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Martha Nussbaum
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Martha Craven Nussbaum (/nsbam/; born May 6,


1947) is an American philosopher and the current Ernst Martha Nussbaum
Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and
Ethics at the University of Chicago, a chair that includes
appointments in the philosophy department and the law
school. She has a particular interest in ancient Greek and
Roman philosophy, political philosophy, feminism, and
ethics, including animal rights.

She also holds associate appointments in classics, divinity


and political science, is a member of the Committee on
Southern Asian Studies, and a board member of the Martha Nussbaum in 2008
Human Rights Program. She previously taught at Harvard Born Martha Craven
and Brown.[1] May 6, 1947
New York City
Nussbaum is the author or editor of a number of books,
including The Fragility of Goodness (1986), Sex and Alma mater New York University
Social Justice (1998), The Sleep of Reason (2002), Hiding Harvard University
From Humanity: Disgust, Shame, and the Law (2004),
and Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Nationality, Species Era 20th-century philosophy
Membership (2006). Region Western Philosophy
School Analytic
Institutions University of Chicago
Contents Brown University
Harvard University
1 Life and career
Main Political philosophy, ethics,
2 Major works interests feminism, liberal theory
2.1 The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and
Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Notable Capability approach
Philosophy ideas
2.2 Cultivating Humanity Influences
2.3 Sex and Social Justice
2.4 Hiding from Humanity
2.5 From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual
Orientation and Constitutional Law
3 Awards and honors
3.1 Honorary degrees
3.2 Awards
4 Selected works
5 See also
6 References
7 External links

Life and career


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Warren, an interior designer and homemaker; during her teenage


years, Nussbaum attended the Baldwin School in Bryn Mawr. She
described her upbringing as "East Coast WASP elite...very sterile,
very preoccupied with money and status".[2] She would later credit
her impatience with "mandarin philosophers" as the "repudiation of
my own aristocratic upbringing. I don't like anything that sets itself
up as an in-group or an elite, whether it is the Bloomsbury group or
Derrida".[3]

She studied theatre and classics at New York University, getting a


BA in 1969, and gradually moved to philosophy while at Harvard
University, where she received an MA in 1972 and a PhD in 1975,
studying under G. E. L. Owen. This period also saw her marriage to
Alan Nussbaum (divorced in 1987), her conversion to Judaism, and
the birth of her daughter Rachel.

Nussbaum's interest in Judaism has continued and deepened: on


August 16, 2008 she became a bat mitzvah in a service at Temple K.
A. M. Isaiah Israel in Chicago's Hyde Park, chanting from the Nussbaum in 2010
Parashah Va-etchanan and the Haftarah Nahamu, and delivering a
D'var Torah about the connection between genuine, non-narcissistic
consolation and the pursuit of global justice.[4]

During her studies at Harvard, Nussbaum claims she encountered a tremendous amount of discrimination,
including sexual harassment, and problems getting childcare for her daughter.[5] When she became the first
woman to hold the Junior Fellowship at Harvard, Nussbaum received a congratulatory note from a
"prestigious classicist" who suggested that since "female fellowess" was an awkward name, she should be
called hetaira, for in Greece these educated courtesans were the only women who participated in
philosophical symposia.[6]

In the 1970s and early 1980 she taught philosophy and classics at Harvard, where she was denied tenure by
the Classics Department in 1982.[3] Nussbaum then moved to Brown University, where she taught until
1994 when she joined the University of Chicago Law School faculty. Her 1986 book The Fragility of
Goodness, on ancient Greek ethics and Greek tragedy, made her a well-known figure throughout the
humanities. More recent work (Frontiers of Justice) establishes Nussbaum as a theorist of global justice.

Nussbaum's work on capabilities has often focused on the unequal freedoms and opportunities of women,
and she has developed a distinctive type of feminism, drawing inspiration from the liberal tradition, but
emphasizing that liberalism, at its best, entails radical rethinking of gender relations and relations within the
family.[7]

Nussbaum's other major area of philosophical work is the emotions. She has defended a neo-Stoic account
of emotions that holds that they are appraisals that ascribe to things and persons, outside the agent's own
control, great significance for the person's own flourishing. On this basis she has proposed analyses of grief,
compassion, and love,[8] and, in a later book, of disgust and shame.[9]

