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International Journal on Soft Computing (IJSC) Vol.8, No.

1, February 2017

ASPHALTIC MATERIAL IN THE CONTEXT

OF GENERALIZED
POROTHERMOELASTICITY

College of engineering and Islamic architecture, p.o.box:7398 Makkah, Saudi Arabia

ABSTRACT
In this work, a mathematical model of generalized porothermoelasticity with one relaxation time for
poroelastic half-space saturated with fluid will be constructed in the context of Youssef model (2007). We
will obtain the general solution in the Laplace transform domain and apply it in a certain asphalt material
which is thermally shocked on its bounding plane. The inversion of the Laplace transform will be obtained
numerically and the numerical values of the temperature, stresses, strains and displacements will be
illustrated graphically for the solid and the liquid.

KEY-WORDS:
Porothermoelasticity; asphaltic Material; Thermal shock.

NOMENCLATURE

ui , Ui The displacements of the skeleton and fluid phases

, , R, Q The poroelastic coefficients
R 11 , R 12 , R 21 , R 22 The mixed and thermal coefficients
s = T s T0 The temperature increment of the solid where T s is the solid
f = T f T0 The temperature increment of the fluid where T f is the fluid
T0 The reference temperature
The porosity of the material
s* f*
, The density of the solid and the liquid phases respectively
s = (1 ) s* The density of the solid phase per unit volume of bulk
f f*
= The density of the solid phase per unit volume of bulk
11 = s 12 The mass coefficient of solid phase
f
22 = 12 The mass coefficient of fluid phase
12 The dynamics coupling coefficient
k s* , k f * The thermal conductivity of the solid and the fluid phases
k s = (1 ) k s* The thermal conductivity of the solid phase
f f*
k = k The thermal conductivity of the fluid phase
k The interface thermal conductivity

DOI:10.5121/ijsc.2017.8103 27
International Journal on Soft Computing (IJSC) Vol.8, No. 1, February 2017

so , of The relaxation time of the solid and the fluid phases

ij The stress components apply to the solid surface
The normal stress apply to the fluid surface
eij The strain component of the solid phase
The strain component of the fluid phase
s , f The coefficients of the thermal expansion of the phases
sf , fs The thermoelastic couplings between the phases
CsE , C fE The specific heat of the solid and the fluid phases
CsfE The specific heat couplings between the phases
s s
C
s = E
The thermal viscosity of the solid
ks
f C f
f = f E The thermal viscosity of the fluid
k
Csf
= 12 E The thermal viscosity couplings between the phases
k
P = 3 + 2
R11 = s p + fs Q
R 22 = f R + 3 sf Q
R12 = f Q + sf P
F11 = s C Es
F22 = f C fE
F12 = ( 3 s R 12 + fs R 22 ) To
F21 = ( 3 sf R 11 + f R 21 ) To

1. INTRODUCTION
Due to many applications in the fields of geophysics, plasma physics and related topics, an
increasing attention is being devoted to the interaction between fluid such as water and thermo
elastic solid, which is the domain of the theory of porothermoelasticity. The field of
porothermoelasticity has a wide range of applications especially in studying the effect of using
the waste materials on disintegration of asphalt concrete mixture.

Porous materials make their appearance in a wide variety of settings, natural and artificial and in
diverse technological applications. As a consequence, a variety of problems arise while dealing
with static and strength, fluid flow, heat conduction and the dynamics of such materials. In
connection with the later, we note that problems of this kind are encountered in the prediction of
behavior of sound-absorbing materials and in the area of exploration geophysics, the steadily
growing literature bearing witness to the importance of the subject . The problem of a fluid-
saturated porous material has been studied for many years. A short list of papers pertinent to the
present study includes Biot [2-3], Gassmann , Biot and Willis , Biot , Deresiewicz and
Skalak , Mandl , Nur and Byerlee , Brown and Korringa , Rice and Cleary ,
Burridge and Keller , Zimmerman et al. [13-14], Berryman and Milton , Thompson and
Willis , Pride et al. , Berryman and Wang , Tuncay and Corapcioglu , Alexander

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International Journal on Soft Computing (IJSC) Vol.8, No. 1, February 2017

and Cheng , Charlez, P. A., and Heugas, O. , Abousleiman et al. , Ghassemi, A.
and Diek, A S. Tod .

