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AN ANALYSIS OF CODE MIXING USED ON SOCIAL MEDIA

(FB & TWITTER )

A THESIS

Submitted to Thesis Examiners Teams in Partial Fulfillment of the


Requirements of the Degree of Sarjana Sastra at English Literature
Studies Program

AHMAD BERDIAN
C1C1 11 101

FACULTY OF CULTURAL STUDIES


HALU OLEO UNIVERSITY
KENDARI
2016

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ABSTRACT
Ahmad Berdian, C1C1 11 101. An analysis of code mixing used on social
media Fb & Twitter (The Application of Hoffman, Savile Troike and Malik
Theory). English Literature Studies Program. Faculty of Cultural Science at
Halu Oleo University. Under Advisor by Drs. Rohmana, M.Hum (First
advisor) and Drs. Ansor Putra, M.Hum (Co. advisor)

This research is aimed to describe the use of code mixing in the Facebook
and Twitter users. Main questions would be answered in this research are (1) what
are the type of code mixing used on facebook and Twitter? (2) what are the factors
affect of using code mixing on facebook and Twitter? To answer the questions, the
researcher used Descriptive Qualitative method. Therefore, the data concerned
appear in words rather than in number. The researcher applied documentation as
the way to collect the data.

From the result of this study, the researcher finds the use of code mixing in
the forms Emblematic, Intra-sentential, and Intersentential. Researcher also found the
factors affect of code mixing are: to soften or strengthen request or command,
because of real lexical need, to exclude other people when a comment, talking
about particular topic, quoting somebody else, being emphatic about something,
interjection, repetition, intention, expressing group identity, lack of facility, lack
of register, mood of the speaker, to emphasize a point, habitual experience,
semantic significance, to show group identity, and to address a difference
audience. Moreover the researcher also analyze the interrelationship between the
types and factors affect of the use of code mixing on the social media; Speakers
and personal speakers, Time and place the conversation lasts, The factors affect of
conversation and Topic being spoken. It means that the use of code mixing is
often used in our life both in everyday conversation or social networking.

Key Word: descriptive analysis, code mixing and facebook and Twitter

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Alhamdulillahi Rabbil Alamin, the researcher expresses gratitude to the

Almighty God sincerely, Allah SWT who given me best guidance, mercy, and

health, so that the researcher could finish writing this thesis. The researcher hopes

that the Almighty Allah always blesses all of us and peace of Almighty Allah

upon, the noblest messenger, Prophet Muhammad SAW.

Unlimited thanks are dedicated my parents, Margono, S.H and Wd. Ndooni

for their love, praying, patience, support, care, advices, motivations, attention, and

anything during the period of my study.

The researcher expresses the greatest thanks and appreciation to the both of

the supervisor, Drs. Rohmana, M.Hum as the first advisor and Drs. Ansor Putra,

M.Hum as the Co.advisor for giving lots of guidance, correction, suggestion, and

useful information to the researcher in this thesis writing.

In completing this thesis, the researcher found much problems. However,

all the problems could be solved with support and help from people surrounding

the researcher. Particularly for the following persons the researcher feels an

unlimited gratitude :

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1. Prof. Dr. Ir. H. Usman Rianse, M.S as Rector of Halu Oleo University.

Researchers say many thanks to Mr. Usman rianse as rector UHO for

motivated and gives me the opportunity to study here halu oleo

university, so that I can be proud alumni associations in UHO.

2. Dra. Wa Ode Sitti Hapsah, M.Si as Dean of Cultural Science Faculty.

Thank you very much to Mrs. dean of FIB which has been a leader with

excellent faculty that makes the science faculty of cultural studies

becomes more advanced and developed in UHO.

3. Akhmad Marhadi, S.Sos., M.Si as First Vice of Dean of Cultural

Science Faculty. Researchers are very grateful to the vice dean of the

faculty of cultural studies because it can provide a good academic

regulations to all students FIB mainly to the researchers themselves.

4. Dr. La Aso, S.Pd., M. Hum as Head of Language & Literature

Department. Researchers gave appreciation to the head of language and

literature as it can become responsible leaders are shaded by the literary

department of English and Indonesian literature became more advanced.

5. Muarifuddin, S.Pd., M.A as the Secretary of Language and Literature

department. Thanks to the secretary language and literature because it

can regulate better bureaucracy majors.

6. Drs. Ansor Putra, M.Hum as Head of English Literature Study Program.

greatly appreciate to head of the English literature department who have

made contributions and kindness in leading department of English

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literature so that in the future this course better in Inya ekstsistens with

other majors that existed at the university of halu oleo

7. High appreciation from the researcher goes to All my Lecturers

especially in English Literature Study Program for their helpful

guidance, and suggestion when the researcher studied at English

Literature Studies Program.

8. All staffs of Cultural Studies Faculty, especially Aslan, S.Sos and Adi,

S.Sos for their help in completing this research.

9. Sincere thanks is expressed to the researcher beloved brother Hanafi and

my beloved sister Wd. Sri Mulyani for their prayer, love, motivations,

useful advices, and help for the researcher in finishing this thesis.

10. Big thanks for my closed friends Bayu arsenius, S.S., Muh. Rizky

Kurniawan S.S, and Armianto. Thanks for their support, help, love,

prayer, happiness, care, memorable moment, advises, madness and

laugh that weve shared in joy and sorrow. The researcher love you

guys.

11. Special thanks to Nursyahruni for his care, love, prayer, help, support,

lesson and sharing to the researcher about many things.

12. All of researcher friends especially for all of English Literature Studies

Program 011, Asia Susanti, S.S., Linda Asniar, S.S., Dewi gusmawaty

S.S, Hasriana S.S, lili Hardianti S.S, Sri Wahyuningsih S.S, Afriani

Ulya S.S, Herianto, Arlan, Sunardin S.S, Baso Aswar, Lestari ode

Husnan S.S, Wd. Siti Nurhadiah S.S, Julil Safalty S.S. Thanks for the

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supports, help and unforgotable moment guys. The researcher love you

and the researcher wish we can get a success in our carrier.

The researcher believes that without the blessing of Allah SWT and the

assistances of those people above, the researcher would never come to finish this

thesis. And as human being, the researcher realize that this thesis is still far from

perfection. Therefore, criticism and suggestion are highly appreciated.

