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The human brain is the centre of the human central nervous system, located within the head, and

consisting of
the cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum.[3]Much of the size of the human brain comes from the cerebral cortex, especially
the frontal lobes, which are associated with executive functions such as self-control, planning, reasoning, and abstract thought.

The human cerebral cortex is a layer of neural tissue that covers the two cerebral hemispheres that make up most of the brain. This
layer is folded in a way that increases the amount of surface area that can fit into the volume available. The pattern of folds is similar
across individuals but shows many small variations. The cortex is divided into four lobes the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal
lobe, and occipital lobe. (Some classification systems also include a limbic lobe and treat the insular cortex as a lobe.) Within each
lobe are numerous cortical areas, each associated with a particular function, including vision, motor control, and language. The left
and right hemispheres are broadly similar in shape, and most cortical areas are replicated on both sides. Some areas, though, show
strong lateralization, particularly areas that are involved in language. In most people, the left hemisphere is dominant for language,
with the right hemisphere playing only a minor role. There are other functions, such as visual-spatial ability, for which the right
hemisphere is usually dominant.

The brain is made of three main parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and
hypothalamus (part of the limbic system). The midbrain consists of the tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain is made of the
cerebellum, pons and medulla. Often the midbrain, pons, and medulla are referred to together as the brainstem.

The Cerebrum: The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought
and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called "lobes": the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and
temporal lobe. Here is a visual representation of the cortex:

What do each of these lobes do?

Frontal Lobe- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving

Parietal Lobe- associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli

Occipital Lobe- associated with visual processing

Temporal Lobe- associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech

Note that the cerebral cortex is highly wrinkled. Essentially this makes the brain more efficient, because it can increase the surface
area of the brain and the amount of neurons within it. We will discuss the relevance of the degree of cortical folding (or
gyrencephalization) later. (Go here for more information about cortical folding)

A deep furrow divides the cerebrum into two halves, known as the left and right hemispheres. The two hemispheres look mostly
symmetrical yet it has been shown that each side functions slightly different than the other. Sometimes the right hemisphere is
associated with creativity and the left hemispheres is associated with logic abilities. The corpus callosum is a bundle of axons which
connects these two hemispheres.

Nerve cells make up the gray surface of the cerebrum which is a little thicker than your thumb. White nerve fibers underneath carry
signals between the nerve cells and other parts of the brain and body.

The neocortex occupies the bulk of the cerebrum. This is a six-layered structure of the cerebral cortex which is only found in
mammals. It is thought that the neocortex is a recently evolved structure, and is associated with "higher" information processing by
more fully evolved animals (such as humans, primates, dolphins, etc). For more information about the neocortex, click here.

The Cerebellum: The cerebellum, or "little brain", is similar to the cerebrum in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded
surface or cortex. This structure is associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance.

The cerebellum is assumed to be much older than the cerebrum, evolutionarily. What do I mean by this? In other words, animals
which scientists assume to have evolved prior to humans, for example reptiles, do have developed cerebellums. However, reptiles
do not have neocortex. Go here for more discussion of the neocortex or go to the following web site for a more detailed look at
evolution of brain structures and intelligence: "Ask the Experts": Evolution and Intelligence

Limbic System: The limbic system, often referred to as the "emotional brain", is found buried within the cerebrum. Like the
cerebellum, evolutionarily the structure is rather old.
This system contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Here is a visual representation of this system, from
a midsagittal view of the human brain:

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

Amygdala

Hippocampus

Brain Stem: Underneath the limbic system is the brain stem. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as
breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. Scientists say that this is the "simplest" part of human brains because animals' entire
brains, such as reptiles (who appear early on the evolutionary scale) resemble our brain stem. Look at a good example of this here.

The brain stem is made of the midbrain, pons, and medulla. Click on the words to learn what these structures do:

Midbrain

Pons

Medulla

The forebrain is split into 2 sections: The telencephalon and the diencephalon.

