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3/7/2017

GREGOR MENDEL
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW: Austrian monk
Brought experimental and
Terms associated with genetics problems: P, quantitative approach to
F1, F2, dominant, recessive, homozygous, genetics
heterozygous, phenotype, genotype.
Bred pea plants to study
How to derive the proper gametes when
inhertance
working a genetics problem.
Why peas?
The difference between an allele and a gene.
Control mating (self- vs. cross-
How to read a pedigree. pollination)
Many varieties available
Short generation time

ALLELES: ALTERNATE VERSIONS OF A GENE

P (parental) generation = true breeding plants


F1 (first filial) generation = offspring
F2 (second filial) generation = F1 offspring

MENDELS PRINCIPLES
1. Alternate version of genes (alleles) cause
7 CHARACTERS IN variations in inherited characteristics among
offspring.
PEA PLANTS
2. For each character, every organism inherits
Dominant vs. Recessive one allele from each parent.
(expressed) or (hidden) 3. If 2 alleles are different, the dominant allele
will be fully expressed; the recessive allele
will have no noticeable effect on offsprings
appearance.
4. Law of Segregation: the 2 alleles for each
character separate during gamete formation.

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3/7/2017

dominant (P), recessive (p)


homozygous = 2 same alleles (PP or pp)
heterozygous = 2 different alleles (Pp)

LAW OF
SEGREGATION

Phenotype: expressed physical traits


PUNNETT SQUARE
Genotype: genetic make-up
Device for predicting offspring from a cross
Example: Pp x Pp (P=purple, p=white)

Genotypic Ratio:
Phenotypic Ratio: