Table 4.51bii.

Convergent validity refers to the principle that the indicators for a given construct should be at
least moderately correlated among themselves. Following Hair et al., (1992) and Steenkamp and
Geyskens (2006) recommendations, factor loadings greater than 0.50 were considered to be very
significant. All the items in the research model as shown in Table 4.3.2b had factor loadings
greater than 0.50. As noted by Hair et al. (2006) average variance extracted (AVE) should be
above 0.05 suggesting adequate convergence while Fornell and Larcker (1981), state that if the
AVE is less than 0.5, the variance due to measurement error is larger than the variance captured
by the construct.

In this study, some latent constructs have their AVE slightly lower than 0.5 as shown in Table
4.50ai and Table 4.50aii. This means that on average these items have more error than variance
explained by the constructs imposed on the respective measures (Hair et al., 2006). As suggested
in the literature, measurement error may be due to psychological factors of the respondents
(Bollen and Long, 1993; Byrne, 2001; Joreskog, 1993; Schumacker and Lomax, 2004) or the
200
items may be measuring other latents besides the hypothesized construct in the study (Kline,
2005; Maruyama, 1998; Tanaka, 1993). As such, attention should be given on other indicators of
construct validity to prove that the items have convergent validity. According to Hair et al.s
(2010), for convergent validity to be assured, the composite reliability (CR) must be greater than
the average variance extracted (CR > AVE). In this study, all the composite reliability of
measurement model exceeds the average variance extracted in Table 4.50ai and Table 4.50aii.
This indicated that all of the items have an acceptable convergent validity in explaining the
constructs.

Discriminant validity was assessed by comparing the value of the average variance extracted
(AVE) and the squared multiple correlations (SMC) between constructs. To assume that all
independent variables were orthogonal of one another, the value of AVE should be greater than a
construct in SMC between the respective variables in order to provide good evidence of
discriminant validity (Hair et al., 2006). As indicated in Table 4.52c, values of AVE between all
constructs were greater than one of the squared correlation values between them. The
discriminant validity was also established between two constructs as the AVE of each one is
higher than the shared variance (Maximum Shared Variance (MSV), and Average Shared
Variance ASV) as shown in Table 4.50ai and Table 4.50aii.

To further establish discriminant validity, the squared root of the AVE (diagonal elements in
Table 4.50ai and Table 4.50aii) was compared with the correlations among constructs (off-
diagonal elements in Table 4.50ai and Table 4.50aii) in order to ensure that construct shares
more variance with its measures than the variance it shares with other constructs in the model
(Wiertz and De Ruyter, 2007). Result from the tables show that the squared root of the AVE was
greater than correlations among constructs. Thus, discriminant validity among the variables is
supported.

In summary, constructs in the model demonstrates adequate reliability, convergent validity, and
discriminant validity.

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4.3.2 Test of Hypotheses

Introduction

The maximum likelihood method was used to examine the significance of the path coefficient in
the model (i.e., Hypothesis 1 - 4). The critical ratio (C.R.) is used as a test of significance. A
causal path is considered significant if a critical ratio is greater than 1.96 (C.R. > 1.96) at the
significance level 5%. Details and interpretations of the path analysis of each hypothesis are
described below.

4.3.2.1 Test of Research Hypothesis 1

H 0 : Marketing messages (promotional, relational, personalization, interactivity and frequency)


on mobile devices have negative effect on consumer attitude towards mobile marketing.
H 1 : Marketing messages (promotional, relational, personalization, interactivity and frequency)
on mobile devices have positive effect on consumer attitude towards mobile marketing

Marketing messages was measured with promotional content, relational content, personalization,
interactivity and frequency.
Table 4.53a Regression Weights
Estimate S.E. C.R. P
Promotional Consumer Attitude .057 .024 2.421 0.015
Relational Consumer Attitude .096 .023 4.141 ***
Personalization Consumer Attitude .082 .022 3.704 ***
Interactivity Consumer Attitude .138 .022 6.174 ***
Frequency Consumer Attitude .078 .022 3.455 ***
***Significant at p<0.001 level
Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.53b Standardized Path Coefficients


Estimate
Promotional Consumer Attitude .080
Relational Consumer Attitude .136
Personalization Consumer Attitude .117
Interactivity Consumer Attitude .199
Frequency Consumer Attitude .108
Source: Field Survey 2013

202
Table 4.53c Squared Multiple Correlations
Estimate

Consumer Attitude .188

Source: Field Survey 2013

Decision Rule: Reject null hypothesis when P value is less than 0.05 and C.R value is greater
than 1.96.

Figure 4.1 Test of Hypothesis 1


Promotional

Relational 0.80
0.136
0.188
0.117
Personalization Consumer

0.199
Interactivity
0.108

Frequency

Source: Field Survey 2013

Interpretation of Result: The critical ratio (C.R) for all values is higher than the stipulated
value of 1.96 indicating a significant effect of marketing messages on consumer attitude. The CR
value for all relationship shows a positive effect indicating that there is a significant positive
effect of marketing messages on consumer attitude. The path coefficient table shows the
contribution of each variable to consumer attitude. All variables have positive contribution to
consumer attitude with interactivity and relational content having the highest contribution of .199
and .136. These indicate that a unit increase in interactivity will lead to .199 increase in
consumer attitude towards marketing messages. The Squared Multiple Correlation table
indicates that .188(18.8%) variance in consumer attitude can be explained by marketing
messages (promotional content, relational content, personalization, interactivity and frequency).
Marketing messages might be making a low contribution to attitude because there are other
factors influencing consumer attitude towards marketing messages. These factors constitute a

203
major determinant to consumer attitude towards marketing messages. These factors include:
perceived value of the message, entertainment, perceived risk, general attitude towards
advertising, privacy and permission issue and trust.

Decision: Reject the null hypothesis as p-value is less than 0.05 and C.R value is greater than
1.96. Therefore, Marketing messages on mobile devices have a significant positive effect on
consumer attitude.

Implication of Result:

Consumers are particular about the content of marketing messages they receive from
organizations and advertisers. Consumers tend to have a favourable attitude towards personalized
messages because such message satisfies an identified need. It should be worthy to note that
increased personalization of marketing messages will results in a higher relevance of the
message to the individual consumer. Marketing message with interactive content makes it
possible for advertisers to establish a direct link with their potential customers, leading to instant
evaluation and feedback.

Therefore, marketing messages can be considered as a direct and personalized consumer


communication medium for organizations hoping to use the mobile service platform. If
thoroughly personalized, marketing messages may become perceived as valuable information by
consumers as opposed to it being perceived as annoying, bothersome and an interruptive
message.

There is a high tendency for increased personalization to have a positive effect on the message
content relevance, which in turn will positively influence the perceived entertainment,
informativeness and credibility of the marketing message. Given the personal nature of a mobile
device, consumers expect the advertisement to be highly relevant to them (Barwise and Strong,
2002) because the consumer expects that there should be a benefit in receiving marketing
message. As such, personalization is the key to success for organizations for gaining consumers
acceptance using the mobile services platform.

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4.3.2.2 Test of Hypothesis 2:

H 0 : Consumer attitude towards mobile marketing have negative influence on purchase behaviour
(Intention, actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty)
H 1 : Consumer attitude towards mobile marketing have positive influence on purchase behaviour
(Intention, actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty)

Purchase behaviour was measured using intention, actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty.
Table 4.54a Regression Weights
Estimate S.E. C.R. P
Consumer Attitude Intention .252 .041 6.100 ***
Consumer Attitude Actual Purchase .254 .038 6.606 ***
Consumer Attitude Satisfaction .381 .040 9.566 ***
Consumer Attitude Loyalty .321 .041 7.791 ***
Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.54b Standardized Path Coefficient


Estimate
Consumer Attitude Intention .174
Consumer Attitude Actual Purchase .163
Consumer Attitude Satisfaction .281
Consumer Attitude Loyalty .239
Source: Field Survey 2013

Decision Rule:

Reject null hypothesis when P value is less than 0.05 and C.R value is greater than 1.96.

Figure 4.2 Test of hypothesis 2

Intention
0.174

0.163
Actual
Consumer Purchase

0.281
Satisfaction

0.239
Source: Field Survey 2013
Loyalty

205
Interpretation of Result: The critical ratio (C.R) for all values is higher than the stipulated
value of 1.96 indicating that there is a significant influence of consumer attitude on Purchase
behaviour (intention with C.R value of 6.100, actual purchase with C.R value of 6.606, consumer
satisfaction with C.R value of 9.566 and on loyalty with C.R value of 7.791). The CR value for
all relationship is also positive indicating a positive significant influence of consumer attitude on
purchase behaviour. The p-value for all is zero which is less than .001. The standardized path
coefficients table indicates that consumer attitude contributes more positively to satisfaction and
loyalty than to intention and actual purchase. These indicate that one unit increment in consumer
attitude will yield .281 increments in satisfaction and .239 incremnts in loyalty.

Decision: Reject the null hypothesis as p-value is less than 0.05 and C.R value is greater than
1.96. Thus, Consumer attitude towards marketing messages have a positive influence on
purchase behaviour.

4.3.2.3 Test of Hypothesis 3:

H 0 : There is no significant effect of marketing messages (promotional, relational,


personalization, interactivity and frequency) on consumer purchase behaviour (Intention, actual
purchase, satisfaction and loyalty).
H 1 : There is a significant effect of marketing messages (promotional, relational, personalization,
interactivity and frequency) on consumer purchase behaviour (Intention, actual purchase,
satisfaction and loyalty).

Table 4.55a Regression Weights


Estimate S.E. C.R. P
Promotional Loyalty .062 .028 2.252 .024
Interactivity Intention .328 .030 10.852 ***
Interactivity Actual Purchase .085 .029 2.962 .003
Interactivity Satisfaction .115 .029 3.979 ***
Interactivity Loyalty .157 .029 5.478 ***
Frequency Intention .212 .030 6.956 ***
Frequency Actual Purchase .119 .028 4.242 ***
Frequency Satisfaction .090 .029 3.143 .002
Frequency Loyalty .122 .028 4. 306 ***
Personalization Satisfaction .134 .026 5.108 ***
Relational Loyalty .121 .028 4.343 ***
Source: Field Survey 2013

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Table 4.55b Standardized Path Coefficients
Estimate
Promotional Loyalty .065
Interactivity Intention .324
Interactivity Actual Purchase .079
Interactivity Satisfaction .122
Interactivity Loyalty .168
Frequency Intention .203
Frequency Actual Purchase .107
Frequency Satisfaction .093
Frequency Loyalty .127
Personalization Satisfaction .141
Relational Loyalty .128
Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.55c Squared Multiple Correlations


Estimate
Intention .285
Actual Purchase .499
Satisfaction .317
Loyalty .300
Source: Field Survey 2013

Figure 4.3 Contribution of Marketing Messages to Purchase Behaviour

Purchase
Marketing
Behaviour
Messages
.285

Promotional Intention

.499
Relational
Actual
Purchase
Personalization

Interactivity
. 317
Satisfaction

Frequency
.300
Source: Field Survey 2013
Loyalty

207
Decision Rule:
Reject null hypothesis when P value is less than 0.05 and C.R value is greater than 1.96.

Interpretation of Result: The critical ratio (C.R) for all values is higher than the stipulated
value of 1.96 indicating that there is a significant effect of marketing messages on purchase
behaviour. The CR value for all relationship is also positive indicating a positive significant
effect of marketing messages on purchase behaviour. The p-value for all is less than 0.05. The
standardized regression weight table indicates the contribution of marketing messages to
purchase behaviour. The table shows that one unit increment in interactivity message will lead to
.324 increments in intention, .79 increments in actual purchase, .122 increments in satisfaction
and .168 increments in loyalty. An increment in frequency of marketing messages will lead to
.203 increments in intention, .107 increments in actual purchase, .93 increments in satisfaction
and .127 increments in loyalty. Marketing messages with interactive contents contributes more to
consumers intention to purchase the product. The Squared Multiple Correlation table indicates
that .499(49.9%) variance in actual purchase can be explained by marketing messages
(promotional content, relational content, personalization, interactivity and frequency).