Nussbaum has engaged in many spirited debates with other intellectuals, in her academic writings as well as
in the pages of semi-popular magazines and book reviews and, in one instance, when testifying as an expert
witness in court. She testified in the Colorado bench trial for Romer v. Evans, arguing against the claim that
the history of philosophy provides the state with a "compelling interest" in favor of a law denying gays and
lesbians the right to seek passage of local non-discrimination laws. A portion of this testimony, dealing with
the potential meanings of the term tolmma in Plato's work, was the subject of controversy, and was called
[10][11]
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"Platonic Love and Colorado Law".[12] Nussbaum used multiple references from Plato's Symposium and his
interactions with Socrates as evidence for her argument. The debate continued with a reply by one of her
sternest critics, Robert P. George.[13] Nussbaum has criticized Noam Chomsky as being among the leftist
intellectuals who hold the belief that "one should not criticize ones friends, that solidarity is more important
than ethical correctness". She suggests that one can "trace this line to an old Marxist contempt for bourgeois
ethics, but it is loathsome whatever its provenance".[14] Among the people whose books she has reviewed
critically are Allan Bloom,[15] Harvey Mansfield,[16] and Judith Butler.[17] Her more serious and academic
debates have been with figures such as John Rawls, Richard Posner, and Susan Moller Okin.[18][19][20][21]

Nussbaum is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (elected 1988) and the American
Philosophical Society. In 2008 she was elected a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy. She is a
Founding President and Past President of the Human Development and Capability Association and a Past
President of the American Philosophical Association, Central Division. She won the Kyoto Prize in 2015,
and in 2017 the National Endowment for the Humanities selected Nussbaum to deliver the Jefferson
Lecture, the U.S. federal government's highest honor for achievement in the humanities; her lecture, to be
delivered in May 2017, will be entitled "Powerlessness and the Politics of Blame."[22]

Major works
The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy

The Fragility of Goodness[23] confronts the ethical dilemma that individuals strongly committed to justice
are nevertheless vulnerable to external factors that may deeply compromise or even negate their human
flourishing. Discussing literary as well as philosophical texts, Nussbaum seeks to determine the extent to
which reason may enable self-sufficiency. She eventually rejects the Platonic notion that human goodness
can fully protect against peril, siding with the tragic playwrights and Aristotle in treating the
acknowledgment of vulnerability as a key to realizing the human good.

Her interpretation of Plato's Symposium in particular drew considerable attention. Under Nussbaum's
consciousness of vulnerability, the re-entrance of Alcibiades at the end of the dialogue undermines Diotima's
account of the ladder of love in its ascent to the non-physical realm of the forms. Alcibiades's presence
deflects attention back to physical beauty, sexual passions, and bodily limitations, hence highlighting human
fragility.

Fragility made Nussbaum famous throughout the humanities. It garnered wide praise in academic reviews,
[24][25] and even drew acclaim in the popular media.[26] Camille Paglia credited Fragility with matching "the

highest academic standards" of the twentieth century,[27] and The Times Higher Education called it "a
supremely scholarly work".[28] Nussbaum's fame extended her influence beyond print and into television
programs like PBS's Bill Moyers.[29]

Cultivating Humanity

Cultivating Humanity[30] appeals to classical Greek texts as a basis for defense and reform of the liberal
education. Noting the Greek cynic philosopher Diogenes' aspiration to transcend "local origins and group
memberships" in favor of becoming "a citizen of the world", Nussbaum traces the development of this idea
through the Stoics, Cicero, and eventually modern liberalism of Adam Smith and Immanuel Kant.
Nussbaum champions multiculturalism in the context of ethical universalism, defends scholarly inquiry into
race, gender, and human sexuality, and further develops the role of literature as narrative imagination into
ethical questions.

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Jacques Derrida as "simply not worth studying" and labels his analysis of Chinese culture "pernicious" and
without "evidence of serious study". More broadly, Nussbaum criticized Michel Foucault for his "historical
incompleteness and lack of conceptual clarity", but nevertheless singled him out for providing "the only
truly important work to have entered philosophy under the banner of 'postmodernism.'"[31] Nussbaum is
even more critical of figures like Allan Bloom, Roger Kimball, and George Will for what she considers their
"shaky" knowledge of non-Western cultures and inaccurate caricatures of today's humanities departments.

The New York Times praised Cultivating Humanity as "a passionate, closely argued defense of
multiculturalism" and hailed it as "a formidable, perhaps definitive defense of diversity on American
campuses".[32] Nussbaum was the 2002 recipient of the University of Louisville Grawmeyer Award in
Education.

