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Chapter 13
Vegetables

Vegetable Classifications
Purchasing Vegetables Cooking
Vegetables
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Carrots are elongated root vegetables that are rich in


vitamin A and come in many colors.
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Parsnips are off-white root vegetables, similar in shape


to carrots, that range from 510 inches in length.
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Salsify is a white or black root vegetable that


resembles the shape of a carrot and can grow up to
12 inches in length.
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Common varieties of radishes include the red and


daikon radishes.
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Turnips and rutabagas are two root vegetables that


are often confused for one another, but rutabagas are
longer and rounder than turnips.
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Beets are round root vegetables that are a deep


reddish purple color.
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Celeriac, also known as celery root, is a knobby,


brown root vegetable cultivated from a type of celery
grown for its root rather than its stalk.
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A jicama is a large, brown root vegetable that ranges


in size from 4 oz to 6 lb and is referred to as the
Mexican potato.
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A lotus root is the


underwater root
vegetable of an
Asian water lily
that looks like a
solid-link chain.
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A bamboo shoot is
a root vegetable
that is the immature
shoot of the
bamboo plant.
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Garlic is a bulb vegetable made up of several small


cloves that are enclosed in a thin, husklike skin that
comes in many colors.
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Shallots are small bulb


vegetables that can be
bronze, rose, or pale
gray in color.
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Onion varieties
include white,
yellow, red, and
pearl onions.
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Scallions, leeks, and ramps are similar bulb vegetables


that vary greatly in flavor.
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The color of potato skin differs among varieties and


can be brown, red, yellow-gold, white, orange, blue,
or purple.
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Sweet potatoes have a


thin skin and yams
have a bark-like skin.
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Ocas are small,


knobby tubers
that have a
potato-like flesh.
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Sunchokes are tubers with thin, brown, knobby-


looking skin.
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Water chestnuts are small tubers with brownish-black


skin and white, crunchy flesh.
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Asparagus is a green, white, or purple edible stem


that can be broiled, grilled, steamed, or pured.
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Celery and fennel


are stem
vegetables that are
similar in shape
with very different
flavors and uses.
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Rhubarb is a tart stem


vegetable that is most
often prepared like a fruit.
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Kohlrabi is a
sweet, crisp,
stem vegetable
that has a pale-
green or purple,
bulbous stem.
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A heart of palm is a slender, white, stem vegetable.


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Varieties of
cabbages used in
the professional
kitchen include
head cabbage,
Napa cabbage, and
Savoy cabbage.
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Bok choy is an edible leaf that has tender white ribs


and bright-green leaves.
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Brussels sprouts
are very small
round heads of
tightly packed
leaves that look
like tiny cabbages.
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Lettuce is an edible leaf that is almost exclusively


used in salads or as a garnish.
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Frise is a type of chicory, which has a bitter flavor


and an interesting texture.
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Watercress is a small, crisp, dark-green edible leaf


that is typically sold in bouquets.
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Spinach is a dark-
green, edible leaf
with a slightly bitter
flavor that may
have flat or curly
leaves, depending
on the variety.
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Sorrel is a large,
green edible leaf that
ranges in color from
pale green to dark
green.
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Swiss chard is grown for its silvery stalks and crinkly


leaves. Ruby chard has deep-red leaves tinged with
green and bright-red stalks.
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Kale is a large, frilly, edible leaf that varies in color


from green and white to shades of purple.
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Collards, also
known as collard
greens, are large,
dark-green, edible
leaves with a thick,
white vein.
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Mustard greens are large, dark-green, edible leaves


from the mustard plant.
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Turnip greens are dark-green, edible leaves from the


turnip plant.
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Beet greens are the green, edible leaves that grow


out of the top of the beet root vegetable.
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Dandelion greens
are the dark-green,
edible leaves of the
dandelion plant.
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Nopales are the green,


