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Amity University Madhya Pradesh Gwalior

Mechanical & Automation Engineering

Refrigeration
&
Air Conditioning

[Lab Manual]
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Lab

Experiment list:-

1. Study of refrigeration testing.


2. Study of Air-Conditioning testing.
3. To calculate the COP of Refrigerator.
4. Study of effect of superheating.
5. To calculate the efficiency of Compressor.
6. To calculate total Heat Load for Air-Conditioning unit.

7. To calculate the COP of Heat Pump.

Experiment No.1

Object: - Study of refrigeration testing.


Prior Knowledge: - Different types of refrigerants, thermodynamic processes and
working of VCC.
Description:- The refrigeration test rig works on vapour compression cycle. The
basic components of VCC are
1. Compressor
2. Condenser
3. Expansion device

4. Evaporator.

Specifications:-
1. Compressor: Hermetically sealed type Kirloskar makes CAL-34.
2. Condenser: Air-cooled condenser with fins and cooling fan.
3. Expansion Device: 1.Thermostatic expansion valve
2. Capillary tube.
4. Evaporator: The evaporator coil is installed in the water tank. The tank is
insulated.
5. Rota meter: Eureka make, range 0.32 to 3.2 kg. Calibrated for R12.
6. Energy meter: One each for power supply to the compressor and evaporator
heater with energy meter constant of -------R/kwh ---------R/kwh respectively.
7. Dimmerstat: To control power supply to the heater.
8. Solenoid valve: Solenoid valve 3/8 size Gaurav makes.
9. Pressure Gauges: circuit.
10. Electric Heater: 1kw kept in evaporator tank.
11. Thermo wells: For the measurement of temperature at various points in the
Circuit.
12. Dial Thermometer: To measure temperature in the evaporator.
13. HP & LP cutouts: Danfoss make, safety device suitable for the low and high
Pressure of compressor.
14. Agitator motor: 1/35 HP AVE makes for water.
15. Ammeter: For measure of current ( )
16. Volt meter: For measurement voltage ( )
17. Filter Drier: 1 No. 1/4 size Danfoss.

18. Hand shut off valve: To maintain desired path for circulation of refrigerant
through the circuit hand shut off valves are used.
19. Switches: For various controls. The refrigeration circuit is mounted on a board.
The unit is supported on a frame.

Test Procedure:-
i) Procedure For Starting The Test Rig:-
Ensure that sufficient amount of water is there in the evaporator tank.
i) Put ON the main switch.
ii) Put ON the air condenser fan and run it for 2-3 minutes.
iii) Then put ON compressor switch.

ii) Procedure for Conduct of Trial:-


Connect the two plugs to mains. Before putting ON the supply, confirm that all
the switches on panel are in OFF position. See that the dimmerstat is at zero
position. Then put on the heater switch and give power to heater. This will heat the
water in evaporator and this can be seen on dial thermometer. Adjust the heater
voltage such that the temperature on dial thermometer reading reaches to 25 to
300C.
Now put ON the main switch, put ON the condenser fan switch and wait for 2-3
minutes. Now put ON the solenoid valve and compressor switch. The refrigerant
flow will start. This can be confirmed on the rotameter. Now the ammeter,
voltmeter will show the current and voltage, for 10 revolutions of energy meter for
compressor. After some time we will see that the temperature of water in the
evaporator slowly goes down and reaches steady state (adjust this temperature at
28 to 300C).

iii) Conducting Trials and Measured Reading:-


After steady state note down the readings as follows:
1. Condenser pressure (HP): ________________kg/cm2
2. Evaporator pressure (LP): ________________Kg/cm2
3. Rota meter reading: _____________________LPH.
4. Condenser inlet tempt. (Tci): ______________0C
5. Condenser outlet tempt.(Tco) : _____________0C
6. Evaporator inlet tempt.(Tei) : ______________0C
7. Evaporator outlet tempt.(Teo): ______________0C