The thermo-mechanical coupling in the poroelastic medium turns out to be of much greater
complexity than that in the classical case of impermeable elastic solid. In addition to thermal and
mechanical interaction within each phase, thermal and mechanical coupling occurs between the
phases, thus, a mechanical or thermal change in one phase results in mechanical and thermal
changes throughout the aggregate of asphaltic concrete mixtures. Following Biot, it takes one
physical model to consist a homogeneous, isotropic, elastic matrix whose interstices are filled
with a compressible ideal liquid both solid and liquid form continuous (and interacting) regions.
While viscous stresses in the liquid are neglected, the liquid is assumed capable of exerting a
velocity-dependent friction force on the skeleton. The mathematical model consists of two
superposed continuous phases each separately filling the entire space occupied by the aggregate.
Thus, there are two distinct elements at every point of space, each one characterized by its own
displacement, stress, and temperature. During a thermo-mechanical process they may interact
with a consequent exchange of momentum and energy.

Our development Proceeds by obtaining, the stress-strain-temperature relationships using the

theory of the generalized thermo elasticity with one relaxation time Lord-Shulman .
Moreover, to the usual isobaric coefficients of thermal expansion of the single-phase materials,
two coefficients appear which represent measures of each phase caused by temperature changes
in the other phase.

As a result of the presence of these "coupling" coefficients, it follows that coefficient of thermal
expansion of the dry material which differs than that of the saturated ones and the expansion of
the liquid in the bulk is not the same as of the liquid phase. Putting into consideration the
applications of geophysical interest, it takes the coefficient of proportionality in the dissipation
term to be independent of frequency, that is, we confine ourselves to low-frequency motions. The
last constituent of the theory is the equations of energy flux. Because the two phases in general,
will be at different temperatures in each point of the material, there is a rise of a heat-source term
in the energy equations representing the heat flux between the phases. It has been taken this
"interphase heat transfer" to be proportional to the temperature difference between the phases.
Finally, by using the uniqueness theorem the proof has been done.

Recently, Youssef has constructed a new version of theory of porothermoelasticity, using the
modified Fourier law of heat conduction. The most important advantage for this theory, is
predicting the finite speed of the wave propagation of the stress and the displacement as well as
the heat .

In this paper, a mathematical model of generalized porothermoelasticity with one relaxation time
for poroelastic half-space saturated with fluid will be constructed in the context of Youssef
model. We will obtain the general solution in the Laplace transform domain and apply it in a
certain asphalt material which is thermally shocked on its bounding plane. The inversion of the
Laplace transform will be obtained numerically and the numerical values of the temperature,
displacement and stress will be illustrated graphically.

BASIC FORMULATIONS
Starting by Youssef model of generalized porothermoelasticity , the linear governing
equations of isotropic, generalized porothermoelasticity in absence of body forces and heat
sources, are

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International Journal on Soft Computing (IJSC) Vol.8, No. 1, February 2017

u i, jj + ( + ) u j,ij + QUi,ii R11s,i R12 ,if = 11&& && ,

u i + 12 U (1)
i

RU + Qu R R = && s f
u + U && . (2)
i,ii j,ij 21 ,i 22 ,i 12 i 22 i

(ii)- Heat equations

2
k s ,iis = + so 2 ( F11s + F12f + To R11eii + To R 21 ) (3)
t t
2
k f ,iif = + of 2 ( F21s + F22f + To R12 eii + To R 22 ) (4)
t t

ij = 2eij + e kk ij + ( Q R 11s R 12 f ) ij , (5)

= R + Qe kk R 22 f R 21s . (6)
1
e ij = (u i , j + u j,i ) , e ii = e = u i ,i (7)
2
= U i,i . (8)

FORMULATION THE PROBLEM

We will consider one dimensional half-space 0 x < is filled with porous, isotropic and
elastic material which is considered to be at rest initially. The displacement will be considered to
be in one dimensional as follows:

u1 = u ( x, t ) , u 2 ( x, t ) = u 3 ( x, t ) = 0 , (9)
U1 = U ( x, t ) , U 2 ( x, t ) = U3 ( x, t ) = 0 . (10)

2u Q 2 U R11 s R12 f 11 12 && , (11)

+ = u +
&& U
x ( + 2 ) x ( + 2 ) x ( + 2 ) x ( + 2 )
2 2
( + 2 )
2 U Q 2 u R 21 s R 22 f 21 &&
+ = u + 22 U
&& . (12)
x2 R x2 R x R x R R

