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I E CS T A N D A R D
Publication
606
 Firstedition
ddition
,Pre$ilre
1978
Guide pourleslranslormateurs
d'application depuissance
:,
)'
guide
Application forpower
transformers
Droitsdereproduction  Copyright
r6serv6s  all rightsreseryed
Bureau Electrotechnique
Cgtraldela Commission Internationale
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6endve,
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rgd
R6visionde la pr6sentepublication Revisionof t\is publicrtia
Le contenutechniquedespublications de la CEI est constam' The technical content of IEC prHitrti b f4a under
ment revu par la Commissionafin d'assurerqu'il refldtebien l'6tat constant review by the IEC, thus curlf thd Oc @ntent
actuel de la technique. reflectscurrent technologY.
Les renseignementsrelatifs ir ce travail de rdvision,d l'tablisse Information on the work of nctiioo, tb iss of lwised
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Terminologie Terminology
En ce qui concerne la terminologie g6n6rale, le lecteur se For generalterminology, readersare referred to IEC Publi
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l I s s  0 1 {EI r c T R0 T Ec HN 0 u E I l t T ERi l A T 0 i l A L E
c 0t M
NllRMD
E Et A C E I
Publication
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ddition
Premidre Firstedition
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9PLN. 3 F,+
Guide pourlestransformaleurs
d'application depuissance
guide
Application forpower
translormers
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Aucunepartie de cette publicationne psut tre reproduiteni utilisde sous l{o part of this publicationmay be reproducedor utilized in any
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Bureau delaCommission
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Electrotechnique
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Oendve,
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/^^T\TTENTS
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Page
Fonnwono . . J
Pnnrncn . i
CIause
1. Scopeand object . : 7
2. Specificationof tapping quantities 7
3. Selectionof winding connectionsfor transformersfor thrcephasesystems t9
4.Paral1eloperationoftransformersinthreephasesystems. 25
5. Loading capability of the neutral point of windingsin star or zigzagconnection 29
6. Calculation of voltagedrop (or rise) for a specifiedload condition 33
FOREWORD
1) The formal decisionsor agreementsof the I E C on technical matters, prepared by Technical Committees on which all the
National Committees having a special interest therein are represented,express,as nearly as possible, an international
consensusof opinion on the subjectsdealt with.
2) They have the form of recommendations for international use and they are acceptedby the National Committeesin that
sense.
'In
3) order to promote international i.rnification, the I E C expressesthe wish that all National Committees should adopt
the text of the I E C recommendation for their national rules in so far as national conditions will permit. Any divergence
between the I E C recommendation and the corresponding national rules should, as far as possible, be clearly indicated
in the latter.
PREFACE
This application guide has been prepared by I E C Technical Committee No. 14, Power Transformers.
A first draft of Clause 2, rclating to the specification of tapping quantities, was discussedat the meeting held in Athens in
1972 and,a second draft in Bucharest in 1974. As a result of this latter meeting a draft, Document l4(Central Office)36, was
submitted to the National Committees for approval under the Six Months'Rule in August 1975.
A first draft of the other clauses was discussedat the meeting held inBucharestinlgT4, asaresultof whichadraft
Document l4(Central Office)38, was submitted to the National Committees for approval under the Six Months' Rule in
June 1976.
;
 7 
1.1 Scope
This application guide applies to power transformers complying with I E C Publication 76, T
Power Transformers (1976).
I

1.2 Object t
This application guide is intendedto assistin the determinationand selectionof transformer
characteristics.The recommendationsgivenhereinare not mandatory,and are solelyfor the guidance
of purchasersat the time of purchaseand during subsequent
usage.
2.1 Introduction
The main purposeof this clauseis to help the purchaserto determinefrom the onloadoperating
conditions of the transformerthe tapping quantitiesto be specifiedin accordancewith SectionOne
of Publication764, Part 4: Tappingsand Connections.
