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r 1 { T E R i l A T t 0 }Er tAELC T R 0 T E C H i l t C

- Firstedition

Guide pourleslranslormateurs
d'application depuissance

Application forpower

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Premidre Firstedition
9PLN. 3 F,+

Guide pourlestransformaleurs
d'application depuissance

Application forpower

Descripteurs: transformateursde puissance, Descriptors : power transforrners,

m o d e sd e c o n n e x i o n , connectionmethods,
propri6t6s, properties,
c h a n g e u r sd e p r i s e e n c h a r g e , on-loadtap changers,
exigences, requirements,
application. application.

PilRP ;(r\! l AK
'Tt l l

,{ KAAtv
t t
: l
t(4!J liltjA'jl
A'j/lr,l IrLrISTR
rr.lllI l(r
sI r i ( { I
II No. Agenla ; 06o
Targgal .. 2 OV
NO/ 1 9"T

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Fonnwono . . J

Pnnrncn . i

1. Scopeand object . : 7
2. Specificationof tapping quantities 7
3. Selectionof winding connectionsfor transformersfor thrce-phasesystems t9
4.Paral1eloperationoftransformersinthree-phasesystems. 25
5. Loading capability of the neutral point of windingsin star or zigzagconnection 29
6. Calculation of voltagedrop (or rise) for a specifiedload condition 33

AppnNorx A - basedon the maximumcurrent

Examplesof the methodshownin Sub-clause2.4,
and maximum voltage of each winding . 4T




1) The formal decisionsor agreementsof the I E C on technical matters, prepared by Technical Committees on which all the
National Committees having a special interest therein are represented,express,as nearly as possible, an international
consensusof opinion on the subjectsdealt with.

2) They have the form of recommendations for international use and they are acceptedby the National Committeesin that
3) order to promote international i.rnification, the I E C expressesthe wish that all National Committees should adopt
the text of the I E C recommendation for their national rules in so far as national conditions will permit. Any divergence
between the I E C recommendation and the corresponding national rules should, as far as possible, be clearly indicated
in the latter.


This application guide has been prepared by I E C Technical Committee No. 14, Power Transformers.

A first draft of Clause 2, rclating to the specification of tapping quantities, was discussedat the meeting held in Athens in
1972 and,a second draft in Bucharest in 1974. As a result of this latter meeting a draft, Document l4(Central Office)36, was
submitted to the National Committees for approval under the Six Months'Rule in August 1975.

The following countries voted explicitly in favour of publication:

Australia Germany South Africa (Republic of)

Austria Hungary Spain
Belgium Israel Sweden
Canada Italy Switzerland
Czechoslovakia Japan Turkey
Denmark Netherlands United Kingdom
Egvpt Norway Union of Soviet
Finland Poland Socialist Republics
France Romania Yugoslavia

A first draft of the other clauses was discussedat the meeting held inBucharestinlgT4, asaresultof whichadraft
Document l4(Central Office)38, was submitted to the National Committees for approval under the Six Months' Rule in
June 1976.

The following countries voted explicitly in favour of publication:

Argentina Finland South Africa (Republic of)

Australia France Spain
Austria Germany Sweden
Belgium Hungary Switzerland
Canada Italy Turkey
China Netherlands United Kingdom
Czechoslovakia Norway United States of America
Denmark Poland Yugoslavia
Egvpt Portugal

Other I E C publications quotedin this application guide:

Publication Nos. 76: Power Transformers.

76-1,: Part l: General.
76-4: Part 4: Tappings and Connections,

- 7 -


1. Scope and object

1.1 Scope

This application guide applies to power transformers complying with I E C Publication 76, T
Power Transformers (1976).
1.2 Object t
This application guide is intendedto assistin the determinationand selectionof transformer
characteristics.The recommendationsgivenhereinare not mandatory,and are solelyfor the guidance
of purchasersat the time of purchaseand during subsequent

2. Specificationof tapping quantities

2.1 Introduction

2.1.I Purposeof this clause

The main purposeof this clauseis to help the purchaserto determinefrom the on-loadoperating
conditions of the transformerthe tapping quantitiesto be specifiedin accordancewith SectionOne
of Publication76-4, Part 4: Tappingsand Connections.

Sincethe tapping quantitiesare usedas a basisfor the manufacturer'sguaranteesand for tests,

they shouldnot be unduly complex,sincethat would makethe assessmentof guaranteestoo difficult.

A transformercomplyingwith this specificationshouldbe capableof operatingunder the expected

on-loadconditionswithout beingneedlessly oversized(seenote).Amongstall the solutionsmeeting
this condition,the simplestonesshouldbe sought,taking into accountthe information givenin I E C
Publication76-4,in Clauses3, 4 and 5 relating to "constantflux voltagevariation",'"variable flux
voltagevariation" and "combinedvoltagevariation".
Note. - For the purposes of standardization and simplification, the theoretically calculated data (rated power,
voltage data, etc.) resulting from assumedon-load operating conditions may be adjusted-whendeciding the
final transformer data. Such considerations, which can result in an "oversized" transformer, are mostly
disregardedin this guide.

2.1.2 Field of application

In this guide,as in I E C PublicationT6- ,the only caseconsideredis the mostcommon,of a trans-

former having only one tapped winding.
Note. - To simplify demonstration, consideration is limited to two-winding transformers (to which can be added a
stabilizing or auxiliary winding).
9 -

2.1.3 Abbreviations used in this clause

To shorten the text and the figures, the following abbreviations are used for certain quantities
which often appear (sub-script A refers to the tapped winding and sub-script B to the untapped

U^ : tapping voltage of the tapped winding

I^ : tapping current of the tapped winding
UB : tapping voltage of the untapped winding
IB : tapping current of the untapped winding
K^ : tapping factor (seedefinition in Sub-clause3.5.1.2 of IE C Publication 76-I, Part 1 : General)

n : voltage ratio
nu : voltage ratio on the maximum voltage tapping
ni : voltage ratio on the maximum current tapping
np : voltage ratio on the principal tapping (rated voltage ratio)

2.2 First stage of determinatian of tappirugduties (converting from on-load voltages to "no-load" voltages).
Calculation of voltage ratios

To determine from on-load quantities the tapping quantities to be specified and particularly the
tapping voltages (seedefinition in Sub-clause3.5.3.3of IEC PublicationT6-l) it will be necessary
to replace the on-load voltages of the various windings by no-load voltages by making suitable
voltage corrections.