Kendari, July 2016

Ahmad Berdian

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CONTENT

Page
TITLE SHEET ............................................................................................. i
APPROVAL SHEET.................................................................................. ii
LEGALIZATION SHEET........................................................................ iii
ABSTRACT................................................................................................. iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.......................................................................... v
CONTENT.................................................................................................... ix

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION................................................................ 1

1.1 Background............................................................................. 1
1.2 Research Question.................................................................. 3
1.3 Objectiveof the Study............................................................ 3
1.4 Significance of the Study........................................................ 3
1.5 Scope of the Study................................................................... 4
1.6 Definition of Term................................................................. 4

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW............................................... 6

2.1 Theoritical Framework......................................................... 6


2.1.1 Sociolinguistics........................................................ 6
2.1.2 Blingualism and Multilingualism............................. 8
2.1.3 Code Mixing........................................................... 10
2.2 Types of Code Mixing........................................................ 11
2.2.1 Emblematic............................................................ 11
2.2.2 Intra-sentential..................................................... 11
2.2.3 Intersentential....................................................... 11
2.2.4 Intra-lexical Code Mixing..................................... 11
2.3 Factor affect for bilingual or multilingual
to mix their language........................................................ 12
2.3.1 To soften or strengthen request or command...... 12
2.3.2 Because of real lexical need............................... 12
2.3.3 To exclude other people when a comment is ntended
for only a limited audience.................................. 13
2.3.4 Talking about a particular topic........................ 13
2.3.5 Quoting somebody else...................................... 14
2.3.6 Being emphatic about something...................... 14
2.3.7 Interjection......................................................... 15

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2.3.8Repetition used for clarification............................. 15
2.3.9
Intention of clarifying the speech
content for interlocutor........................................... 16
2.3.10 Expressing group identitiy...................................... 16
2.3.11 Lack of facility...................................................... 17
2.3.12 Lack of register..................................................... 17
2.3.13 Mood of the speaker............................................ 18
2.3.14 To emphasize a point........................................... 18
2.3.15 Habitual experience............................................. 19
2.3.15 Semantic significance......................................... 19
2.3.16 To show identity with a group........................... 19
2.3.17 To adress a different audience.......................... 20
2.4 Conceptual Framework................................................. 21
2.5 Previous Studies............................................................ 22

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY........................ 27

3.1 Research Design ........................................................... 27


3.2 Data Source.................................................................... 27
3.3 Secondary Data............................................................. 27
3.4 Method of Collecting Data........................................... 28
3.5 Technique of Analyzing Data....................................... 29

CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION............................ 30


4.1 Types of Code Mixing found
in the Social Media...................................................... 30
4.1.1 Emblematic ........................................................... 31
4.1.2 Intra-sentential...................................................... 37
4.1.3 Intersentential........................................................ 40

4.2 Factor affect for bilingual or multilingual


to mix their language.................................................. 42
4.2.1 Talking about a particular topic.......................... 42
4.2.2 To emphasize a point.......................................... 44
4.2.3 To soften or strengthen request or command....... 44
4.2.4 Pragmatic reason.................................................. 45
4.2.5 Mood of the speaker........................................... 47
4.3 Summary of the findings........................................... 48

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION....... 52
5.1 Conclusion....................................................................... 52
5.2 Suggestions..................................................................... 54

REFERENCE...................................................................................... 55
APPENDIX.......................................................................................... 58

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Communication is an important aspect in society nowadays. People need

one another to communicate in order to convey their needs and to share what they

feel even if they come from different places of origin and have their own

language. In spite of the differences that they have, they try to learn how to

establish and maintain a good relationship in communicating each other. When

people interact with others in society anytime and anywhere, they must use a

language. Without language, people were find some troubles when they do their

activities. In the world with different languages, people learn and use two or more

languages in order to be able to interact with others. Since people are involved in

multilingual communication, it is possible for them to code mixing their speech.

Those who live in a bilingual or multilingual community have a tendency to use

code mixing in their speech towards the conversation in order to make a good

communication each other.

Code mixing is a daily reality happened in any places where more than

one languages are spoken in everyday communication. Language serves a range

of functions in communication. They may also use different dialects of a language

in different contexts. The phenomena can also be observed from social media

service which uses more than one languages to communicate. Recently Indonesian

people used to mix their language through the social media service. Social media

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as a communication channel or tool used to store, aggregate, share, discuss or

deliver information within online communities. People obtain information,

education, news, and other data from electronic and printed media

Eventhough Code mixing is typically observed in spoken language it is

now increasingly more common in the written text. The Computer Mediated

Communication (CMC) channels, especially social media like Twitter and

Facebook, social media content is tremendously important for studying trends,

reviews, events, human behaviour as well as linguistic analysis, and therefore in

recent times has spurred a lot of interest in automatic processing of such data.

(Kelsey and Amant, 2012 : 210). Nevertheless, code mixing on social media has

not been studied from a computational aspect. Moreover, social media content

presents additional challenges due to contractions, non-standard spellings and

non-grammatical constructions. Furthermore, for languages written in scripts

other than Roman, like Hindi, Bangla, Japanese, Chinese and Arabic, Roman

transliterations are typically used for representing the words. This can prove a

challenge for language identification and segregation of the two languages.

Based on the explanation above, the reason why the researcher chooses

code mixing issue as the key topic in this study is that code mixing is a

widespread occurrence in a Computer Mediated Communication, especially in

social media context. Different culture may have different reasons for people to

mix codes in CMC (Bodomo; 2010 : 25). That is why, the researcher would like

to investigate deeply into the factor affect for Indonesian people to codes mixing,

along with the types.

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1.2 Research Questions

Based on the above background and scope of problems, two questions

needs further investigation as the main discussion in this study :

1. What are the types of code mixing found in the social media of FB and

Twitter?

2. What factors affect code mixing in social media of FB and Twitter?

1.3 Objectives

Based on the above research questions, the objectives of this study are :

1. To find out the types of code mixing found in the social media of FB and

Twitter.

2. To find out the factors affect code mixing in social media of FB and

Twitter.