To shorten the text and the figures, the following abbreviations are used for certain quantities
which often appear (subscript A refers to the tapped winding and subscript B to the untapped
winding):
n : voltage ratio
nu : voltage ratio on the maximum voltage tapping
ni : voltage ratio on the maximum current tapping
np : voltage ratio on the principal tapping (rated voltage ratio)
2.2 First stage of determinatian of tappirugduties (converting from onload voltages to "noload" voltages).
Calculation of voltage ratios
To determine from onload quantities the tapping quantities to be specified and particularly the
tapping voltages (seedefinition in Subclause3.5.3.3of IEC PublicationT6l) it will be necessary
to replace the onload voltages of the various windings by noload voltages by making suitable
voltage corrections.
First of all, voltage drop (or voltage rise) AUis calculated*, taking into account'the following
information:
 load in MVA, power factor cos e and sin p;
 direction of the power flow;
 variation range of the high voltage (H.V.);
 variation range of the low voltage (L.V.).
100
Voltage corrections are then made by multiplying the onload voltage by where
100 _ AU
AU is expressedin percentage.
The voltage ratios and particularly their extreme values are then obtained from these calculated
"noload voltages".
Note.  The voltagedrop or rise calculationscan be basedon approximateimpedancevalues.More accuratecal
culationscanbemadewhenthefinal impedance valuesareknown,but this is not oftennecessary.
2.4.1 General
The resultof the first stageof thecalculationwill generallyleadto severaltappingdutiesper tapping,
but generallysucha complicationis not justifiedin practiceand is thereforedisregardedin this guide.
The simplificationof usingonly onetappingduty per tappingmay resultin a slight oversizingof the
transformercomparedwith one which fulfils only and.exactlythe assumedloading conditions.As
in practicetheseassumedloading conditionscan be only approximations,only in exceptionalcases
shouldmore than onetappingduty per tappingbe used.
t
A further simplificationis to use tapping currents and tapping voltagesfollowing the simple
laws of variation, as a function of the tapping factor, which are consideredin Clauses3, 4 and 5
and illustratedin Figures1 to 3 of I E C Publication764.
Thesesimplificationsare usedin the methoddescribedin Subclauses
2.4.2to 2.4.4.
As a preliminary, someexplanationsfollow relating to the "maximum voltage tapping" of the
combinedvoltagevatiation and to the 'omaximumcurrent tapping";
:

13
The numerical values of these six parameters are known when the first stage of the calculation
has been completed (see Subclause2.2).
The numerical values of the six parameters are used for preparing a table of tapping quantities as
a function of the voltage ratio n and of the tapping factor Ka such as in Table I. The calculation
procedure is as follows:
Enter them in numerical order (Table I assumesincreasing order frorn the top and n,is supposed
to be higher than ni but in some casesni cafl be higher than or equal to n,,).
Prepare also a line for the principal tapping which, for the reasons reiterated in Subclause
2.4.3d),wi11be placedbetweenthelinesn: niandn  nv. Write 100 as the value of Ka, the
value of n, namely no, being still undetermined.
b) Fnter in the table the maximum voltage and current values for each winding as shown in Table I.
c) Complete the table with those missing values of voltage and current marked (2) in the table.
The appropriate voltage or current value is deduced from the value of voltage or current of the
other winding and of the value of voltage ratio n.
d) Choose the tapped winding and the principal tapping. From the definitions of the principal
tapping and of the fullpower tappings, this is one df the fullpower tappings, i.e. one of the
tappings ranging from the " maximum voltage tapping " to the ,, maximum current tapping ".
The simplest solution is to take the mean tapping if it is a fullpower tapping or, if not, the full
power tapping which is the closestto the mean tapping.
Furthermore, nb being known, the line "principal tapping" cartbe completed. This line gives the
rated values of voltages, currents and power.
tl
 1 5 
TlnrB I
Voltages Currents
n (1)
Ks Tapping
( %) Power
Designation
H.V. L.V. H.V. L.V.
f) The various values can now be rounded off, particularly the rated power. This rounding off and
the use of a suitable number of steps naturally affects somewhat the voltage and current values.