Parts of the telencephalon

Cerebral cortex The cerebral cortex is the gray matter of your brain, and is comprised of the fissures (valleys) and
gyri (hills). Most information processing occurs in the cerebral cortex. Each of its 6 layers has different composition in terms
of neurons and connectivity. However, there are 2 types of basic neurons: Star-shaped cells (small interneurons with no tail)
and triangular cells (large multipolar neurons). There are 4 lobes in the cerebral cortex:

o Frontal lobe The frontal lobe is associated with personality, conscience (right/wrong/consequences), planning
and is the source of inhibitions. Moniz won a Nobel Prize for developing the prefrontal lobotomy. It was later
replaced by Walter Freemans transorbital lobotomy. They were both later replaced with safer alternatives (drugs
like thorazine).

o Parietal lobe The parietal lobe is in charge of somatosensory processing (touch). See Oliver Sacks case
study about the man who fell out of bed.

o Occipital lobe The occipital lobe processes visual memory, and is associated with migraine headaches.

o Temporal lobe Auditory and language processing occurs in the temporal lobe; about 90% on the left side.

Corpus callosum The white matter in the brain that connects the left and right hemispheres. Split
brain occurs when the connection in the corpus callosum is severed.

Limbic system The limbic system is the collective name for the parts of the brain that control emotion,
motivation, and emotional association with memory, and includes the hippocampus, cingulate cortex, mammillary bodies,
amygdala, fornex and septum.
o Hippocampus Its easy to remember where the hippocampus is because its shaped like a seahorse. The
hippocampus is associated with short and long term memory indexing (moves memories in and out), and is one of
the first parts of the brain affected in Alzheimers. Damage to the hippocampus can cause amnesia, preventing the
formation of new memories (anterograde amnesia), as well as recollection of old ones (retrograde amnesia).
Elderly people with shrinkage of the hippocampus tend to have memory problems (episodic and working memory).
Abnormalities in development of the hippocampus are associated with schizophrenia.

o Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) In PTSD, there is lower activity and fewer neurons in the the anterior
cingulate cortex.

o Amygdala -The amygdala is shaped like an almond, and located on the fatter end of the hippocampus. It is
responsible for emotional processing, and associated with conditioned learning, especially fear/anger/rage.
Dysfunction of the amygdala is linked to anxiety, autism, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias and
binge drinking. PTSD is now being treated with small doses of esctasy (plus counseling). Also see case study
below of Little Albert by John Watson.

o Olfactory bulb Sense of smell, connected to the amygdala, which is why smells are strong sources of
memories.

Parts of the diencephalon

Thalamus The thalamus has 2 lobes, and is responsible for sensory relay in your brain. Essentially, it is the traffic cop
that directs information. It does NOT help with recognition.

Hypothalamus The hypothalamus controls motivated behavior by regulating the release of hormones from the pituitary
gland. It is responsible for the 4 Fs: Fighting, fleeing, feeding and sex.

Pituitary gland Small pea-sized gland of the endocrine system, often called the Master Gland. The pituitary gland
hangs from the hypothalamus.

Pineal gland Small gland of the endocrine system that controls melatonin (a hormone that affects the modulation of
wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions) production thats sometimes referred to as the third eye.

What is the Midbrain?

The human brain

The midbrain is an area of the brain that, as you might have guessed, is in the middle of two other
regions: the forebrain and the hindbrain. The forebrain is the 'front' (fore) brain and is composed of
the cerebral cortex, the area that most people think of as the 'brain'; it's the 'supercomputer' of the
human body. The hindbrain, or 'back' (hind) brain, is composed of the cerebellum and the pons and
medulla oblongata (or medulla, for short) of the brainstem; it is evolutionarily the oldest part of our
brain, controlling primal instincts and automated actions of the body, such as our 'fight or flight'
response and heart rate.

The midbrain, on the other hand, acts most notably as the information superhighway connecting
these two regions. It enables your brain to integrate sensory information from your eyes and ears
with your muscle movements, thereby enabling your body to use this information to make fine
adjustments to your movements..

Structures of the Midbrain

The midbrain is formed by three main structures: the cerebral peduncle (peduncle meaning 'foot' or 'base' of the cerebrum),
the corpora quadrigemina (meaning 'quadruplet bodies' since it has four mound or hill-like structures), and the cerebral aqueduct,
which is a canal dividing the two structures. Now that we know the structures, let's take a moment to look at them individually so we
can get a better understanding of their unique roles.