Decision: Reject the null hypothesis as p-value is less than 0.05 and C.R value is greater than
1.96. Therefore, there is a significant positive effect of marketing messages on purchase
behaviour.

4.3.2.4 Test of Hypothesis 4

H 0 : Consumer factors do not significantly influence attitude towards mobile marketing.

H 1 : Consumer factors significantly influence attitude towards mobile marketing.

Consumer factors were measured by innovativeness, existing knowledge, attitude towards


advertising, privacy and permission, perceived risk, entertainment, trust, social norm and
perceived value. The tables below show details of the analysis.

208
Table 4.56a Regression Weights
Estimate S.E. C.R. P
Innovativeness Consumer Attitude .013 .019 .646 .518
Existing knowledge Consumer Attitude .007 .022 .332 .740
Attitude to advertising Consumer Attitude .065 .024 2.758 .006
Privacy and permission Consumer Attitude -.087 .016 -5.304 ***
Trust Consumer Attitude .048 .021 2.265 .024
Perceived risk Consumer Attitude .056 .015 3.641 ***
Perceived Value Consumer Attitude .142 .024 5.802 ***
Entertainment Consumer Attitude .308 .021 14.534 ***
Social norms Consumer Attitude .002 .019 .127 .899
Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.56b Standardized Path Coefficients


Estimate
Innovativeness Consumer Attitude .019
Existing knowledge Consumer Attitude .009
Attitude to advertising Consumer Attitude .081
Privacy and permission Consumer Attitude -.133
Trust Consumer Attitude .063
Perceived risk Consumer Attitude .089
Perceived Value Consumer Attitude .179
Entertainment Consumer Attitude .437
Social norms Consumer Attitude -.021
Source: Field Survey 2013

Table 4.56c Squared Multiple Correlations


Estimate
CA .392
Source: Field Survey 2013

Decision Rule:
Reject null hypothesis when P value is less than 0.05 and C.R value is greater than 1.96.

Interpretation of Result: The critical ratio (C.R) for all factors is higher than the stipulated
value of 1.96 except for innovativeness, existing knowledge and social norms with values less
than 1.96. This Indicates that innovativeness, existing knowledge and social norm does not have
a significant influence on consumer attitude towards marketing messages. The CR value for all
factor influence is positive except that of privacy and permission. These indicate that privacy
and permission has a negative significant influence on attitude towards marketing messages. The
standardized path coefficients table indicates the contribution of each factor to attitude towards
marketing messages. Entertainment factor has the highest contribution of 0.437. This indicates
that one unit increment in perceived entertainment will lead to 0.437 increments in attitude

209
towards marketing messages. The table also shows that privacy and permission has a negative
influence on consumer attitude. This indicates that one unit increment in privacy and permission
factor will lead to -.133 reductions in attitude towards marketing messages. The Squared
Multiple Correlation table indicates that consumer factors cause .392 (39.2%) variance in attitude
towards marketing messages.

Decision:

Reject the null hypothesis as P-value is less than 0.05 and C.R value is above 1.96. Therefore,
there is a significant influence of consumer factors on attitude towards marketing on mobile
devices.

Table 4.57 Summary of Test of Hypotheses Findings


S/N Hypothesis Influence Significance Findings
Direction
1 H 0 :Marketing messages on mobile devices have + Significant Null Hypothesis
negative effect on consumer attitude Not supported
2 H 0 : Consumer attitude towards marketing messages + Significant Null Hypothesis
have negative influence on purchase behaviour Not supported
3 H 0 : There is no significant effect of marketing messages + Significant Null Hypothesis
on purchase behaviour. Not supported
4 H 0 : There is no significant influence of consumer + Significant Null Hypothesis
factors on attitude toward marketing on mobile devices. Not supported
Source: Field Survey 2013

4.3.3 Discussion of Result

Findings from test of hypotheses show that mobile marketing messages have positive effect on
consumer attitude and on purchase behaviour. Marketing messages was measured as promotional
content, relational content, personalization, interactivity and frequency. Findings from the
analysis of the effect of these variables show that they all have positive significant effect on
consumer attitude, with interactivity and relational messages having more positive effect on
attitude. Relational messages focuse on enhancing consumer attitude rather than promotional
messages which are intended to quickly generate sales in the short term. The findings of this
study is in line with the that of Merisavo et al. (2006) and Nysveen et al. (2005) who found that
the usage of mobile services and receiving of marketing messages have positive effect on
consumers brand attitude and long-term purchase behaviour. These results imply that the
strategic focus of organizations marketing on mobile devices should be in creating meaningful

210
brand communication platforms and deepening consumer-brand relationships, not just in
generating short term additional sales.

The finding of this study indicates that personalization had a significant positive effect on
consumer attitude. This finding is consistent with the works of (Xu, 2006; Bauer et al., 2005;
Barwise and Strong, 2002) who found that personalization is one of the most important factors in
affecting consumers' attitude toward mobile advertising. Without personalization, mobile
advertising is nothing more than impersonalized mass messaging, that may be neither informative
nor entertaining to the receiver and can result in a negative attitude towards the advertisement
(Bauer, Reichardt, Barnes and Neumann, 2005). Personalization influences the relevance a
message has to the consumer and can therefore be directly linked to the entertainment and
informativeness (Xu, 2007). If the mobile advertising message relevance increases, this message
can offer more entertainment and / or become more informative to the consumer. Personalization
of messages on mobile devices can only be realized if it offers credible and trustworthy
information to the mobile phone users (Peng, 2006).

Findings of this study on the effect of frequency of marketing messages on attitude and purchase
behaviour are consistent with that of Reinartz and Kumar (2003) who found that the number of
mailing efforts of a company is positively related to profitable customer lifetime duration. As
being in touch regularly with customers stimulates a positive relationship effects on customers
brand loyalty irrespective of the platforms of interaction. Findings from Dufrene (2005) also
showed that regular e-mailings have positive effects on brand attitude, purchases and loyalty.
Also, the findings of this study supports that of Anabella et al. (2008) who discovered that
frequency of exposure does not reflect negatively on consumer attitude toward advertising via
mobile devices. However, the findings of this study is contrary to that of Ducoffe (1995) who
states that consumers who are confronted with adverts repeatedly are less informed since they are
already familiar with the content. Haghirian and Madlberger (2003) in their findings states that
excessive messages are associated with negative attitudes towards mobile marketing, with not
more than three marketing messages a day being considered about right, these supports that of
Ducoffe (1995).

The findings of this study on the effect frequency factor to consumer attitude is also consistent
with that of the Indonesian people where most of them do not feel irritated about how many

211
times they receive text message of SMS advertising (Anabella et al., 2008). This is possible
because when people receive SMS regularly, they do not have any objection about receiving
several marketing messages in a day besides their personal SMS. It has also been stated that the
number of marketing messages sent to an individual via a mobile phone is also an important
factor in mobile marketing responsiveness (Carroll et al., 2007; Haghirian and Madlberger, 2005;
Barwise and Strong, 2002).

Findings of this study on the effect of frequency on attitude and purchase behaviour supports that
of Broussard (2000) who found out that repeating marketing messages to consumers might
translate into awareness and learning, which may induce positive attitude towards the
product/service and may result in a favourable purchase action. But this positive effect will
increase up to a certain level until the effects starts to wear out. After this point, repetition of
marketing messages no longer has a positive effect, or the effect will become negative yielding
to an unfavourable attitude and action. Dufrene et al. (2005) also carried out a study on changes
in consumer attitude resulting from participation in a permission (consumer consent to
participate) E-mail campaign. Findings from their study shows that positive effects on email
campaigns on customers brand attitudes diminish over time after the first three messages.
However, the focus of marketing messages is often on the short-term and immediate results and
not on long-term result.

Findings within the context of advertisement on mobile devices revealed that consumers attitude
on mobile advertisement has a significant effect on their intention to participate or to purchase
products and services (Ashraf and Kamal, 2010; Churchill and Iacobucci, 2002; Drossos et al.,
2007; Okazaki, 2004; Radder, Pietersen, Wang and Han, 2010; Rettie, Grandcolas, and Deakins,
2005; Yang, 2007). Some studies (Hoyer and MacInnis, 2004; Schlosser, Shavitt and Kanfer,
1999) in the earlier period revealed a negative effect of consumers attitude towards mobile
advertising on behavioural intention. It was justified that attitude can be negative or positive, and
it is based on the consumers perception (Bauer et al., 2005; Chowdhury, Parvin, Weitenberner
and Becker, 2006). However in some conditions, relationship between attitude and intention can
be different (Nysveen et al., 2005), less stable and can be easily changed (Bauer et al., 2005).
The positive or negative attitude depends on situation or factors that influence the consumer at

212
the point at which they want to perform a particular behaviour (Carroll et al., 2007; Lee, Fiore
and Kim 2006).

Moreover, consumer attitude towards SMS advertising was found to have a positive influence on
consumer acceptance of SMS advertising in Jordan. This conclusion has been confirmed by
many previous studies stating that there is a direct relationship between consumer attitudes and
consumer behaviour within the SMS advertising context (Haghirian and Madlberger, 2005;
Tsang et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2008). This view was further supported by Lee and Juns (2007)
findings that consumer attitudes are directly linked to behavioural intentions for mobile
advertising, such as getting free coupons, calling back, sending text messages, visiting specific
shops, and allowing messages.

This study found that certain factors (perceived value through informativeness , entertainment,
trust, perceived risk, attitude towards advertising, privacy and permission) had significant effect
on attitude. This finding is consistent with the studies of the following authors. (Tsang et al.,
2002; Baur et al. 2005; Haghirian and Madlberger, 2005; Xu et al., 2008; Wong and Tang, 2008a
and 2008b). Entertainment exhibited the strongest effect on attitude among the other factors.
Informativeness was the second salient factor which positively influenced attitude and privacy
and permission had a significant negative effect on attitude. Western studies on traditional
advertising found that entertainment, informativeness were the most salient factors affecting the
perception of advertising (Ducoffe, 1995; Shavitt et al., 1998). The value of entertainment in
advertising lies in its capability to fulfill consumers needs for escapism, diversion, aesthetic
enjoyment, pleasure, fun or emotion release (Ducoffe, 1995).

Innovativenss, existing knowledge of mobile technology and social influence factor did not have
a significant effect on consumer attitude. This finding is contrary to that of Leavitt and Walton in
Bauer et al. (2005) who stated that consumers who are characterized by a high degree of
innovativeness are usually very open to new experiences and tend to make constructive use of
information received. Bauer et al. (2005) in their study found that Innovativeness influences
knowledge about mobile communications positively, information seeker-behaviour construct
determines attitude toward advertising and that knowledge about mobile communications affects
the attitude towards mobile marketing positively. The findings of this study can be explained
from the fact that mobile phone users in Nigeria are yet to fully understand and catch up with the

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rapid development in mobile technology. As such, they pose little knowledge and are less
innovate in adopting new technology.
Perceived risk showed significant direct effect towards attitude decision. This result was
consistent with Wu and Wangs (2005) findings and they attributed their result to users previous
experience with online services which may imply that consumers are more aware of the
existence of potential risk and have a better understanding of the mobile commerce context. This
result also supports Ulivieris (2004) argument that a consumer goes on doing something that
initially seemed to be risky or dangerous but little by little she/he becomes more confident; it is a
form of basic trust derived from habit and from the decreasing perceived probability of damage.
According to Kim (2008), consumers are often faced with at least some degree of risk or
uncertainty in using mobile technology, however risk is not the only factor consumers are
sensitive to, but relates the perceived benefit that provides consumer with an incentive to use the
mobile technology.