Furthermore, the possibility of operation at voltages higher than the tapping voltage can be
considered(see Subclause2.6).
When the preceding calculations have led to the choice of an extreme tapping as the maximum
current tapping, it may be advisable to reexamine this choice as indicated in Clause 44 of
Appendix A.
s) For specification purposes the table can be abbreviated, as the numefical data of the table can
actually be obtained from the following more concentrated data, according to I E C Publication
764, (Subclause5.2):
 rated power and rated voltages;
 which winding is the tapped winding, and its tapping range;
 the number of tapping positions or the value of the tapping step;
 which tapping is the "maximum voltage tapping" with the corresponding tapping voltages;
 which tapping is the "maximum current tapping".
:
'
:
J
.il
tiF
17_
For autotransformers, the windings to be considered are the series winding and the common
winding. The maximum current of the serieswinding is equal to (I",r)u*, but the maximum current
of the common winding is equal to the maximum value of the difference (Iru  /ru).
For this reason, the "maximum current tapping", based on (Irrr)rrru*and (I"v)r.,u*does not have
the physical meaning it has for separate winding transformers (see Subclause2.4.1). As a conse
quence, it would in theory be inappropriate to base the current requirements on such a tapping, and
a more elaborate specification of the tapping quantities would be needed.
However, in practice, autotransformers can generally be treated in the same manner as separate
winding transformers, provided it is verified that the common winding meetsthe standard temperature
.rise
guarantees throughout the tapping range. This verification can normally be provided by cal
culation from one single temperaturerise test with the transformer connected on a suitable tapping.
As a general rule, the 5\ ovewoltage margin allowed in I E C Publication 761 is used to meet
exceptional circumstances,for instance system outages.
As provided in IEC PublicationT6l,the purchaser may specify that the transformer shall be
capable of operationatvoltages higher than the tapping voltage, forexample, of operation at ll}ft
of this voltage at noload and at 108.75% athatfload.
2.7 Conversionof "combined voltage variation" into "constant flux voltage variation"
The principle of this conversion is that the tapping voltage U" of the untapped winding, instead
of reaching its maximum value for only some tappings, retains this value for all the tappings. The
voltage Uoof the tapped winding is no longer o'cut at the top".
Resulting from this conversion, voltages U" and (fa, and thereby the tapping power, are increased.
for the whole of the former "variable flux range" *.
The main advantage is simplification. Moreover, this conversion can also lead to a better indi
cation of the overall voltage and power capability of the transformer when operated on those
tappings of which the voltage and power have been increased.
* Seealso Figure 5, page 50, Appendix A, which shows a graphical illustration relating
to example 1 of the Appendix.
,.llli
 1 9 
On the other hand, this conversion may lead to abnormally high tapping voltages for these
tappings, and also to needlesslyincreasing the requirements with regard to the ability to withstand
short circuits.
The conversion can also lead to difficulties with regard to temperature rise requirements if, for
"combined voltage variation", the "maximum current tapping" is in the "variable flux range"
since the conversion leads to increasing the tapping voltages assignedto this tapping.
It should also be noticed that, in the latter case, the tapping power of the "maximum current
tapping" is increased,which means that the rated power assignedto the transformer is increased(see
Figure 1).
Ka
078178
The selection of the connections for the windings of a threephase transformer and singlephase
transformers intended to be associatedin a threephasebank is determined by their service require
ments, for instance parallel operation with other transformers, the provision of brought out neutral
points and any necessity of neutral loading.
The connections chosen influence the design of the transformer and the amount of material
required. In certain casesthe type of magnetic circuit (i.e. with or without magnetic return limbs)
has also to be considered when choosing the connections.
,jfilI
21 
The winding connections most commonly used are star, delta and zigzag or interconnected star.
The star connection is particularly suitable for highvoltage windings with graded insulation,
for windings to be equipped with onload tapchangers, and when a neutral point is required for
loading purposes.
The zigzag connection is, in general, only used for the lowvoltage windings in transformers with
low rated power, when the neutral point may be loaded, for threephase neutral electromagnetic
couplers and for earthing transformers.