8. Time for 10 revolutions of Compressor Energy meter: _____________sec.


9. Time for 10 revolutions of Heater energy meter: __________________sec.
10. Ammeter reading: ________________amp
11. Voltmeter reading: ________________volt
12. Evaporator bath tempt: ____________0C
(25 to 280)

Fig. (ph) diagram: -


Plot the operating cycle on p-h chart
Calculations:-
With the help of temperature and pressure readings draw the refrigeration cycle on
p-h chart.
1. Compressor power (Wact) = rev x 3600 t x (EMC)
2. Heater power (Whact) = rev x 3600 t x (EMC)
3. COP (Actual) = Power consumed by heater Power consumed by
compressor = Whact Wcact.
4. Theoretical Cop = Heo - Hei
Hci - Heo
Where,
heo = Enthalpy of refrigerant at outlet of evaporator
hco = hei Enthalpy of refrigerant at outlet of compressor.
hci = Enthalpy refrigerant at inlet to evaporator.

NOTE: These values can be calculated with the help of ph diagram.


5. Carnot Cop = TL__TH TL
Where,
TH : Saturation tempt. Corresponding to condenser pressure.
TL : Saturation tempt. Corresponding to evaporator pressure.

6. Relative COP: Actual Cop


Theoretical Cop

Conclusion:-
The actual cop is less than the theoretical due to the losses at different points and
also the errors made while measurement of pressures and temperature.

Experiment No.2

Object: - Study of Air-Conditioning testing.


Prior Knowledge: - Basic concepts of refrigeration and various equipments used
in refrigeration cycle. Use of refrigeration in context air conditioning.

Description: - Previously the air conditioning for human comfort was considered
luxury in most of the countries but now days it is a necessity. Therefore air
conditioning industry is growing fastly throughout the world. Due to increase in
population and industrialization the uncomforted may be due to the inadequate
supply of oxygen or unbearable temperature.
Full air conditioning does the automatic control of an atmospheric environment
either for comfort of human being or animals or for the proper performance of
some industrial or scientific processes. The purpose of air conditioning is to supply
sufficient volume of clean air containing a specific amount of water vapour and at
a temperature capable of maintaining predetermined atmospheric conditions. In
brief the air conditioning the space signifies.

1. Temperature Control: You can enjoy a perfect constant temperature because of


the control of not only cooling but also heating.
2. Humidity Control: The room can be humidified or dehumidified.
3. Air Filtering, Cleaning and Purification: The room is cleaned by removing
dust and dirt from the air.
4. Air movement and Circulation: Air which is cleaned and controlled in
temperature and humidity is distributed throughout the room. As a result, room
air can be maintained evenly.

Experimental Set-Up:- The equipment consists of a hermetically sealed


compressor, air cooled condenser, blower for air circulation through a duct
mounted on a frame, an evaporator is placed in the duct, and also there are heaters
of suitable capacity in the duct.
The refrigerant used in the system is R22. The mass flow rate of air through duct
can be varied by arrangement provided on the blower unit. The humidity of air is
increased by introducing steam generated in small boiler. The relative humidity of
air at inlet and outlet can be measured by noting dry / wet bulb temperatures. The
duct is insulated from outside to avoid heat loss.
The control panel consists of switches, voltmeter, ammeter etc. as well as energy
meter for measuring the power consumption of compressor. The refrigeration
circuit and duct are mounted on a fabricated frame.

Specifications:-
a) Compressor: Hermetically sealed type, Kirloskar make CAT 2425
b) Condenser: Air cooled type, cooling fan driven by motor (1/10 HP) which is
13 x 12 x 3 row.
c) Rota meter: Eureka make, range 6.1-61 LPH, calibrated for R22
d) Thermostatic Expansion valve: Danfos make no
e) Evaporator: Evaporator fitted in the duct size 10 x 10 x 3 row.
f) Blower unit: To force air through the duct 1HP 3 phase motor.
g) Heater fitted in the duct after the evaporator: 2kw
h) Steam generator to generate steam with suitable piping for introducing steam
in the duct- 8 litre capacity, with 2 kw heater.
i) Pressure gauges for measurement of pressures.
j) HP & LP cutouts:
k) Energy meter for compressor with EMC ______ R/kwh.
Test Procedure: - The demonstration of the following processes can be done on
the test rig.
1. Cooling process.
2. Heating process.
3. Cooling with dehumidification process.
4. Heating with humidification Process.