Sex and Social Justice

Sex and Social Justice sets out to demonstrate that sex and sexuality are morally irrelevant distinctions that
have been artificially enforced as sources of social hierarchy; thus, feminism and social justice have
common concerns. Rebutting anti-universalist objections, Nussbaum proposes functional freedoms, or
central human capabilities, as a rubric of social justice.[33]

Nussbaum discusses at length the feminist critiques of liberalism itself, including the charge advanced by
Alison Jaggar that liberalism demands ethical egoism. Nussbaum notes that liberalism emphasizes respect
for others as individuals, and further argues that Jaggar has elided the distinction between individualism and
self-sufficiency. Nussbaum accepts Catharine MacKinnon's critique of abstract liberalism, assimilating the
salience of history and context of group hierarchy and subordination, but concludes that this appeal is rooted
in liberalism rather than a critique of it.[34]

Nussbaum condemns the practice of female genital mutilation, citing deprivation of normative human
functioning in its risks to health, impact on sexual functioning, violations of dignity, and conditions of
non-autonomy. Emphasizing that female genital mutilation is carried out by brute force, its irreversibility, its
non-consensual nature, and its links to customs of male domination, Nussbaum urges feminists to confront
female genital mutilation as an issue of injustice.[35]

Nussbaum also refines the concept of "objectification", as originally advanced by Catharine MacKinnon and
Andrea Dworkin. Nussbaum defines the idea of treating as an object with seven qualities: instrumentality,
denial of autonomy, inertness, fungibility, violability, ownership, and denial of subjectivity. Her
characterization of pornography as a tool of objectification puts Nussbaum at odds with sex-positive
feminism. At the same time, Nussbaum argues in support of the legalization of prostitution, a position she
reiterated in a 2008 essay following the Spitzer scandal, writing: "The idea that we ought to penalize women
with few choices by removing one of the ones they do have is grotesque."[36]

Sex and Social Justice was lauded by critics in the press. Salon declared: "She shows brilliantly how sex is
used to deny some peoplei.e., women and gay mensocial justice."[37] The New York Times praised the
work as "elegantly written and carefully argued".[38] Kathryn Trevenen praised Nussbaum's effort to shift
feminist concerns toward interconnected transnational efforts, and for explicating a set of universal
guidelines to structure an agenda of social justice.[39] Patrick Hopkins singled out for praise Nussbaum's
"masterful" chapter on sexual objectification.[40] Radical feminist Andrea Dworkin faulted Nussbaum for
"consistent over-intellectualisation of emotion, which has the inevitable consequence of mistaking suffering
for cruelty".[41]

Hiding from Humanity

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including two emotionsshame and disgustas legitimate bases for legal judgments. Nussbaum argues
that individuals tend to repudiate their bodily imperfection or animality through the projection of fears about
contamination. This cognitive response is in itself irrational, because we cannot transcend the animality of
our bodies. Noting how projective disgust has wrongly justified group subordination (mainly of women,
Jews, and homosexuals), Nussbaum ultimately discards disgust as a reliable basis of judgment.

Turning to shame, Nussbaum argues that shame takes too broad a target, attempting to inculcate humiliation
on a scope that is too intrusive and limiting on human freedom. Nussbaum sides with John Stuart Mill in
narrowing legal concern to acts that cause a distinct and assignable harm.

In an interview with Reason magazine, Nussbaum elaborated: "Disgust and shame are inherently
hierarchical; they set up ranks and orders of human beings. They are also inherently connected with
restrictions on liberty in areas of non-harmful conduct. For both of these reasons, I believe, anyone who
cherishes the key democratic values of equality and liberty should be deeply suspicious of the appeal to
those emotions in the context of law and public policy."[43]

Nussbaum's work was received with wide praise. The Boston Globe called her argument "characteristically
lucid" and hailed her as "America's most prominent philosopher of public life".[44] Her reviews in national
newspapers and magazines garnered unanimous praise.[45] In academic circles, Stefanie A. Lindquist of
Vanderbilt University lauded Nussbaum's analysis as a "remarkably wide ranging and nuanced treatise on
the interplay between emotions and law".[46]

A prominent exception was Roger Kimball's review published in The New Criterion,[47] in which he
accused Nussbaum of "fabricating" the renewed prevalence of shame and disgust in public discussions and
says she intends to "undermine the inherited moral wisdom of millennia". He rebukes her for "contempt for
the opinions of ordinary people" and ultimately accuses Nussbaum herself of "hiding from humanity".