Findings in this study show that trust is positively related to attitudes toward marketing
messages, privacy and permission is negatively related to marketing messages. This factor
highlights the importance of permission-based marketing in protecting the credibility of the
mobile phone channel. Permission based marketing ensures that advertisements are sent to only
those consumers that are interested in receiving information from the organization and avoids
targeting those consumers that will perceive the advertisement as being intrusive or irritating.
The significant negative influence of privacy and permission on consumer attitude towards
marketing messages also supports the studies of the following (Barwise and Strong 2002;
Leppniemi et al., 2006; Brown, 2006) in their findings that consumers explicit permission is
essential for a high level of acceptance and satisfaction of mobile marketing and that consumers
generally have a negative attitude to unsolicited mobile advertising messages. The findings of
this study also show that trust was significant in influencing consumers attitude to marketing
messages. This finding is also consistent with the study of Okozaki, Katsura and Nishiyama
(2007) who argued that trust in advertising using the mobile device directly and positively affects
attitudes toward mobile advertising. This findings support the claim of Rogers (2003) stating that
the effects of mobile advertising trust on the attitude toward mobile advertising is both
significant and strong. This is because, the nature of the innovation determines what specific
type of relative advantage is important to the adopters (Rogers, 2003).

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CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0 Introduction

This chapter contains discussion of findings of the whole research work carried out in this study.
This includes summary of the work, findings both theoretical and empirical findings,
conclusions, policy implication of the findings, recommendations, limitation of the research,
suggestions for further study and contribution to knowledge.

5.1 Summary of the Work

The objectives of the study were to examine the effect of marketing messages on consumer
attitude, to determine the influence of consumer attitude on purchase behaviour, to evaluate the
significant effect of marketing messages on purchase behaviour and to determine if there exists a
significant influence of consumer factors on attitude towards marketing messages. Apart from
the objectives of the study, chapter one contains the statement of research problem, research
questions, significance of the study, hypotheses, scope and limitation of the study.

In chapter two, substantial literature and theories on consumer behaviour, consumer culture,
marketing communication, mobile service usage, mobile marketing and factors determining
consumer attitude were reviewed.

In chapter three, in order to achieve the stated objectives of this study, the researcher adopted the
survey method and a cross sectional type of research design. The research instruments of the
questionnaire were employed to collect the data required for this study. The questionnaires were
administered to 1200 mobile phone users in Lagos state. Out of the 1200 questionnaires
administered, 1020 were retrieved and analyzed.

In chapter four, tables and charts were used to present the data collected for this study,
descriptive statistics was also used in analyzing the data and multiple regression analysis using
structural equation modeling (SEM) software were used in testing the formulated hypotheses.

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Chapter five contains summary of the study, conclusions, recommendations, limitation of the
research work, suggestions for further studies and the contribution to knowledge.

5.2 Discussion of the Findings


The research findings of this study were divided into two parts, namely (i) Summary of
theoretical findings. (ii). Summary of empirical findings.

5.2.1 Theoretical Findings.

The literature reviewed in the study revealed the following findings:

Marketing communication between targets markets, marketers and consumers are constantly
changing and improving. Three major agents of change have been identified in the literature -
globalisation, rapid development of technology especially in Information Technology, and
consumer demands. These have led to the emergence of new level of competition, customers,
information and new ways to market product and services. The impacts of these changes increase
the speed with which marketers must deliver value added, interactive and location based services
to customers in order to gain a competitive edge by strengthening relationships with key
customers.

Substantial development in information and communications technology has accelerated the


movement towards personalized and interactive marketing communications. Besides the Internet
and personal computers, the advent of mobile phone technology has provided marketers with
new possibilities for interacting with existing and potential customers in order to advertise and
promote their product and services.

Organisations are constantly looking for ways and means of expanding or maintaining their
market share. Findings from the literature according to Pousttchi (2006) and Barwise and Strong
(2002) reveals that marketing experts consider that the mobile device is an extremely promising
marketing tool to overcome the major challenges of assessing the consumer on time and getting
the attention of consumers than the present mass media.

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Previous findings in areas of marketing messages revealed that in order to successfully market
products and services via mobile phone, marketers and retailers should gain an insight into
mobile phone users attitudes, perceptions, characteristics, and influencing factors (Tsang et al.,
2004; Barwise and Strong, 2002; Barnes and Scornavacca, 2004; James, 2004; Leppniemi and
Karjaluoto, 2005; Rettie, 2005). Tsang et al. (2004) found that consumers generally have
negative attitude toward mobile marketing messages unless they have specifically consented to
receive the marketing message. The concept of "permission marketing" addresses the widespread
problem of spam in new media communication by demanding the explicit agreement of the
addressee to receiving marketing information. This approach thus recognizes that the majority of
anonymous mass messages are despised by consumers leading them to reject such messages
(Godin, 2001).

Message relevancy has been defined as the degree to which message content are pertinent,
applicable, and related to consumers needs (Lastovicka, 1983). It was noted that relevance is a
key concept in understanding advertisements, and that it is a primary component of all aspects of
human communication. In general, consumers expect marketing messages to be highly relevant
to them as the mobile phone has a personal nature (Barwise and Strong, 2002). Findings from the
literature shows that personalization of marketing message content to end users fields of
interest will have a significant influence on the consumer, as such message will be perceived as a
valuable service (Haghirian, Madlberger and Tanuskova, 2005; Merisavo et al., 2007;
Vatanparast, 2007; Xu et al.,2008). For example, Bauer et al. (2005) found that consumers
developed a positive attitude toward mobile marketing if marketing messages were creatively
designed, interactive and proved a high information value. Personalization of marketing
messages has been found to have a significant positive influence on consumers attitudes in
existing literature.

From the body of works reviewed, fundamental issue is being faced by marketing practitioner on
how to identity factors that influence consumer attitude towards marketing messages on mobile
devices. Several factors have been identified for example Bauer et al. (2005) emphasized that
entertainment value, information value and advertising content communication are some of the
strongest drivers of the acceptance of the mobile phone as a marketing tool. These results are
confirmed by other studies (Brackett and Carr, 2001; Ducoffe, 1996) as well, who carried out a

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study on attitude towards web advertising. Entertainment has turned out to increase advertising
value in different empirical investigations. For example, Ferrazzi, Chen and Li (2003) found that
entertaining games in combination with sales messages can encourage dialogs with customers
and project product images. Informativeness of the advertising message turns out to be the
second strong influencing factor on consumers perceived advertising value, but shows the
strongest influence on consumers attitude.

The marketing message is perceived as valuable as long as it provides information and thus
creates some benefit for the consumer. At the other end, fear of data misuse and spam were seen
as perceived risk that would have a negative influence. Similarly, a study by Haghirian and
Madlberger (2008) also addressed this effect that certain characteristics may have influence on
consumers attitudes toward mobile marketing. Once again, entertainment and information,
together with credibility, rose to the top as those value-inducing factors that could sway
consumers in favor of marketing messages. On the other hand, trust, frequency of exposure,
perceived risk (data security), privacy and permission has been named as the top factors that
could have the reverse effect. These factors constitutes important variables that need to be
addressed by organizations, advertisers and marketing practitioners in order to give consumers
freedom from doubt (uncertainty) or assurance in responding to marketing messages on mobile
devices.

5.2.2 Empirical Findings of the Study

The findings of this study are as follows in line with the hypothesis raised in this study.

Hypothesis 1: Marketing messages messages (promotional, relational, personalization,


interactivity and frequency) on mobile devices have negative effect on consumer attitude

Fidings from the test of hypothesis one shows that marketing messages (promotional, relational,
personalization, interactivity and frequency) on mobile devices have positive effect on consumer
attitude. Marketing messages was measured by promotional, relational, personalization,
interactivity and frequency of the messages. All these variables showed a positive effect on

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consumer attitude. Many studies have reported related findings in line with the findings of this
study.
Some studies highlight that perceived interactivity was found to be a strong predictor of attitude
toward mobile advertisement (Xu, 2006). Findings on Relational information of marketing
messages by previous studies conducted by Ramaprasad and Thurwanger (1998); Haghirian and
Madlberger (2005); and Ducoffe (1996) has shown that there are strong and positive
relationships between the level of information and consumers attitude towards advertising. This
findings also corroborates with that of Brackett and Carr (2001) who suggested that marrketing
messages should be a good source of relevant product information. Ducoffe (1996) also reports
that advertisement should supply complete product information and such information about
products should be immediately accessible by the consumers.

A common finding in many studies is that for marketing message to stimulate a positive effect on
consumer attitude, it must include qualitative features like relevance, timeliness, usefulness to
the consumer, information about promotion and prizes (Siau and Shen, 2003; Shavitt, Lowrey
and Haefner 1998; Haghirian and Dickinger 2005; Barwise and Strong 2002). The theme of
relevance has also been identified by others researchers has a major positive influence on
consumer attitude (Heinonen and Strandvik, 2003;Varshney, 2003).
Hypothesis 2: Consumer attitude towards marketing messages have negative influence on
purchase behaviour

Findings from the test of hypothesis two shows that consumer attitude towards marketing
messages have positive influence on purchase behaviour. Purchase behaviour was measured by
intention, actual purchase, satisfaction, and loyalty. Consumer attitude was positively related
intention, actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty. The findings of this study corroborated with
the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen 1991 and 1998) which postulated that the more
favourable the attitude with respect to a behaviour, the stronger will be an individuals intention
to perform the behaviour under consideration. Apart from the position of this theory, many
studies have reported related findings in line with the finding of this study. Findings of the study
of Wong and Tang (2008) revealed that consumers attitude towards marketing messages became
a significant factor that influences consumers intention to receive and read mobile
advertisements.
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The findings of Xu (2006) revealed that that there is a direct relationship between consumer
attitudes and consumer intentions which supports the findings of this study. The findings of this
study is also in line with that of a multivariate analysis conducted by Tsang et al. (2004) who
disclosed that consumers attitude is significantly correlated with their intention to receive
mobile advertisement. The findings of this study were supported by that of Muk and Babin
(2006) who found out in their study on attitude towards accepting wireless advertisements and
intention to adopt SMS advertisement. Their result revealed that attitude towards accepting
wireless advertisements was a significant predictor on intention to opt-in to SMS advertising.
Many studies on marketing activities carried out via the mobile phone has revealed that the
attitude towards advertisement also played a vital role towards consumers willingness to access
the advertisement (Okazaki, 2004; Bauer et al., 2005; Radder et al., 2010). Findings from
Okazaki (2004) shows that consumer attitude had the highest magnitude of regression weight on
intention. Indicating that consumer attitude is the most determining factor of behavioural
intention.

Hypothesis 3: There is no significant effect of marketing messages on purchase behaviour.

Findings from the test of hypothesis three reveals that there is a positive significant effect of
marketing messages on purchase behaviour. Many studies have reported related findings in line
with the finding of this study. A number of studies have examined marketing messages on
purchase beahviour (Zauberman 2003; Merisavo and Raulas 2004; Kwak et al., 2002). Some
findings highlight that repetition of brand advertising has a stronger effects on brand loyalty and
familiarity while others found that sending regular relevant messages on product information are
positively related to purchase and loyalty

Common finding in many studies is that the higher the interactivity content of marketing
messages the higher the purchase frequency for such product/services (Venkatesan and Kumar,
2004; Srinivasan et al., 2002) which corroborates the findings of this study that interactive
marketing messages has a positive significant effect on purchase behaviour. This is made
possible because interactivity increases that amount of information that can be presented to a
customer and encourages bidirectional communication between the customer and supplier. The
findings of Srinivasan et al. (2002) further emphasized that interactivity has a positive effect on

220
loyalty where there exist availability and effectiveness of customer support tools (information,
search process) which facilitates two way communication.

Findings of Jedidi et al. (1999) and Mela et al. (1997) suggest that relational marketing
messages have positive effect on brand loyalty while promotional marketing messages have a
negative effect on brand loyalty in the long run. According to them, price promotional messages
make customers more price sensitive and encourages brand switching. Most studies on frequency
of marketing messages on purchase behaviour have revealed a positive effect of frequency on
purchasing and loyalty (Dufrene 2005; Mersavo and Raulus, 2004). Relevant studies (Mersavi et
al., 2005; Nysveen et al., 2005) on mobile services and mobile advertising messages are found to
have positive effects on consumer brand relationships and long term purchase behaviour which
supports the findings of the study.