First of all, voltage drop (or voltage rise) AUis calculated*, taking into account'the following
- load in MVA, power factor cos e and sin p;
- direction of the power flow;
- variation range of the high voltage (H.V.);
- variation range of the low voltage (L.V.).

Voltage corrections are then made by multiplying the on-load voltage by where
100 _ AU
AU is expressedin percentage.

The voltage ratios and particularly their extreme values are then obtained from these calculated
"no-load voltages".
Note. - The voltagedrop or rise calculationscan be basedon approximateimpedancevalues.More accuratecal-
culationscanbemadewhenthefinal impedance valuesareknown,but this is not oftennecessary.

1.3 Choice of the tapped winding

For technical reasonsit is usually preferable for tappings to be located:

a) on the high-voltage winding rather than on the low-voltage winding, particularly if the voltage
ratio is high;
b) on a star-connectedwinding rather than on a delta-connectedwinding;
c) on the winding of which the tapping voltage varies the most. This factor is less important than
the factors mentioned in Items a) and b).

t For this calculation, seeClause 6.

1 1-

2.4 Determinationof the tappingquantitiesof a separatewindingtransformer-The sixparametermethod

In this sub-clauseonly separatewinding transformersare considered,auto-transformersbeing

considered in Sub-clause2.5.

2.4.1 General
The resultof the first stageof thecalculationwill generallyleadto severaltappingdutiesper tapping,
but generallysucha complicationis not justifiedin practiceand is thereforedisregardedin this guide.
The simplificationof usingonly onetappingduty per tappingmay resultin a slight oversizingof the
transformercomparedwith one which fulfils only and.exactlythe assumedloading conditions.As
in practicetheseassumedloading conditionscan be only approximations,only in exceptionalcases
shouldmore than onetappingduty per tappingbe used.
A further simplificationis to use tapping currents and tapping voltagesfollowing the simple
laws of variation, as a function of the tapping factor, which are consideredin Clauses3, 4 and 5
and illustratedin Figures1 to 3 of I E C Publication76-4.
Thesesimplificationsare usedin the methoddescribedin Sub-clauses
2.4.2to 2.4.4.
As a preliminary, someexplanationsfollow relating to the "maximum voltage tapping" of the
combinedvoltagevatiation and to the 'omaximumcurrent tapping";

a) " Maximum voltagetapping" in the caseof " combinedvoltagevariation"

In transformersemploying"combinedvoltagevariationo'thereis a maximumvoltagetapping,
above which the tapping voltagesof the tapped winding remain constant.In the untapped
winding, "tapping voltages"are constantup to this tapping and decreasefor higher tappings.

The introductionof a "maximumvoltagetapping" eliminatesthe specificationof unrealistically

high tapping voltageswhich may otherwiseeven considerablyexceedthe "highest voltage for
This limitation of the tapping voltagesof certain tappingsalso means,on thesetappings,a
limitation of the calculatedmaximum short-circuitcurrent for which the mechanicalwithstand
ability of the transformerhasto be guaranteed.

b) "Maximum current tapping" and temperaturerise

Sub-clauses 3.2b), 4.2b) and 5.2b) of SectionOne in I E C Publication76-4 and particularly
Figures!b, 2b,3b which illustratethem,presentsimplelaws of the variation of tappingcurrents
as a function of the tappingfactor, basedupon a "maximum current tapping". For'this tapping,
the tapping currentsof the two windingsare simultaneouslya maximum.On each side of this
tapping one of the tapping currentsrernainsconstantand maximumwhile the otherdecreases so
that, in practice,it follows that the total lossesand the temperaturerise of the windingsdecrease
on either side of this tapping. Therefore,this maximum current tapping is also the maximum
temperature-rise tapping.

2.4.2 The sixparametersof a two-windingtransformer

Only two-windingtransformersare considered(seeSub-clause
In the following method, the data used for the determinationof the tapping quantities are
limited to the following six parameters:
a) the extremevoltageratiosi nminand n^u*,


b) maximum voltage of each winding: (Uru)_u* and ({/",r).u*i

c) maximum current of each winding: (Inv)_u" and (Ilv)max.'

The numerical values of these six parameters are known when the first stage of the calculation
has been completed (see Sub-clause2.2).

2,4.3 Calculation procedure.for the tapping quantities, basedon the sixparamteters

The numerical values of the six parameters are used for preparing a table of tapping quantities as
a function of the voltage ratio n and of the tapping factor Ka such as in Table I. The calculation
procedure is as follows:

a) Give in the first column the four voltage ratios:

fr^in,fti: (Ir,v)-u* / (I"u)-u*, fro: (Usv)-u* I (Uru),rru*and n*u,

Enter them in numerical order (Table I assumesincreasing order frorn the top and n,-is supposed
to be higher than ni but in some casesni cafl be higher than or equal to n,,).

Prepare also a line for the principal tapping which, for the reasons reiterated in Sub-clause
2.4.3d),wi11be placedbetweenthelinesn: niandn - nv. Write 100 as the value of Ka, the
value of n, namely no, being still undetermined.

b) Fnter in the table the maximum voltage and current values for each winding as shown in Table I.

- (Ur.u)-u" from n^rnto noand (Uru)','u* from noto fl^u*i

- (Ir,,)-u* from n^rnto n, and (I"r)-u* from nito n^u*.

c) Complete the table with those missing values of voltage and current marked (2) in the table.
The appropriate voltage or current value is deduced from the value of voltage or current of the
other winding and of the value of voltage ratio n.

The tapping power (3) is then calculated.

d) Choose the tapped winding and the principal tapping. From the definitions of the principal
tapping and of the full-power tappings, this is one df the full-power tappings, i.e. one of the
tappings ranging from the " maximum voltage tapping " to the ,, maximum current tapping ".
The simplest solution is to take the mean tapping if it is a full-power tapping or, if not, the full-
power tapping which is the closestto the mean tapping.

e) The tapping factor Ka, aan then be calculated.

Kr. : nlnp if the tappings are on the H.V. winding;
Ka : npln if the tappings are on the L.V. winding.

Furthermore, nb being known, the line "principal tapping" cartbe completed. This line gives the
rated values of voltages, currents and power.

The table is thus complete.