Nussbaum has recently drawn on and extended her work on disgust to produce a new analysis of the legal
issues regarding sexual orientation and same-sex conduct. Her book From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual
Orientation and the Constitution was published by Oxford University Press in 2009, as part of their
"Inalienable Rights" series, edited by Geoffrey Stone.[48]

From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation and Constitutional Law

In the 2010 book From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation and Constitutional Law Martha Nussbaum
analyzes the role that disgust plays in law and public debate in the United States.[49] The book primarily
analyzes constitutional legal issues facing gay and lesbian Americans but also analyzes issues such as
anti-miscegenation statutes, segregation, antisemitism and the caste system in India as part of its broader
thesis regarding the "politics of disgust".

Nussbaum posits that the fundamental motivations of those advocating legal restrictions against gay and
lesbian Americans is a "politics of disgust". These legal restrictions include blocking sexual orientation
being protected under anti-discrimination laws (See: Romer v. Evans), sodomy laws against consenting
adults (See: Lawrence v. Texas), constitutional bans against same-sex marriage (See: California Proposition
8 (2008)), over-strict regulation of gay bathhouses, and bans on sex in public parks and public restrooms.[50]
Nussbaum also argues that legal bans on polygamy and certain forms of incestuous (e.g. brother-sister)
marriage partake of the politics of disgust and should be overturned.[51]

She identifies the "politics of disgust" closely with Lord Devlin and his famous opposition to the Wolfenden
report that recommended decriminalizing private consensual homosexual acts on the basis that those things
would "disgust the average man". To Devlin, the mere fact some people or act may produce popular
emotional reactions of disgust provides an appropriate guide for legislating. She also identifies the 'wisdom
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disgust "in crucial cases ... repugnance is the emotional expression of deep wisdom, beyond reason's power
fully to articulate it".

Nussbaum goes on to explicitly oppose the concept of a disgust-based morality as an appropriate guide for
legislating. Nussbaum notes that popular disgust has been used throughout history as a justification for
persecution. Drawing upon her earlier work on the relationship between disgust and shame, Nussbaum notes
that at various times, racism, antisemitism, and sexism, have all been driven by popular revulsion.[52]

In place of this "politics of disgust", Nussbaum argues for the harm principle from John Stuart Mill as the
proper basis for limiting individual liberties. Nussbaum argues the harm principle, which supports the legal
ideas of consent, the age of majority, and privacy, protects citizens while the "politics of disgust" is merely
an unreliable emotional reaction with no inherent wisdom. Furthermore, Nussbaum argues this "politics of
disgust" has denied and continues to deny citizens humanity and equality before the law on no rational
grounds and causes palpable social harms to the groups affected.

From Disgust to Humanity earned acclaim in the United States,[53][54][55][56] and prompted interviews in the
New York Times and other magazines.[57][58] One conservative magazine, The American Spectator, offered a
dissenting view, writing: "[H]er account of the 'politics of disgust' lacks coherence, and 'the politics of
humanity' betrays itself by not treating more sympathetically those opposed to the gay rights movement."
The article also argues that the book is marred by factual errors and inconsistencies.[59]

Awards and honors


Honorary degrees

She has 56 honorary degrees from colleges and universities in North America, Latin America, Europe,
Africa and Asia, including from:[60][61][62]

Knox College (Illinois)


Mount Holyoke College
Wabash College
Emory University
Grinnell College
Kenyon College
Williams College
Colgate University
Bucknell University
The College of William and Mary
Lawrence University
The University of St Andrews (Scotland)
The University of Edinburgh (Scotland)
The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)
The University of Toronto (Canada)
The University for Humanistic Studies (Netherlands)
The cole Normale Suprieure (Paris, France)
The New School University (New York City)
The University of Haifa (Israel)
The Ohio State University
The University of North Carolina at Asheville
Bielefeld University (Germany)
Georgetown University (Washington, D.C.)
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The Institute of Social Studies (ISS) awarded its honorary doctorate to her in 2006
Queens University Belfast (Northern Ireland)
Simon Fraser University (Canada)
The University of the Free State (South Africa)
Pontifical Catholic University of Peru
University of Antioquia