1. Cooling Process:- (Sensible cooling)


It is cooling without subtraction of moisture is termed as sensible cooling. The
cooling can be achieved by parsing the air over cooling coil like evaporating coil
of refrigeration cycle.
2. Heating Process:-
Heating of air without addition of moisture is termed sensible heating. The heating
can be achieved by passing air over heater in the duct.
The process is represented as below:
3. Cooling With Dehumidification:-
In this process cooling along with humidification is carried out it is represented as
below.
4. Heating with Humidification:-
It is represented as given below.

Procedure: - for starting the test rig.


Put ON the air condenser fan and run it for 2-3 minutes.
1. Then start blower with suction full open.
2. Now put ON the compressor switch, so that refrigeration cycle may produce
refrigeration effect.
3. Run the plant for achieving steady temperature at condenser and Evaporator.
4. Measure the air velocity in the duct by using anemometer.
5. Note down the following observations.

Conducting trials and measured reading:-

1. Condenser pressure = _____________kg/cm2


2. Evaporator pressure = _____________kg/cm2
3. a) Temperature of gas at inlet to condenser Tc1 = _____________0C
b) Temperature of gas at outlet to condenser Tco = ____________0C
c) Temperature of gas at inlet to evaporator Tei = ____________0C
d) Temperature of gas at outlet = to evaporator Teo = __________0C

4) a) Refrigerant flow rate = ___________LPH.


b) Dry bulb temperature of inlet air DBT1 = ___________0C
c) Wet bulb temperature of inlet air WBT1 = ____________0C
d) Dry bulb temp. After evaporator DBT2 = ____________0C
e) Wet bulb temp. After evaporator WBT2 = ___________0C
5) Time for 10 revolutions of energy meter = ____________sec.
6) Air velocity in duct = ____________m/sec
7) Voltmeter reading = ____________volts
8) Ammeter reading = _____________Amp.
NOTE: Another set of reading can be achieved by changing the air velocity in the
duct. This can be done by adjusting the flapper position of air inlet to blower and
take all the readings. Represent all the processes on psychometric chart.
Calculations:-
1. Theoretical COP = Heo Hei (Hco = Hei)
Hcl - Heo
2. Actual COP = Refrigeration effect produced Work done
3. Refrigeration effect produced = Ma x (h1 h2).
4. Mass of air (ma) = density x volume of air
5. h1 and h2 can be calculated from psychometric chart

6. Work done by compressor = rev x 3600 watt. T x EMC


5. Relative COP = Actual COP

Theoretical COP
6. Carnot COP = TL
TH TL
TH = Saturation temperature of condenser pressure in o K
TL = Saturation temperature of evaporator pressure in o K

Conclusion:-
With the help of lab work we can verify different psychometric processes and we
can study performance of refrigeration system.

Experiment No.3

Object: - To calculate the COP of Refrigerator.


Apparatus required: - Refrigeration Test Rig, Stop watch
Specifications: -Please refer Manufacturers manual

Prerequisites:-

1. What is refrigeration? Explain cycle on which it works.


2. Explain functions of parts of refrigerator
3. Explain the refrigeration by vapor compression
4. What is Solenoid valve
5. What is Capillary tube?
6. What is COP? Compare it with efficiency
7. Explain vapor absorption refrigeration system

Procedure; -

1. Fill the chiller tank with 12 litres of water at NTP


2. Switch on the main supply
3. Open the Solenoid valve and close the Capillary bypass valve
4. Switch on the fan and compressor by operating thermostat valve
5. Wait for about 30-60min
6. Note down Rotameter reading
7. Note down energy meter reading (for both fan and compressor)
8. Note down thermocouple reading
9. Note down inlet and outlet pressure
10.Tabulate the readings
Operational Instructions:-

Before starting the units please observe and note the following points:

a. All the hand shut of valves should be opened except charging line valve
which should not be touched.
b. P1/ P2 indicate suction and discharge pressure in the gauges,
c. Provide a single-phase 15 amps 3-pin socket power supply close to the unit.
d. Keep main SV, TH switches in off position
e. Now put the main switch on
f. Decide which system you are going to use first. For (a) solenoid valve (SV)
with thermostat expansion valve (TEV) closes any one capillary operated valve.