Cerebral Peduncle

The main function of the cerebral peduncle is to transfer motor signals from the brain down to the brainstem. It's made up of a thick
bundle of nerve fibers, called the corticospinal tracts, which carry motor signals from your brain to your muscles. Don't be fooled,
though; the cerebral peduncle isn't just a 'truck driver,' carrying its 'cargo' of motor signals from one location to another; it also
communicates with the cerebellum and, in doing so, helps to fine tune your motor movements.

What's important to remember is that the cerebellum, while not a portion of the midbrain, does communicate with the cerebral
peduncles through something called the red nucleus. This communication results in the fine-tuning of your motor movements by
way of something called your sense of proprioception. Proprioception is your body's sense of self in the environment, meaning
that, even with a blindfold on, you can sense things like where your hands, arms, and feet are relative to one another or if you're
upside down or right-side up. It's a pretty cool feature, and, in its absence, we would be really clumsy and completely graceless in
our surroundings. If motor signals came straight from our brains, without passing through the 'refining' midbrain, you could say good-
bye to dance competitions because we'd all be really terrible!

In addition to all of this, you have two pair of cranial nerves (cranial nerves 3 and 4) that originate in the cerebral peduncle. Cranial
nerves, unlike spinal nerves, are nerve bundles that exit directly from your brain rather than your spinal cord. These two nerve
bundles both innervate specific muscles of your eyes, anchoring your vision and enabling you to rotate your eyes in their sockets
rather than having to turn your head when you want to look at something.

What is the Hindbrain?

Have you ever heard anyone refer to the 'reptilian' portion of the human brain? If not, you might now have visions of Godzilla
dancing in your head and the funny thing is, you wouldn't be too far off the mark. What the term really refers to is the oldest
(evolutionarily speaking) portion of our brains, which we actually share (structurally) with reptiles. Scientists refer to this 'reptilian'
portion as the hindbrain; in other words, the rear portion of the brain.

The hindbrain is the region of the brain formed by the pons, medulla oblongata (also known as just the medulla), and
the cerebellum. Together, these three structures govern our autonomic, or 'automated' body systems, controlling everything from
our heart, breathing, and sleep patterns to our bladder function, sense of equilibrium, and fine motor control.

Basically, the hindbrain controls all the things that you want to automatically work without having to think about them. Can you
imagine having to remind your heart to beat or consciously adjust your sense of balance? And what if you forgot? For your sense of
balance, you might just become clumsy and trip, but your heart? That one would be a doozy!

Structures of the Hindbrain

As mentioned, the hindbrain is comprised of the pons, medulla, and cerebellar structures of your brain, which together essentially
act as the 'commander in charge' of your automated systems (talk about an important job!). Let's take a moment to explore each of
these structures and their role within the grand scheme of the hindbrain.

The Brainstem

The pons is the first major bulb (or bulge) of a larger structure called the brainstem, which is so named because it literally 'stems'
from the base of the brain and is created by the joined pons and medulla. The pons, being the 'head' of the brainstem, bridges the
brain with the cerebellum, which is actually where its name comes from; 'pons' means 'bridge'. The medulla oblongata forms the
base of the brainstem and is the 'middle' (medulla) oblong (oblongata) bulge between the pons and spinal cord.
The pons and medulla are important because they're the points of origination for eight of our 12 pairs of cranial nerves nerves that
directly exit the cranium rather than the spinal cord. The pons controls cranial nerves 5-8, while the medulla controls 9-12. Just like a
musical conductor unites the efforts of different instrumental sections into one harmonious musical 'body', the pons and the medulla
unite the functions of your cranial nerves into the harmonious functioning of your body.

The pons controls:

Facial sensation and the ability to bite, chew and swallow

Eye rotations away from the center of your body

Facial expressions and facial movements

Transmission of sound from your ears to your brain

Breathing functions such as breath intensity and frequency and

Accessory roles in sleep patterns and your sense of equilibrium and posture

The medulla controls:

Cardiac rate, patterns, and rhythms

Breathing rhythms

Vasometrics (dilation and contraction of blood vessels)

Reflex actions such as coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting


What is ON THE JOB TRAINING (OJT)?

Training provided to inexperienced employees during the initial stages of employment. This is usually delivered by

a professional trainer or an experienced employee, and typically consists of "hands-on" training. If supported by classroom teaching,

the classroom portion is considered "off the job" training.