Awards

1990: Brandeis Creative Arts Award in Non-Fiction


1991: PEN/Diamonstein-Spielvogel Award for the Art of the Essay for Love's Knowledge
1998: Ness Book Award of the Association of American Colleges and Universities (Cultivating
Humanity)
2000: Book award of the North American Society for Social Philosophy (Sex and Social Justice)
2002: University of Louisville Grawemeyer Award in Education (Cultivating Humanity)
2003: Barnard College Medal of Distinction
2004: Association of American University Publishers Professional and Scholarly Book Award for
Law (Hiding From Humanity)
2005: listed among the world's Top 100 intellectuals by Foreign Policy (as well as in 2008 and
2010)[63] and Prospect magazines.[64]
2007: Radcliffe Alumnae Recognition Award
2009: American Philosophical Society's Henry M. Phillips Prize in Jurisprudence.[65]
2009: Arts and Sciences Advocacy Award from the Council of Colleges of Arts and Sciences (CCAS).
CCAS bestows this award upon an individual or organization demonstrating exemplary advocacy for
the arts and sciences, flowing from a deep commitment to the intrinsic worth of liberal arts
education.[66]
2010: Centennial Medal of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University
2012: Prince of Asturias Award for Social Sciences
2014: John Locke Lectures at Oxford University.
2015: Premio Nonino, Italy
2015: Inamori Ethics Prize[67]
2016: Kyoto Prize in Philosophy, Japan[68]
2017: Jefferson Lecture[22]

Selected works
Nussbaum, Martha (translator); Aristotle (author) (1985). Aristotle's de motu animalium: text with
translation, commentary, and interpretive essays. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.
ISBN 9780691020358.
Nussbaum, Martha (1990). Love's knowledge: essays on philosophy and literature. New York: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 9780195074857.
Nussbaum, Martha; Oksenberg Rorty, Amelie (1992). Essays on Aristotle's De anima. Oxford
England: Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780198236009.
Nussbaum, Martha; Sen, Amartya (1993). The quality of life. Oxford England New York: Clarendon
Press Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198287971.
Nussbaum, Martha (1995). Poetic justice: the literary imagination and public life. Boston,
Massachusetts: Beacon Press. ISBN 9780807041093.
Nussbaum, Martha; Glover, Jonathan (1995). Women, culture, and development: a study of human
capabilities. Oxford New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198289647.
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Press. ISBN 9780807043134.


Nussbaum, Martha (1997). Cultivating humanity: a classical defense of reform in liberal education.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674179493.
Nussbaum, Martha (1998). Plato's 'Republic': the good society and the deformation of desire.
Washington: Library of Congress. ISBN 9780844409511.
Nussbaum, Martha C.; Sunstein, Cass R. (1999). Clones and clones: Facts and fantasies about human
cloning. New York London: W.W. Norton. ISBN 9780393320015.
Nussbaum, Martha; Okin, Susan Moller; Cohen, Joshua; Howard, Matthew (1999). Is
multiculturalism bad for women?. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
ISBN 9780691004327. Originally an essay (pdf). (https://www.amherst.edu/media/view/88038
/original/Susan%2BMoller%2BOkin.pdf)
Nussbaum, Martha (2000). Sex & social justice. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 9780195112108.
Nussbaum, Martha (2000). Women and human development: the capabilities approach. Cambridge
New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521003858.
Nussbaum, Martha (2001). The fragility of goodness: luck and ethics in Greek tragedy and philosophy
(second ed.). Cambridge, U.K. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521791267.
Nussbaum, Martha (2001). Upheavals of thought: the intelligence of emotions. Cambridge New York:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521531825.
Nussbaum, Martha; Sihvola, Juha (2002). The sleep of reason: erotic experience and sexual ethics in
ancient Greece and Rome. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226609157.
Nussbaum, Martha; Basu, Amriyta; Tambiah, Yasmin; Jayal, Naraja Gopal (2003). Essays on gender
and governance (PDF). India: Macmillan for the United Nations Development Programme.
OCLC 608384493.
Nussbaum, Martha; Sunstein, Cass R. (2004). Animal rights: current debates and new directions.
Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195305104.
Nussbaum, Martha (2004). Hiding from humanity disgust, shame, and the law. Princeton: Princeton
University Press. ISBN 9780691126258.

Translated into Spanish as Nussbaum, Martha (2006). El ocultamiento de lo humano:


repugnancia, vergenza y ley (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Katz Editores. ISBN 9788460983545.