Hypothesis 4: There is no significant influence of consumer factors on attitude towards mobile


marketing messages.
Findings from the test of hypothesis four shows that consumer factors have significant influence
on attitude towards mobile marketing. In this study, Consumer factors was identified as
innovativeness, existing knowledge, attitude towards advertising, privacy and permission,
perceived risk, entertainment, trust, social norm and perceived value. Findings from this study
reveal that entertainment, perceived value, perceived risk, attitude towards advertising in general
and trust had a high significant positive influence on attitude while privacy and permission had a
negative significant influence on attitude towards marketing messages. Findings from this study
also showed that innovativeness, existing knowledge of mobile marketing communication and
social influence factor did not have a significant effect on consumer attitude mobile marketing
messages.

These finding indicates that Consumer behaviour is strongly influenced by perceived risk, as
consumers generally try to minimize risk rather than maximize utility. Consumers will perceive
marketing messages as valuable as long as it provides relevant information and creates some
form of benefit to them. Findings from this study shows that Entertainment is pivotal to the
success of marketing activities on mobile devices and a crucial factor for mobile marketing. As
Entertainment services can increase customer loyalty and add value to the customer. Findings on
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privacy and permission factor emphasize the need for organisations to seek consumers consent
and approval before sending in marketing messages. Consumers who consider privacy and see
the mobile phone as a personal item are less likely to attribute a high value and a positive attitude
towards advertising via mobile devices. Findings of this study indicate that social influence did
not significantly influence attitude. This finding is in line with that of Sultan and Rohm (2008)
who carried out a cross-cultural study in the United States and Pakistan. They discovered in
there study that social influence did not significantly affect mobile marketing acceptance in the
two countries. Cultural orientation could be one of the factors leading to the insignificant effect
of social influence on attitude. Hofstede (1980) identified five cultural dimensions which can
explain the human behaviour under different cultures. The dimensions are power distance,
uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/feminity and term orientation.
Among these five dimensions, individualism/collectivism can be instrumental to explaining the
insignificant effect of social norn on attitude. The people in collective culture behave on the basis
on the norms of their groups (Triandis, 2001). This indicates that consumers in individualistic
culture are not easily influenced by social norms.

5. 3 Conclusion
The conclusions of this study are based on the findings from test of hypothesis. The conclusion
of this study provide answers to the stated research question

This study concludes that marketing messages (promotional, relational, personalization,


interactivity and frequency) have a significant positive effect on consumer attitude. Marketing
messages with interactivity content has the most positive effect on consumer attitude. The
findings clearly show that marketing messages with relational content on product information
have a significant positive effect on consumer attitude. Frequency of marketing messages does
not reflect negative effect on consumer attitude. Marketing messages with promotional contents
have a moderate positive effect on consumer attitude. Promotional messages stimulate short term
sales and cannot sustain a positive attitude. This study also concluudes that Personalisation of
marketing messages has a significant positive effect on consumer attitude. Consumers will
perceive relevant marketing message as being a valuable service when tailored towards meeting
their personal need.

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This study concludes that consumer attitude towards marketing messages have positive influence
on purchase behaviour(intention, actual purchase, satisfaction, and loyalty). A positive attitude
towards marketing messages is more likely to lead to a favourable purchase behaviour. This
study concludes that consumer attitudes are directly linked to behavioural intentions, actual
purchase, satisfaction and loyalty of consumers on the mobile service platform.

This study concludes that there is a significant positive effect of marketing messages
(promotional, relational, personalization, interactivity and frequency) on purchase
behaviour(intention, actual purchase, satisfaction, and loyalty). Brand communication builds
customer loyalty mainly through increased frequency and relational content. Information
processing triggered by regular brand communication generates customer value and
commitment. Increases in these improve customer loyalty. Personalization and interactivity
affects brand communication on customer loyalty

This study concludes that consumer factors have significant influence on attitude towards mobile
marketing. The consumer factors evaluated in this study includes innovativeness, existing
knowledge of mobile technology, entertainment, informativeness, perceived value, attitude
towards advertising, trust, perceived risk and social norm). Based on the findings of this study,
on the influence of consumer factors on attitude towards mobile marketing, this study concludes
on the following: that entertainment, informativeness, perceived value, attitude towards
advertising, trust, perceived risk, privacy and permission has a significant positive influence on
attitude towards mobile marketing, that innovativeness, existing knowledge of mobile
technology and social norm does not have a significant influence on attitude towards mobile
marketing, that privacy and permission has a negative influence on attitude towards mobile
marketing.
This study concludes that entertainment factor and informativness has a high significant positive
effect on attitude towards mobile marketing. And as such, they constitute the strongest predictor
of a positive influence on attitude toward mobile advertising. From the findings of this study, this
study concludes that consumer attitude is strongly influenced by perceived risk, as consumers
generally try to minimize risk rather than maximize utility. This study concludes that perceived
value, informativeness, entertainment, trust, perceived risk, privacy and permission are pivotal to
a favourable consumer attitude towards mobile marketing messages.

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5.4 Implication of Findings
5.4.1 Implications for Practice

The Mobile device especially the mobile phones have become daily necessities for people, most
importantly for teenagers and adults. The Mobile phone provides marketers with another
platform to reach potential consumers. The result of this study can be used by organizations and
marketers to better understand the variables and factors that contribute to consumers attitude
towards receiving and responding advertisements and marketing messages on the mobile phone.

The importance of mobile marketing in marketing practices is widely recognised because of the
unique features of the mobile media. Effective mobile marketing strategies therefore depend on
the ability of firms to manage and operate mobile technologies and make use of their features.
With the continued development of mobile technology assured, there will be a vast array of new
opportunities for firms to capitalize on these features. They should closely monitor
advancements, look for new possibilities, and integrate them into their marketing strategy. This
should be performed regularly to ensure that they are offering up-to-date activities that satisfy
customer needs, making the best use of existing technology.

The finding of this study gives practitioners insight into how effective marketing campaigns
through mobile phone should be designed. According to the findings of this study,
personalization, interactivity, promotional and relational marketing message content have
positive effect on consumer attitude. As discussed in the study, it is believed that marketing
techniques have to be based on knowledge of customer profiles (Rao and Minakakis, 2003).
Contrary to traditional marketing channels, the great advantage of marketing on mobile phone
device is that a specific audience can be targeted in a direct and personal manner. By developing
a database, marketing messages on promotional and relational content should be personalized
according to customers profiles. The interest of the consumer must be investigated properly to
send messages more precisely when personalizing mobile marketing message.

The finding of this study shows that frequency of marketing messages has a positive effect on
consumers attitude and loyalty. For this positive attitude to be sustained, Marketers should send
marketing messages at appropriate time and in a reasonable amount so as to avoid intrusion and
distraction to consumers, which could lead to irritation. When the consumers feel less annoyed

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about the advertisements, they would have a more favourable attitude towards receiving and
responding to marketing messages on the mobile phone device. In order to decrease irritation in
marketing messages sent through the mobile phone and increase positive attitude toward it,
messages should be simplified, short and must be straight to the point in order to be more user
friendly. Consumers Privacy must be assured by companies by getting consumers permission in
advance to receive marketing messages in order to improve the relationship and ensure
interactivity with the consumers. In addition, consumer must have an option be able to stop
receiving further messages.

The findings of this study also shows that Perceived value (Informativeness) and entertainment
of marketing messages leads to consumer positive attitude. Based on these findings, mobile
advertising should be informative about new products, changes in products price, and raffles
and discounts. Marketers can improve consumersattitude by strengthening the level of
information and entertainment of their messages. The information provided in the marketing
message should be more relevant to consumers, more trustworthy and more tailor-made for the
individual consumer.

To fully exploit mobile marketing features, firms should focus on the power of the personal
nature of mobile devices that distinguish mobile marketing from other forms of marketing.
Mobile devices should no longer be used as just a channel for advertising. Instead, they should
be seen as a virtual one-to-one marketing channel where marketers engage customers in
personalized relationships. Only information that customers value, or that they deem important,
should be communicated through this medium, in order to ensure that the right customer is
getting the right message at the right moment

Given that there are multiple mobile applications available in the market, firms can leverage on
existing mobile applications in creating applications for their products and services. Firms
should make sure that their mobile marketing campaigns are using the right application for the
right target audience. Different applications have different levels of difficulty of use, and some
applications are more suitable for certain groups of consumers than others. A lack of experience
or knowledge in using an application may prevent customers from responding to the marketing
campaign. Standard applications such as SMS may be the most appropriate for a mass campaign,

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while a flashy and interactive application could be used in a campaign targeting teenagers to
attract attention and in stimulating their use of such applications.

Mobile marketing strategy and programmes should be planned and implemented with respect to
customer privacy and security concerns in order to achieve the most effective results. Mobile
spam (i.e. unsolicited SMS messages) raises privacy concern related to the utilisation of the
personal and location data used to personalise mobile marketing messages. Consumers may be
reluctant to trust firms using mobile phones as a marketing communication channel because of
the perceived risk regarding the safety of their personal data and privacy. Privacy issues are
particularly sensitive with respect to mobile marketing due to the intimate personal nature of
mobile devices.

In order to overcome perceived risk of personal data and privacy, organizations using mobile
marketing strategy and programmes should be permission-based. The permission should be
specific to mobile devices. Marketing messages should be sent only to mobile phone users who
have given their consent to receive such messages. A method of unsubscribing should be clearly
provided. In other words, mobile marketing campaigns must abide by relevant laws or codes of
conduct. After getting permission to send marketing messages to consumers, companies should
pay attention on when to send this marketing message, untimely messages can create disturbance
and could lead to irritation and annoyance among consumers.

5.4.2 Implications for Policy Makers and the Government

The Government through its legislative council and policy makers in the telecommunication
industry should enact a law guiding the use of unsolicited electronic messages to mobile phone
devices, in order to ensure consumers privacy and security of consumer data and information.
The law could include any electronic messages being sent as text or pre-recorded voice messages
to mobile phones and other mobile devices, with a purpose of marketing, advertising, promoting
or offering goods, services, business opportunities or the organizations to the consumers or
mobile phone user must be permission based. The results of this study showed that privacy and
permission had a significant negative impact on attitude. This indicates that the higher the
consumer concern for safety of their personal data, privacy and approval of consent to receiving
marketing messages, the lower their attitude is towards reading and responding to such

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messages. It implies that the permission based marketing ordinance when operated by the
government would improve mobile phone users attitude and intention to receive, read and
respond positively to mobile marketing messages. This ordinance would further facilitate the
development of the use of the mobile media in marketing, advertising and promoting of goods
and serves in Nigeria.

5.5 Recommendations
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made.

I. Marketing managers and advertisers should identify their target customers and
understand their demographics characteristics in developing successful mobile marketing
messages, programs and strategies.
II. Marketing messages should be tailored according to consumers entertainment and
information preferences.
III. Marketers should strive to know how consumers evaluate marketing messages they
receive on their mobile phone. Being able to identify attitude towards receiving and
reading this messages would help marketers to better advertise their products and
services.
IV. Interactive marketing messages can be used to build customer engagement with a brand
in order to build relationship and sustain customer brand relationship.
V. Advertisers and organizations should first seek consumers consent by employing
permission based marketing before sending marketing messages to mobile phone users.
VI. In order to drive consumer acceptance of marketing messages, the risk associated with the
adoption decision of mobile advertising must be minimized. With permission based
marketing, advertisers and organizations can reduce the perceived risk associated with
marketing on mobile devices.
VII. The relationship between trust of marketing messages and consumer attitudes, suggests
that marketers need to ensure that messages are sent to consumers at a reasonable time
during the day based on consumers preference and specification. Messages should be sent
in suitable amount so as to avoid interruption and disturbance to consumers.