Note. - The precedingmethod generallyleadsto combinedvoltagevariation.However,if no is equal to an
extremevalueof n,thecategoryofvoltagevariationis "constantfluxvoltagevariation,, of ,.variable
flux voltagevariation", accordingto whetherthe maximumvoltagetappingisthe extremeplustapping
or the extrememinus tapping. Furthermore,if the niaximum voltage tapping, without teing ttri
extreme plus tapping, is closeenoughto it, the combinedvoltagevariation can be changedinto
constantflux voltagevariationin orderto simplifystill morethe specificationof the tappingquantities
(seeSub-clause 2.7).

- 1 5 -

TlnrB I

Table of tapping quantities

Voltages Currents
n (1)
Ks Tapping
( %) Power
H.V. L.V. H.V. L.V.

(ULv)^u" (1nv)-u* Minimum voltage

ratio tapping

(Urv)-u* (/nv)mu* (1rv)-u' Sr"u* (3) Maximum current


np 100 (5) (Ur,v)otu* (5) (/r,v)-u* S*u* Principal tapping

nu (4) ([/nv)-u* (Ur,v)*u' (2) (/r,v)-u* S-u* (3) Maximum voltage


flmax: (4) ([/nv)-u* (Ir,v)-u* Maximum voltage

ratio tapping

(1) The table assumesnu ) fli.

(2) To be completed with the appropriate values of voltage or current, deduced from the voltage or current of the
other winding and of the voltage ratio n.
(3) Power is calculated from voltage and current values.
(4) After choosing the tapped winding and the principal tapping, tapping factors K4 are calculated.
(5) To be fllled in after choosingthe principal tapping, i.e. nr.

f) The various values can now be rounded off, particularly the rated power. This rounding off and
the use of a suitable number of steps naturally affects somewhat the voltage and current values.
Furthermore, the possibility of operation at voltages higher than the tapping voltage can be
considered(see Sub-clause2.6).

When the preceding calculations have led to the choice of an extreme tapping as the maximum
current tapping, it may be advisable to re-examine this choice as indicated in Clause 44 of
Appendix A.

s) For specification purposes the table can be abbreviated, as the numefical data of the table can
actually be obtained from the following more concentrated data, according to I E C Publication
76-4, (Sub-clause5.2):
- rated power and rated voltages;
- which winding is the tapped winding, and its tapping range;
- the number of tapping positions or the value of the tapping step;
- which tapping is the "maximum voltage tapping" with the corresponding tapping voltages;
- which tapping is the "maximum current tapping".

2.4.4 Examples of application' of this method

Three examples are given in Appendix A.


2.5 Tapping curuents of auto-tr ansformers

For separate-winding transformers, Sub-clause2.4.2c) considered two parameters corresponding
to the maximum currents of the windings, namely (Iru)r'u* and (I"u)-u*.

For auto-transformers, the windings to be considered are the series winding and the common
winding. The maximum current of the serieswinding is equal to (I",r)-u*, but the maximum current
of the common winding is equal to the maximum value of the difference (Iru - /ru).

For this reason, the "maximum current tapping", based on (Irrr)rrru*and (I"v)r.,u*does not have
the physical meaning it has for separate winding transformers (see Sub-clause2.4.1). As a conse-
quence, it would in theory be inappropriate to base the current requirements on such a tapping, and
a more elaborate specification of the tapping quantities would be needed.

However, in practice, auto-transformers can generally be treated in the same manner as separate
winding transformers, provided it is verified that the common winding meetsthe standard temperature
guarantees throughout the tapping range. This verification can normally be provided by cal-
culation from one single temperature-rise test with the transformer connected on a suitable tapping.

An example is given in Clause ,{5 of Appendix A.

2.6 Possibilities of operation at voltages higher than the tapping voltages

The possibilities of continuous operation at increasedvoltage at full current or at reduced current
are given in Sub-clatse 4.4 of I E C Publication 76-I for the principal tapping and in Sub,clause
2.7 of IEC PublicationT6- for the other tappings.

2.6.1 Possibilities during full-current operation

As a general rule, the 5\ ovewoltage margin allowed in I E C Publication 76-1 is used to meet
exceptional circumstances,for instance system outages.

2.6.2 Possibilities during reduced current operation

As provided in IEC PublicationT6-l,the purchaser may specify that the transformer shall be
capable of operationatvoltages higher than the tapping voltage, forexample, of operation at ll}ft
of this voltage at no-load and at 108.75% athatfload.

2.7 Conversionof "combined voltage variation" into "constant flux voltage variation"

The principle of this conversion is that the tapping voltage U" of the untapped winding, instead
of reaching its maximum value for only some tappings, retains this value for all the tappings. The
voltage Uoof the tapped winding is no longer o'cut at the top".

Resulting from this conversion, voltages U" and (fa, and thereby the tapping power, are increased.
for the whole of the former "variable flux range" *.

The main advantage is simplification. Moreover, this conversion can also lead to a better indi-
cation of the overall voltage and power capability of the transformer when operated on those
tappings of which the voltage and power have been increased.

* Seealso Figure 5, page 50, Appendix A, which shows a graphical illustration relating
to example 1 of the Appendix.

- 1 9 -

On the other hand, this conversion may lead to abnormally high tapping voltages for these
tappings, and also to needlesslyincreasing the requirements with regard to the ability to withstand
short circuits.

The conversion can also lead to difficulties with regard to temperature rise requirements if, for
"combined voltage variation", the "maximum current tapping" is in the "variable flux range"
since the conversion leads to increasing the tapping voltages assignedto this tapping.

It should also be noticed that, in the latter case, the tapping power of the "maximum current
tapping" is increased,which means that the rated power assignedto the transformer is increased(see
Figure 1).

As a conclusion, it is recommended that constant flux voltage variation (C.F.V.V.) be utilized

every time the voltage increase that this implies does not exceed 51,ln other cases,the flnal choice
between the combined voltage variation and the constant flux voltage variation (C.F.V.V.) will
depend on the comparison of the advantagesand disadvantagesof each solution.


Frc. 1. - Effect of conversion of combined voltage variation

to constant flux voltage variation.

3. Selection of winding connections for transformers for three-phase systems

The selection of the connections for the windings of a three-phase transformer and single-phase
transformers intended to be associatedin a three-phasebank is determined by their service require-
ments, for instance parallel operation with other transformers, the provision of brought out neutral
points and any necessity of neutral loading.

The connections chosen influence the design of the transformer and the amount of material
required. In certain casesthe type of magnetic circuit (i.e. with or without magnetic return limbs)
has also to be considered when choosing the connections.