Table II contains a summary of the most important characteristics of the three connections
mentioned above.
Tanln II
Characteristicsof connections
Loading Depends on the connection of the other Can be loaded with the
capability winding(s) and on the zero.sequenceim rated current of the
of the pedance(s)of the network(s) to which the winding
neutral point transformer is connected (see Subclause
s.2)
3rd harmonic cur 3rd harmonic cur 3rd harmonic currents can
rents cannot flow rents can flow in circulate in the delta
(neutral isolated; at least one connected winding
no winding in winding of the
delta connection transformer
present)
* These 3rd harmonic voltages are insignificant in threephasecoretype transformers with three limbs. In threephase
core
type transformers with five limbs, threephaseshelltype transformers and singlephasetransformers connected together
in threephasebanks, they may take on high values and lead to corresponding displacementsof the neutral point.
22
GroupeI Group I
3
2
I
Groupe ll Groupll
Les chiffres au bas de chaque schdma sont les indices The large figures at the foot of each diagram give the
horaires clockhour figures.
1
ouor 7 ou o r 11
3
2
1
3
2
1
5 5
ouo r 7 ou or 11
080178
Les chiffres au bas de chaque sch6ma sont les indices The large figures at the foot of each diagram give the
horaires. clockhour figures.
I
I
I
I
25
4.1 General
4,2 Connections
The connectionsshall be compatiblewith eachother:
a) Transformersof the samephaseangle relations,i.e. having the sameclock hour figure for the
vectordiagram,can be operatedin parallelby connectingtogether,on the primary and secondary
sidesrespectively,
the terminalswith the samesymbol.
b) From the point of view of possibilitiesof operationin parallel when the clock hour figuresare
different,connectionscan be classifiedin groups:
Group I: clock hour figures0, 4 and g;
Group II: clock hour figures6, l0 and2;
Group III: clock hour figures1 and 5;
Group IV: clock hour figures7 and ll.
c) The paralleloperationof two transformersbelongingto the samegroup is alwayspossibleunder
substantiallybalancedload conditions.If theyhavedifferentclockhour hgorrr, thenthe difference
betweenthe clock hour figuresin the samegroup has alwaysto be 4 or 8, i.e. a differencein
phaseangle of 120oor 240o,which is the sameas betweentwo lines of a threephase
system.
The terminalshaving the samemarkingon the two transformerswill then be connectedtogether
on the one side (highvoltageor lowvoltage),whilst on the other side the terminalswill be
connectedin.cyclicrotation accordingto the appropriatediagramin Figure 2, page22.
d) A transformerof Group III can be operatedin parallel with a transformerof Group
IV if the
phasesequence of onetransformeris reversedrelativeto that of the other. The changeof terminal
connectionsis as givenin Figure 3, page23.
i
lr,
ill
27
The voltage ratios shall be equal within the limits of the permissible tolerances.
Note, However,if the conditionsgivenin SubClause 4.4 arenot compliedwith, the loadsharingmaybeimproved
by a differencebetweenthe voltageratiosof the two transformers.
The efficacyof this meanvarieswith the
powerfactor of the circuit supplied.
4.4.1 Transformers without tappings and tapped transformers whose tapping range does not exceed + 5%
For transformers without tappings, the impedance voltages at rated current shall be equal within
the limits of the permissible tolerances. The same condition applies to tapped transformers whose
tapping range does not exceed+ 5%.
Notes1.  Thisassumes that theratedvoltages
of thetwo transformers areequal,not merelytheratedvoltageratio.
The ratio ZtrlZ*, of the ohmicshortcircuitimpedances
is thenequalto theinverseratio S11/Sp, of the
ratedpowers,since(seeI E C PublicationT61,
SubClause
3.7.4,Note 1):
2
u U1.1
ry
Lk 
loo S*
Therefore, the load is shared betweenthe two transformers in proportion to their respectiverated powers.
2.  To be strictly correct, the resistive and reactive iomponents of the impedances should be separately
considered,but in practice it is generally sufficient to consider only the total impedancevalue.