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VIII. For permission marketing to be successful marketers need to understand what makes
consumers willing to grant permission.
IX. Marketing managers should explore developments in mobile applications (apps) which
can create a new realm of possibilities in mobile relationship marketing. Companies can
use apps to create personalised content that promotes brand engagement and gives the
mobile phone a sustainable utility
X. Marketing managers and marketers should effectively strategize their mobile marketing
messages by considering the personalization factor.
XI. Strategic focus of brand communication via mobile devices and digital channels should
be tailored towards creating meaningful brand encounters and deepening consumer-based
relationships not just in seeing additional sales.
XII. Interactions with mobile advertisements should be designed with caution to avoid
grabbing the users attention rudely or interrupting the user at anytime and anywhere.
One possible approach to achieve this is to design consumers interactive mobile
advertisements with which users are allowed to select what he or she would like to
experience. This is beneficial for both companies and users. For companies, customers
are voluntarily connected to the campaign and the company, which will lead to more
responses and more favourable attitude toward the brand and the company; for users, they
can have more control over their own experiences and can be better connected to
beneficial offers which are personally relevant by proper designed advertisements.

5.6 Limitation of the study

The results of this study provide support for theoretical model and insights for practitioners on
attitude and purchase behaviour towards marketing messages received on their mobile phones.
However, there are some limitations and caution should be taken in interpreting and generalizing
the results.

Sampling bias could have occurred in several possibilities. This study was conducted in selected
locations and the evaluation of mobile phone users in other locations may not have been the
same. Mobile phone users who were not in the selected locations were missed out. Respondents
were invited to participate in the survey on a voluntary basis, in order to ensure a nonresponse

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bias. The characteristics of those respondents who were not willing to participate in the survey
may be different from those who participated in this study. The survey was conducted by using
trained research assistants. Some difficulties were encountered in encouraging the sampled
respondents to participate in filling the research instrument. Many of them said that the
questionnaire was too lengthy so they were not willing to participate. Some of them thought it
was annoying and not credible as some companies promoted their businesses through conducting
such research. However, some of them were willing to participate in the survey after the research
assistant had explained that the survey was conducted strictly for academic purpose. Despite the
limitations, the data collection appeared to be appropriate, as it successfully gathered the views
and responses of the target respondents, as sampled respondents were willing to and they did
complete their questionnaires.

This study is based on cross-sectional data that only reveals the net effect of a predictor variable
over a criterion variable at a specific point in time (Cavana et al., 2001). As a result of the
inherent limitation of cross-sectional study, the findings of studies using cross-sectional data may
not be able to explain the reasons behind the observed patterns (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and
Lowe, 2003). Thus, this research work cannot satisfactorily describe over time what the observed
changes in behavioural pattern will be and the causality of these changes in consumer attitude
towards marketing messages.

Sampled respondents were only selected from public tertiary institutions in Lagos State. The
characteristics and attitude of mobile phone users in private tertiary institutions who were not
part of the survey and which may be different from those in public institutions who participated
in this study. As such, caution should be taken in generalizing the findings of this study across all
and private tertiary institutions in the country.

This study only looked at the marketing messages through one type of mobile device (i.e. mobile
phones) and not through other mobile devices (i.e. PDAs, Palm tops, IPads, Tablets etc). Other
consumers using other types of mobile devices may have a different attitude and exhibit different
purchase behaviour if they had been included in the study. This research work only looked at
mobile phone users in Lagos state. Mobile phone users in other parts of the country might pose
different attitude towards marketing messages as a result of the peculiar contextual and cultural
environment of each state.

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5.7 Suggestions for Further Research

The following possibilities for future research emerge from this study:

(i) Since attitude is mostly cultural, it is possible that cultural differences might bring about
different attitudes in people. Future research can focus on whether cultural differences
among respondents can make any difference in their attitude toward mobile marketing
messages. Nigeria is a multi-cultural society. A study that highlights differences in
consumer attitudes toward mobile marketing messages based on cultural differences
could be valuable.
(ii) Future research may also include mobile devices such as the tablets and other mobile
gadgets.
(iii) The findings of this study are based entirely on the research conducted in Lagos State
and hence may not be applicable to other states on accounts of contextual and cultural
factors. Further research could be carried out on a wider scale (nation-wide) so as to
include mobile phone users from other states.
(iv) The researcher encourages the replication of this study in other regional areas in which
cross-regional similarities and differences could be studied.
(v) Further research could be carried out on a longitudinal study to portray the pattern of
changes in consumer attitude as a result of continuance advancement in mobile
technology and modification of marketing strategies. Also, future researchers can
incorporate private tertiary institutions students in their study in order to enhance the
validity and generalization of the research findings.
(vi) More research is needed to analyse the differences between teenagers and young adults,
as well as to examine cross-gender differences. Differences between males and females
in this study was only presented based on respondents views but was not included in the
test of hypothesis.
(vii) Additional research exploring the way in which mobile phones influence the
communication patterns between young people and their parents, and amongst
themselves should be undertaken. The preservation of relationships with the use of
mobile phones is a central theme and should be further explored.

230
(viii) Research can be carried out in assessing consumers attitude towards mobile
applications. This is a viable and emerging mobile technology platform where
organizations can develop mobile application for their products and services.
(ix) Research can be carried out on how factors influencing attitude towards marketing
messages (perceived value, credibility, trust, perceived risk, privacy and permission)
affects purchase behaviour (intention, satisfaction and loyalty).
(x) Promotion is the area in which mobile devices have the most impact, and is therefore
worth revisiting. The marketing communication mix offers a wide range of tools to
reach customers. Each tool has is unique characteristics and is designed for different
purposes. Further research can be carried out on the influence of other areas of the
marketing mix (product, pricing, distribution etc) on the mobile media. This could give
firms the opportunity to expand the use of mobile devices into new marketing areas,
requiring further investigation.
(xi) As technology continues to evolve, new mobile technologies will continuously be
adopted for commercial use. Further research can be carried out in order to assess the
impact of these emerging technologies in the mobile media in order to identify possible
changes in firms marketing strategy.
(xii) As a result of the personal nature of a mobile device, communication through this
channel has a high tendency to invade customer privacy, which could result in a
negative influence on customer perception of the brand being promoted. Future research
could explore the impact of mobile marketing in this regard in greater dimension so that
firms will have the knowledge to prepare themselves and develop strategies to address
such challenges.
(xiii) Further research may address further issues relating to the content of marketing
messages such as proper utilization of pullpush advertising strategy, the interaction
between interactivity, context-awareness and synergy between various media to build a
highly interactive mobile platform. Also, further research may refine the current
understanding of what interactivity is in the mobile communication environment and
how it influences users experiences. A possible approach is to (a) analyze the level of
interactivity, optimization of acquisition and retention efforts of mobile customers (b)

231
analyze the type of interactions enabled in the mobile environment and adjust or develop
principles for specific mobile media contexts.

5.8 Contribution to Knowledge

This study, among others, has contributed to the body of knowledge in consumer behaviour and
marketing in the following ways

(i) Findings in this study have shown that promotional and relational message content have a
significant positive effect on behavioural intention, actual purchase and loyalty. This
findings has extended the body of knowledge in mobile servise by supporting previous
studies who identified a significant relationship between marketing message content and
consumers purchase behaviour in the traditional media.
(ii) The marketing messages scale (promotional, relational and frequency) developed by the
researcher can be used for other related research works in Nigeria as well as in other parts
of the world.
(iii) This study has identified and developed concepts that are important to mobile phone users in
Nigeria relating to marketing messages. Some concepts such as personalization, interactivity,
promotional and relational message content, perceived value of marketing messages, privacy
and perceived risk of mobile services were identified and confirmed as influential factors
affecting attitude towards marketing messages. Consequently, these findings contribute
knowledge to the under-researched area of consumer behaviour and mobile marketing and
they provide insights for other researchers interested in carrying out research in this area in
Nigeria and other parts of the world.
(iv) This study has provided an understanding of the complex phenomena of adopting new
technology as a medium of marketing communication in an emerging market like Nigeria.
The findings in this study have provided knowledge on the nature, mobile phone usage, usage
pattern and preference density of Nigerian mobile phone users to mobile marketing
mssages. This knowledge has provided insights into conducting or replicating this study in
other parts of the world and can also assist industry practitioners in developing a robust
mobile marketing campaigns.
(v) This study has also broaden the horizon of knowledge in consumer behaviour literature by
the use of consumer behaviour theories (such as learning theories, Consumer involvement

232
theory) on the mobile media platform. Previous studies in mobile marketing literature has
mainly used the mobile service adoption theories such as theory of reasoned action
(TRA) (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975), theory of planned behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991),
Innovation and Diffusion Theory (IDT) (Rogers, 1983) and technology acceptance
model (TAM) (Davies, 1989). This study has created a platform for other studies in
consumer behaviour and marketing using the mobile phone media to consider the use of
consumer behaviour theories.
(vi) This study also validated the use of theory of reasoned action (TRA) that was developed
by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975). Findings from this study has shown that there is a
significant positive effect of consumer attitude on behavioural intention and actual
purchase.This findings validate the previous empirical and theoretical findings on the
theory of reasoned action from existing literature.
(vii) The findings in respect to personalization and interactivity of mobile marketing messages
in this thesis complemented and extended Western studies in the area of mobile service
adoption and attitude towards mobile marketing. Findings in this study relating to social
norm influence, innovativeness and existing knowledge about mobile technology did not
have a significant effect on attitude towards marketing messages. This is different from
the findings in relevant Western studies (e.g. Moreau et al. 2001; Peter and Olson
2002;.Baur, et al., 2005; Pedersen, 2005), which found that social norm, innovativeness
and existing knowledge about mobile technology have a significant influence on attitude
towards marketing messages. Thus, this has provided opportunity for further research in
this area.
(viii) The cache of ideas, facts and figures in this study can be used by consultants, Marketers,
Managers and Advertisers for business development, improvement in marketing
comunication strategy and also by Policy makers and the Government in regulating
business activities.
(ix) This study has opened a new vester of research opportunities for future scholars of
mobile communication, marketing, and consumer behaviour.

233
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273
Appendix 1

RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE

Department of Business Management,


School of Business,
College of Development Studies,
Covenant University,
Canaan land Ota,
Ogun State.
March 4, 2013

Good day,
I am conducting a doctoral research on Influence of Mobile Marketing on Consumer
Purchase Behaviour. I have the pleasure of inviting you to fill this questionnaire as you have
been selected to participate in the study. Your co-operation in participating in this study will be
highly appreciated.

This study is strictly for research purpose. All information provided will be treated with utmost

confidentiality.

Thank you and God bless.

Akinbode Mosunmola
Doctoral Student.

274
QUESTIONNAIRE
SECTION A: Demographic Data:

Please respond to the following questions by ticking () as appropriate


1. Sex: Male ( ) Female ( )
2. Age: 1518 ( ) 1924 ( ) 2534 ( ) 3544 ( )
3. Educational Qualification: WAEC ( ) B.Sc. ( ) M.Sc. ( ) MBA. ( ) Others(Please specify) ______
4. Marital Status: Single ( ) Married ( ) Divorced ( ) Widow ( ) Widower ( )
5. Occupation: Student ( ) Employer ( ) Employee ( ) Business Owner ( )
7. Student Status: Undergraduate Full time ( ) Undergraduate Part time ( ) Postgraduate
Full time ( ) Postgraduate Part time ( )
8. Job Position: Managerial ( ) Supervisory ( ) Clerical ( ) Others (Please specify) _______

SECTION B: Mobile Phone Usage


1. Please Indicate your type of Mobile phone Usage and usage pattern by ticking () where
applicable
Phone Usage Very often Often Sometimes Rarely Never
Voice calls
SMS
MMS
Videos
Games
Music
News
Breaking news
Sports
Face book
Twitter
Mobile Web browsing
Mobile chatting
Mobile e-mail

2. Please indicate how frequently you receive the following mobile marketing messages on your
phone
Once a Once a Daily Many times a day Several times a
Month Week (please indicate) Week (please
indicate)
Product/service information
Promotional Messages (text-2-win)
Free: SMS, call credit, internet services
Entertainment (jokes, games, Chat)
Information (weather, job Vacancy, traffic flow)
Invitation for voting in a TV show
Invitation for voting in a TV contest/game

275
Many times a day Several times a
Once a Once a Daily (please indicate) Week (please
Month Week indicate)
Music downloads
Caller/Ring tunes download
Breaking news
Sports
Inspirational (Quotes, devotional)
Lifestyle (Health/fitness, fashion, love tips)
Others(Please specify) ___________________
______________________________________

3. What do you do when you receive SMS adverts of product/service? Please tick () where
applicable
1. Ignore it completely ( )
2. Read it occasionally ( )
3. Read it immediately ( )
4. Read it when I have the time ( )
5. Read and use ( )
6. Read and accept ( )
7. Read and Reject ( )
8. Read and Ignore ( )
9. Delete it immediately ( )

4. Please indicate how often you will like to receive the following mobile marketing messages
on your phone.
Frequency
Daily Weekly Monthly

Once Twice Thrice Once Once Twice Thrice


or more Twice Thrice or more
or
more
Product/service information
Promotional Messages (text-2-win)
Free: coupons, gifts, call credit, internet services
Entertainment (jokes, games, Chat)
Information (weather, job Vacancy, traffic flow)
Invitation for voting in a TV show
Invitation for voting in a TV contest, games
Music/ downloads
Caller/Ring tune downloads
Breaking news
Sports
inspirational (Quotes, devotional)
Lifestyle (Health/fitness, fashion, love tips)

276
SECTION C: Marketing Messages
INSTRUCTION: Please to the statements below kindly indicate by ticking () whether you
Strongly Agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree, or Strongly
Disagree.