-21 -

The winding connections most commonly used are star, delta and zigzag or interconnected star.

The star connection is particularly suitable for high-voltage windings with graded insulation,
for windings to be equipped with on-load tap-changers, and when a neutral point is required for
loading purposes.

The delta connection is advantageousfor high currents.

The zigzag connection is, in general, only used for the low-voltage windings in transformers with
low rated power, when the neutral point may be loaded, for three-phase neutral electromagnetic
couplers and for earthing transformers.

Table II contains a summary of the most important characteristics of the three connections
mentioned above.

Tanln II

Characteristicsof connections

Star connection Delta connection Zigzag connection

Loading Depends on the connection of the other Can be loaded with the
capability winding(s) and on the zero.sequenceim- rated current of the
of the pedance(s)of the network(s) to which the winding
neutral point transformer is connected (see Sub-clause

3rd harmonic cur- 3rd harmonic cur- 3rd harmonic currents can
rents cannot flow rents can flow in circulate in the delta-
(neutral isolated; at least one connected winding
no winding in winding of the
delta connection transformer

Phasevoltage Contains 3rd har- Sinusoidal Sinusoidal

monic voltages *

* These 3rd harmonic voltages are insignificant in three-phasecore-type transformers with three limbs. In three-phase
type transformers with five limbs, three-phaseshell-type transformers and single-phasetransformers connected together
in three-phasebanks, they may take on high values and lead to corresponding displacementsof the neutral point.

GroupeI Group I


Groupe ll Groupll

Groupe lll I 5 Group lll G r o u p ef V 7 11 GrouP lV

Les chiffres au bas de chaque schdma sont les indices The large figures at the foot of each diagram give the
horaires clock-hour figures.

Marche en paralldlede transformateursdu m6megroupe.

Paralleloperationof transformersof the samegroup.

ouor 7 ou o r 11

5 5
ouo r 7 ou or 11


Les chiffres au bas de chaque sch6ma sont les indices The large figures at the foot of each diagram give the
horaires. clock-hour figures.

Flc. 3. - Marche en p;ralldle de transformateursappartenantaux groupesIII et IV.

Parallel operation of transformersof Groups III and IV.



4. Parallel operation of transformers in three-phasesystems

4.1 General

Parallel operation applies to the operation of transformers with direct terminal-to-terminal

connections for two of their windings. In the following, only two-winding transformers
will be
considered. In other cases,parallel operation should form the subject of a special study.

Note' - a transformerwith two mainwindingsplusa stabilizingwindingis considered

In order that two transformers can operate in parallel under the conditions specified above,
following conditions have to be met for the pairs of windings to be connected in parallel.

4,2 Connections
The connectionsshall be compatiblewith eachother:
a) Transformersof the samephase-angle relations,i.e. having the sameclock hour figure for the
vectordiagram,can be operatedin parallelby connectingtogether,on the primary and secondary
the terminalswith the samesymbol.
b) From the point of view of possibilitiesof operationin parallel when the clock hour figuresare
different,connectionscan be classifiedin groups:
Group I: clock hour figures0, 4 and g;
Group II: clock hour figures6, l0 and2;
Group III: clock hour figures1 and 5;
Group IV: clock hour figures7 and ll.
c) The paralleloperationof two transformersbelongingto the samegroup is alwayspossibleunder
substantiallybalancedload conditions.If theyhavedifferentclockhour hgorrr, thenthe difference
betweenthe clock hour figuresin the samegroup has alwaysto be 4 or 8, i.e. a differencein
phaseangle of 120oor 240o,which is the sameas betweentwo lines of a three-phase
The terminalshaving the samemarkingon the two transformerswill then be connectedtogether
on the one side (high-voltageor low-voltage),whilst on the other side the terminalswill be
connectedin.cyclicrotation accordingto the appropriatediagramin Figure 2, page22.
d) A transformerof Group III can be operatedin parallel with a transformerof Group
IV if the
phasesequence of onetransformeris reversedrelativeto that of the other. The changeof terminal
connectionsis as givenin Figure 3, page23.

e) The parallel operationof two transformersbelongingto differentgroups(the III and IV

nation mentionedaboveexcepted)is not possible.The following combinationsthereforecannor
be operatedin parallel:
Group I: with II or with III or with IV;
Group II: with I or with III or with IV;
Group III: with I or with II;
Group IV: with I or with II
' -
Notes satisfactorv
The caseof unbalanced loads should form the subject of a special study.
2' - It is also advisableto consider the effect of the connections on the behaviour of the transformers
in parallel during single phase-to-earthfaults.


4.3 Voltage ratios

The voltage ratios shall be equal within the limits of the permissible tolerances.
Note,- However,if the conditionsgivenin Sub-Clause 4.4 arenot compliedwith, the loadsharingmaybeimproved
by a differencebetweenthe voltageratiosof the two transformers.
The efficacyof this meanvarieswith the
powerfactor of the circuit supplied.

4.4 short-circuit impedance, or impedancevoltage, and load sharing

4.4.1 Transformers without tappings and tapped transformers whose tapping range does not exceed + 5%

For transformers without tappings, the impedance voltages at rated current shall be equal within
the limits of the permissible tolerances. The same condition applies to tapped transformers whose
tapping range does not exceed+ 5%.
Notes1. - Thisassumes that theratedvoltages
of thetwo transformers areequal,not merelytheratedvoltageratio.
The ratio ZtrlZ*, of the ohmicshort-circuitimpedances
is thenequalto theinverseratio S11/Sp, of the
ratedpowers,since(seeI E C PublicationT6-1,
3.7.4,Note 1):

u- U1.1
Lk -
loo S*

Therefore, the load is shared betweenthe two transformers in proportion to their respectiverated powers.

2. - To be strictly correct, the resistive and reactive iomponents of the impedances should be separately
considered,but in practice it is generally sufficient to consider only the total impedancevalue.
-1. - When considering parallel operation of two transformers having widely different rated powers (parti-
cularly if the ratio of the rated powers is not between 0.5 and 2), caution should be exercised,since
variations in load sharing, even though within the limits set by the above-mentionedtolerances,may
neverthelessresult in over-loading of the smaller transformer. This can be causedeither by operation of
the tolerances in opposite directions on the two transformers or becauseof differences in the relative
values of the resistiveand reactive components of impedancereferred to in Note 2.