1.  When considering parallel operation of two transformers having widely different rated powers (parti
cularly if the ratio of the rated powers is not between 0.5 and 2), caution should be exercised,since
variations in load sharing, even though within the limits set by the abovementionedtolerances,may
neverthelessresult in overloading of the smaller transformer. This can be causedeither by operation of
the tolerances in opposite directions on the two transformers or becauseof differences in the relative
values of the resistiveand reactive components of impedancereferred to in Note 2.
For acceptably equal load sharing between two transformers of equal rated power, operating on
full power tappings, the shortcircuit impedancesin ohms per phase, referred to the same side of each
transformer, should have the samevalue with a tolerance of + 101Qn other words each of the two
values should not differ more than l0l from their mean value). Bigger differencesbetween the two
impedances are sometimes acceptable but a special study is then needed *.
When considering two transformers of unequal rated powers, operating on full power tappings,
the total load will be sharedin the inverseratio of their ohmic impedances;i.e.:
zk q
zk tu'
o
I
Q,
O
ur :  =  .  =  O a n d o 2: , O whence :
Zk + Zk Z k * Z v Q, 'n,
L 2 7 2
where Q is the total load, Zn the ohmic impedance and suffices 1 and 2 rcfer to the respective indi
vidual quantities for each transformer.
,ilsJ
 29
Each transformer will take a part of the total load acceptably in proportion to its rating
if ZurlZu,
is approximately equal to the ratio SNr/Sr, of the two rated powers, in other words if
the product
Zu S* has the same value, with a tolerance of + I0%, for the two transformers.
In the particular case of both transformers being on the principal tapping, where the
impedance
can be quoted as a percentage voltage (impedance voltage at rated current) instead'of
the short
circuit impedance in ohms per phase, each transformer will take a part of the total load
acceptably
in proportion to its rating if the impedance voltages at rated current of the two transformers
have
the samevalue with a toleranceof + lO%.
If at least one transformer operates on a reduced power tapping, the tapping power
S, of each
transformer is to be used instead of the rated power S* and the load sharing will then
be acceptable
if the product Zn S, has the same value, with a tolerance of +10%,for the two transformers
(at
the tappings used).
Notes1'  In all the abovetext it is assumedthat the tappingvoltagesof the two transformersare equalat the
tappingsused. If this shouldnot be the case,it is not theratedpowersor tappingpowerswhichshould
beconsidered but thetappingcurrents(1).
At the tappingsusedthe productZy 11of shortcircuitimpedanceand tappingcurrentshouldhave
the
samevalue,with a toleranceof r 10\, for the two transformers(atl valuesit 2u and Ilbeingreferred
to
the sameside).
2'  To be strictlycorrect,the resistiveand reactivecomponents of the impedances shouldbe separately
considered, but in practiceit is generally
sufficient
to consideronlythetotalimpedance value.
3'  Whenconsideringparalleloperationof two transformershavingwidelydifferentrated powers(particu
larlyif theratio of theratedpowersis not between 0.5and2),cautionshouldbeexercised, sincevariations
in load sharing,eventhoughwithin the limits setby the abovementioned tolerances,
may nevertheless
resultin overloadingof the smallertransformer.This can becausedeitherby operationof thetolerances
in oppositedirectionson the two transformersor because of differencesin therelativevaluesof theresis
tive andreactivecomponents of impedancereferredto in Note 2.
5.1 General
The neutral point of star ot zigzagconnectedwindings may be loaded under the conditions
given
below.
If, under neutral loading conditions, the current in the phasewindings does not exceed
the values
corresponding to rated or tapping currents, the normal temperature rises apply.
The loading capability of the neutral point depends on whether or not the zerophase
sequence
current flowing in the winding under consideration is balanced by corresponding
ampereturns in
at least one of the other windings of the transformer. The following casesshould
be distinguished:
I'
,fittt
31 
5.2.L Star'star connectiortw'itltoutan additional winding in delta connection,the neutral point of theprimary
winding being isolated
a) Threephase shelltype transformers, threephase coretype transformers with five limbs and
banks of three singlephasetransformers:
The loading of the neutral point of the secondary winding should be avoided.