(b) Equation of heat

2 s s
2
F11 s F12 f To R 11 u To R 21 U
2
= + o 2 s
+ s + + , (13)
x t t k k ks x ks x

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International Journal on Soft Computing (IJSC) Vol.8, No. 1, February 2017

2 f f
2
F21 s F22 f To R 12 u To R 22 U
2
= + o 2
+ f + + . (14)
x t t kf k kf x kf x

(c) The constitutive relations

xx u Q U R11 R12
= + s f , (15)
( + 2 ) x ( + 2 ) x ( + 2 ) ( + 2 )
U Q u R 22 f R 21 s
= + . (16)
R x R x R R
u
e= (17)
x
U
= . (18)
x

Using the non-dimensional variables as follows:

ij
( u, U, x) = co ( u, U, x ) , ( t, 0 ) = co2 ( t, 0 ) , ( s , f ) = T0 ( s , f ) , ij = , =
+ 2 R

where

+ 2 Csf
c2o = , = 12 E .
12 k

Then, we get

2u Q 2U T0 R 11 s T0 R 12 f 11 && ,
+ = u+U
&& (19)
x 2 ( + 2 ) x 2 ( + 2 ) x ( + 2 ) x 12
2 U Q 2 u T0 R 21 s T0 R 22 f ( + 2 ) ( + 2 ) &&
2
+ 2
= u + 22
&& U. (20)
x R x R x R x R 12 R
2 s s
2
s s F12 f R 11 u R 21 U
= + o + s + s + , (21)
x2 t t2 k k x ks x
2 f f
2
F21 s f f R 12 u R 22 U
= + o + + f + . (22)
x2 t t2 kf k x kf x
u Q U TR TR
xx = + 0 11 s 0 12 f , (23)
x ( + 2 ) x ( + 2 ) ( + 2 )
U Q u T0 R 22 f T0 R 21 s
= + . (24)
x R x R R

In the above equation, we dropped the prime for convenient.

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International Journal on Soft Computing (IJSC) Vol.8, No. 1, February 2017

FORMULATION THE PROBLEM IN LAPLACE TRANSFORM DOMAIN

Applying the Laplace transform for the both sides of the equations (19)-(24) which is defined as
follows:

f ( s ) = f ( t ) e s t dt ,
0
then, we get
d 2u d s df
= L11 u + L12 U + L13 + L14 , (25)
d x2 dx dx
d2U d s df
= L 21 u + L 22 U + L 23 + L 24 , (26)
d x2 dx dx
d 2 s du dU
2
= L 31 s + L 32 f + L 33 + L 34 , (27)
dx dx dx
d2f du dU
2
= L 41 s + L 42 f + L 43 + L 44 , (28)
dx dx dx
du dU
xx = +A A11s A12 f , (29)
dx dx
dU du
= + B A 21 s A 22 f , (30)
dx dx
du
e= (31)
dx
dU
= . (32)
dx
where

C AC 21 C12 AC 21 A11 AA 21 A12 AA 22

L11 = 11 , L12 = , L13 = , L14 = ,
1 AB 1 AB 1 AB 1 AB

C BC11 C 22 BC12 A 21 BA11 A 22 BA12

L 21 = 21 , L 22 = , L 23 = , L 24 = ,
1 AB 1 AB 1 AB 1 AB

L31 =
(
s + sos 2 s )
, L32 =
(
s + sos 2 F12
, L33 =
) s + sos 2 R 11( , L34 =
) s + sos 2 R 21
,
( )
ks ks ks

L 41 =
(s + s ) F
f 2
o 21
, L 42 =
(s + s )
f 2
o
f

, L 43 =
(s + s ) R
f 2
o 12
, L 44 =
(s + s ) R
f 2
o 22
.
f f f
k k k
Q TR TR
A= , A11 = 0 11 , A12 = 0 12 , C11 = 11 s 2 , C12 = s 2
( + 2 ) ( + 2 ) ( + 2 ) 12

B=
Q TR TR
, A 21 = 0 21 , A 22 = 0 22 , C 21 =
( + 2 ) s 2 , C = 22 ( + 2 ) s 2 ,
22
R R R R 12 R

By using equations (25)-(28), we get

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International Journal on Soft Computing (IJSC) Vol.8, No. 1, February 2017