4.4.2 Tapped transformers other than those considered in Sub-clause4.4.1

For acceptably equal load sharing between two transformers of equal rated power, operating on
full power tappings, the short-circuit impedancesin ohms per phase, referred to the same side of each
transformer, should have the samevalue with a tolerance of + 101Qn other words each of the two
values should not differ more than l0l from their mean value). Bigger differencesbetween the two
impedances are sometimes acceptable but a special study is then needed *.

When considering two transformers of unequal rated powers, operating on full power tappings,
the total load will be sharedin the inverseratio of their ohmic impedances;i.e.:

zk q
zk tu'
ur : - = - . - = - O a n d o 2: , O whence :
Zk + Zk Z k * Z v Q, 'n,
L 2 7 2

where Q is the total load, Zn the ohmic impedance and suffices 1 and 2 rcfer to the respective indi-
vidual quantities for each transformer.

* This possibility of increasedtolerance will be understood

in the remainder of this sub-clausewhenever a *10%
tolerance is stated.

- 29-

Each transformer will take a part of the total load acceptably in proportion to its rating
if ZurlZu,
is approximately equal to the ratio SNr/Sr, of the two rated powers, in other words if
the product
Zu S* has the same value, with a tolerance of + I0%, for the two transformers.

In the particular case of both transformers being on the principal tapping, where the
can be quoted as a percentage voltage (impedance voltage at rated current) instead'of
the short-
circuit impedance in ohms per phase, each transformer will take a part of the total load
in proportion to its rating if the impedance voltages at rated current of the two transformers
the samevalue with a toleranceof + lO%.

If at least one transformer operates on a reduced power tapping, the tapping power
S, of each
transformer is to be used instead of the rated power S* and the load sharing will then
be acceptable
if the product Zn S, has the same value, with a tolerance of +10%,for the two transformers
the tappings used).

Notes1' - In all the abovetext it is assumedthat the tappingvoltagesof the two transformersare equalat the
tappingsused. If this shouldnot be the case,it is not theratedpowersor tappingpowerswhichshould
beconsidered but thetappingcurrents(1).
At the tappingsusedthe productZy 11of short-circuitimpedanceand tappingcurrentshouldhave
samevalue,with a toleranceof r 10\, for the two transformers(atl valuesit 2u and Ilbeingreferred
the sameside).
2' - To be strictlycorrect,the resistiveand reactivecomponents of the impedances shouldbe separately
considered, but in practiceit is generally
to consideronlythetotalimpedance value.
3' - Whenconsideringparalleloperationof two transformershavingwidelydifferentrated powers(particu-
larlyif theratio of theratedpowersis not between 0.5and2),cautionshouldbeexercised, sincevariations
in load sharing,eventhoughwithin the limits setby the above-mentioned tolerances,
may nevertheless
resultin over-loadingof the smallertransformer.This can becausedeitherby operationof thetolerances
in oppositedirectionson the two transformersor because of differencesin therelativevaluesof theresis-
tive andreactivecomponents of impedancereferredto in Note 2.

5. Loading capability of the neutral point of windings in star or zigzagconnection

5.1 General

The neutral point of star ot zigzag-connectedwindings may be loaded under the conditions

If, under neutral loading conditions, the current in the phase-windings does not exceed
the values
corresponding to rated or tapping currents, the normal temperature rises apply.

If these currents are exceeded in any phase-winding, as they may be if neutral

example with an arc-suppression coil-is added to a winding already symmetrically
fully loaded,
this may lead to the normal temperature rises being exceeded in any winding which
carries zero-
sequencecurrent, and also in the oil.

5.2 Star connection

The loading capability of the neutral point depends on whether or not the zero-phase
current flowing in the winding under consideration is balanced by corresponding
ampere-turns in
at least one of the other windings of the transformer. The following casesshould
be distinguished:

31 -

5.2.L Star'star connectiortw'itltoutan additional winding in delta connection,the neutral point of theprimary
winding being isolated

a) Three-phase shell-type transformers, three-phase core-type transformers with five limbs and
banks of three single-phasetransformers:

The loading of the neutral point of the secondary winding should be avoided.

b) Three-phasecore-type transformers with three limbs:

1) The neutral point of the secondary winding may be loaded through an arc-suppressioncoil
with25% of the rated current for a highest duration of 1.5 h or with 201;ofthe rated current
for a duration of not more than 3 h. This causes,besidesconsiderable stray lossesin the
transformer, a zero-sequencevoltage drop of about 5l to l0\ of the line-to-neutral voltage.

2) In three-phasesystemsrvith-four wire loads on the secondary winding, the neutral point ffi&y,
with due regard to the voltage symmetry, for example for lighting supply, be loaded con-
tinuously up to l0\ of the rated current.

5.2-2 Star'star connection without ah additional winding in delta connection, the neutral point
of the
primary winding being connected to the neutral of the system

If the zero-sequenceimpedance of the primary system is sufficiently small, the neutral point of the
secondary winding may be loaded with the rated current of the windine.

5.2.3 Star-star connection with an additional winding in delta connection (third winding or

If the delta-connectedwinding is not loaded externally, the neutral point of star-connected

ings may be loaded so as not to exceedthe rated current of the delta-connectedwinding. For instance,
if the additional winding is rated at 'f , of the rating of the winding in star connection, one
of the
neutral points may be loaded with the rated current of its windins.

In the case of a winding in delta connection being loaded externally, the loading capability
of the
neutral points has to be determined separatelyfor each case of loading.

5.2.4 Star-delta connectionor delta-star connection

The neutral point may be loaded with the rated current.

5.2.5 Star-zigzag connection

The neutral point of the star-connectedwinding may be loaded as describedin Sub-clause

5.3 Zigzag eonnection

The neutral point of a winding in zigzagconnection can be loaded with the rated current
the required counter-ampere-turns of the zero-phase-sequence systemwill be produced in the winding
Note' - In the eventof line-to-earthfaults on the connectedsystems, the earthedneutralpointsof windingsin star
. or zigzagconnectioncarry fault currents,the intensityof which has to be consiieredwhendesilning
windings,choosingthe neutralbushingsand dimensioning their connectionsto the windings.Calculationof
fault currentsflowingin theneutralpointsrequiresinformationasto the earthingconditilnsof thesystems
and theirimpedances, the possiblelocationswhorefaultsmay occurand thenumberof transformers connect-
edin parallel.
' In thecaseof a transformerwith two windingsin starconnection joining two earthedsystems,thecalculation
of the currentshasto becarriedout separately for faultson eachsysrem.
Thepossibilityof a bushingflashoveron a neutralpoint whichis isolatedshouldnot beignored.

li ,i i
!i' f

6. Calculationof voltagedrop (or rise) for a specifiedload condition

6.1 Two-winding transformers

The voltage drop (or rise) with load between no-load and a symmetrical load of any assumed
value and power factor can be calculated from the measurement of the short-circuit impedance
(or, for the principal tapping, of impedance voltage at rated current) and the load loss (Sub-clause
8.4 of IEC PublicationT6-l\.