The Vestibule Training is one of the methods of training, where the technical staff, especially those who deal with the tools and
machinery, are given the job education training in the workplace other than the main production plant.

In other words, the Vestibule training is called, near the job training, which means the simulated setup is established, proximate
to the main production plant, wherein the technical staff learns how to operate the tools and machinery, that may be exactly similar,
to what they will be using at the actual work floor.

There are special trainers or the specialists, who impart this training to the technical staff, thereby reducing the burden on the line
supervisor, who has to supervise the entire production process.

Programmed Instructions a progressively monitored, step-by-step teaching method, employing small units of information or learning
material and frequent testing, whereby the student must complete or pass one stage before moving on to the next.

Computer-assisted instruction (CAI), a program of instructional material presented by means of a computer or computer systems.

Behavior modification refers to the techniques used to try and decrease or increase a particular type of behavior or reaction. This
might sound very technical, but it's used very frequently by all of us. Parents use this to teach their children right from wrong.
Therapists use it to promote healthy behaviors in their patients. Animal trainers use it to develop obedience between a pet and its
owner. We even use it in our relationships with friends and significant others. Our responses to them teach them what we like and
what we don't.

Job rotation involves the movement of employees through a range of jobs in order to increase interest and motivation.
Job rotation can improve "multi-skilling" but also involves the need for greater training.
In a sense, job rotation is similar to job enlargement. This approach widens the activities of a worker by switching him or her around
a range of work.
For example, an administrative employee might spend part of the week looking after the reception area of a business, dealing with
customers and enquiries. Some time might then be spent manning the company telephone switchboard and then inputting data onto
a database.
Job rotation may offer the advantage of making it easier to cover for absent colleagues, but it may also reduce' productivity as
workers are initially unfamiliar with a new task.
A case study is a report about a person, group, or situation that has been studied.[1] If the case study, for instance, is about a group,
it describes the behavior of the group as a whole, not the behavior of each individual in the group.

Simulated work environment in which trainees assume different roles to enact real-life business scenarios.
Computer game that simulates business strategy issues.
Business game (also called business simulation game) refers to simulation games that are used as an educational tool for
teaching business. Business games may be carried out for various business training such as: general management, finance,
organizational behaviour, human resources, etc. Often, the term "business simulation" is used with the same meaning.
A business game has been defined as "a game with a business environment that can lead to one or both of the following results: the
training of players in business skills (hard and/or soft) or the evaluation of players' performances (quantitatively and/or qualitatively)".
[1]

Business games are used as a teaching method in universities, and more particularly in business schools, but also for executive
education.
Simulation are considered to be an innovative learning method (Aldrich 2004), and are often computer-base

An in-basket test or an in-basket exercise is a test used by companies and governments in hiring and promoting employees.
[1]
During the test, job applicants receive a number of mails, telephone calls, documents and memos. They then have a limited
period of time to set priorities, organize their working schedule accordingly and respond to mail and phone calls. [2]

It also helps in acquainting employees about their job where a number of problems are kept in the "in basket "(usually kept on the
desk of the employee). The worker has to look at the problems which could also be complaints from different employees and
simultaneously deal with those problems. As the employee solves these problem, he/she transfers them to the "out-basket".
In basket exercises are often part of Assessment centers that are comprehensive multi-day assessments involving a variety of
simulation exercises and tests, typically used to identify management talent.

Role playing is defined as pretending to be someone else or pretending to be in a specific situation that you are not actually in at the
time.

Sensitivity Training

Sensitivity training is a type of group training that focuses on helping organizational members to develop a better awareness of
group dynamics and their roles in the group. The training often addresses issues such as gender and multicultural sensitivity as well
as sensitivity towards the disabled. The goal of the training is focused on individual growth. Kurt Lewin and Ronald Lippitt originally
developed the technique in the 1940s.

Social learning theory sets forth the premise that people tend to unavoidably learn things they see or experience in a hands-on way.
Behavior modeling in the workplace, a component of social learning theory, is the act of showing employees how to do something
and guiding them through the process of imitating the modeled behavior. Behavior modeling has practical applications for daily work
tasks as well as deeper applications for developing company culture.

The quality of employees and their development through training and education are major factors in determining long-term
profitability of a small business. If you hire and keep good employees, it is good policy to invest in the development of their skills, so
they can increase their productivity.