Nussbaum, Martha (2004), "The future of feminist liberalism", in Baehr, Amy R., Varieties of feminist
liberalism, Lanham, Maryland Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, ISBN 9780742512030.
Nussbaum, Martha C. (2005), "Women and cultural universals", in Cudd, Ann E.; Andreasen, Robin
O., Feminist theory: a philosophical anthology, Oxford, UK Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell
Publishing, pp. 302324, ISBN 9781405116619.
Nussbaum, Martha c. (2005), "Women's education: a global challenge", in Friedman, Marilyn, Women
and citizenship, Studies in Feminist Philosophy, Oxford New York: Oxford University Press,
pp. 188214, ISBN 9780195175356.
Nussbaum, Martha (2006). Frontiers of justice: disability, nationality, species membership.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674024106.
Nussbaum, Martha (2006), " "Whether from Reason or Prejudice": taking money for bodily services",
in Spector, Jessica, Prostitution and pornography: philosophical debate about the sex industry,
Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 175208, ISBN 9780804749381.
Nussbaum, Martha (2007). The clash within democracy, religious violence, and India's future.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674030596.
reviewed in Mishra, Pankaj (June 28, 2007). "Impasse in India". The New York Review of Books 54/11.
pp. 4851. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
Nussbaum, Martha (2008). Liberty of conscience: in defense of America's tradition of religious
equality. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 9780465018536.
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Nussbaum, Martha C. (Summer 2008). "Robin West, "Jurisprudence and Gender": defending a radical
liberalism". University of Chicago Law Review. University of Chicago Law School. 75 (3): 985996.
JSTOR 20141934. Pdf. (https://lawreview.uchicago.edu/sites/lawreview.uchicago.edu/files/uploads
/75.3/75_3_Nussbaum.pdf)

See also: West, Robin (Winter 1988). "Jurisprudence and gender". University of Chicago Law
Review. University of Chicago Law School. 55 (1): 172. doi:10.2307/1599769.
JSTOR 1599769. Pdf. (http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu
/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1642&context=facpub)

Nussbaum, Martha (2009). The therapy of desire: theory and practice in Hellenistic ethics: with a new
introduction by the author (second ed.). Woodstock Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University
Press. ISBN 9780691141312.
Nussbaum, Martha C. (2009), "The clash within: democracy and the Hindu right", in Kanbur, Ravi;
Basu, Kaushik, Arguments for a better world: essays in honor of Amartya Sen | Volume II: Society,
institutions and development, Oxford New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 503521,
ISBN 9780199239979.
Nussbaum, Martha (2010). From disgust to humanity: sexual orientation and constitutional law.
Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195305319.
Nussbaum, Martha (2010). Not for profit: why democracy needs the humanities. Princeton, N.J:
Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691140643.

Translated into Spanish as Nussbaum, Martha (2010). Sin fines de lucro: por qu la democracia
necesita de las humanidades. Madrid: Katz. ISBN 9788492946174.
Translated into Greek as ,
(http://kritiki.gr/product/ochi-gia-to-kerdos/) Nussbaum Martha
Translated into Russian as , (2015). :
. : . ISBN 9785759811015.

Nussbaum, Martha (2011). Creating capabilities: the human development approach. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674050549.
Nussbaum, Martha (2012). Philosophical interventions: book reviews, 1986-2011. New York: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 9780199777853.
Nussbaum, Martha (2012). The new religious intolerance: overcoming the politics of fear in an
anxious age. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
ISBN 9780674725911.
Nussbaum, Martha (2013). Political emotions: why love matters for justice. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674724655.
Nussbaum, Martha (2016). Anger and Forgiveness: Resentment, Generosity, Justice. New York, N.Y.:
Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199335879.
Brooks, Thom; Nussbaum, Martha C., eds. (2015). Rawls's Political Liberalism. New York, NY:
Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231149709.

See also
American philosophy
List of American philosophers
List of female philosophers
Theobald, Alice (June 22, 2014). "Interview with Professor Martha Nussbaum". blue-stocking.

References
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Martha Nussbaum - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martha_Nussbaum

1. "Martha Nussbaum" (http://www.law.uchicago.edu/faculty/nussbaum/), University of Chicago, accessed June 5,