6.L.I Transformer untappedor connectedon the principal tapping

The no-load voltage of a winding is assumedto be its rated voltage:

let u, : impedance voltage at rated current as percentage of rated voltage, consisting of com-
I.tr : resistance voltage at rated current as percentage of rated voltage : load loss as per-
centage of rated power of transformer.
l,tx : reaotance voltage at rated current as percentage of rated voltage

The voltage drop (or rise) a s a percentage of the rated voltage, for an assumedfractional load
value n and power-factor cos rp, is:

' - '',.2
1 lnu s) | (nUr)^
U rn : t
' _
2 o . . . f
"U'g 10- g l 0 " l


U'p : u, cos p * u* sin p

U'; = u, sin p - r,txcos p

If u, is less than 20%, the third term may be ignored. If u, is less than 4/o, the second term may
also be ignored.

6.1.2 Transformer connectedon a tapping other than the principal tapping

The no-load voltage of a winding is assumedto be its tapping voltage

For a given tapping the equation in Sub-clause 6.1.1 can be used to calculate the voltage drop
(or rise) expressedas a percentageof the tapping voltage if u,, tt, and u* are replaced by the quantities
ul1and u^, respectively corresponding to that tapping:

uzt: 100Zk

zkt : short-circuit impedance at this tapping related to a given winding

Ut : tapping voltage of this winding

E : tapping power

t ;
i i ,
- 3 5 -

tz,,is equal to the load loss related to the tapping current expressedas a percentage of the tapping

For calculating the fractional value n of the load, the reference current should be the tapping

6.2 Three-winding transformers

6.2.1 Application of formulae

The formulae given above for two-winding transformers can be applied to three-winding trans-
formers, and their voltage drop (or rise) calculated with an accuracy comparable to that of the data
available by assuming the currents in the windings remain constant, both in magnitude and phase
angle, even though the output terminal voltages change, due to voltage drop or rise, from their no-
load values.

On a three-winding transformer the open-circuit no-load voltage of a winding will change with
current in the other windings (even though it remains itself unloaded).

Therefore the voltage drop (or rise) of a winding on a three-winding transformer is expressedwith
referenceto its no-load voltage obtained from the voltage ratio.

For the frequent caseof two output windings (W, and Wr) and one input winding (Wr), the voltage
drop (or rise) is usually required for three loading conditions, viz.:

W, only loaded;
W, only loaded;
both W, and W, loaded.

For each condition, two separatefigures should be quoted, i.e. the vottage drop (or rise) of each
output winding W, and W' (whether carrying current or not) for constant voltage supplied to the
first winding Wr.
Note. - The voltagedrop (or rise) betweenW, and W3 relativeto eachother for this simple and frequentcaseis
implicit in thevaluesW1to W2andWr to W3,andnothingis gainedby expressing it separately.

6.2.2 Data required.

The data required are the following quantities, determined for each pair of windings and related
to the same basic apparent power (So) which can conveniently be the tapping power (rated power
for the principal tapping) of the winding of the lowest rating (these data should be determined from
the transformer as built).
a) load loss corresponding to the power So and designated hereafter as w;
b) impedance voltage (principal tapping) or the following quantity u,r:

uzt: 100 Zu, +


Zu, : short-circuit impedance related to a given winding

Ut : tapping voltage of this winding

I . .

-37 -

') resistancevoltage (principal tapping) or the following quantity 2.,.

. w
urt : 100

reactance voltage (principal tapping) or the following quantity z*,.

From the data an equivalent circuit is derived as shown in Figure 4.



Flc. 4. - Equivalent circuit.

6.2.3 Equivalent circuit for three-winding transformer

The equivalent circuit is derived as follows:

let an and' bp be respectively the percentage resistanceand reactance voltages, or more generally,
the quantities rzr, and u*r, referred to the basic power and obtained on a test, short-
circuiting either winding W, or W, and supplying the other, with the third winding
W, on open circuit;
let an and brs similarly apply to a test on the pair of windings W, and W, (with W, on open circuit);

let an and bs, similarly apply to a test on the p'air of windings W, and W, (with W, on open circuit);

let d : the sum (aru * azs * arr)i

let f : the sum (0,, * br, * brr).

Then the mathematical values to be inserted in the equivalent circuit are:

arm W. at : dl2 - ozz bt : _fl2 - br"

arm W, az : dl2 - en bz - fl2 - b",
arm W, aB : dl2 - arz bu : fl2 - b*
It is to be noted that some of these mathematical quantities may be negative or may even be zero
(depending on the actual physical relative arrangement of the windings on the core). For the desired
loading conditions, the power operative in each arm of the equivalent circuit is determined and the
voltage drop (or rise) of each arm is calculated separately. The voltage drop (or rise) with respect
to the terminals of any fair of windings is the algebraic sum of the voltage drops (or rises) of the corres-
ponding two arms of the equivalent circuit.


6.2.4 Detailed procedure

The detailed procedure to be followed in the case of two output windings and one supply winding
is, as a first approximation, as follows:

a) determine the power in each winding corresponding to the loading being considered: for the
output windings W, and Ws this is the specifiedloading under consideration,

b) deducen, andn, where n is the ratio of the actual loading to the basic power used in the equivalent
circuit for each arm;

c) the input power of the winding W, should be taken as the vectorial surn of the outputs from
the windings W, and Wr. The corresponding power-factor and quadrature factor (sin p) are
deduced from the in-phase and quadrature components.