2) In threephasesystemsrvithfour wire loads on the secondary winding, the neutral point ffi&y,
with due regard to the voltage symmetry, for example for lighting supply, be loaded con
tinuously up to l0\ of the rated current.
5.22 Star'star connection without ah additional winding in delta connection, the neutral point
of the
primary winding being connected to the neutral of the system
If the zerosequenceimpedance of the primary system is sufficiently small, the neutral point of the
secondary winding may be loaded with the rated current of the windine.
5.2.3 Starstar connection with an additional winding in delta connection (third winding or
stabilizing
winding)
In the case of a winding in delta connection being loaded externally, the loading capability
of the
neutral points has to be determined separatelyfor each case of loading.
I
l,
li ,i i
!i' f
33
The voltage drop (or rise) with load between noload and a symmetrical load of any assumed
value and power factor can be calculated from the measurement of the shortcircuit impedance
(or, for the principal tapping, of impedance voltage at rated current) and the load loss (Subclause
8.4 of IEC PublicationT6l\.
let u, : impedance voltage at rated current as percentage of rated voltage, consisting of com
ponents:
I.tr : resistance voltage at rated current as percentage of rated voltage : load loss as per
centage of rated power of transformer.
l,tx : reaotance voltage at rated current as percentage of rated voltage
The voltage drop (or rise) a s a percentage of the rated voltage, for an assumedfractional load
value n and powerfactor cos rp, is:
'  '',.2
1 lnu s)  (nUr)^
U rn : t
' _
2 o . . . f
'
"U'g 10 g l 0 " l
where:
If u, is less than 20%, the third term may be ignored. If u, is less than 4/o, the second term may
also be ignored.
For a given tapping the equation in Subclause 6.1.1 can be used to calculate the voltage drop
(or rise) expressedas a percentageof the tapping voltage if u,, tt, and u* are replaced by the quantities
1t712
ul1and u^, respectively corresponding to that tapping:
uzt: 100Zk
+
where:
E : tapping power
t ;
i i ,
LiE T
 3 5 
tz,,is equal to the load loss related to the tapping current expressedas a percentage of the tapping
power
For calculating the fractional value n of the load, the reference current should be the tapping
current.
The formulae given above for twowinding transformers can be applied to threewinding trans
formers, and their voltage drop (or rise) calculated with an accuracy comparable to that of the data
available by assuming the currents in the windings remain constant, both in magnitude and phase
angle, even though the output terminal voltages change, due to voltage drop or rise, from their no
load values.
On a threewinding transformer the opencircuit noload voltage of a winding will change with
current in the other windings (even though it remains itself unloaded).
Therefore the voltage drop (or rise) of a winding on a threewinding transformer is expressedwith
referenceto its noload voltage obtained from the voltage ratio.
For the frequent caseof two output windings (W, and Wr) and one input winding (Wr), the voltage
drop (or rise) is usually required for three loading conditions, viz.:
W, only loaded;
W, only loaded;
both W, and W, loaded.
For each condition, two separatefigures should be quoted, i.e. the vottage drop (or rise) of each
output winding W, and W' (whether carrying current or not) for constant voltage supplied to the
first winding Wr.
Note.  The voltagedrop (or rise) betweenW, and W3 relativeto eachother for this simple and frequentcaseis
implicit in thevaluesW1to W2andWr to W3,andnothingis gainedby expressing it separately.
The data required are the following quantities, determined for each pair of windings and related
to the same basic apparent power (So) which can conveniently be the tapping power (rated power
for the principal tapping) of the winding of the lowest rating (these data should be determined from
the transformer as built).
a) load loss corresponding to the power So and designated hereafter as w;
b) impedance voltage (principal tapping) or the following quantity u,r:
l
I . .