1.4 Significances

The significances of this study are:

a. This research is expected to be used as an additional reference for further

researchers who want to investigate the same topic.

b. This research can be used as a comparative study for sociolinguistics

subject expecially on code mixing.

c. As a beggining study that can be used as an additional source particularly

to the other future researchers who are interested in carrying out a similar

investigation.

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1.5 Scope of study

This research investigated about type and factors affect of code mixing used in

social media (CMC). According to Hoffman (2004 : 7) mentioned about code

mixing that types is emblematic, intra-sentential, intersentential, intra-lexical code

mixing, establishing continuity with the previous speaker, involving a change of

pronounciation. Furthermore Hoffman (2004 : 12), Savile and troike (2003 : 45),

Malik (1994 : 25) mentioned about code mixing that factor affect is to soften or

strengthen request or command, because of real lexical need, to exclude other

people when a comment, talking about particular topic, quoting somebody else,

being emphatic about something, interjection, repetition, intention, expressing

group identity, lack of facility, lack of register, mood of the speaker, to emphasize

a point, habitual experience, semantic significance, to show identity group, and to

address a difference audience. Based on the pieces of dialogue, researcher in data

processing code-mixing using non indonesian standard language (indonesian-

english). In terms of factors affect the researcher did not include this factor as the

focus of the research is a piece of writing dialogue that is on facebook and twitter

instead of record objects.

1.6 Definition of Terms

1.6.1 Code

Code is the particular dialect or language one chooses to use on any

occasion, and a system for communication between two or more parties.

Wardhaugh (1986: 102) refers to the variety of languages, such as regional

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variants; variants of social class; variety and style variants are summarized in the

barrel languages and variants usefulness or register.

1.6.2 Code Mixing

The mixing of two or more languages or language varieties in speech, i.e.

the alternate use of two or more languages in an extended stretch of discourse.

1.6.3 Social Media

Social media are computer-mediated tools that allow people to create,

share or exchange information, ideas, and pictures/videos in virtual communities

and networks. Social media is defined as "a group of Internet-based applications

that build on the ideological and technological foundations.

1.6.4 Computer Mediated Communication

Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is defined as any human

communication that occurs through the use of two or more electronic

devices. While the term has traditionally referred to those communications that

occur via computer-mediated formats (e.g., instant messaging, email, chat

rooms, online forums). it has also been applied to other forms of text-based

interaction such as text messaging. Research on CMC focuses largely on the

social effects of different computer-supported communication technologies. Many

recent studies involve Internet-based social networking supported by social

software.

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CHAPTER II

LITERARTURE REVIEW

2.1 Theoretical Framework

Theoretical framework is a collection of interrelated concepts, like a

theory but not necessarily so well worked-out. A theoretical framework guides

your research, determining what things you were measure, and what statistical

relationships you were look for. The researcher applies the Hoffmans, Saville and

Troikes and Maliks theories is based on the fact that their theories are mutually

complementary. It means that all of their theories support one another in

elaborating upon the factor affect why people used code mixing.

In this chapter the researcher presents the theoritical framework to support

this research and divided into following section: (1) Sociolinguistics (2)

Bilingualism (3) Code mixing (4) Types of code mixing (6) Factor affect of code

mixing (7) Conceptual framework (8) Previous studies

2.1.1 Sociolinguistics

Sociolinguistics is a branch of linguistics that studies about language and

society. Chaika (1982 : 2) state that sociolinguistics is study of the ways people

use language in a social interaction. Sociolinguistics were concerned with

investigating the relationship between language and society with the goal of the

better understanding of the structure of language and how language function in

communication (Wardaugh, 1986 : 12). Sociolinguistic is also concerned with

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relationship between language and the context in which it is used (Holmet, 2001 :

1). Nababan (1983 : 3) divides sociolinguistic in three parts that are:

a. Discuss language in social and structural context

b. Connect the language factors, features language variety with the situation.

c. Discuss the social functions and use of language in society

Sociolinguistics is partly empirical and partly theoritical partly a matter of

going out and amassing bodies of fact and partly of sitting back and thinking,

Hudson (1996 : 1) states that sociolinguistic is the study or discussion of language

related to the language user a member of society. Sociolinguistics is the

descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including

cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the

effects of language use on society. Sociolinguistics differs from sociology of

language in that the focus of sociology of language is the effect of language on the

society, while sociolinguistics focuses on the society's effect on language.

Sociolinguistics overlaps to a considerable degree with pragmatics. It is

historically closely related to linguistic anthropology and the distinction between

the two fields has even been questioned recently.

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2.1.2 Bilingualism and Multilingualism

According to Heller (2007 : 76) defines a bilingual as a person who has

some functional ability in the second language. This may vary from a limited

ability in one or more domains, to very strong command of both languages

(sometimes called balanced bilingualism). The definition of bilingualism it self is

the native-like control of two languages (Bloomfield, 1933 : 56). Auer (1984 :

76) have also proposed another definition of bilingualism as the individuals

capacity to speak a second language while following the concepts and structures

of that language rather than paraphrasing his or her mother tongue.Related to

speech community, Cunningham (2011 : 87) defines bilingualism as the state of

a linguistic community in which two languages are in contact with the result that

two codes can be used in the same interaction and that a number of individuals are

bilingual. Similarly, Fishman (1999 : 53) suggests that bilingualism can happen

if there is a fairly large and complex speech community, therefore the people in

that community become aware of acquiring several languages. In addition,

Gumperz (1982 : 80) also mentions that bilingual people usually use their own

idioms for in-group communication and the common language for their

interaction and communication with outsiders. In this case, the bilinguals have a

repertoire of domain-related rules of language choice (Auer : 1998 : 99), meaning

that bilinguals are able to choose which language he is going to use. In other

words, since the members of a bilingual community vary in the capacity of

mastering the languages used in the community, they have to be able to set a

condition where they can communicate effectively. This condition leads them to

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do code mixing and code mixing. (Clyne : 1991:178). Bilingualism is the use of

more languages,Bilingual speakers out number monolingual speakers in the

world's population. Bilingualism is becoming a social phenomenon governed by

the needs of globalization and cultural openness. Owing to the ease of access to

information facilitated by the Internet, individuals exposure to multiple languages

is becoming increasingly frequent, there by promoting a need to acquire additional

languages.