When greater accuracy is required in the determination of the apparent power of the winding Wt,
an addition should be made to the above-mentioned vectorial sum, as follows: add to the quadrature
component, to obtain the effective input power to winding Wr, the following quantities:

(the output power from winding Wr) x x nz


plus(theoutputpowerfrom windingW,) x x ns
A still more accuratesolution is obtained by adding the correspondingquantities(a x n x
output power) to the in-phasecomponentof the vectorial sumsof the outputs,but the difference
is rarely appreciable. Method of calculation

Apply the formula of Sub-clause6.1.1 separatelyto each arm of the network taking separate
valuesofru for eacharm as definedabove. Voltagedrop (or rise)

To obtain the voltagedrop (or rise)betweenthe supplywinding and eitherof the loadedwindings,
and the separatevoltagedrops(or rises)determinedfor the correspondingtwo arms,noting that one
of thesemay be negative(note that the summationis algebraic,but not vectorial).

Note. - A positive value for the sum determined indicates-a voltage drop from no-load to the loading considered,
while a negative value for the sum indicates a voltage rise.

Repeat the operation described above for the other loaded winding.

6.2.5 Supplyto two windings

In the caseof a supply to two windings and output from one winding, the aboveprocedurecan
be appliedif the division of loadingbetweenthe two suppliesis known.

6.2.6 Auto-transformers
The aboveprocedureis applicableto auto-transformers if the equivalentcircuit is basedon the
effectiveimpedancesand load lossesmeasuredat the terminals of the auto-transformer.
_41 _


A 1 . First example t9
Step-downtransformersupplied'witha variablevoltage and deliveringa variablepower with a
secondaryvoltagewhich increases
with the load.
The transformeris assumedto supplya 20 kV systemfrom a 115 kV system:
- appliedvoltagerangingfrom 107kV to 123kV;
- load conditionsrangingbetweenthe two following extremeduties:

frv : 1000 A'
On-loadL.V. voltage:2I kV, whichgives,aftercorrectionfor the voltagedrop, a o'no-loadvoltage"
equal to 22 kV (consequently,n variesfrom 123122: 5.591to 107122: 4.864 and (/rrn)-ax :
1 000/4.864 : 205.6A).

No-load duty
/rv : 0. L.V. voltage:20 kV.
(n variesfrom 123120
to 107120,
i.e. from 6.15to 5.35).
For the intermediateduties it will be sufficientto consider the half-current duty /ru : 500 A.
Correspondingt'no-load" L.V. voltage:2l kY.
The six requiredquantitiesare now determined:
First, the H.V. maximumvoltageis: (U"u)-ax : 123kV.
Then the "no-load" duty gives:
- fl^u* : 123120: 6.15.

Then the full-current duty givesthe valuesof the last four quantities:
- ftmin : 107122: 4.864;
- (U"v)rnu* : 22 kY;
- (/wL"" : I 000 A and (/w)-"* : 205.6 A.
- the maximumvoltagetapping: nu : 123122: 5.591;
- the maximumcurrenttapping: ni: 1000/205.6: 4.864(this tappingis the sameas the tapping
with the minimum voltageratio).
From this the tapping quantitiesgiven in Table III, page47, arc deduced,exceptthosebetween
brackets,relatingto the Column "Ko" and theline"principal tapping". If thetappingsare located
on the H.V. winding and if the principal tapping is the mean tapping n : 5.507,which is a full-
power tapping, the values betweenbrackets can be calculated and Table III can be completed.
Figure 5, page50, is a graphillustratingTable III.


The table can be summarizedas follows for specificationpurposes:

- ratedpower:38 MVA;
- nted voltages:l2l.l5 kV and 22.0kV;
- tappingson H.V. winding(tappingrange:4 11.5%);
maximumvoltagetapping : KA - 101.5%;
- maximum current tapping: extrememinus tapping.
The specificationshould also include the number of tapping positions,or the value of the tapping
step (this can lead to slight changesin the previousvalues).

y'^2. Secondexample

In the previous example,the "maximum current tapping" was the same as the extrememinus
tapping. The secondexamplecorrespondsto the casein which this "maximum current tapping" is
distinct. Another differencefrom Example No. 1 is that the principal tapping cannot be the mean
tappingbecausethe latter is not a full-powertapping.
The examplechosenis a step-downtransformer connectinga 400 kV systemto a l32kV system,
suppliedat a voltagevarying from 380kV to 420kV and which has to be capableof delivering,at a
voltagevaryingfrom 128kV to 136kV, a load betweenthe two following limits:

Full-load operation
The power absorbedat the primary terminalsis 300 MVA. The voltagedrop is 5.7f (8 kV) and
the L.V. "no-load voltage" rangesfrom 136kV to 144kV.

No-load operation
L.V. voltagerangingfrom 128kV to 136kV.
The six requiredquantitiesare now determined:
First (Urr)-u" : 420kY.
The "no-load operation" gives:
- fl^u*: 4201128 : 3.281

The "full-load operationo'givesthe other four'requiredvalues:

- flmin : 380/144:2.639;
- (Ut rL"* : t44 kY;
- (I*v)*u" : 456A (300 MVA at 380 kV);
- (/rv)-u* : I 273 A (300 MVA at 136kV).

- maximumvoltagetappingi fto : 4201144
: 2.9L7;
- maximumcurrenttappingini : 12731456 :2.792.

This gives,as a function of the voltage ratio, the tapping quantities of .TableIV, page49,'except
the valuesbetweenbracketsof Columr'o KA" and of the line "principal tapping".
It is now assumedthat the tapped winding is the H.V. winding. The mean tapping which cor-
respondsto n : 2.96 is not a full-power tapping.The closestfull-power tapping is the "maximum
current tapping" which correspondsto n : 4201144: 2.9L7.This tapping will be chosenas the
principal tapping (nn - 2.917).

It is then possibleto completeTable IV. Figure 6, page50, is a graphillustrating Table IV.

The tablecan be summarizedasfollows for specificationpurposes:

- ratedpower: 318MVA;
- rated voltages:420kV and 144kY;
- tappingson H.V. winding (tappingrange +12.5 % -9.5%);
- maximumvoltagetapping: principal tapping;
- maximumcurrent tapping: Kn,: 95.7%.
The specificationshould also include the number of tapping positions or the value of the tapping
step(this canlead to slight changesin the previousvalues).