NOTE: Only one system of expansion can be used at a time. ON solenoid valve,
if (a) is selected light will be ON if (b) is selected OFF solenoid valve.
Thermostat ON T.H light ON

(Rotate thermostat in clockwise direction to start compressor, in an anti clockwise


direction to stop the compressor)

Test Reading:-

Duration of Test = 30 minutes

P1- Suction pressure to the compressor = PSI

P2- Discharge pressure out from compressor = PSI

T1-Temp of vapour refrigerant inlet to compressor = C

T2-Temp of vapour refrigerant out let from compressor = C

T3- Temp of liquid refrigerant out let from condenser = C

T4 - Temp of liquid refrigerant out let from expansion device = C

Discharge of the Refrigerant = LPH

Energy meter constant = rev/Kwh

Time taken for 10 revolution = sec

Mass of water taken in the chiller = kg


Initial water temperature = C

Final water temperature = C

Time taken for drop in = 30 min (1800 sec)


initial to final temperature Drop in water temperature = C

Calculations:-
No. Of e/m rev x 3600
1. Power Input to Compressor = = KW
Time taken for no. Of e/m rev x E/m constant

Mw x cp x T
2. Refrigeration effect (Q) = = kw
Time taken for drop in initial to final temperature

Mw = Mass of Water in Chiller

Cp = Specific Heat of Water (4.1868 KJ/kg C)

T = Drop in water temperature

Refrigeration effect
3. C.O.P. actual =
Work done by the compressor

Theoretical C.O.P:- Locate 1, 2, 3, 4 on P. h chart for R 12/134a using (P 1 T1),


(P2 T2 ) T3 and T4 read specific enthalpy values at 1,2,3 and 4.

h1 = kj/kg
h2 = kj/kg
h3 = kj/kg
h4 = kj/kg

h1 - h4
Theoretical C.O.P
h2 - h1

Results and discussions:

Experiment No.4

Object: - Study of effect of superheating.


What Is Superheating?

After liquid refrigerant enters an evaporator, it is normally entirely vaporized


before it arrives at the outlet of evaporator. The liquid is vaporized at low
temperature, while the vapor is cold after the liquid has been totally evaporated. As
the cold vapor flows though the evaporator, it continues to absorb heat, and
becomes superheated. As the vapor becomes superheated, it absorbs sensible heat
in the evaporator. Thus, the effect of refrigeration for every pound of refrigerant is
enhanced. Refrigerant absorbs not only the heat required to vaporize it, but also an
extra quantity of sensible heat, due to which it is superheated

Effect of Superheating

Superheating is the sensible heating of refrigerant vapor at invariable pressure in


the evaporator to a temperature more than the temperature of saturation
corresponding to the evaporator pressure. Though the effect of refrigeration is
increased by superheating, the density of vapor which quits the evaporator and
enters the compressor is reduced. Consequently, the quantity of vapor which enters
the compressor is decreased by superheating. Thus we see that the capacity of the
system of refrigeration increases with superheating of the vapor, and
simultaneously the refrigeration capacity is decreased with the decrease in density
during superheating. The result of these two opposite trends must be observed to
establish whether or not the refrigerating capacity of a system is increased by
superheating. However, superheating ensures total evaporation of the liquid
refrigerant before it goes into the compressor.

overheating (referring to the overheating of refrigerant vapour at the outlet of the


evaporator) and hypothermia (referring to the refrigerant sub-cooling liquid leaving

the condenser) are, apparently, two important processes in practical steam-


compression refrigeration system and are used to ensure maximum performance
(COP) and to avoid some technical problems, as will be described below.
Overheating

In the process of evaporation of the coolant is completely vaporized be obtained


through the evaporator. Cold refrigerant vapor continues through the evaporator,
heat is absorbed for a steam heat. Under certain conditions such pressure losses
due to friction increase the volume of overheating.