Bilingualism and multilingualism are normal in many parts of the world

and people do not feel strange. Most of the nations through the world are

bilingual or even multilingual with two or more ethnic groups speaking different

languages. According to Wardhaugh (2002 : 96) multilingualism is a norm in a

community. Communities are multilingual and no effort is made to suppress the

variety of languages that is spoken. Wardhaugh (1986 : 100) gives an example of

a condition of language in multilingual society exists in Singapore, as follows: In

a multilingual country like Singapore, the ability to shift from one language to

another is accepted as quite normal. Singapore has four official languages;

English, Mandarin, Tamil, and Malay, which is also the national language.

However, the majority of its population are native speakers of Hokkien, a variety

of Chinese. National policy promotes English as a trade language, Mandarin as

the International Chinese language, Malay as the language of the region, and

Tamil as the language of one of the important minor ethnic groups in the republic.

The linguistic situation such as in Singapore offers someone to choose the

language to use on a particular occasions. People are usually forced to select a

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particular language whenever they speak, and they may mix from one language to

another or mix languages.

2.1.3 Code Mixing

According to Sebba et al (2012 : 93), code mixing is a term in linguistics

referring to using more than one language or dialect in conversation. Code mixing

can be distinguished from other language contact phenomena such as loan

translation (calques), borrowing, pidgins and creoles, and transfer or

interference.The other phenomenon closely related to code mixing. Code mixing

occurs when conversants use both languages together to the extent that they

change from one language to the other in the course of a single utterance

(Hinrichs, 2006 : 55). It means that the conversants just change some of the

elements in their utterance. Code mixing takes place without a change of topic and

can involve various levels of language, e.g., morphology and lexical items. Code-

mixing refers to the mixing of two or more languages or language varieties in

speech. Some scholars use the terms code-mixing and interchangeably, especially

in studies of syntax, morphology, and other formal aspects of language. Others

assume more specific definitions of code-mixing, but these specific definitions

may be different in different subfields of linguistics, education theory,

communications etc. Code-mixing is similar to the use or creation of pidgins; but

while a pidgin is created across groups that do not share a common language,

code-mixing may occur within a multilingual setting where speakers share more

than one language.

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2.2 Types of Code Mixing

The types of code mixing according to Hoffman (2004 : 7) consist of six main

types, i.e.

2.2.1 Emblematic

In this kind of code mixing, tags and certain set phrases in one language

are inserted into an utterance otherwise in another, as when a Panjabi/English

bilingual says: It's a nice day, hana? (hai n isn't it).

2.2.2 Intra-sentential

This kind of code mixing occurs within a clause or sentence boundary, as

when a Yoruba/English bilingual says: Won o arrest a single person (won o they

did not).

2.2.3 Intersentential

This kind of code mixing occurs at a clause or sentence boundary, where

each clause or sentence is in one language or the other, as when a Spanish/English

bilingual says: Sometimes I'll start a sentence in English y termino en espaol

(and finish it in Spanish). This last may also occur as speakers take turns.

2.2.4 Intra-lexical code mixing

This kind of code mixing which occurs within a word boundary, such as in

shopp (English shop with the Panjabi plural ending) or kuenjoy (English enjoy

with the Swahili prefix ku, meaning to).

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2.3 Factor affect for Bilinguals or multilingual to Mix their Languages

When code mixing occurs, the motivation or reasons of the speaker is an

important consideration in the process. According to Hoffman (2004 : 12) Savile

troike (2003 : 45) and Malik (1994 : 25) , there are a number of factors affect for

bilingual or multilingual person to mix their languages. Those are:

2.3.1 To soften or strengthen request or command

For Indonesian people, mixing Bahasa Indonesia into English can also

soften a request because English is not their native tongue so it does not sound as

direct as Bahasa Indonesia. However, code mixing can also strengthen a command

since the speaker can feel more powerful than the listener because he/she can use

a language that not everybody can. Example:

Indonesia-English

A: tolong dong puterin kipas angin. Please!!

The underlined word Please is code mixing in reason of to soften or strengthen

request or command.

2.3.2 Because of real lexical need

The most common reason for bilinguals to mix their languages is due to

the lack of equivalent lexicon in the languages. When an English-Indonesian

bilingual has a word that is lacking in English, he were found it easier to say it in

Bahasa Indonesia. And vice versa, when he/she has a word that is lacking in

Bahasa Indonesia, he/she were use the English term. Example:

Indonesia-English

A: selalu saja saya di bully di media sosial

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The underlined words bully is code mixing in reason of because of real lexical

need.

2.3.3 To exclude other people when a comment is intended for only a limited

audience

Sometimes people want to communicate only to certain people or

community they belong to. To avoid the other community or people interfering

their communication, they may try to exclude those people by using the language

that not everybody knows/masters. Example:

Indonesia-English

A: pemandangannya gorgeous yah?

The underlined word gorgeous is code mixing in reason of To exclude other

people when a comment is intended for only a limited audience.

2.3.4 Talking about a particular topic

People sometimes prefer to talk about a particular topic in one language

rather than in another. Sometimes, a speaker feels free and more comfortable to

express their emotional feelings in a language that is not their everyday language.

Example:

Indonesia-English

A: akhir-akhir ini kriminal di indonesia jadi tranding topic

The underlined phrases tranding topic is code mixing in reason of Talking about a

particular topic.

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2.3.5 Quoting somebody else

People sometimes like to quote a famous expression or saying of some

well-known figures. In Indonesian, those well-known figures are mostly from

some English-speaking countries. Then, because many of the Indonesian people

nowadays are good at English, those famous expressions or sayings can be quoted

their language.Example:

Indonesia-English

A: Albert enstein berkataA man who only reads in too much and just uses his

own brain few of falls into lazy.

The underlined sentence A man who only reads in too much and just uses his

own brain few of falls into lazy is code mixing in reason of Quoting somebody

else.

2.3.6 Being emphatic about something

Usually, when someone who is talking using a language that is not his

native tongue suddenly wants to be emphatic about something, he/she, either

intentionally or unintentionally, were mixing from his second language to his first

language. Or, on the other hand, there are some cases where people feel more

convenient to be emphatic in their second language rather than in their first

language. Example:

Indonesia-English

A:kamu harus segera tidur right now!!!