Training often is considered for new employees only. This is a mistake because ongoing training for current employees helps them
adjust to rapidly changing job requirements.

Purpose of Employee Training and Development Process In HRM Reasons for emphasizing the growth and development of
personnel include.

Creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization.
Enhancing the company's ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff. Building a
more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which enhances the company's competitive position and improves employee
morale. Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs.

Research has shown specific benefits that a small business receives from training and developing its workers, including: Increased
productivity Reduced employee turnover. Increased efficiency resulting in financial gains. Decreased need for supervision.
Employees frequently develop a greater sense of self-worth, dignity and well-being as they become more valuable to the firm and to
society. Generally they will receive a greater share of the material gains that result from their increased productivity. These factors
give them a sense of satisfaction through the achievement of personal and company goals.

Strategic training and development process in hrm. The Training Process The model below traces the steps necessary in the
training process: Organizational Objectives Needs Assessment Is There a Gap? Training Objectives Select the Trainees Select the
Training Methods and Mode Choose a Means of Evaluating Administer Training Evaluate the Training your business should have a
clearly defined strategy and set of objectives that direct and drive all the decisions made especially for training decisions. Firms that
plan their training process are more successful than those that do not. Most business owners want to succeed, but do not engage in
training designs that promise to improve their chances of success. Why? The five reasons most often identified are:

Time - Small businesses managers find that time demands do not allow them to train employees. Getting started - Most small
business managers have not practiced training employees. The training process is unfamiliar. Broad expertise - Managers tend to
have broad expertise rather than the specialized skills needed for training and development activities. Lack of trust and openness -
Many managers prefer to keep information to themselves. By doing so they keep information from subordinates and others who
could be useful in the training and development process. Skepticism as to the value of the training - Some small business owners
believe the future cannot be predicted or controlled and their efforts, therefore, are best centered on current activities i.e., making
money today. A well-conceived training program can help your firm succeed. A program structured with the company's strategy and
objectives in mind has a high probability of improving productivity and other goals that are set in the training mission.

For any business, formulating a training strategy requires addressing a series of questions.

The purpose of formulating a training strategy is to answer two relatively simple but vitally important questions: (1) What is our
business? and 2) What should our business be? Armed with the answers to these questions and a clear vision of its mission,
strategy and objectives, a company can identify its training needs.

Identifying Training Needs Training needs can be assessed by analyzing three major human resource areas: the organization as a
whole, the job characteristics and the needs of the individuals. This analysis will provide answers to the following questions: Where
is training needed? What specifically must an employee learn in order to be more productive? Who needs to be trained? Begin by
assessing the current status of the company how it does what it does best and the abilities of your employees to do these tasks.
This analysis will provide some benchmarks against which the effectiveness of a training program can be evaluated. Your firm
should know where it wants to be in five years from its long-range strategic plan. What you need is a training program to take your
firm from here to there. Second, consider whether the organization is financially committed to supporting the training efforts. If not,
any attempt to develop a solid training program will fail. Next, determine exactly where training is needed. It is foolish to implement a
company-wide training effort without concentrating resources where they are needed most. An internal audit will help point out areas
that may benefit from training. Also, a skills inventory can help determine the skills possessed by the employees in general. This
inventory will help the organization determine what skills are available now and what skills are needed for future development
employee training methods and training techniques

Also, in today's market-driven economy, you would be remiss not to ask your customers what they like about your business and
what areas they think should be improved. In summary, the analysis should focus on the total organization and should tell you (1)
where training is needed and (2) where it will work within the organization. Once you have determined where training is needed,
concentrate on the content of the program. Analyze the characteristics of the job based on its description, the written narrative of
what the employee actually does. Training based on job descriptions should go into detail about how the job is performed on a task-
by-task basis. Actually doing the job will enable you to get a better feel for what is done.

Individual employees can be evaluated by comparing their current skill levels or performance to the organization's performance
standards or anticipated needs. Any discrepancies between actual and anticipated skill levels identifies a training need.

Selection of Trainees

Once you have decided what training is necessary and where it is needed, the next decision is who should be trained? For a small
business, this question is crucial. Training an employee is expensive, especially when he or she leaves your firm for a better job.
Therefore, it is important to carefully select who will be trained.