If overheating occurs in the evaporator, the enthalpy of the refrigerant raised,


removing the additional heat and increasing the effect of cooling evaporator. If it is
provided in the compressor suction, no useful cooling occurs. In some systems,
the cooling liquid-vapor heat exchangers can be used to overheating of the
saturated vapour refrigerant from the evaporator refrigerant liquid coming from
capacitor (Fig. 3.32). As can be seen from Fig. 3.32, the heat exchanger can
provide high system COP. Overheating of the refrigerant can be obtained in the
compressor. In this case, saturated vapour refrigerant enters the compressor, and
overheated, increasing the pressure, leading to an increase in temperature.
Overheating received from the compression process does not improve the
efficiency of the cycle, but great results condensation equipment and a large
compressor, the supply pipe.

The increase in the refrigeration effect, obtained by superheat at the evaporator, as


a rule, offset by a decrease in the cooling effect in the compressor. Because of the
volume flow compressor is constant, the mass flow rate and the refrigerating effect
decreases the refrigerant density caused by overheating. In practice, it is well
known that there are losses in the cooling capacity 1% for every 2.5C overheating
suction line. The isolation of the suction line is the decision, to minimize heat gain.
Cooling is the process of removing excess heat from the superheated refrigerant
vapor, and if achieved using an external effect, he will be more useful for the COP.
Cooling is often considered inappropriate, due to the low temperature (less than 10
C) and a small number of the available energy.

Experiment No.5

Object: - To calculate the COP of Heat Pump.


Introduction: - The coefficient of performance or COP (sometimes CP) of a heat
pump is a ratio of heating or cooling provided to work required. Higher COPs
equate to lower operating costs. The COP may exceed 1, because, instead of just
converting work to heat (which, if 100% efficient, would be a COP of 1), it pumps
additional heat from a heat source to where the heat is required. For complete
systems, COP should include energy consumption of all auxiliaries. COP is highly
dependent on operating conditions, especially absolute temperature and relative
temperature between sink and system, and is often graphed or averaged against
expected conditions.

Equation: - The equation is:

Where

is the heat supplied to or removed from the reservoir.

is the work consumed by the heat pump.

The COP for heating and cooling are thus different, because the heat reservoir of
interest is different. When one is interested in how well a machine cools, the COP
is the ratio of the heat removed from the cold reservoir to input work. However, for
heating, the COP is the ratio of the heat removed from the cold reservoir plus the
input work to the input work:
Where

is the heat removed from the cold reservoir.

is the heat supplied to the hot reservoir.

Example:-

A geothermal heat pump operating at 3.5 provides 3.5


units of heat for each unit of energy consumed (i.e. 1 kWh
consumed would provide 3.5 kWh of output heat). The output
heat comes from both the heat source and 1 kWh of input energy,
so the heat-source is cooled by 2.5 kWh, not 3.5 kWh.

A heat pump of 3.5, such as in the example above, could be less


expensive to use than even the most efficient gas furnace except in areas where the
electricity cost per unit is higher than 3.5 times the cost of natural gas (e.g.
Connecticut or New York City).

However, a COP may help make a determination of system choice based on carbon
contribution. Although a heat pump may cost more to operate than a conventional
natural gas or electric heater, depending on the source of electricity generation in
one's area, it may contribute less net carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than burning
natural gas or heating fuel. If locally no green electricity is available, then carbon
wise the best option would be to drive a heat pump on piped gas or oil, to store
excess heat in the ground source for use in winter, while using the same machine
also for producing electricity with a built-in Stirling engine.
Conditions of use:-
While the COP is partly a measure of the efficiency of a heat pump, it is also a
measure of the conditions under which it is operating: the COP of a given heat
pump will rise as the input temperature increases or the output temperature
decreases because it is linked to a warm temperature distribution system like under
floor heating.

