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# Trigonometric Identities & Formulas

## Reciprocal Identities Ratio or Quotient Identities

1 1 sin x cos x
sin x csc x tan x cot x
csc x sin x cos x sin x

1 1
cos x sec x sinx = cosx tanx cosx = sinx cotx
sec x cos x

1 1
tan x cot x
cot x tan x

## Pythagorean Identities Pythagorean Identities in Radical Form

sin x cos x 1
2 2
sin x 1 cos2 x
1 tan 2 x sec2 x
1 cot 2 x csc2 x tan x sec 2 x 1

Note: there are only three, basic Pythagorean identities, the other forms cos x 1 sin 2 x
are the same three identities, just arranged in a different order.

## Confunction Identities Odd-Even Identities

Also called negative angle identities

sin x cos x cos x sin x Sin (-x) = -sin x Csc (-x) = -csc x
2 2
Cos (-x) = cos x Sec (-x) = sec x

tan x cot x cot x tan x Tan (-x) = -tan x Cot (-x) = -cot x
2 2

c
sec x csc x csc x sec x Phase Shift =
2 2 b
2
Period =
b

## Sum and Difference Formulas/Identities How to Find Reference Angles

sin(u v ) sin u cos v cos u sin v Step 1: Determine which quadrant the angle is in
sin(u v ) sin u cos v cos u sin v Step 2: Use the appropriate formula
Quad I = is the angle itself
cos(u v ) cos u cos v sin u sin v Quad II = 180 or -
cos(u v ) cos u cos v sin u sin v Quad III = 180 or -
Quad IV = 360 or 2 -
tan u tan v
tan(u v )
1 tan u tan v

tan u tan v
tan(u v )
1 tan u tan v
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Reciprocal Identities Ratio or Quotient Identities
1 1 sin x cos x
sin x csc x tan x cot x
csc x sin x cos x sin x

1 1
cos x sec x sinx = cosx tanx cosx = sinx cotx
sec x cos x

1 1
tan x cot x
cot x tan x

## Pythagorean Identities Pythagorean Identities in Radical Form

sin x cos x 1
2 2
sin x 1 cos2 x
1 tan 2 x sec2 x
1 cot 2 x csc2 x tan x sec 2 x 1

Note: there are only three, basic Pythagorean identities, the other forms
are the same three identities, just arranged in a different order.

## Confunction Identities Odd-Even Identities

Also called negative angle identities

sin x cos x cos x sin x Sin (-x) = -sin x Csc (-x) = -csc x
2 2
Cos (-x) = cos x Sec (-x) = sec x

tan x cot x cot x tan x Tan (-x) = -tan x Cot (-x) = -cot x
2 2

sec x csc x csc x sec x
2 2

## Sum and Difference Formulas - Identities

sin(u v ) sin u cos v cos u sin v cos(u v ) cos u cos v sin u sin v
sin(u v ) sin u cos v cos u sin v cos(u v ) cos u cos v sin u sin v

## tan u tan v tan u tan v

tan(u v ) tan(u v )
1 tan u tan v 1 tan u tan v

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The Unit Circle
90
3 3
Tan = - 3 cot tan = undefined & cot= 0 tan = 3 cot =
3 3

120 60
Tan = 1
Tan =- - 1 cot = 1
Cot = -1
135 45

2.09 1.57
1.04
150 2.35 30
.785
2.61
3 3
Tan = cot = - 3 .523 tan = cot = 3
3 3

3.14
Tan= 0 Tan=0 & cot=undef
Cot=undef
180 360
3.66 2(3.14 )= 6.28
3 3
Tan cot = 3 3.925 5.75 tan = cot = - 3
3 3
4.186 5.49
4.71 5.23 330
210

Tan = -1
Tan = 1 Cot = -1
Cot = 1
225 315

## 240 270 300

3 3
Tan = 3 cot = tan=undefined tan = - 3 cot =
3 3
Cot = 0

## Definition of Trigonometric Functions concerning the Unit Circle

opp y hyp r
sin = csc =
hyp r opp y

cos = sec =

tan = cot =
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Right Triangle Definitions of Trigonometric Functions
Note: sin & cos are complementary angles, so are tan & cot and sec & cos, and the sum of complementary angles is 90 degrees.
C
opp y hyp r
sin = csc =
hyp r opp y
r y
Hypotenuse opposite
cos = sec =
A x B
tan = cot =

Adjacent = is the side adjacent to the angle in consideration. So if we are considering Angle A, then the adjacent side is CB

## Trigonometric Values of Special Angles

Degrees 0 30 45 60 90 180 270

Radians 0 6 4 3 2 3
2
1 2 3
sin 0 2 2 2 1 0 -1

3 2 1
cos 1 2 2 2 0 -1 0

3
tan 0 1 3 undefined 0 undefined
3

To Convert Degrees to Radians, Multiply by
180deg

180deg
To Convert Radians to Degrees, Multiply by

Vocabulary
Cotangent Angles - are two angles with the same terminal side
Reference Angle - is an acute angle formed by terminal side of angle() with x-axis

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Double Angle Identities Half Angle Identities Power Reducing Formulas
A 1 cos A 1 cos 2u
sin 2 A 2 sin A cos A sin sin 2 u
2 2 2

A 1 cos A 1 cos 2u
cos 2 A cos2 A sin 2 A cos cos2 u
2 2 2

A 1 cos A 1 cos 2u
cos 2 A 2 cos2 A 1 tan tan 2 u
2 sin A 1 cos 2u
cos 2 A 1 2 sin 2 A

2 tan A A sin A
tan 2 A tan
1 tan 2 A 2 1 cos A

## Product-to-Sum Formulas Sum-to-Product Formulas

1 x y x y
sin u sin v cos(u v ) cos(u v ) sin x sin y 2 sin cos
2 2 2

1 x y x y
cos u cos v
2
cos(u v) cos(u v) sin x sin y 2 cos sin
2 2

1 x y x y
sin u cos v
2
sin(u v) sin(u v) cos x cos y 2 cos
2
cos
2

1 x y x y
cos u sin v
2
sin(u v) sin(u v) cos x cos y 2 sin sin
2 2

## Law of Sines Law of Cosines

Solving Oblique Triangles using sine: AAS, ASA, SSA, SSS, SAS Cosine: SAS, SSS

## Standard Form Alternative Form

a b c sin A sin B sin C b2 c2 a 2
or a b c 2bc cos A
2 2 2
cos A
sin A sin B sin C a b c 2bc
a c2 b2
2

2ac
a b 2 c2
2

2ab

## Area of an Oblique Triangle Herons Formula

1 1 1 a b c
area bc sin A ab sin C ac sin B Step 1: Find s s
2 2 2 2
Step 2: Use the formula area s( s a )( s b)( s c)
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