The underlined phrases right now is code mixing in reason of Being emphatic

about something.

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2.3.7 Interjection (Inserting sentence fillers or sentence connectors)

Code mixing among bilingual or multilingual people can sometimes mark

an interjection or sentence connector. It may happen unintentionally or

intentionally. code mixing among bilingual or multilingual people can sometimes

mark an interjection or sentence connector. It may happen unintentionally. The

following are examples of the usage of interjection in sentences. Example:

Indonesia-English

A : Baik, Im glad to meet you.

B : Ok. Terima kasih

The underlined sentence Im glad to meet you it is code mixing in reason of

Interjection.

2.3.8 Repetition used for clarification

When a bilingual wants to clarify his/her speech so that it were

understood more by the listener, he/she can sometimes use both of the languages

that he masters saying the same utterance (the utterance is said repeatedly). When

a bilingual or multilingual person wants to clarify his speech so that it had been

understood better by listener, he can sometimes use both of the languages (codes)

that he masters to say the same message. Frequently, a message in one code is

repeated in the other code literally. A repetition is not only served to clarify what

is said, but also to amplify or emphasize a message. Example:

Thai-English

A: straight. Sidha jao

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The underlined word sidha jao is code mixing in reason of Repetition used for

clarification.

2.3.9 Intention of clarifying the speech content for interlocutor

When bilingual talks to another bilingual, there were lots of code mixing

occur. It means to make the content of his/her speech runs smoothly and can be

understood by the hearer. When bilingual or multilingual person talks to another

bilingual/multilingual, there were lots of code mixing occurs. It means to make

the content of his speech runs smoothly and can be understood by the listener. A

message in one code is repeated in the other code in somewhat modified

form.Example:

Arabic-English

A: Assalamualaikum warrahmatullahi wabarakatuh. peace be upon you and may

God bestow on you his blessing

The underlined sentence peace be upon you and may God bestow on you his

blessing is code mixing in reason of Intention of clarifying the speech content for

interlocutor.

2.3.10 Expressing group identity

Code mixing can also be used to express group identity. As it has been

mentioned previously, the way of communication of academic people in their

disciplinary groupings, are obviously different from other groups. In other words,

the way of communication of one community is different from the people who are

out of the community (Barnett, 1994 : 7). The way of communication of academic

people in their disciplinary groupings, are obviously different from the other

16
groups. In other words, the way of communication of one community is different

from the people who are out of the community.Example:

Indonesia-English

A: banyak penemuan baru yang di kembangkan oleh para scientist

The underlined word scientist is code mixing in reason of Expressing group

identity.

2.3.11 Lack of facility

According to Malik (1994 : 56), the above example shows that the

participant couldnt find an appropriate expression or vocabulary item at that

moment of conversation. Example:

Malay-English

A: hari yg x productive.....mengantok2....

The underlined word productive is code mixing in reason of lack of facility. The

word productive serves as a substitute as the speaker could not find other Malay

word that suits the sentence

2.3.12 Lack of register

According to Malik (1994 : 19), code mixing often takes place in the

speech of doctors, lawyers, engineers,etc. while they interact among themselves.

These are jargons which only appeal to some people according to their profession.

Example:

Indonesia-English

A: goodwill saya telah tercoreng di khalayak umum.

17
The underlined phrases goodwill is code mixing in reason of lack of register. The

phrase goodwill often used in terms of economic experts.

2.3.13 Mood of the speaker

Malik (1994 : 45) claims that usually when bilinguals are tired or angry,

code mixing takes place with a new dimension. This means, when the speaker is

in the right state of mind, he/she can find the appropriate word or expression in

the base language. Example:

Indonesia-English

A: kegiatan hari ini di batalkan!!!

B: Oh my god. Sayang sekali

The underlined word oh my god is code mixing in reason of mood of the speaker.

For example, the above example shows the speaker is panic, and the English word

oh my god is more available at that time. So it is used rather than the Malay

word astaga.

2.3.14 To emphasize a point

According to Malik (1994 : 12), code mixing is also used to emphasize a

point. Example:

Indonesia-English

A: Marilah mencari sesuap makanan. Starvingggg

The underlined word Starvingggg is code mixing in reason of To emphasize a

point. In the above example, the speaker mixing from his/her native language to

English as a mean of adding more force to the statement.

18
2.3.15 Habitual experience

As mentioned by Malik (1994 : 78), code mixing often occurs in fixed

phrases of greeting and parting, commands and requests, invitation, expressions of

gratitude and discourse markers. In this example, it can be seen that the speaker

mixings to English to greet and ask how the friend is doing. Example:

indonesia-English

A: hehe. excited lah juga lah hari ini

The underlined word excited, how r you is code mixing in reason of habitaul

experience.

2.3.16 Semantic significance

Malik (1994 : 44) stresses that mixing at a particular moment conveys

semantically significant information. This type of code mixing is least used by the

participants in Facebook. It is a communicative resource that builds on

participants perception of two languages. Example:

Indonesia-English

A: kamu sangat beautiful hari ini

The underlined word beautiful is code mixing in reason of Semantic significance.

2.3.17 To show identity with a group

Malik (1994 : 77) mentions, code mixing is used to stress the fact that

they all belong to the same minority group, with shared values and experiences.

Example:

Malay-English

19
A: Done with cda!thanks for the words of encouragement, and other stuffs. So as

a reward,free hairspa or salon or whatever u request. Now i pulak tolong

encourage u for semantics!hehe

The underlined word cda, i pulak is code mixing in reason of To show identity

with a group. In this case, the issue being talked only appeal to those who know

what CDA and Semantics mean. Here, the speaker is referring to the English

Language subjects, Critical Discourse Analysis and Semantics.

2.3.18 To address a different audience

As mentioned by Malik (1994 : 256), code mixing is also used when the

speaker intends to address people coming from various linguistic backgrounds.

Example:

Malay-English

A: Okaylah so far. You afilash? Are you doing your degree in USM? Heard you

broke up with Shalini. Izzit true? Eh muna, kau katne ni?

The underlined sentence Izzit, Eh muna, kau katne ni is code mixing in reason of

To address a different audience. As posted in one of the participants wall, the

speaker is addressing to two different person she knows of different ethnicity, The

speaker used a mixed discourse of English and Malay. The first part of the

conversation is intended to the speakers English speaking friend. On the other

hand, the speaker uses Malay in interacting with her latter Malay friend.