Seasonal efficiency:-

A realistic indication of energy efficiency over an entire year can be archived by


using Seasonal COP or Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOP) for heat.
Seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) is mostly used for air conditioning. SCOP is
a new methodology that gives a better indication of expected real-life performance,
using COP can be considered using the "old" scale. Seasonal efficiency gives an
indication on how efficient a heat pump operates over an entire cooling or heating
season.

Experiment No.6

Object: - To calculate total Heat Load for Air-Conditioning unit.


What is heating and cooling load?

The cooling load is the amount of heat energy that would need to be removed from
a space (cooling) to maintain the temperature in an acceptable range. The heating
and cooling loads, or "thermal loads", take into account:

What is a heat load calculation?

The heating load is the amount of heat energy that would need to be added to a
space to maintain the temperature in an acceptable range. The cooling load is the
amount of heat energy that would need to be removed from a space (cooling) to
maintain the temperature in an acceptable range.

Heat load or heat gain:-


A building or room gains heat from many sources. Inside occupants, computers,
copiers, machinery, and lighting all produce heat. Warm air from outside enters
through open doors and windows, or as leakage though the structure. However
the biggest source of heat is solar radiation from the sun, beating down on the roof
and walls, and pouring through the windows, heating internal surfaces.

The sum of all these heat sources is known as the heat gain (or heat load) of the
building, and is expressed either in BTU (British Thermal Units) or Kw
(Kilowatts). For an air conditioner to cool a room or building its output must be
greater than the heat gain. It is important before purchasing an air conditioner that
a heat load calculation is performed to ensure it is big enough for the intended
application.

Heat load calculations:-


There are several different methods of calculating the heat load for a given area:
Quick calculation for offices:-
For offices with average insulation and lighting, 2/3 occupants and 3/4 personal
computers and a photocopier, the following calculations will suffice:

Heat load (BTU) = Length (ft.) x Width (ft.) x Height (ft.) x 4


Heat load (BTU) = Length (m) x Width (m) x Height (m) x 141

For every additional occupant add 500 BTU.

If there are any additional significant sources of heat, for instance floor to ceiling
south facing windows or equipment that produces lots of heat, the above method
will underestimate the heat load. In which case the following method should be sed
instead.

A more accurate heat load calculation for any type of room or building:-
The heat gain of a room or building depends on:

The size of the area being cooled.


The size and position of windows, and whether they have shading
The number of occupants.
Heat generated by equipment and machinery.
Heat generated by lighting.

By calculating the heat gain from each individual item and adding them together,
an accurate heat load figure can be determined.
Step One
Calculate the area in square feet of the space to be cooled, and multiply by 31.25

Area BTU = length (ft.) x width (ft.) x 31.25


StepTwo
Calculate the heat gain through the windows. If the windows dont have shading
multiply the result by 1.4

North window BTU = Area of North facing windows (m. sq.) x 164
If no shading, North window BTU = North window BTU x 1.4
South window BTU = Area of South facing windows (m. sq.) x 868
If no shading, South window BTU = South window BTU x 1.4

Add the results together.

Total window BTU = North window + South window

StepThree
Calculate the heat generated by occupants, allow 600 BTU per person.

Occupant BTU = number of people x 600

StepFour
Calculate the heat generated by each item of machinery - copiers, computers,
ovens etc. Find the power in watts for each item, add them together and multiply
by 3.4

Equipment BTU = total equipment watts x 3.4

StepFive
Calculate the heat generated by lighting. Find the total wattage for all lighting and
multiply by 4.25

Lighting BTU = total lighting watts x 4.25


StepSix
Add the above together to find the total heat load.
Total heat load BTU = Area BTU + Total Window BTU + Occupant BTU +
Equipment BTU + Lighting BTU

StepSeven
Divide the heat load by the cooling capacity of the air conditioning unit in BTU, to
determine how many air conditioners are needed.

