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Example Problem with Complete Solution

5C-6 : Analysis of a Steam Power Cycle 8 pts

A simple steam power plant operates on 8 kg/s of


steam. Losses in the connecting pipes and through
the various components are to be neglected.
Calculate

a.) The power output of the turbine


b.) The power needed to operate the pump
c.) The velocity in the pump exit pipe
The heat transfer rate necessary in the
d.)
boiler
The heat transfer rate realized in the
e.)
condenser
f.) The mass flow rate of cooling water required
g.) The thermal efficiency of the cycle

Data : P1 20 kPa
T1 50 C

P2 8000 kPa P4 20 kPa


T2 50 C x4 0.92 kg vap/kg total
D2 0.05 m

P3 8000 kPa Tcw,in 20 C


T3 600 C Tcw,out 50 C

Read : Cycle problems of this type usually require you to work your way around the cycle,
process by process until you have determined the values of all of the unknowns. This is
a good approach here because the problem statement asks us to determine the values of
unknowns in every process in the cycle. The only decision is where to begin. We can
begin with the turbine because that is the 1st question and also because we have enough
information to answer part (a). We know T3 and P3, so we can determine H3. Stream 4
is saturated mixture with known P4 and x4, so we can also determine H4. With the usual
assumtions about kinetic and potential energy, we can determine Wturb. In fact, because
we know the T and P of streams 1 and 2 as well, we can analyze the processes in this
cycle in any convenient order. So, we will let the questions posed in the problem
determine the order in which we analyze the processes. We will apply the 1st law to the
pump, the boiler and the condenser, in that order. Use the Steam Tables in the NIST
Webbook.
Given : M 8 kg/s P3 8000 kPa
P1 20 kPa T3 600 C
T1 50 C P4 20 kPa
P2 8000 kPa x4 0.92 kg vap/kg total
T2 50 C Tcw,in 20 C
D2 0.05 m Tcw,out 50 C
Find : Wturb ??? MW Qboil ??? MW
Wpump ??? kW Qcond ??? MW
v2 ??? m/s mcw ??? kg/s
th ???
Assumptions : 1- Changes in kinetic and potential energy are negliqible in all the
processes in the cycle
2- The pump and turbine are adiabatic.
3- All of the heat that leaves the working fluid in the condenser is
transferred to the cooling water. No heat is lost to the
surroundings.

Equations / Data / Solve :

Part a.) Begin by writing the 1st Law for the turbine, assuming that changes in kinetic and
potential energy are negligible. This makes sense because we have no elevation,
velocity or pipe diameter information to use.

Eqn 1

If we assume that the turbine is adiabatic, we can solve Eqn 1 for the shaft work of the
turbine :

Eqn 2

Now, we must use the steam tables to determine H3 and H4. Let's begin with stream 3.

At a pressure of 8000 kPa, the saturation temperature is : Tsat 295.01 C

Because T3 > Tsat, we conclude that stream 3 is superheated steam and we must consult
the Superheated Steam Tables. Fortunately, there is an entry in the table for 8000
kPa and600oC.
H3 3642.4 kJ/kg

Stream 4 is a saturated mixture at 20 kPa, so we need to use the properties of saturated


liquid and saturated vapor at 20 kPa in the following equation to determine H4 :

At 20 kPa :
Hsat liq 251.42 kJ/kg Eqn 3
Hsat vap 2608.9 kJ/kg

H4 2420.3 kJ/kg

Now, we can plug H3 and H4 back into


Wturb 9.777 MW
Eqn 2 to answer part (a) :

Part b.) Write the 1st Law for the pump, assuming that changes in kinetic and potential energy
are negligible. This makes sense because we have no elevation or velocity data and we
are given only the outlet pipe diameter. Also, assume the pump is adiabatic, Qpump = 0.

Eqn 4 Eqn 5

Now, we must determine H1 and H2. We know the T and P for both of these streams,
so we should have no difficulty determining the H values.

Tsat(P1) 60.058 C T1 < Tsat, therefore we must consult the Subcooled


Water Tables.
Tsat(P2) 295.01 C T2 < Tsat, therefore we must consult the Subcooled
Water Tables.

H1 209.35 kJ/kg H2 216.22kJ/kg

Now, we can plug H1 and H2 back into


Wpump -54.960 kW
Eqn 5 to answer part (b) :

Part c.) Here, we need to consider the relationship between velocity, specific volume and cross-
sectional area.

Eqn 6 where : Eqn 7

0.00196 2
A2 m
3
0.00100 3
From the NIST Webbook : V2 m /kg
86

Now, we can plug values into Eqn 6 to answer part (c) : v2 4.109 m/s

Part d.) Write the 1st Law for the boiler, assuming that changes in kinetic and potential energy
are negligible. This makes sense because we have no elevation, velocity or pipe
diameter data. There is no shaft work in a boiler.

Eqn 8 Eqn 9

We determined H2 in part (b) and H3 in part (a), so all we need to do is plug numbers
intoEqn 9.

Qboil 27.409 MW

Part e.) Write the 1st Law for the condenser assuming that changes in kinetic and potential
energy are negligible. This makes sense because we have no elevation, velocity or pipe
diameter data. Use the working fluid as the system so that Qcond is the amount of heat
transferred to the cooling water. There is no shaft work in a condenser.

Eqn 10 Eqn 11

We determined H1 in part (b) and H4 in part (a), so all we need to do is plug numbers
intoEqn 11.

Qcond -17.688 MW

Part f.) In order to determine the mass flow rate of the cooling water, we must write the 1st Law
using the cooling water as our system. For this system, Qcw = - Qcond because heat
leaving the working fluid for the cycle enters the cooling water.
Qcw 17.688 MW

Assume that changes in kinetic and potential energy are negligible. This makes sense
because we have no elevation, velocity or pipe diameter data. There is no shaft work
for the cooling water system.

Eqn 12
We cannot use the Steam Tables to determine the enthalpy of the cooling water because
we do not know the pressure in either stream. The next best thing we can do is to use
the specific heat of the cooling water to determine Hcw using:

Eqn 13

If we further assume that the specific heat of liquid water is constant over the
temperature range 20C - 50C, than Eqn 13 simplifies to:

Eqn 14

We can then combine Eqn 14 with Eqn 12 to obtain


:

Eqn 15

Finally, we can solve Eqn 15 for mcw : Eqn 16

All we need to do is look up the average heat capacity of water


between 20C and 50C.

kJ/kg-
NIST : CP,cw(50C) 4.1813
K
kJ/kg- kJ/kg-
CP,cw(20C) 4.1841 CP,cw 4.1827
K K

kJ/kg-
Let's use : CP,cw 4.18
K
Then : mcw 141.05 kg/s

The thermal efficiency of this power cycle can be determined directly from its
Part g.)
definition.

Eqn 17 th 0.3547

Verify : None of the assumptions made in this problem solution can be


verified.

Answer
a.) Wturb 9.78 MW e.) Qcond -17.7 MW
s:
b.) Wpump -55.0 kW f.) mcw 141 kg/s
c.) v2 4.11 m/s g.) th 0.355
d.) Qboil 27.4 MW
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