Promotional

1. I like to receive SMS of products / services on price discounts

Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly


Agree Disagree

2. I like to receive SMS adverts on free calls.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

3. I like to receive SMS of product/service granting me free access to downloads


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Relational Information

4. SMS provides me timely information about new product/service.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

5. SMS keeps me up-to-date with latest news in areas that matter to me.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

6. SMS is a good source of information on product/service usage tips


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Personalization

7. I like to receive SMS adverts of products / service which are relevant to my need
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

8. I like to receive SMS adverts of products / services to which I personally subscribe


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

277
9. I like to receive SMS of product /service which tells me the exact store the product can
be purchased
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

10. I like to receive SMS of products /service at my convenient time.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

11. I enjoy freedom to select the form (SMS, MMS, voice call) of advertising message I receive.

Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly


Agree Disagree

Interactivity

12. I like to receive SMS adverts which involve downloading of items


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

13. I like SMS adverts inviting me to send my vote to a TV show


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

14. I like sending SMS to Radio talk shows


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

15. I like to receive SMS advert which allows me communicate with the advertiser.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

16. I find participating in text to win SMS exciting.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Frequency

17. I receive regular SMS information on price discounts of product/service


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

18. I do receive regular SMS information on new product/service


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

19. I receive regular SMS on invitation to vote in a TV show


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

278
20. I often receive SMS on product/service usage tips.

Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly


Agree Disagree

SECTION D: Purchase Behaviour

Brand Awareness

1. I am informed about product/service promotional offers through mobile advertising


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
2. I am aware of new product/services through marketing on my mobile phone.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
3. I am informed about the latest news in sport/entertainment through SMS
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
4. I have gained knowledge about product/service through SMS
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

5. I do receive product/service usage tips on my mobile phone


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Intention to Purchase

6. I will buy a product/service introduced to me in an SMS advert.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

7. I am interested in buying SMS product/services that meet my need.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

8. I subscribe to receiving latest news on my phone after receiving an SMS advert.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

9. I will respond to a text message promotion sent to my phone


.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Actual Purchase

10. I do use SMS marketing messages to get information that I need


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
279
11. I have downloaded Ringing tunes on my phone after receiving an SMS advert.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

12. I have had occasions to vote through SMS for my favorite contestant in a TV show
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

13. I am currently using my phone to receive information that I need


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

14. I have had occasion to participate in a promotional programme after receiving an SMS
advert
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
15. I have purchased a product /service after receiving an SMS advert
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Loyalty

16. Text-to-win SMS builds relationship between the brand and the customer.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

17. I will continue to use SMS to vote for my favourite contestants in a TV show.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

18. I will continue to buy product/service that sends me information on their promotional
offers.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

19. I will regularly buy product/service that gives me timely information that I need.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

20. I will recommend to my friends product/service SMS that provide sales information.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

21. I forward SMS of product/service that I like to my friends.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

22. I will continue to use product/service SMS that I like.


Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Disagree
280
Consumer Attitude

23. To me SMS adverts of product/services are disturbing


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
24. To me many SMS adverts of product/services are informative.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
25. To me many SMS adverts of product/services are confusing
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

26. To me many SMS adverts of product/services are misleading


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

27. I like to receive marketing messages on my mobile phone.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

28. I find mobile advertising messages useful


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

29. I am happy to receive SMS marketing messages that are relevant to my need
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Section E: Consumer Factors Affecting Attitude towards Marketing on Mobile Devices

Innovativeness

1. Among my friends, I am usually the first to try out a new product.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

2. I like to experiment with new mobile phone technology


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

3. I learn fast on how to use new mobile phone services


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

281
Existing knowledge of Mobile Technology

4. I have a good knowledge about mobile communication.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
5. It is easy for me to use mobile phone services
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

6. Within my circle of friends, I am an expert in mobile phone service usage


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

7. Within my circle of friends, I am quick to know about the latest mobile phone
applications
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Attitude towards advertising in general

8. I like advertisements.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

9. I consider advertising useful as it promotes the latest product/service.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
10. I enjoy reading different advertisements in order to compare product offers.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

11. I appreciate advertising because it assists me in my buying decision


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

12. Advertising is a good thing because it gets me informed


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Privacy and Permission

13. I want my mobile Service Provider to seek my consent before giving my details to a
third party
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

282
14. It is important for me that I can easily stop receiving SMS messages when I choose to.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
.
Agree Disagree

15. I count it important that I can choose the exact time to receive SMS marketing messages
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

16. I consider it important for companies to seek my permission before sending me SMS
marketing messages
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

17. I like to receive SMS adverts of products / services which reveal how I can stop receiving
further messages.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

18. I will give my permission to receive SMS marketing messages that are relevant to me
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Credibility

19. I like to receive SMS adverts of product/ service sent by an established brand
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

20. I like to receive SMS adverts of product/ service from companies that I know
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Perceived Risk

21. I fear my personal data can be misused when using mobile marketing services
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

22. Some unwanted SMS-messages could come to me when using mobile marketing
services.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Trust

23. I see SMS based advertisements as reliable sources of information


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

283
24. I will welcome SMS adverts of product/service from organizations that have good
reputation

Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly


Agree Disagree

25. Promises in SMS marketing messages of various services are mostly true
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

26. I will endorse SMS sales promotion offers that are of genuine benefit
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

27. I find SMS marketing messages as believable sources of reference for purchase
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Perceived Value

28. I find SMS marketing messages as a good source of up-to-date sales information
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

29. I believe SMS marketing messages make sales information immediately


accessible.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

30. I find SMS marketing messages as a convenient source of product/service


information
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

31. I see SMS marketing messages as a good source of getting latest news
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Entertainment

30. I find SMS messages of product/services entertaining.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

31. I find receiving advertising messages on my mobile phone exciting.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

284
32. I enjoy participating in TV shows by texting my vote for my favourite contestant

Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly


Agree Disagree

33. I find mobile phone entertainment services interesting.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Social Norms

32. I look smart to my colleagues because I use mobile marketing services

Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly


Agree Disagree

33. Most of my friends think that SMS advertising is useful.


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

34. My immediate family members think it is a good idea to respond to SMS marketing
messages
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

35. Because of my friends, I have been involved in SMS product competition


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

36. The opinion of my friends inform my decision to use SMS marketing messages
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

37. Because of my friends, I have voted in my favourite TV show


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

SECTION F: Consumer Satisfaction

1. I enjoy receiving entertainment messages on my phone


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

2. I am satisfied with voting for my favourite contestants in TV show through SMS


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
3. I am satisfied with receiving SMS of product/service promotional offers
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
4. I am satisfied with receiving information on product/service usage tips through SMS
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

285
5. I am satisfied with receiving latest SMS news /information in areas of my choice.
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
6. SMS marketing messages do meet my need for timely information
Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

7. Overall, I am satisfied with SMS marketing messages


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

8. All things considered, I am satisfied with what I do for a living


Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

Section G: Open-ended Questions

1. Please suggest five other issues advertisers face when interacting with their customers
through Mobile phone
1. ..

2.

3.

4.

5 . ..

2. Please indicate five ways you think organisations using mobile marketing can improve on
their services.
1. ..
2. ....

3.

4.

5 . ..

THANK YOU FOR HELPING ME

GOD BLESS YOU

286
Appendix II
Table 7a: Reliability Analysis and Inter-item Correlation of Questionnaire Items
Inter-
Item
Correlatio
n

Item -to-
Dimensions/Items No. of Cronbach Mini Maxim Range Total
Marketing Messages Items Alpha Mean mum um Correlation
Promotional Content 3 .622 .398 .291 .505 .215
Promotional SMS on price discounts .397
Promotional SMS on Free calls .539
Promotional SMS on free downloads .443
.408 .36 .470 .105
Relational Content 3 .673 4
SMS on timely product/ service information .523
SMS on up-to date latest news .501
SMS on product/service usage tips .439
Personalization 5 .722
SMS of product/service relevant to my need .444
SMS of product/service to which I personally subscribe .497
SMS of product/service which indicate store location .558
SMS of Product/service at my convenient time .480
Freedom to select the form of marketing messages .423
Interactivity 5 .764
SMS involving downloading of items .413
SMS invitation to vote in a TV Show .605
SMS invitation to vote in a Radio Show .581
SMS which allows communication with the advertiser .514
Participating in a text-to-win SMS .552
Frequency 4 .713
Regular SMS information on price discounts .485
Regular SMS information on new product/service .563
Regular SMS on invitation to vote in a TV show .467
Regular SMS on product/service usage tips .486
Source: Field Survey, 2013

287
Table 7b: Reliability Analysis 152

Item -to-
Dimensions/Items No. of Cronbach Mini Maxi Range Total
Purchase Behaviour Items Alpha Mean mum mum Correlation
Purchase Intention .379 .364 .40 .04 3
3 .645 8
Intention to buy product/ service .464
Interest in buying product that meet my need .468
I will respond to text message promotion .435
Actual Purchase 7 .791
I Subcribe to receiving information .546
I Use SMS Marketing Messages .549
I have downloaded ringing tunes .532
I have had Occasions to vote in a TV show .406
I am currently using my phone to receive Information .548
I have Participated in promotional programme .535
I have purchased product/ service .526
Loyalty 7 .789
Text-to-win SMS builds relationship .427
Continuity in voting in a TV Show .455
Continuity in buying product with promotional offers .571
Continuity in purchase of Product of timely .557
information
Recommendation of Product to my friends .574
I will Forward SMS of product to my friends .535
continuity in Using product SMS .502
Consumer Attitude .234 .45
4 .663 . 332 8 .214
SMS of product/ service is informative .328
I like marketing messages .455
Mobile advertising messages is useful .481
Happy to receive SMS .524

Source: Field Survey, 2013

288
Table 7c: Reliability Analysis
Inter- Item
Correlation
Item -to-
Total
Dimensions/Items No. of Cronbach Mini Maxi Range Correlatio
Factors Influencing Attitude Items Alpha Mean mum mum n
Innovativeness (IN) .40 .2 .48 .23
3 .688 2 55 8 4
Among my friends, I am usually the first to try out a new product. .423
I like to experiment with new mobile phone technology .597
I learn fast on how to use new mobile phone services .430
Existing Knowledge 4 .787
I have a good knowledge about mobile communication .580
It is easy for me to use mobile phone services .581
Within my circle of friends, I am an expert in mobile phone .660
Within my circle of friends, I am quick to know about the latest .577
Attitude towards Advertising 5 .807
I like advertisements .544
I consider advertising useful as it promotes the latest product. .603
I enjoy reading different advertisements .627
I appreciate advertising because it assists me in my buying decision .638
Advertising is a good thing because it gets me informed .550
Privacy and Permission 6 .754
I want my mobile Service Provider to seek my consent before .432
giving my details to a third party
It is important for me that I can easily stop receiving SMS .499
messages when I choose to
I count it important that I can choose the exact time to receive .547
SMS marketing messages
I consider it important for companies to seek my permission before .494
sending me SMS message
I like to receive SMS adverts of products which reveal how I can .518
stop receiving further messages
I will give my permission to receive SMS marketing messages that .472
are relevant to me
Source: Field Survey, 2013