edible leaves of the
prickly pear cactus.
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Tatsoi is a spoon-
shaped, emerald-
colored leaf
vegetable native
to Japan.
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A fiddlehead fern is the curled tip of an ostrich fern


frond.
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A squash blossom
is the edible flower
of a summer or a
winter squash.
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Broccoli has tight clusters of dark-green florets on top of


a pale-green stalk. Cauliflower has tightly packed white
florets on a short, white-green stalk. Broccoflower is a
hybrid created from broccoli and cauliflower.
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An artichoke is the
flower bud of a large,
thistle-family plant
that comes in many
varieties.
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Popular varieties of beans include limas, cannellinis,


anasazis, peruanos, calypsos, flageolets, pintos,
kidney beans, great northern beans, and black beans.
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Green beans, wax


beans, snow peas,
and sugar snap peas
are beans and peas
with edible pods.
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Varieties of lentils range in color from white to green.


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A sprout is an edible strand with an attached bud that


comes from a germinated bean or seed.
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Tomatoes are juicy


fruit-vegetables that
contain edible seeds
and come in a
thousand plus varieties.
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Cucumbers are fruit-vegetables that are often eaten


raw or pickled.
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Varieties of eggplant
include black beauty,
white beauty, and
variegated eggplants
that can be oblong or
round.
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Sweet peppers,
also known as bell
peppers, turn from
green to yellow and
then red if left to
ripen on the vine.
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Hot peppers, also known as chiles, come in many


colors, shapes, and sizes. There are more than 200
varieties, including the jalapeo, habanero, poblano,
and serrano.
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Okra is a green fruit-vegetable pod containing round,


white seeds and a gelatinous, slimy liquid.
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Sweet corn has


kernels that grow in
rows on a cob.
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Summer squash varieties include zucchini, straightneck


squash, crookneck squash, and pattypan.
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Winter squash varieties include acorn, butternut,


spaghetti, turban, Hubbard, and kabocha squash.
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Pumpkins have a mild, sweet flesh that can be


prepared in the same manner as winter squash.
Roasted pumpkin seeds are often used as a garnish.
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Sea vegetables such as nori, kombu, and wakame


lend a salty flavor to food because of the minerals
they absorb from the ocean.
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A button mushroom has a very smooth, rounded cap


and completely closed gills atop a short stem.
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A portobello mushroom
is a very large and
mature, brown cremini
mushroom that has a
flat cap measuring up
to 6 inches in diameter.
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An enokitake mushroom
has spaghetti-like stems
topped with white caps.
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A wood ear mushroom is a brownish-black, ear-


shaped mushroom that has a slightly crunchy texture.
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A shiitake mushroom has an umbrella shape and


curled edges.
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An oyster mushroom is a broad, fanlike or oyster-


shaped mushroom that varies in color from white to
gray or tan to dark brown.
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A chanterelle
mushroom has a
nutty flavor and a
chewy texture.
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A morel mushroom is an uncultivated mushroom with


a cone-shaped cap.
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A porcini mushroom is an uncultivated, pale-brown


mushroom with a smooth, meaty texture and a
pungent flavor.
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Fresh vegetables are packed in cartons, lugs, flats,


crates, or bushels and sold by weight or count.
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Canned vegetables are a staple in the professional


kitchen and come in standard sizes.
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Frozen vegetables
often retain their
color and nutrients
better than canned
vegetables.
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Dried vegetables,
such as sun-dried
tomatoes, have had
most of their
moisture removed by
the dehydration
process.
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The addition of acidic or alkaline ingredients when


cooking vegetables causes chemical reactions that
affect the color and texture of the vegetables.
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Steamed vegetables
can be finished by
sauting to add flavor.
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Grilling vegetables caramelizes their sugars giving


them a sweeter flavor.
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Many root vegetables, such as onions, are often


roasted.
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Vegetables may be dipped into a batter and deep-


fried, such as this asparagus tempura.