,A.3. Third example

Correspondingto more complexload conditions:

The load conditionsare as for ExampleNo. 2 with the addition of a step-upcondition with a
reducedvalueof the power absorbedby the primary windinglimited to 200 MVA. In this condition
the L.V. appliedvoltagevariesfrom 128kV to 136kV and the H.V. "no-load voltage", taking into
accounta voltagedrop of 41, variesfrom 395kV to 437ky.
In comparisonwith ExampleNo. 2,two of the six basicquantitiesof the calculationare modified:
- (U*u)-"*, which increasesand becomes437 kV;
- ftmaxswhich increasesand becomes4371128.
Figure 6 showsthe curves of tapping voltage, current and power. They are identical to those of
ExampleNo. 2 for Ko < 100%, but for Ko > 100I diveryencesfrom ExampleNo. 2 are shown
by broken lines (it has been assumedthat the tapping n : 4201144 was still used as the principal

A 4 . Additional information relating to the useof a 66maximum current tapping " other than the extreme

Evenin a casesuchas ExampleNo. 1, it may be judicious to use,in the final specificationof the
tapping quantities, a "maximum current tapping" other than an extremetapping.
In particular, if the extremetapping is seldomused,(for instance,if it has to be used only for
extremeand rare systemvoltageconditions),it may be advisableto permit for this tapping a tem-
peraturerise slightlyexceedingthe guaranteedlimit, by choosinganothertapping as the "maximum
current tapping" and thereby avoiding needlessoversizing.

A5. Fourth example. Specificationof the tappingcurrentsof an auto-transformer(Figure 7, page 5l)

This exampleis the sameas ExampleNo. 2 exceptthatthe transformeris now an auto-transformer.

The simplestsolution is to specifythe sametapping currents as for the separatewinding trans-

former. This leadsto the curves,S,(thick lines) of Figure 7: the L.V. and seriescurrentsare the same
asthe L.V. and H.V. currentsof TableIV and Figure 6 the currentin the common winding is equal
to 1"u-1r".r., and increases
whenn increases.


considering the possible disadvantagesof this solution:

The tappings above n - 4201136: 3.088 are intended for operation at reduced load (no-load
for n-u*): see the thin lines marked "load". Thus the real maximum value of .I---oo is 861 A and
consequently the solution Sr, which gives 885 A, leads in theory to a needless oversizing of the

The lines S, (broken lines), which differ from,S, for the above-mentioned tappings, show a solution
which would avoid this over-estimation of (1"o--oo)-u*, 1"o--oo being limited to 861 A, but would
lead to more complicated current requirements.

Theoretically, the solution S, is more appropriate to the auto-transformer than .Sr. However, the
differences between Sr. and S, are small, 2.7 % for (/*,r,-oo)-"r, and it can be judicious, in such a
case,to use the same simple requirements as for a separatewinding transformer.
Note. - With the solution,S1the maximumtemperature rise of the commonwindingprobablyo@urson the higbest
tapping(n : n^u*).With the solutionS, it probablyoccurson thetappingo : :.Ogg,beyondwhich/*i-oo
is limitedto 861A.


ExampleNo. I - Tapping quantitiesas a function of the voltage ratio n

and of the tapping factor Ko. Tappings on the H.v. winding
(Abbrcyiatioos: Im. : iDcreases;Decr. :. decreases)
The valuesbetweenbracketsare thosewhich are known only after the principal tapping and the tapped
winding have beenchosen.

4.864* (88.5) zi.45* | uu*i-.r* current

fncr. * fncr.
(s.507)* 100 22\/5* | Principal tapping
fncr * Incr.
5.591* (101.5) 22.VT* | Maximumvoltage
fncr. Incr.
6.1s0 (111.5)

* The tappings ranging ftomn : 4.864to :

n 5.591are full-power tappings (U1y maximum and.Ily maximum).
** The mean tapping n : 5.507,which
is a full-power tapping, has b:enchosenas the principal tapping (K,r : 100).


ExampleNo. 2 - Tapping quantitiesas a function of the voltageratio n and of

the tapping factor Ko. Tappingson the H.V. winding
(Abbreviations: Incr. : increases; Decr. : decreases)

The values between brackets are those which are known only after the principal tapping and the tapped
winding have been chosen.

Voltages (kV) Currents (A)

KA ** Tapping
(%) designation
L . V . I H . V . I L . V .

2.639 (e0.5) 380 144 456 12W 300

Incr. Incr. Incr. t4 456 Incr. Incr.
2.792* (es.7) 402 IM 456 1 273 318'F Maximum cur-
rent tapping
Incr. * Incr. Incr. t4 Dccr. | 273 3 1 8*
2.917* (100) 420 l4 438 t 273 3 1 8* Maximum voltage
tapping and
principal tapping
Incr. 420
(112.s) 420

* The tappings ranging from n : 2.792ta n : 2.917 are the full-ponrr tappings (U1y and
[y maximum).
** The mean tapping n : 2,96 is not a full'power tapping. Thc tapdng chosen as the principal tapping is the full-power
tapping which is closestto the mean tapping (which is here the " maximum voltage tapping ").
-50- I
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FIc.' 7. . Exemple no 4. Specification des courants de prise d'un autotransformateur.

Example No. 4. Specification of the tapping currents of an auto-transformer.

t l
Autres publicationsde la CEI pr6par6es Other IEC publicationspreperd
par Ie Comit6d'EtudesNo 14 by TechnicalCommitteeNo. 14

76: - Transformateursde puissance. 76: - Power transformers.

76-1 (1976) Premidrepartie: G6n6ralitds. 76-l (1976) Part 1: General
76-2 (1976) Deuxidmepartie: Echauffement. 7C2 (1976) Part 2: Temperaturerise.
76-3 * Troisidme partie: Niveaux d'isolement et essais 7G3 + Part 3: Insulation levels and dielectric tests.
76-4 (1976) Quatridme partie: Priseset connexions. 7U (1976) Pafi 4: Tappings and connections.
76-5 (1976) Cinquidme partie: Tenue au court<ircuit. 7G5 (1976) Part 5: Ability to withstand short circuit.
214 (1976) Changeursde prises en charge. 214 (1976) On-load tap-changers.
289 (1968) Bobines d'inductance. 289 (1968) Reactors.
354 (1972) Guide de charge pour transformateurs imnsgrs 3t1 (1972) Loading guide for oil-immersed transformers..
542 (1976) Guide d'application pour changpurs dc prbcs en t{2 (1976) Application guide for onload tap-changers.
551 (1976) Mesure des niveaux de bruit dcs trensfcmnrs 551 (1976) Measurement of transformer and reactor sound
et des bobines d'inductac. levels.

* pu, . Xd y.r Fblihcd


Publication 606