289
Table 7d: Reliability Analysis
Inter- Item
Correlation
Item -to-
Total
Dimensions/Items No. of Cronbach Mini Maxi Range Correlati
Factors Influencing Attitude Items Alpha Mean mum mum on
Credibility .291 .291 .29 .000
2 .499 1
I like to receive SMS adverts of product/ service sent by an
established brand
I like to receive SMS adverts of product/ service from companies
that I know
Perceived risk .411 .411 .41 .000
2 .583 1
I fear my personal data can be misused when using mobile
Some unwanted SMS-messages could come to me when using
mobile marketing services.
Trust 5 .718
I see SMS based advertisements as reliable sources of information .440
I will welcome SMS adverts of product/service from organizations .505
that have good reputation
Promises in SMS marketing messages of various services are mostly .410
I will endorse SMS sales promotion offers that are of genuine benefit .532
I find SMS marketing messages as believable sources of reference .501
Perceived Value 4 .782
I find SMS marketing messages as a good source of up-to-date .570
sales information
I believe SMS marketing messages make sales information .592
immediately accessible.
I find SMS marketing messages as a convenient source of .602
product/service information
I see SMS marketing messages as a good source of getting latest news .585
Entertainment 4 .732
I find SMS messages of product/services entertaining. .512
I find receiving advertising messages on my mobile phone exciting. .574
I enjoy participating in TV shows by texting .523
I find mobile phone entertainment services interesting .482
Source: Field Survey, 2013

290
Table 7e: Reliability Analysis
Inter- Item
Correlation
Item -to-
Total
Dimensions/Items No. of Cronbach Mini Maxi Range Correlatio
Factors Influencing Attitude Items Alpha Mean mum mum n
Social Norm 6 .810
I look smart to my colleagues because I use mobile marketing services .579
Most of my friends think that SMS advertising is useful. .554
My immediate family members think it is a good idea to respond .682
to SMS marketing messages
Because of my friends, I have been involved in SMS product competition .701
The opinion of my friends inform my decision to use SMS .651
marketing messages
Because of my friends, I have voted in my favourite TV show .564
Satisfaction 7 .836
I enjoy receiving entertainment messages on my phone .550
I am satisfied with voting for my favourite contestants in TV show .512
through SMS
I am satisfied with receiving SMS of product/service promotional .660
offers
I am satisfied with receiving information on product/service usage .652
tips through SMS
I am satisfied with receiving latest SMS news /information in .540
areas of my choice
SMS marketing messages do meet my need for timely .609
information
Overall, I am satisfied with SMS marketing messages .589
Source: Field Survey, 2013

291
Appendix III

Principal Component Analysis of Variables

Principal Component Analysis for Marketing Messages Items

KMO and Bartlett's Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .811


Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 3239.563

df 78

Sig. .000

Communalities
Initial Extraction
Promotional SMS on Free calls 1.000 .545
Promotional SMS on free downloads 1.000 .544
Relational SMS on timely product/service information 1.000 .590
Relational SMS on up-to date latest news 1.000 .579
SMS of product/service to which i personally subscribe 1.000 .772
SMS of product/service which indicate store location 1.000 .680
SMS invitation to vote in a TV Show 1.000 .629
SMS invitation to vote in a Radio Show 1.000 .637
SMS which allows communication with the advertiser 1.000 .570
Participating in a text-to-win SMS 1.000 .573
Regular SMS information on price discounts 1.000 .575
Regular SMS information on new product/service 1.000 .705
Regular SMS on product/service usage tips 1.000 .511
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Total Variance Explained


Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings
% of Cumulative % of Cumulative
Component Total Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance % Total Variance %
1 3.910 30.073 30.073 3.910 30.073 30.073 2.331 17.933 17.933
2 1.712 13.172 43.245 1.712 13.172 43.245 2.164 16.645 34.578
3 1.277 9.825 53.071 1.277 9.825 53.071 1.882 14.478 49.057
4 1.009 7.763 60.834 1.009 7.763 60.834 1.531 11.777 60.834
5 .811 6.242 67.076
6 .720 5.542 72.618
7 .625 4.804 77.422
8 .572 4.400 81.822
9 .543 4.178 86.000
10 .514 3.953 89.952
11 .486 3.741 93.694
12 .435 3.345 97.038
13 .385 2.962 100.000
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

292
a
Rotated Component Matrix
Component
1 2 3 4
Promotional SMS on Free calls .675
Promotional SMS on free downloads .688
Relational SMS on timely product/service information .745
Relational SMS on up-to date latest news .709
SMS of product/service to which i personally subscribe .860
SMS of product/service which indicate store location .750
SMS invitation to vote in a TV Show .778
SMS invitation to vote in a Radio Show .783
SMS which allows communication with the advertiser .657
Participating in a text-to-win SMS .698
Regular SMS information on price discounts .705
Regular SMS information on new product/service .829
Regular SMS on product/service usage tips .686
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
a. Rotation converged in 5 iterations.

293
Principal Component Analysis for Purchase Behaviour Items

KMO and Bartlett's Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .861


Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 3972.497

df 78

Sig. .000

Communalities
Initial Extraction
Awareness of promotional offers 1.000 .631
Awareness of new product/service 1.000 .629
Knowledge about product/service 1.000 .552
Awareness on product/service usage tips 1.000 .554
Subcribe to receiving information 1.000 .629
Respond to text message promotion 1.000 .756
Use of SMS Marketing Messages 1.000 .639
Recommendation of P/S to my friends 1.000 .560
Forward SMS of P/S to my friends 1.000 .670
continuity in Using P/S SMS 1.000 .700
CS 3 1.000 .693
CS 4 1.000 .754
CS 6 1.000 .556
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Total Variance Explained


Extraction Sums of Squared Rotation Sums of Squared
Initial Eigenvalues Loadings Loadings
% of Cumulative % of Cumulative % of Cumulative
Component Total Variance % Total Variance % Total Variance %
1 4.592 35.324 35.324 4.592 35.324 35.324 2.347 18.056 18.056
2 1.485 11.426 46.750 1.485 11.426 46.750 2.050 15.769 33.824
3 1.144 8.801 55.551 1.144 8.801 55.551 2.008 15.444 49.269
4 1.100 8.459 64.010 1.100 8.459 64.010 1.916 14.741 64.010
5 .709 5.455 69.465
6 .624 4.799 74.264
7 .599 4.608 78.872
8 .553 4.253 83.125
9 .490 3.772 86.896
10 .465 3.578 90.474
11 .454 3.494 93.968
12 .426 3.274 97.242
13 .358 2.758 100.000
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

294
Rotated Component Matrixa
Component
1 2 3 4
Awareness of promotional offers .780
Awareness of new product/service .769
Knowledge about product/service .670
Awareness on product/service usage tips .695
I Subscribe to receiving information .716
I will buy a product/service introduced to .840
me in an SMS advert
I will Respond to text message promotion .756
Use of SMS Marketing Messages .722
Recommendation of P/S to my friends .696
Forward SMS of P/S to my friends .746
continuity in Using P/S SMS .804
CS 3 .787
CS 4 .843
CS 6 .691
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
a. Rotation converged in 5 iterations.

295
Principal Component Analysis for Factors Influencing Attitude

KMO and Bartlett's Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .849


Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 7497.599

df 253

Sig. .000

Communalities
Initial Extraction
IN1 1.000 .671
IN2 1.000 .682
EK3 1.000 .659
EK4 1.000 .596
AA1 1.000 .556
AA2 1.000 .577
AA3 1.000 .650
AA4 1.000 .645
AA5 1.000 .532
PP3 1.000 .631
PP4 1.000 .678
PP6 1.000 .551
PR1 1.000 .716
PR2 1.000 .692
TR4 1.000 .437
TR5 1.000 .495
PV2 1.000 .540
PV3 1.000 .576
PV4 1.000 .586
SN3 1.000 .607
SN4 1.000 .737
SN5 1.000 .662
SN6 1.000 .544
Extraction Method: Principal
Component Analysis.

296
Total Variance Explained
Extraction Sums of Squared Rotation Sums of Squared
Initial Eigenvalues Loadings Loadings

% of Cumulative % of Cumulative % of Cumulativ


Component Total Variance % Total Variance % Total Variance e%
1 5.604 24.367 24.367 5.604 24.367 24.367 2.868
12.469 12.469
2 2.314 10.061 34.428 2.314 10.061 34.428 2.823
12.273 24.741
3 2.006 8.723 43.151 2.006 8.723 43.151 2.658
11.558 36.299
4 1.594 6.933 50.083 1.594 6.933 50.083 2.446
10.636 46.936
5 1.362 5.923 56.006 1.362 5.923 56.006 1.800
7.826 54.761
6 1.139 4.952 60.958 1.139 4.952 60.958 1.425
6.197 60.958
7 .857 3.728 64.686
8 .770 3.348 68.033
9 .717 3.118 71.151
10 .658 2.860 74.011
11 .620 2.696 76.707
12 .598 2.601 79.308
13 .572 2.489 81.797
14 .535 2.328 84.125
15 .509 2.212 86.337
16 .476 2.070 88.408
17 .447 1.942 90.350
18 .434 1.888 92.238
19 .415 1.806 94.045
20 .381 1.657 95.702
21 .373 1.621 97.323
22 .312 1.357 98.680
23 .304 1.320 100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

297
a
Component Matrix
Component
1 2 3 4 5 6
IN1 .516
IN2 .550
EK3 .531
EK4 .540
AA1 .625
AA2 .582
AA3 .614
AA4 .595
AA5 .519
PP3 .612
PP4 .559
PP6 .576
PR1 .781
PR2 .796
TR4 .570
TR5 .555
PV2 .553
PV3 .601
PV4 .599
SN3 .507
SN4 .622
SN5 .559
SN6 .531
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
a. 6 components extracted.

298
Principal Component Analysis for Entertainment Items

Correlation Matrix
I find SMS I find receiving I find Mobile
of Product Advertising phone
and services messages on entertainment
entertaining my mobile services
phone exciting interesting
I find SMS of Product and services 1.000 .544 .304
entertaining
I find receiving Advertising .544 1.000 .365
messages on my mobile phone
exciting
I find Mobile phone entertainment .304 .365 1.000
services interesting

KMO and Bartlett's Test


Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .621
Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 520.572
df 3
Sig. .000

Communalities
Initial Extraction
I find SMS of Product and services 1.000 .655
entertaining
I find receiving Advertising 1.000 .706
messages on my mobile phone
exciting
I find Mobile phone entertainment 1.000 .457
services interesting

Total Variance Explained


Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings
Component Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative %
1 1.818 60.593 60.593 1.818 60.593 60.593
2 .731 24.377 84.970
3 .451 15.030 100.000
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

299
Component Matrixa
Component
1
SMS of P/S is entertaining .810
Advertising messages .840
exciting
Mobile phone .676
entertainment interesting
Extraction Method: Principal Component
Analysis.
a. 1 components extracted.

300
Principal Component Analysis for Consumer Attitude Items

Correlation Matrix
I like marketing Mobile advertising Happy to receive
messages on my messages is useful SMS marketing
mobile phone. messages
I like marketing messages on my mobile phone. 1.000 .405 .366
Mobile advertising messages is useful .405 1.000 .458
Happy to receive SMS marketing messages .366 .458 1.000

KMO and Bartlett's Test


Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .658
Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 472.129
df 3
Sig. .000

Communalities
Initial Extraction
I like marketing messages on my 1.000 .558
mobile phone.
Mobile advertising messages is 1.000 .649
useful
Happy to receive SMS marketing 1.000 .613
messages
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Total Variance Explained

Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings


Component Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative %
1 1.820 60.655 60.655 1.820 60.655 60.655
2 .643 21.443 82.098
3 .537 17.902 100.000
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

301
Component Matrixa
Component
1
I like marketing messages on .747
my mobile phone.
Mobile advertising messages .806
is useful
Happy to receive SMS .783
marketing messages
Extraction Method: Principal Component
Analysis.
a. 1 components extracted.