2012.
2. McLemee, Scott. The Chronicle of Higher Education. "What Makes Martha Nussbaum Run?"
(http://chronicle.com/free/v48/i06/06a01401.htm)
3. Boynton, Robert S. The New York Times Magazine. Who Needs Philosophy? A Profile of Martha Nussbaum
(http://www.robertboynton.com/articleDisplay.php?article_id=55)
4. "The Mourner's Hope: Grief and the Foundations of Justice", The Boston Review, November/December 2008.,
18-20.
5. "Conversation with Martha C. Nussbaum, p. 1 of 6". berkeley.edu.
6. Nussbaum, Martha C. Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education. Cambridge,
MA: Cambridge University Press, 1997. pp. 6-7.
7. Nussbaum, Martha. Women and Human Development. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
8. Nussbaum, Martha C. Poetic Justice: Literary Imagination and Public Life. Boston: Beacon Press, 1995.
9. Nussbaum, Martha C. Hiding from Humanity: Shame, Disgust, and the Law. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University
Press, 2004.
10. The Stand (http://linguafranca.mirror.theinfo.org/9609/stand.html) by Daniel Mendelsohn, from Lingua Franca
September 1996.
11. Who Needs Philosophy?: A profile of Martha Nussbaum (http://www.robertboynton.com
/articleDisplay.php?article_id=55) by Robert Boynton from The New York Times Magazine, November 21, 1999
12. Martha C. Nussbaum. "Platonic Love and Colorado Law: The Relevance of Ancient Greek Norms to Modern
Sexual Controversies" (http://www.jstor.org/pss/1073514), Virginia Law Review, Vol. 80, No. 7 (Oct. 1994), pp.
1515-1651.
13. George, Robert P. '"Shameless Acts" Revisited: Some Questions for Martha Nussbaum', Academic Questions 9
(Winter 1995-96), 24-42.
14. Martha C. Nussbaum (Spring 2008). "Violence on the Left". Dissent.
15. Martha C. Nussbaum, Undemocratic Vistas (http://www.nybooks.com/articles/1987/11/05/undemocratic-vistas/),
New York Review of Books, Volume 34, Number 17; November 5, 1987.
16. Martha C. Nussbaum, Man Overboard (http://www.powells.com/review/2006_06_22), New Republic, June 22,
2006.
17. Martha Nussbaum, The Professor of Parody, The New Republic, 1999-02-22; Copy (http://www.akad.se
/Nussbaum.pdf) Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20070803112258/http://www.akad.se/Nussbaum.pdf)
August 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
18. What Makes Martha Nussbaum Run? (http://chronicle.com/free/v48/i06/06a01401.htm#highlights) (2001,
Includes a timeline of her career, books and related controversies to that time.)
19. Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism (http://www.soci.niu.edu/~phildept/Kapitan/nussbaum1.html) a 1994 essay
20. The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future, audio and video recording
(http://chiasmos.uchicago.edu/events/nussbaum.shtml) from the World Beyond the Headline Series
(http://internationalstudies.uchicago.edu/wbh.shtml)
21. David Gordon, Cultivating Humanity, Martha Nussbaum and What Tower? What Babel? (https://www.mises.org
/misesreview_detail.aspx?control=42&sortorder=issue), Mises Review, Winter 1997
22. "Martha Nussbaum Named Jefferson Lecturer" (https://www.insidehighered.com/quicktakes/2017/01/19/martha-
nussbaum-named-jefferson-lecturer), Inside Higher Ed, January 19, 2017.
23. Nussbaum, Martha C. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. New York:
Cambridge University Press, 1986.
24. Barnes, Hazel E. Comparative Literature, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Winter, 1988), pp. 76-77
25. Woodruff, Paul B. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 50, No. 1 (Sep. 1989), pp. 205-210
26. Knox, Bernard. "The Theater of Ethics". The New York Review of Books (http://www.nybooks.com/articles
/article-preview?article_id=4941)
27. Paglia, Camille. Sex, Art, & American Culture. NY: Vintage Books, 1991. pp. 206
28. Hodges, Lucy. And you may ask yourself... (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=95200&
sectioncode=26)
29. NOW with Bill Moyers (http://www.shoppbs.org/sm-pbs-applying-the-lessons-of-ancient-greece-martha-
nussbaum-dvd--pi-2407861.html/)
30. Nussbaum, Martha C. Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education. Cambridge,
MA: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
31. Nussbaum, Martha C. Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education. Cambridge,
MA: Cambridge University Press, 1997. p.40
32. Shapiro, James. Beyond the Culture Wars. The New York Times (https://query.nytimes.com
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33. Nussbaum, Martha C. Sex & Social Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. pp. 29-47.
34. Nussbaum, Martha C. Sex & Social Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. pp. 55-80.
35. Nussbaum, Martha C. Sex & Social Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. pp. 118-130.
36. Martha Nussbaum, "Trading on America's (http://www.ajc.com/search/content/opinion/2008/03
/13/spitzered_0314.html) puritanical streak", The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, March 14, 2008
37. Maria Russo. "Rescuing the Feminist Book". salon.com.
38. "Cultural Perversions" (https://www.nytimes.com/books/99/03/14/reviews/990314.14ryanlt.html?scp=5&
sq=martha%20nussbaum&st=cse)
39. Trevenen, Kathryn. "Global Feminism and the 'Problem' of Culture". Theory & Event 5.1 (2001).
40. Hopkins, Patrick D. "Sex and Social Justice". Hypatia 17.2 (2002): 171-173.
41. Dworkin, Andrea R. "Rape is not just another word for suffering". Times Higher Education. August 4, 2000.
42. Nussbaum, Martha C. Hiding from Humanity: Disgust, Shame, and the Law. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University
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43. "Discussing Disgust". Reason.com.
44. Wilson, John. You Stink therefore I am.The Boston Globe (http://www.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles
/2004/05/02/you_stink_therefore_i_am/?page=2/)
45. "Philosopher warns us against using shame as punishment / Guilt can be creative, but the blame game is
dangerous". SFGate.
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/shame.htm)
48. "From Disgust to Humanity". oup.com.
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Law" (2010)
50. For the last two, see Martha Nussbaum, From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation and Constitutional Law.
Oxford University Press, 2010, 198-199.
51. Nussbaum, From Disgust to Humanity, 154-155.
52. Nussbaum, Martha C. (August 6, 2004). "Danger to Human Dignity: The Revival of Disgust and Shame in the
Law". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington, DC. Retrieved 2007-11-24.
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55. "Let's Be Rational About Sex". The American Prospect.
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/RVK51CG7JK.DTL&type=gaylesbian#ixzz0j13iukEO)
57. "Gross National Politics" (https://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/13/magazine/13FOB-Q4-t.html)
58. "Back Talk: Martha C. Nussbaum". The Nation.
59. "The Politics of Humanity". The American Spectator.
60. "Martha Nussbaum". uchicago.edu.
61. "Martha Nussbaum: Liberal Education Crucial to Producing Democratic Societies". lawrence.edu.
62. "Martha Nussbaum".
63. Foreign Policy: The Top 100 Public Intellectuals (http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=4262)
64. "The Prospect/FP Global public intellectuals poll results". Prospect. Archived from the original on
2008-01-22. Retrieved 2008-02-09.
65. anonymous. "Nussbaum Receives Prestigious Prize for Law and Philosophy". uchicago.edu.
66. "Arts & Sciences Advocacy Award - Council of Colleges of Arts and Sciences". www.ccas.net. Retrieved
2016-05-02.
67. "2015 Recipient - University Events - Case Western Reserve University". case.edu.
68. Kyoto Prize 2016 (http://www.kyotoprize.org/en/laureates/latest/)