D8x aD 6x + bD 4x cD 2x + d u = 0 , (33)
D8x aD 6x + bD 4x cD 2x + d U = 0 , (34)
D8x aD 6x + bD 4x cD 2x + d s = 0 , (35)
D8x aD 6x + bD 4x cD x2 + d f = 0 , (36)

where
a = L11 + L13L33 + L14 L 43 + L 22 + L 23L34 + L 24 L 44 + L 31 + L 42
b = L11 ( L 22 +L 23 L34 +L 24 L 44 +L31 +L 42 ) - L12 ( L 21 + L 23 L33 + L 24 L 43 ) -
L13 ( L 21L34 - L 22 L33 + L 24 (L34 L 43 - L33 L 44 ) + L32 L 43 - L33 L 42 ) -
L14 ( L 21L 44 - L 22 L 43 + L 23 ( L33L 44 - L34 L 43 ) - L31L 43 + L33 L 41 )
+ L 22 ( L31 + L 42 ) + L 23 (L34 L 42 - L32 L 44 )+ L 24 ( L31L 44 - L34 L 41 ) + L31L 42 - L32 L 41
c = L11 (L 22 (L31 + L 42 ) + L 23 (L34 L 42 - L32 L 44 ) +L 24 (L31L 44 - L34 L 41 ) +L31L 42 - L32 L 41 )
- L12 (L 21 (L31 + L 42 ) + L 23 (L33L 42 - L32 L 43 ) + L 24 (L31L 43 - L33 L 41 ))
+ L13 (L 21 (L32 L 44 - L34 L 42 ) +L 22 (L33 L 42 - L32 L 43 )) - L14 (L 21 (L31L 44 - L34 L 41 )
+ L 22 (L33 L 41 - L31L 43 )) + L 22 (l31L 42 - L32 L 41 )
d =L11L 22 (L31L 42 - L32 L 41 ) + L12 L 21 (L32 L 41 - L31L 42 ) ,

dn
and D nx = .
d xn

According to equations (33)-(36) and to bounded state of functions at infinity, we can consider
the following forms

4
u ( x,s ) = i ei x , (37)
i =1
4
U ( x,s ) = i ei x , (38)
i =1
4
s ( x,s ) = i e i x , (39)
i =1
4
f ( x,s ) = i ei x , (40)
i =1

where i , i = 1, 2,3, 4 are the roots of the characteristic equation of the system (33)-(36) which
takes the form

8 a 6 + b 4 c 2 + d = 0 , (41)

To get the relations between the parameters i , i , i and i , we will use equations (26)-(28) in
the following forms

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International Journal on Soft Computing (IJSC) Vol.8, No. 1, February 2017

D 2x L 22 U L 23 D x s L 24 D x f = L 21u , (42)
L34 U + D 2x L31 s L32 f = L33 D x u , (43)
L 44 D x U L 41 s + D 2x L 42 f = L 43 D x u , (44)

Inserting the formulas in (37)-(40) into equations (42)-(44), we get

( 2
i L 22 ) i + L 23 i i + L 24 i i = L 21 i , i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , (45)
L34i + ( i2 L31 ) i L32 i = L33 i i , i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , (46)
L 44 ii L 41 i + ( i2 L 42 ) i = L 43 i i , i = 1, 2, 3, 4 , (47)

By solving the system in (45)-(47), we obtain

Hi
i = i , i = 1, 2,3, 4 ,
Wi
G
i = i i , i = 1, 2,3, 4 ,
Wi
F
i = i i , i = 1, 2,3, 4 ,
Wi
Where