F'
37 
. w
urt : 100
S,
Wr
081178
let an and' bp be respectively the percentage resistanceand reactance voltages, or more generally,
the quantities rzr, and u*r, referred to the basic power and obtained on a test, short
circuiting either winding W, or W, and supplying the other, with the third winding
W, on open circuit;
let an and brs similarly apply to a test on the pair of windings W, and W, (with W, on open circuit);
let an and bs, similarly apply to a test on the p'air of windings W, and W, (with W, on open circuit);
.
39
The detailed procedure to be followed in the case of two output windings and one supply winding
is, as a first approximation, as follows:
a) determine the power in each winding corresponding to the loading being considered: for the
output windings W, and Ws this is the specifiedloading under consideration,
b) deducen, andn, where n is the ratio of the actual loading to the basic power used in the equivalent
circuit for each arm;
c) the input power of the winding W, should be taken as the vectorial surn of the outputs from
the windings W, and Wr. The corresponding powerfactor and quadrature factor (sin p) are
deduced from the inphase and quadrature components.
When greater accuracy is required in the determination of the apparent power of the winding Wt,
an addition should be made to the abovementioned vectorial sum, as follows: add to the quadrature
component, to obtain the effective input power to winding Wr, the following quantities:
plus(theoutputpowerfrom windingW,) x x ns
t';U
A still more accuratesolution is obtained by adding the correspondingquantities(a x n x
output power) to the inphasecomponentof the vectorial sumsof the outputs,but the difference
is rarely appreciable.
Note.  A positive value for the sum determined indicatesa voltage drop from noload to the loading considered,
while a negative value for the sum indicates a voltage rise.
Repeat the operation described above for the other loaded winding.
6.2.6 Autotransformers
The aboveprocedureis applicableto autotransformers if the equivalentcircuit is basedon the
effectiveimpedancesand load lossesmeasuredat the terminals of the autotransformer.
_41 _
APPENDIX A
EXAMPLES OF THE METHOD SHOWN IN SUB.CLAUSE 2.4, BASED ON THE
MAXIMUM CURRENT AND MAXIMUM VOLTAGE OF EACH WINDING
A 1 . First example t9
Stepdowntransformersupplied'witha variablevoltage and deliveringa variablepower with a
secondaryvoltagewhich increases
with the load.
The transformeris assumedto supplya 20 kV systemfrom a 115 kV system:
 appliedvoltagerangingfrom 107kV to 123kV;
 load conditionsrangingbetweenthe two following extremeduties:
Fullcurrentduty
frv : 1000 A'
OnloadL.V. voltage:2I kV, whichgives,aftercorrectionfor the voltagedrop, a o'noloadvoltage"
equal to 22 kV (consequently,n variesfrom 123122: 5.591to 107122: 4.864 and (/rrn)ax :
1 000/4.864 : 205.6A).
Noload duty
/rv : 0. L.V. voltage:20 kV.
(n variesfrom 123120
to 107120,
i.e. from 6.15to 5.35).
For the intermediateduties it will be sufficientto consider the halfcurrent duty /ru : 500 A.
Correspondingt'noload" L.V. voltage:2l kY.
The six requiredquantitiesare now determined:
First, the H.V. maximumvoltageis: (U"u)ax : 123kV.
Then the "noload" duty gives:
 fl^u* : 123120: 6.15.
Then the fullcurrent duty givesthe valuesof the last four quantities:
 ftmin : 107122: 4.864;
 (U"v)rnu* : 22 kY;
 (/wL"" : I 000 A and (/w)"* : 205.6 A.
Whence:
 the maximumvoltagetapping: nu : 123122: 5.591;
 the maximumcurrenttapping: ni: 1000/205.6: 4.864(this tappingis the sameas the tapping
with the minimum voltageratio).
From this the tapping quantitiesgiven in Table III, page47, arc deduced,exceptthosebetween
brackets,relatingto the Column "Ko" and theline"principal tapping". If thetappingsare located
on the H.V. winding and if the principal tapping is the mean tapping n : 5.507,which is a full
power tapping, the values betweenbrackets can be calculated and Table III can be completed.