External links
University of Chicago biography
Wikimedia Commons has
(http://www.law.uchicago.edu/faculty/nussbaum/) media related to Martha
Nussbaum's University of Chicago faculty website Nussbaum.
(http://philosophy.uchicago.edu/faculty/nussbaum.html)
Nussbaum
Citavi hat 61 Titelbibliographies (http://www.londonmet.ac.uk/help/search.cfm?qt=Nussbaum&x=6&y=3)
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Works by or about Martha Nussbaum (https://worldcat.org/identities/lccn-n78-28978) in libraries


(WorldCat catalog)
Martha Nussbaum (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm2257106/) at the Internet Movie Database
Q&A with Martha Nussbaum (https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2007/oct
/27/weekend7.weekend) from The Guardian
'Creating capabilities' Nussbaum interviewed (http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b012r6vg) by
Laurie Taylor on BBC Radio 4, July 2011
Appearances (http://www.c-span.org/person/?marthanussbaum) on C-SPAN
In Depth interview with Nussbaum, June 6, 2010 (http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/Nus) on
C-SPAN
Nussbaum on Islamic liberalism under fire in India (http://bostonreview.net/BR34.2/nussbaum.php) in
the Boston Review
Profile (http://www.iss.nl/About-ISS/History/Honorary-Fellows) at the International Institute of Social
Studies

Educational offices
President of the Human Development
Preceded by Succeeded by
and Capability Association
Amartya Sen Frances Stewart
September 2006 September 2008

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Martha_Nussbaum&oldid=768246300"

Categories: 1947 births Living people 20th-century American writers 20th-century philosophers
20th-century women writers 21st-century American writers 21st-century philosophers
21st-century women writers American feminist writers American philosophers
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Grawemeyer Award winners Guggenheim Fellows Harvard University alumni
Harvard University faculty Jewish American academics Jewish feminists Jewish philosophers
Moral psychology New York University alumni PEN/Diamonstein-Spielvogel Award winners
People from New York City American scholars of ancient Greek philosophy
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Women religious writers Writers about Hindu nationalism

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