Hi = ( i4 (L21 + L23L33 + L 24 L 43 ) - i2 (L21 (L31 + L42 ) + L23 (L33L 42 - L32 L43 ) +

L 24 (L31L 43 - L33L 41 )) + L21 (L31L42 - L32 L 41 ) ) , i = 1, 2,3, 4
G i = L33 i5 -i3 (L 22 L33 + L24 L33L 44 - L32 L 43 + L33L 42 ) - L34 i2 (L21 + L 24 L43 )
+ (L21L32 L44 + L 22 (L33L 42 - L32 L43 )) + L21L34 L42 , i = 1, 2,3, 4
Fi = L 43 i5 +i3 (L21L 44 - L22 L 43 + L 23L33 L 44 - L31L43 +L33L 41 ) + L 23L 43L34i2
-i (L 21L31L 44 + L22 (L33L 41 - L31L43 )) - L21L34 L 41 , i = 1, 2,3, 4
Wi = - i6 + i4 (L 22 + L24 L 44 + L31 + L42 ) - L23L343i - i2 (L 22 (L31 + L 42 ) - L 23L32 L 44
+L 24 L31L 44 + L31L 42 - L32 L 41 ) + L34 i (L 23L 42 - L 24 L41 )
+ L 22 (L31L 42 - L32 L 41 ) , i = 1, 2,3, 4
Hence, we have

4
Hi
U ( x,s ) = i ei x , (48)
i =1 Wi
4
G
s ( x,s ) = i i ei x , (49)
i =1 Wi
4
Fi
f ( x,s ) = i e i x , (50)
i =1 W i

To get the values of the parameters i , we have to apply the boundary conditions as follows;

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International Journal on Soft Computing (IJSC) Vol.8, No. 1, February 2017

(1) The thermal conditions

We will consider the bounding plane surface of the medium at x = 0 has been thermally loaded by
thermal shock as follows:

s ( 0, t ) = (1 ) 0 H ( t ) , (51)
and
f ( 0, t ) = 0 H ( t ) , (52)

where H(t) is the Heaviside unite step function and 0 is constant which gives after using the
Laplace transform the following conditions

s ( 0,s ) =
(1 ) 0 , (53)
s
and
0
f ( 0,s ) = , (54)
s

(2) The mechanical conditions

We will consider the bounding plane surface of the medium at x = 0 has been connected to a rigid
surface which prevents any displacement to accrue on that surface, i.e.

u ( 0, t ) = 0 , (55)
and
U ( 0, t ) = 0 , (56)

which gives after using the Laplace transform the following conditions

u ( 0,s ) = 0 , (57)
and
U ( 0,s ) = 0 . (58)
After using the boundary conditions in (53), (54), (57) and (58), we get the following system

i =1
i = 0, (59)
4
Hi
W
i =1
i = 0, (60)
i
4
Gi (1 ) 0 ,
W
i =1
i =
s
(61)
i
4
Fi 0
W
i =1
i =
s
, (62)
i

Then we get

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International Journal on Soft Computing (IJSC) Vol.8, No. 1, February 2017

W2 ( (F3H 4 - F4 H 3 +G 3H 4 G 4 H 3 )-F3H 4 + F4 H3 ) -
0 W1
1 = W3 ( (F2 H 4 - F4 H 2 +G 2 H 4 G 4 H 2 )-F2 H 4 + F4 H 2 ) + ,
s
W4 ( (F2 H 3 - F3H 2 +G 2 H 3 G 3H 2 )-F2 H 3 + F3H 2 )
W1 ( (F3H 4 - F4 H3 +G 3H 4 G 4 H 3 )-F3H 4 + F4 H3 ) -
0 W2
2 = W3 ( (F1H 4 - F4 H1 +G1H 4 G 4 H1 )-F1H 4 + F4 H1 ) + ,
s
W4 ( (F1H 3 - F3H1 +G1H3 G 3H1 )-F1H3 + F3H1 )
W1 ( (F2 H 4 - F4 H 2 +G 2 H 4 G 4 H 2 )-F2 H 4 + F4 H 2 ) -
0 W3
3 = W2 ( (F1H 4 - F4 H1 +G1H 4 G 4 H1 )-F1H 4 + F4 H1 ) + ,
s
W4 ( (F1H 2 - F2 H1 +G1H 2 G 2 H1 )-F1H 2 + F2 H1 )
W1 ( (F2 H3 - F3H 2 +G 2 H3 G 3H 2 )-F2 H 3 + F3H 2 ) -
W
4 = 0 4 W2 ( (F1H3 - F3H1 +G1H3 G 3H1 )-F1H 3 + F3H1 ) + ,
s
W3 ( (F1H 2 - F2 H1 +G1H 2 G 2 H1 )-F1H 2 + F2 H1 )
where
= - W1 (F2 (G 3H 4 - G 4 H3 ) + F3 (G 4 H 2 - G 2 H 4 ) + F4 (G 2 H3 - G 3H 2 )) +
W2 (F1 (W3H 4 - G 4 H 3 ) + F3 (G 4 H1 - G1H 4 ) + F4 (G1H 3 - G 3H1 )) -
W3 (F1 (G 2 H 4 - G 4 H 2 ) + F2 (G 4 H1 - G1H 4 ) + F4 (G1H 2 - G 2 H1 )) + ,
W4 (F1 (G 2 H 3 - G 3H 2 ) + F2 (G 3H1 - G1H 3 ) + F3 (G1H 2 - G 2 H1 ))