Figure 5, page50, is a graphillustratingTable III.
.
:
il
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43
y'^2. Secondexample
In the previous example,the "maximum current tapping" was the same as the extrememinus
tapping. The secondexamplecorrespondsto the casein which this "maximum current tapping" is
distinct. Another differencefrom Example No. 1 is that the principal tapping cannot be the mean
tappingbecausethe latter is not a fullpowertapping.
The examplechosenis a stepdowntransformer connectinga 400 kV systemto a l32kV system,
suppliedat a voltagevarying from 380kV to 420kV and which has to be capableof delivering,at a
voltagevaryingfrom 128kV to 136kV, a load betweenthe two following limits:
Fullload operation
The power absorbedat the primary terminalsis 300 MVA. The voltagedrop is 5.7f (8 kV) and
consequently
the L.V. "noload voltage" rangesfrom 136kV to 144kV.
Noload operation
L.V. voltagerangingfrom 128kV to 136kV.
The six requiredquantitiesare now determined:
First (Urr)u" : 420kY.
The "noload operation" gives:
 fl^u*: 4201128 : 3.281
Whence:
 maximumvoltagetappingi fto : 4201144
: 2.9L7;
 maximumcurrenttappingini : 12731456 :2.792.
This gives,as a function of the voltage ratio, the tapping quantities of .TableIV, page49,'except
the valuesbetweenbracketsof Columr'o KA" and of the line "principal tapping".
It is now assumedthat the tapped winding is the H.V. winding. The mean tapping which cor
respondsto n : 2.96 is not a fullpower tapping.The closestfullpower tapping is the "maximum
current tapping" which correspondsto n : 4201144: 2.9L7.This tapping will be chosenas the
principal tapping (nn  2.917).
45
A 4 . Additional information relating to the useof a 66maximum current tapping " other than the extreme
tappings
Evenin a casesuchas ExampleNo. 1, it may be judicious to use,in the final specificationof the
tapping quantities, a "maximum current tapping" other than an extremetapping.
In particular, if the extremetapping is seldomused,(for instance,if it has to be used only for
extremeand rare systemvoltageconditions),it may be advisableto permit for this tapping a tem
peraturerise slightlyexceedingthe guaranteedlimit, by choosinganothertapping as the "maximum
current tapping" and thereby avoiding needlessoversizing.
Ilj
I
_47_
The tappings above n  4201136: 3.088 are intended for operation at reduced load (noload
for nu*): see the thin lines marked "load". Thus the real maximum value of .Ioo is 861 A and
consequently the solution Sr, which gives 885 A, leads in theory to a needless oversizing of the
transformer.
The lines S, (broken lines), which differ from,S, for the abovementioned tappings, show a solution
which would avoid this overestimation of (1"ooo)u*, 1"ooo being limited to 861 A, but would
lead to more complicated current requirements.
Theoretically, the solution S, is more appropriate to the autotransformer than .Sr. However, the
differences between Sr. and S, are small, 2.7 % for (/*,r,oo)"r, and it can be judicious, in such a
case,to use the same simple requirements as for a separatewinding transformer.
Note.  With the solution,S1the maximumtemperature rise of the commonwindingprobablyo@urson the higbest
tapping(n : n^u*).With the solutionS, it probablyoccurson thetappingo : :.Ogg,beyondwhich/*ioo
is limitedto 861A.
TrgLE III
TAsrB IV
The values between brackets are those which are known only after the principal tapping and the tapped
winding have been chosen.
* The tappings ranging from n : 2.792ta n : 2.917 are the fullponrr tappings (U1y and
[y maximum).
** The mean tapping n : 2,96 is not a full'power tapping. Thc tapdng chosen as the principal tapping is the fullpower
tapping which is closestto the mean tapping (which is here the " maximum voltage tapping ").
50 I
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Autres publicationsde la CEI pr6par6es Other IEC publicationspreperd
par Ie Comit6d'EtudesNo 14 by TechnicalCommitteeNo. 14
Publication 606