20
2.4 Conceptual Framework

Based on the above previous studies and theoretical framework it

could be inferred that there are plenty of code mixing types and also there are lots

of factors affect why people mix their codes. In this research, it is extremely

significant to know what type of code mixing people use in the social media along

with the factors affect. Thus, it could be schematized as follows :

CodeCode
mixing in the
mixing in social media
the social
media

The type of code mixing people The factors affect why people mix their
use in the social media : codes in the social media
1. Talking about a particular topic
1. Emblematic 2. Quoting somebody else
2. Intra-sentential 3. Being emphatic about something
3. Intersentential 4. Interjection (Inserting sentence fillers or
4. Intra-lexical code mixing sentence connectors)
Hoffman (2004 : 7) 5. Repetition used for clarification
Hoffman ( 2004 : 12)

6. Intention of clarifying the speech


content for interlocutor
7. To show group identity
8. To soften or strengthen request or
command
9. Because of real lexical need
The interrelationship between the
10. To address a different audience
types and reasons of the use of Savile and Troike (2003 : 45)
code mixing in the social media
11. Lack of facility
12. Mood of the speaker
13. To emphasize a point
14. Habitual experience
15. Semantic significance
16. Pragmatic reasons
17. To attract attention
Malik (1994 : 25)
21
2.5 Previous Studies.

There are some researchers who have conducted the study of code mixing.

For example:

Halim and Maros (2014 : 6), studied the functions of code mixing in

Facebook interactions, state that studies on code-mixing over the past two decades

have a propensity to focus on its spoken context, few on its written production.

The study contributes to the under-studied area by investigating the occurrences of

code-mixing electronic writing. The goal of their study is to examine the code-

mixing functions performed by five Malay-English bilingual users in their

Facebook interactions. The data of this study were collected within one year from

status updates posted by the bilingual users on their Facebook wall. They were

then coded, analyzed and categorized according to the functions they served in the

Facebook context. The classification of the code-mixing functions was based on

Gumperzs (1982 : 90) conversational code-mixing. Findings indicate that code-

mixing occurs in online interaction to serve quotation, addressee specification,

reiteration, message qualification, clarification, emphasis, checking, indicating

emotions, availability, principle of economy and free mixing functions. The study

hopes to provide insights on the code-mixing phenomenon in asynchronous

Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC). Additionally, the findings of this

study were be of value for the development of code mixing studies in the CMC

area.

22
Parveen and Aslam (2013 : 4), focused on the study on reasons for code

mixing in Facebook by Pakistani Urdu English bilinguals, conclude that with over

800 million active users, Facebook is changing the way hundreds of millions of

people relate to one another and share information. Language has also been

influenced in terms of its usage and practices as it is one of the favored modes of

communication on the Internet. Code mixing is one of the language phenomena

where such changes can be traced. Their research aims to find out code mixing in

online interaction also the reasons for doing so by examining participants

bilingual exchanges in social networking website. The study adapts Maliks ten

reasons for code mixing as a framework to investigate the reasons of code mixing

by Urdu English bilingual students of five postgraduate institutes of Pakistan. The

data consisted of messages posted by bilingual students on their Facebook profile

pages. The study uses descriptive qualitative method to analyze data collected

through convenient sampling method. Findings show that code-mixing is a

prevalent phenomenon in Pakistani Urdu English bilingual speakers on Facebook.

Based on the analysis the study concluded that code mixing is not only apparent in

spoken discourse but also in online written discourse and the reasons for mixing

codes are similar to those of verbal communication.

Dabrowska (2013 : 98), exploring the functions of code mixing in Polish

and Hindi Facebook users posts, says that in the modern era the use of English

has become very widespread, the language being used more and more by non-

native speakers in a variety of contexts. The objective of the study is to explore

the use of the English language as a second and as a foreign language by bilingual

23
Polish-English and Hindi-English speakers in the medium of Computer Mediated

Communication, represented in the following study by the social network context,

in order to demonstrate differences in the use of the language by the two groups,

stemming from the status of English in the two respective circles, the Outer and

the Expanding. the particular aspects of analysis include the frequency of the use

of English, the length of the English posts and, notably, the phenomenon of code-

mixing, its typology and the functions which the respective languages typically

perform in the mixed elements.

Fong (2011 : 78), focused on the functions and reasons for code mixing on

Facebook by UTAR English Mandarin Chinese bilingual undergraduates, reports

that As Facebook, one of the social-networking websites, has swiftly become one

of the favoured modes of communication on the Internet, language has also been

influenced in terms of its usage and practices. Code-mixing, the alternate use of

more than one language in a discourse, is one of the language phenomena where

such changes can be traced. The research investigated on the occurrences of code-

mixing in asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) between

bilingual university students via social networking website by taking a functional

approach in examining the various functions and reasons for code-mixing. The

data consisted of messages posted by Faculty of Arts and Social Science (FAS)

Mandarin Chinese-English bilingual students of Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman

(UTAR) on their Facebook profile pages. Data was then analysed based on an

integration of Appel and Muyskens six functions of code-mixing and Maliks ten

reasons for code-mixing. Findings suggested that code-mixing would occur in

24
online communication mainly to serve referential, expressive and metalinguistic

functions. For more substantial results in the future, researchers may consider

larger numbers of participants to observe the occurrence of code-mixing in

asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC)

Urback (2007 : 90), studied the code mixing in Computer-Mediated

Communication, says that This essay investigates cases of Swedish-English code-

mixing in a bilingual discussion forum on the Internet. Code-mixing is a linguistic

term used to describe mixes from one language to another in discourse. The

material consists of excerpts from the forum which have been analyzed and

presents various cases of code-mixing which appeared in the forum. The examples

from the forum presented in this essay are chosen due to their relevance to code-

mixing and bilingualism. The examples were analyzed according to Romaines

and Klintborgs classifications of code-mixing. The research questions sought to

find out if, how and why the bilingual users in this forum code-mixing when

communicating. The results proved that the bilingual users do code-mixing, and

that the most common mix is the insertion of one word, or several words, in

another language into an otherwise monolingual sentence. The discussion part

also consists of a summary of the mixes in the forum. The conclusion of the study

is that code-mixing does exist in this forum, and the participants code-mixing in

different ways, however mainly to show hospitality and to signal a belonging to

the group. What makes it different between this research and other similar

research in the previous studies above is that this research also attempts to find out

the frequencies and percentages of each type and reason why people conduct code

25
mixing in the social media. That is why, the researcher also includes the

frequencies and percentages of people using code mixing in the social media.