NUMERICAL INVERSION OF THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMS

In order to invert the Laplace transforms, we adopt a numerical inversion method based on a
Fourier series expansion .

By this method the inverse f ( t ) of the Laplace transform f (s ) is approximated by

e ct 1 N
ik i k t
f (t) =
t1
f ( )
c + R1 f c + exp , 0 < t1 < 2t,
2 k =1 t1 t1

Where N is a sufficiently large integer representing the number of terms in the truncated Fourier
series, chosen such that

iN i N t
exp ( c t ) R1 f c + exp 1 ,
t 1 t 1

where 1 is a prescribed small positive number that corresponds to the degree of accuracy
required. The parameter c is a positive free parameter that must be greater than the real part of all
the singularities of f (s ) . The optimal choice of c was obtained according to the criteria described
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International Journal on Soft Computing (IJSC) Vol.8, No. 1, February 2017

in .

NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The Ferrari's method has been constructed by using the FORTRAN program to solve equation
(41). The material properties of asphaltic material saturated by water have been taken as follow
, :

T0 = 27 o C, Q = 0.4853 1011 dyne.cm 2 , R = 0.0362 1011 dyne.cm 2 , = 0.2160 1011 dyne.cm 2

= 0.0926 1011 dyne.cm 2 , s = 2.16 10-5 o C 1 , s* = 2.35 gm.cm 3 , 11 = 0.002 gm.cm 3
*
k s = 0.8 W m 1 o k 1 , CsE = 800 J.kg 1. o C 1 , so = 0.02 s, k = 0.001 W m 1 o k 1
*
f = sf = fs = 0.0001 o C 1 , f * = 0.82 gm.cm 3 , k f = 0.3 W m 1 o k 1 , CfE = 1.9 cal.gm 1. o C 1 ,
fo = 0.00001s,

We will take the non-dimensional x variable to be in interval 0 x 1 and all the results will be
calculated at the same instance t = 0.1 for two different values of the porosity of the material
when = 0.25 and = 0.35 .

The temperature, the stress, the strain and the displacement for the solid and the liquid have been
shown in figures 1-8 respectively. We can see that, the value of the porosity has a significant
effect on all the studied fields.

Figure 1 shows the temperature increment distribution of the solid with two different values of
the porosity; = 0.25 and = 0.35 . It shows that the porosity parameter has a significant effect.

Figure 2 shows the temperature increment distribution of the liquid with two different values of
the porosity; = 0.25 and = 0.35 . We can see that the porosity parameter has a significant
effect where the liquid temperature increases when the porosity increases.

Figure 3 shows the stress distribution of the solid with two different values of the porosity;
= 0.25 and = 0.35 . We can see that the porosity parameter has a significant effect where the
absolute value of the stress acts on the solid increases when the porosity increases.

Figure 4 shows the stress distribution of the liquid with two different values of the porosity;
= 0.25 and = 0.35 . We can see that the porosity parameter has a significant effect where the
absolute value of the stress acts on the liquid increases when the porosity increases for wide range
of x.

Figures 5-8, show that the porosity parameter has significant effects on the deformation and the
displacement for both medium solid and liquid. The absolute value of the peak points (sharp
points) increase when the value of the porosity parameter increases for the both medium solid and
water.

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International Journal on Soft Computing (IJSC) Vol.8, No. 1, February 2017

CONCLUSION
In studying a mathematical model of generalized porothermoelasticity with one relaxation time
for poroelastic half-space saturated with fluid in the context of Youssef model we found that:

1- The porosity parameter of the poroelastic material has significant effects on the
temperature, the stress, the deformation and the displacement distributions for the both
medium the solid and the liquid.
2- Youssef model of porothermoelasticity with one relaxation time introduce finite speed of
thermal wave propagation which agree with realistic physical behavior for the solid and
the liquid.

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