302
Appendix IV
Measurement and Structural Model for Marketing Messages and Purchase Behaviour
Items

Measurement Model for Marketing Messages and Purchase Behaviour Items

Model Fit Measures: CMIN/DF, 2.830; GFI, 0.951; AGFI, 0.929; NFI, 0.918; TLI, 0.45; CFI, 0.945; RMSEA, 0.042
Item Log. Promotional (Promo), Personalisation (Person), Interactivity (Inter), Frequency (Regular), Consumer
attitude (CA), Intention (Intntn), Actual purchase (ActPur), Consumer satisfaction (CS).

303
Structural Model for Marketing Messages and Purchase Behaviour

Model Fit Measures: CMIN/DF, 1.214; GFI, 0.998; AGFI, 0.987; NFI, 0.996; TLI, 0.997; CFI, 0.999; RMSEA, 0.014
Item Log: Promotional (Promo), Personalisation (Person), Interactivity (Inter), Frequency (Regular), Consumer
attitude (CA), Intention (Intntn), Actual purchase (ActPur), Consumer satisfaction (CS).

304
Estimates (Group number 1 - Default model)
Scalar Estimates (Group number 1 - Default model)
Maximum Likelihood Estimates
Regression Weights: (Group number 1 - Default model)
Estimate S.E. C.R. P Label
CA <--- Promo .057 .024 2.421 .015
CA <--- Inter .138 .022 6.174 ***
CA <--- Relatnal .096 .023 4.141 ***
CA <--- Regular .078 .022 3.455 ***
CA <--- Person .082 .022 3.704 ***
Intntn <--- CA .252 .041 6.100 ***
Intntn <--- Regular .212 .030 6.956 ***
Intntn <--- Inter .328 .030 10.852 ***
ActPur <--- Regular .119 .028 4.242 ***
ActPur <--- CA .254 .038 6.606 ***
ActPur <--- Relatnal .045 .026 1.695 .090
ActPur <--- Inter .085 .029 2.962 .003
ActPur <--- Intntn .559 .028 19.933 ***
CS <--- CA .381 .040 9.566 ***
CS <--- Person .134 .026 5.108 ***
CS <--- Inter .115 .029 3.979 ***
CS <--- ActPur .153 .027 5.660 ***
CS <--- Regular .090 .029 3.143 .002
Loyalty <--- Relatnal .121 .028 4.343 ***
Loyalty <--- CA .321 .041 7.791 ***
Loyalty <--- Promo .062 .028 2.252 .024
Loyalty <--- Regular .122 .028 4.306 ***
Loyalty <--- Inter .157 .029 5.478 ***
Loyalty <--- CS .084 .030 2.794 .005

Standardized Regression Weights: (Group number 1 - Default model)

Estimate Estimate
CA <--- Promo .080 ActPur <--- Intntn .523
CA <--- Inter .199 CS <--- CA .281
CA <--- Relatnal .136 CS <--- Person .141
CA <--- Regular .108 CS <--- Inter .122
CA <--- Person .117 CS <--- ActPur .175
Intntn <--- CA .174 CS <--- Regular .093
Intntn <--- Regular .203 Loyalty <--- Relatnal .128
Intntn <--- Inter .324 Loyalty <--- CA .239
ActPur <--- Regular .107 Loyalty <--- Promo .065
ActPur <--- CA .163 Loyalty <--- Regular .127
ActPur <--- Relatnal .041 Loyalty <--- Inter .168
ActPur <--- Inter .079 Loyalty <--- CS .084

305
Covariances: (Group number 1 - Default model)

Estimate S.E. C.R. P Label


Promo <--> Regular .119 .024 4.984 ***
Person <--> Inter .221 .026 8.572 ***
Promo <--> Inter .225 .025 8.862 ***
Regular <--> Inter .306 .026 11.749 ***
Regular <--> Person .173 .025 7.035 ***
Regular <--> Relatnal .202 .025 8.177 ***
Inter <--> Relatnal .224 .026 8.752 ***
Person <--> Relatnal .267 .026 10.353 ***
Promo <--> Person .290 .026 11.235 ***
Promo <--> Relatnal .335 .026 12.804 ***
e4 <--> e1 .131 .017 7.609 ***
e4 <--> e2 .065 .015 4.376 ***

Correlations: (Group number 1 - Default model)

Estimate
Promo <--> Regular .158
Person <--> Inter .279
Promo <--> Inter .289
Regular <--> Inter .396
Regular <--> Person .226
Regular <--> Relatnal .265
Inter <--> Relatnal .285
Person <--> Relatnal .343
Promo <--> Person .376
Promo <--> Relatnal .438
e4 <--> e1 .246
e4 <--> e2 .136

Variances: (Group number 1 - Default model)

Estimate S.E. C.R. P Label


Promo .756 .033 22.572 ***
Regular .749 .033 22.572 ***
Person .785 .035 22.572 ***
Inter .799 .035 22.572 ***
Relatnal .774 .034 22.572 ***
e5 .313 .014 22.572 ***
e1 .582 .026 22.572 ***
e2 .467 .021 22.572 ***
e3 .482 .021 22.572 ***
e4 .488 .022 22.534 ***

307
Squared Multiple Correlations: (Group number 1 - Default model)

Estimate
CA .188
Intntn .285
ActPur .499
CS .317
Loyalty .300

Matrices (Group number 1 - Default model)

Residual Covariances (Group number 1 - Default model)

Relatnal Inter Person Regular Promo CA Intntn ActPur CS Loyalty


Relatnal .000
Inter .000 .000
Person .000 .000 .000
Regular .000 .000 .000 .000
Promo .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
CA .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
Intntn .006 .000 -.015 .000 -.009 .000 .000
ActPur .004 .000 -.028 .000 .003 .000 .000 .000
CS .022 .000 -.004 .000 .030 .000 .013 -.004 -.001
Loyalty .003 .000 .023 .000 .002 .000 .001 .000 .006 .001

Standardized Residual Covariances (Group number 1 - Default model)

Relatnal Inter Person Regular Promo CA Intntn ActPur CS Loyalty


Relatnal .000
Inter .000 .000
Person .000 .000 .000
Regular .000 .000 .000 .000
Promo .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
CA .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
Intntn .255 .000 -.570 .000 -.367 .000 .000
ActPur .132 .000 -1.010 .000 .108 .000 .009 .008
CS .904 .000 -.173 .000 1.277 .000 .537 -.133 -.036
Loyalty .134 .000 .958 .000 .066 .000 .052 .014 .244 .039
Item Log: Promotional (Promo), Personalisation (Person), Interactivity (Inter), Frequency (Regular), Consumer
attitude (CA), Intention (Intntn), Actual purchase (ActPur), Consumer satisfaction (CS).

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Appendix V
Measurement and Structural Model for Factors Influencing Consumer Attitude towards
Marketing Messages

Measurement Model for Factors Influencing Consumer Attitude towards Marketing


Messages

Model Fit Measures: CMIN/DF, 2.872; GFI, 0.955; AGFI, 0.935; NFI, 0.921; TLI, 0.47; CFI, 0.947; RMSEA, 0.042
Item Log: Innovateness (IN), Existing Knowledge (EK), Privacy and Permission (PP), Attitude towards Advertising
(AA), Trust (TR), Perceived Value (PV), Social Norm (SN), Entertainment (EN).

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Structural Model for Factors Influencing Consumer Attitude towards Marketing Messages

Goodness of Fit Measures: GFI, 0.993; AGFI, 0.938; NFI, 0.984; TLI, 0.987; CFI, 0.986; RMSEA, 0.059.
Item Log: Innovateness (IN), Existing Knowledge (EK), Privacy and Permission (PP), Attitude towards Advertising
(AA), Trust (TR), Perceived Value (PV), Social Norm (SN), Entertainment (EN), Consumer attitude (CA).

310
Estimates (Group number 1 - Default model)
Scalar Estimates (Group number 1 - Default model)
Maximum Likelihood Estimates
Regression Weights: (Group number 1 - Default model)
Estimate S.E. C.R. P Label
CA <--- EN .308 .021 14.534 ***
CA <--- EK .007 .022 .332 .740
CA <--- AA .065 .024 2.758 .006
CA <--- PP -.087 .016 -5.304 ***
CA <--- PR .056 .015 3.641 ***
CA <--- PV .142 .024 5.802 ***
CA <--- IN .013 .019 .646 .518
CA <--- TR .044 .021 2.146 .032
CA <--- SN .002 .019 .127 .899
Standardized Regression Weights: (Group number 1 - Default model)

Estimate
CA <--- EN .437
CA <--- EK .009
CA <--- AA .081
CA <--- PP -.133
CA <--- PR .089
CA <--- PV .179
CA <--- IN .019
CA <--- TR .063
CA <--- SN .004

Covariances: (Group number 1 - Default model)

Estimate S.E. C.R. P Label


PR <--> TR -.075 .024 -3.149 .002
EN <--> PV .244 .022 11.017 ***
PP <--> PR -.046 .028 -1.650 .099
PV <--> TR .333 .023 14.215 ***
PV <--> IN .158 .023 7.019 ***
EK <--> TR .105 .020 5.134 ***
TR <--> IN .119 .025 4.770 ***
PP <--> PV .030 .019 1.629 .103
PR <--> PV -.025 .020 -1.257 .209
EN <--> PR -.016 .022 -.725 .468
EN <--> SN .393 .029 13.691 ***
IN <--> SN .376 .030 12.557 ***
PV <--> SN .243 .024 9.995 ***
TR <--> SN .199 .027 7.450 ***
PP <--> SN .069 .027 2.556 .011
EK <--> SN .108 .023 4.730 ***
PP <--> IN .133 .026 5.060 ***
EK <--> IN .213 .023 9.465 ***
EN <--> TR .217 .024 8.849 ***

311
Estimate S.E. C.R. P Label
EN <--> PP -.002 .023 -.100 .920
EN <--> EK .102 .021 4.989 ***
EN <--> IN .324 .027 12.100 ***
AA <--> TR .279 .022 12.465 ***
AA <--> PV .265 .020 13.226 ***
AA <--> SN .144 .023 6.213 ***
EN <--> AA .205 .021 9.559 ***
AA <--> IN .168 .022 7.565 ***
EK <--> PV .127 .018 6.870 ***
EK <--> PP .107 .021 5.038 ***
EK <--> AA .162 .018 8.827 ***

Correlations: (Group number 1 - Default model)

Estimate Estimate
PR <--> TR -.088 EK <--> SN .150
EN <--> PV .368 PP <--> IN .155
PP <--> PR -.050 EK <--> IN .309
PV <--> TR .496 EN <--> TR .288
PV <--> IN .224 EN <--> PP -.003
EK <--> TR .160 EN <--> EK .158
TR <--> IN .149 EN <--> IN .409
PP <--> PV .042 AA <--> TR .423
PR <--> PV -.034 AA <--> PV .455
EN <--> PR -.019 AA <--> SN .198
EN <--> SN .475 EN <--> AA .314
IN <--> SN .427 AA <--> IN .241
PV <--> SN .329 EK <--> PV .219
TR <--> SN .238 EK <--> PP .153
PP <--> SN .077 EK <--> AA .284

Variances: (Group number 1 - Default model)


Estimate S.E. C.R. P Label
EN .745 .033 22.575 ***
EK .564 .025 22.616 ***
AA .575 .025 22.572 ***
PP .866 .038 22.574 ***
PR .940 .042 22.573 ***
PV .592 .026 22.591 ***
TR .760 .034 22.608 ***
IN .843 .037 22.605 ***
SN .919 .041 22.581 ***
d1 .226 .010 22.572 ***

312