Based on the previous studies above, the researcher found the similarities

and differences with the researcher study. The similarities of researchers Halim

and Maros, Dabrowska and Fong are they investigated types of code mixing. The

difference among them with reseracher is interrelationship between type and

factor affect of this research. Although Parven and Aslam also analyzed the reason

of code mixing but the researcher investigated both of the research question.

Morover, the researcher used some social media as the data source not only

facebook. The specific differences from previous studies that is reinforced by the

theory of Hoffman, Savile troike and Malik as a theory used in this research by

combining the three opinions of the experts which have the same relevance so as

to create a harmonious continuity in this research.

26
CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

The research design of this study is descriptive qualitative. This research

would show the nature of the situation as it exists at the time of the study as stated

by Maykut and Morehouse (1994), descriptive research determines and reports the

way the things are. This research is also qualitative since all the data collected is

in the form of words. .

3.2 Data Source

The data were collected from social media context (Fb and Twitter) and

others data. Primary data in this research are related to the dialogues shown in all

the social media as the form of Computer-Mediated Communication. The social

media here are Facebook and Twitter. The data are obtained by means of pressing

the Print Screen button in the PC or notebooks keyboard, and then paste them

into the Microsoft Word clipboard. This is the most authentic way to prove that

the dialogues are really genuine, not made-up.

3.3 Secondary data

secondary data in this research were collected from journals, articles,

books, thesis,and internet.

27
3.4 Method of Collecting Data

To collect the data, the researcher were first choose the dialogues in the

social media that contains some forms of code mixing, using the Print Screen

method as explained above.

The whole steps in collecting data are described as follows :

a. Scan the whole patch of dialog to find any samples of code mixing.

b. The samples of code mixing are saved using Print Screen facility, using

Print Screen button on the PC or notebook keyboard.

c. The data are sorted out based on the types of code mixing.

d. Carry out online investigation regarding the reasons why the people use

code mixing in the social media. The interview using open ended

questions, meaning that the questions allow for spontaneous responses and

without fixed restrictions for the feedbacks.

e. All of the data are then put into matrix for the purpose of facilitating the

understanding of analyzing the data.

28
3.5 Technique of Analyzing Data

There are three steps in analyzing the data :

a. Coding the data using print screen based on the types and factors affect of

code mixing. The analysis uses the types of code mixing and factors affect

why people in the social media mix their languages.

b. Discussing and summarizing the findings. In this step, the researcher were

show how many types of code mixing are found in the social media. Also,

the researcher were show how many factor affect of language mixing of

each category are found in the dialogues of the social media.

c. Analyzing the interrelationship between the types and factor affect of the

use of code mixing in the social media in order to have a more

comprehensive understanding of the types and reasons of people mixing

codes in realm CMC.

29
CHAPTER IV

FINDING AND DISSCUSSION

In this chapter the researcher attempts to analyze the types of code mixing

found in the social media and to find out the probable reasons why people in the

social media mix codes from Bahasa Indonesia into English.

4.1. The Types of Code Mixing Found In The Social Media

The types of code mixing according to Hoffman (2004 : 7) consist of six

main types, i.e.

1. Emblematic.

2. Intra-sentential.

3. Intersentential.

4. Intra-lexical code mixing.

Based on the six types of code-mixing mentioned by Hoffman, researchers

found only five types of course that is emblematic, intra-sententential,

intersentential, intra-lexical code mixing in the social media (FB & Twitter), and

one type only mixed code that is not found by researchers in social media, namely

intra-lexical code mixing.

30
4.1.1 Emblematic

tags (words) and certain set phrases in one language which are inserted into an

utterance otherwise in another.The following Facebook chatting is a case in point:

The above chatting is actually predominated by emblematic code mixing,

although the first example begins with intersentential type of mixing We go

abroad.

Kita harus banyak2 prepare segala kebutuhan untuk survive disana,

Semoga banyak dari kita yg nambah experience dr kesempatan yg rarely

happen ini

The above examples indicate that the words / phrase prepare, survive,

experience, and rarely happen seem to be the key words in that chunk of

utterances. It seems that LM Adi Cahyu Kamsyar wants to lay great emphasis on

those key words to other netizens. In other words, he performed code mixing in

the above chatting just for the purpose of directing considerable attention to others

concerning things they have to prepare before going abroad.

31
The above example begins with the exclamation well. Those who are

bilingual speakers in Bahasa Indonesia and English, there is a strong tendency that

this type of exclamatory word has been a common practice, especially when they

want to initiate an utterance. On the other hand, padahal sdah anxious mi jgaa di

comment pedis really indicates that the words anxious and comment are

closely related to one another, that is, the anxiety was caused by the adverse

comment on Facebook and this is a common phenomenon in social media like

Facebook.

32
In the above chatting, it seems that Asia Susanti wanted to initiate her

remarks with code mixing inti nya, signifying that her comment begins with the

firm introductory statement mixed in Bahasa Indonesia inti nya, and then

followed by the gist of her message I have my own way to move on. This type

of emblematic code mixing is a common practice among Indonesians who are

virtually bilingual in Bahasa Indonesia and English, especially when they want to

uncover something important.

In the above chatting, it seems glaringly obvious that she wants to lay

great emphasis on the word deadline and in the process of facing the deadline

she seemed to be absorbed in an exciting activity (perhaps a kind of game), so

exciting that she seems to ignore the deadline which is approaching. Nowadays,

there is a marked tendency among Indonesians that the phrase batas waktu in

33
Bahasa Indonesia seems to be changed more often by the word deadline in

English. This is not a kind of borrowing since both English and Bahasa Indonesia

have their own equivalents (deadline and batas waktu).