Training programs should be designed to consider the ability of the employee to learn the material and to use it effectively, and to
make the most efficient use of resources possible. It is also important that employees be motivated by the training experience.
Employee failure in the program is not only damaging to the employee but a waste of money as well. Selecting the right trainees is
important to the success of the program.
Staff training and development program cycle

Training Goals The goals of the employee training program should relate directly to the needs determined by the assessment
process outlined above. Course objectives should clearly state what behavior or skill will be changed as a result of the training and
should relate to the mission and strategic plan of the company. Goals should include milestones to help take the employee from
where he or she is today to where the firm wants him or her in the future. Setting goals helps to evaluate the training program and
also to motivate employees. Allowing employees to participate in setting goals increases the probability of success.

Training Methods There are two broad types of training available to small businesses: on-the-job and off-the-job techniques.
Individual circumstances and the "who," "what" and "why" of your training program determine which method to use.

On-the-job training is delivered to employees while they perform their regular jobs. In this way, they do not lose time while they are
learning. After a plan is developed for what should be taught, employees should be informed of the details. A timetable should be
established with periodic evaluations to inform employees about their progress. On-the-job techniques include orientations, job
instruction training, apprenticeships, internships and assistantships, job rotation and coaching.

Off-the-job techniques include lectures, special study, films, television conferences or discussions, case studies, role playing,
simulation, programmed instruction and laboratory training. Most of these techniques can be used by small businesses although,
some may be too costly.

Orientations are for new employees. The first several days on the job are crucial in the success of new employees. This point is
illustrated by the fact that 60 percent of all employees who quit do so in the first ten days. Orientation training should emphasize the
following topics:

Role playing and simulation are training techniques that attempt to bring realistic decision making situations to the trainee. Likely
problems and alternative solutions are presented for discussion. The adage there is no better trainer than experience is exemplified
with this type of training. Experienced employees can describe real world experiences, and can help in and learn from developing
the solutions to these simulations. This method is cost effective and is used in marketing and management training.

Audiovisual methods such as television, videotapes and films are the most effective means of providing real world conditions and
situations in a short time. One advantage is that the presentation is the same no matter how many times it's played. This is not true
with lectures, which can change as the speaker is changed or can be influenced by outside constraints. The major flaw with the
audiovisual method is that it does not allow for questions and interactions with the speaker, nor does it allow for changes in the
presentation for different audiences.

Job rotation involves moving an employee through a series of jobs so he or she can get a good feel for the tasks that are associated
with different jobs. It is usually used in training for supervisory positions. The employee learns a little about everything. This is a
good strategy for small businesses because of the many jobs an employee may be asked to do.

Apprenticeships develop employees who can do many different tasks. They usually involve several related groups of skills that allow
the apprentice to practice a particular trade, and they take place over a long period of time in which the apprentice works for, and
with, the senior skilled worker. Apprenticeships are especially appropriate for jobs requiring production skills.

Internships and assistantships are usually a combination of classroom and on-the-job training. They are often used to train
prospective managers or marketing personnel.

Programmed learning, computer-aided instruction and interactive video all have one thing in common: they allow the trainee to learn
at his or her own pace. Also, they allow material already learned to be bypassed in favor of material with which a trainee is having
difficulty. After the introductory period, the instructor need not be present, and the trainee can learn as his or her time allows. These
methods sound good, but may be beyond the resources of some small businesses.

Laboratory training is conducted for groups by skilled trainers. It usually is conducted at a neutral site and is used by upper- and
middle management trainees to develop a spirit of teamwork and an increased ability to deal with management and peers. It can be
costly and usually is offered by larger small businesses.

Trainers
Who actually conducts the training depends on the type of training needed and who will be receiving it.

On-the-job training is conducted mostly by supervisors; off-the-job training, by either in-house personnel or outside instructors

In-house training is the daily responsibility of supervisors and employees. Supervisors are ultimately responsible for the productivity
and, therefore, the training of their subordinates. These supervisors should be taught the techniques of good training. They must be
aware of the knowledge and skills necessary to make a productive employee. Trainers should be taught to establish goals and
objectives for their training and to determine how these objectives can be used to influence the productivity of their departments.
They also must be aware of how adults learn and how best to communicate with adults. Small businesses need to develop their
supervisors' training capabilities by sending them to courses on training methods. The investment will pay off in increased
productivity.