Number of a/c units required = Total heat load BTU / Cooling capacity BTU

On line heat gain calculator:-


Manually calculating the size of air conditioner required can appear to be a
complicated task. To simplify the process we have created an on-line calculator, to
access it click on the picture of a calculator opposite.
Disclaimer:-
If you have any doubts about the size of air conditioner required you should
contact a reputable air conditioning engineer.
The above methods of calculation are simplified; factors such as insulation levels
and building construction have been ignored. The above should be considered as
an approximate method of calculation only. W. Tombling Ltd. accepts no liability
or claim arising from their use.

Experiment No.7

Object: - To calculate the efficiency of Compressor.


Compressors:-
The refrigeration compressors purpose is to draw low-pressure refrigerant vapour
in the evaporator and compress it to the higher pressure required at the condenser.

The two most common types of compressors are positive displacement and
dynamic. Positive displacement types compress discrete volumes of low-pressure
gas by physically squeezing the volumes, resulting in a pressure increase.

Dynamic types increase the velocity of the low pressure gas and then reduce it in
such a manner so as to result in an increased pressure. Dynamic compressors are
found in the very largest refrigeration systems and are not discussed at length in
this guide.

a. Positive Displacement Compressors:-The three most common types of


positive displacement compressors used for refrigeration systems are the
following:
Reciprocating
Screw
Scroll
Reciprocating Compressors:-

Reciprocating compressors are the most widespread type used. Refrigerant vapour
from the suction is compressed by pistons moving in a bore. Reciprocating
compressors are commonly available in a range of sizes, from a small, single-
cylinder type 6. Compressors 34 used in domestic refrigerators, to eight-cylinder
models used in industrial applications.

There are many types of capacity control with reciprocating compressors, ranging
from blocking the suction vapour line, to re circulating the discharged vapour from
the piston to the suction vapour. The latter method is the least efficient, in that the
power input to the compressor is usually the same in part load as it is in full load.

Screw Compressors:-

The screw compressor sweeps a volume through two rotors that are meshed
together. As the rotors turn inside the closely fitted casing, the space becomes
sealed and the gas is compressed. Maintenance, adequate lubrication, cooling and
sealing between the working parts is very important. Screw compressors do not
have clearance volume, and there is no loss of volumetric efficiency from re-
expansion, as in a piston machine. Leakage of refrigerant back to the suction via
in-built clearances is a main cause of reduced volumetric efficiency.

Capacity reduction for screw compressors can be effected by a sliding block


covering part of the barrel wall. This permits gas to pass back to the suction,
causing a variance to the working stroke. Figure 5 shows a typical actual and ideal
capacity control curve for a screw compressor.

Scroll Compressors:-

Scroll compressors are positive displacement machines that compress refrigerants


with two inter-fitting, spiral-shaped scroll members. One scroll remains fixed while
the other scroll moves in orbit inside it.

The scroll has certain common features with the screw compressor. Scroll
compressors typically have a very low leakage and heat transfer loss.

Scroll compressors also have flat volumetric curves which enable them to deliver
more cooling and heating capacity at extreme conditions.

\ Capacity control using variable speed inverter drive is possible for many scrolls.
b. Compressor Efficiency:-
The amount of gas pumped by the compressor is always less than the physical
displacement of the pistons in the cylinders. Volumetric efficiency (VE) generally
includes all the losses affecting the flow rate of the compressor.

The energy efficiency of compression is defined with reference to the ideal


adiabatic compression process.

The type and size of a compressor can influence the refrigeration systems
performance. Moreover, many compressors need ancillary devices such as cooling
fans, which also consume power. In making a purchase selection, it is important to
factor in the energy consumption of all associated equipment.

It is often advantageous to divide up the load between smaller compressors for


large loads. Operationally, this is accomplished using control systems which match
the overall compressor capacity to the refrigeration load requirements. In cases
where the compressors are uneven in terms of size, vintage, or manufacturer,
control systems play an important role. Keep in mind that frequent starting of
compressors can reduce both equipment life and reliability.