In the above chatting she attempts to use emblematic word in the form of

typical Indonesian slang. Kepo in Indonesian slang stands for Knowing Every

Particular Object. The real sense of this word is a type of person who knows the

precise details of something or someone though it is done at a single glance. In

most cases, this type of person is intensely curious in almost every single thing,

and they tend to be addicted to such a habit.

Nowadays, there is a growing tendency among Indonesians when they chat

in the social media with the feeling of utter dejection, they usually combine with

code mixing of emblematic type having the sense of intensifying adverbs like

asli, abis or something like that. For instance, sad abis, asli disappointing,

and so forth. The use of these typical intensifying adverbs in Bahasa Indonesia

34
were usually assign a more dramatic meaning if they change into intensifying

adverbs in English, such as very, fairly, highly, and so forth.

In social media, sometimes people have sociable chat or a kind of talk just

to amuse one another using emblematic code mixing like the above example. In

this case, sociable chat is sometimes related to ridiculous comparisons such as a

literate cat and so on.

The above example also shows that establishing continuity with the

previous speaker is quite obvious. In this case, if the first speaker uses code

mixing, then it is highly probable that the next speakers were do accordingly.

35
In the above example, ..katanya the most important person in my life is

my MOM suggests that the emblematic code mixing katanya plays an important

role in describing the next utterance in English. However, it is not clear whether

the emblematic katanya refers to the equivalent people say (typical generative

statement) or referring to a particular person in that context.

Other interesting emblematic type in the above example is Mamskie yg ga

suka bragging anak2 cewex di dpn ibu2 yg lain..The use of the word bragging,

meaning talking too proudly about something they own or something they have

done, suggests that the word is the most prominent and it provides a firm

indication that Nur Rizky Alfiany harshly criticizes other mothers who often talk

proudly about their daughters or things they have done.

36
4.1.2 Intra-sentential

This kind of code mixing occurs within a clause or sentence boundary.

If people keep asking me why Im so sick about GoT, penjelasan Mbak

Bule ini sedikit baxk telah mewakili perasaanqu. This type of intra-sentential

code-mixing shows that she seems deeply loathes the explanation concerning the

verb got. She felt no animosity towards the complexity of the verb got when

the female native speaker of English provided little enlightenment about the usage

of the verb got. The above example denotes that sometimes intra-sentential

code mixing shows the true feeling of people detesting or taking pleasure in

something.

37
Sometimes, an intra-sentential code mixing is used to reinforce the

previous ideas or statements. The utterance : Mereka ? Adalah sebagian dari

hidupku ini yang menghiasi warna dan aneka ragam kehidupann ini colour up

your days shows that the expressions colour up your days and menghiasi

warna.. are actually the exact repetition of the same utterance.

38
The above intra-sentential code mixing example shows that the speaker

really shows his understandable anxiety to be a member of a distinguished novel-

lover in Facebook. The expression with the best of your ability.. actually

shows a mounting anxiety, signifying that he were be dismissed from the group if

he is not able to speak proper English. This type of apprehension is further shown

: .insecure nya deh, meaning that he feels incredibly uncomfortable joining

the group.

39
4.1.3 Inter-sentential

This kind of code mixing occurs at a clause or sentence boundary, where

each clause or sentence is in one language or the other.

The inter-sentential code-mixing is sometimes used as an introductory

remarks in an utterance in social media. It seems that the utterances in Bahasa

Indonesiasukses ki, salama ki, sehat ki, mari sama2. serve as the gist of her

utterances. The English sentence serves as the introductory remarks for the next

utterances. It is worth noting that the phrase hand in hand seems to serve as the

intra-sentential code mixing in an inter-sentential construction in the above

utterance.

40
The above example actually shows a mixed construction between inter-

sentential and emblematic patterns of code mixing. The initial chunk of the

utterances seems to begin with English sentence but then followed by sentences in

Bahasa Indonesia with some emblematic insertions. It seems that the most

important part of the above utterance is the second half in Bahasa Indonesia. Like

the previous example, this type of inter-sentential code mixing also begins with

the introductory remarks in English and then followed by the core message in

Bahasa Indonesia.

41
4.2 Factor affect for Bilinguals or multilingual to Mix their Languages

When code mixing occurs, the motivation or reasons of the speaker is an

important consideration in the process. According to Hoffman (2004 : 12) Savile

troike (2003 : 45) and Malik (1994 : 25) , there are a number of factors affect for

bilingual or multilingual person to mix their languages. Those are:

4.2.1 Talking about a particular topic

People sometimes prefer to talk about a particular topic in one language

rather than in another. Sometimes, a speaker feels free and more comfortable to

express their emotional feelings in a language that is not their everyday language.

In the above example, the topic is about Indonesian celebrity. The

interesting points regarding the above utterances are the expressions code mixed

in English such as.their wedding is sponsored, theres a hint of

incompleteness because of Olgas absence. These two expressions indicate a

42
strong emotional feeling being expressed in English rather than being expressed in

Bahasa Indonesia. It is widely known that Raffi Ahmad and Olga had been close

friends, and Olgas absence in Raffis wedding was considered as a missing

person in the wedding.

The main topic of the above utterance is the strange man with queer

appearance. The interesting point in the above example is the combination

between Bahasa Indonesia, English and typical Indonesian slang. Unyu is a

typical Indonesian slang meaning cute. She seems more comfortable to say

unyu with a slight goatee on his chin rather than saying it in Bahasa Indonesia

imut-imut dengan janggut runcing tipis di dagunya. Sometimes, the use of

code mixing serves as having had the decency to express something unfavorable

or unpleasant.

43
4.2.2 To Emphasize A Point

According to Malik (1994 : 36), code-mixing is also used to emphasize a

point as a means of adding more force to the statement.

The above example shows that the use of code mixing deadline seems to

add more force to the whole utterance. It looks as if she wanted to say that her

total absorption in that activity (it looks like a game) is closely related to the

deadline she has to face the following day. That is why she mixed the phrase

batas waktu in Bahasa Indonesia into deadline in English merely to emphasize

the point that she spent more time on that exciting activity and it threatened her

deadline the following day.

4.2.3 To Soften Or Strengthen Request Or Command

For Indonesian people, mixing Bahasa Indonesia into English can also

soften a request because English is not their native tongue so it does not sound as

direct as Bahasa Indonesia :

44
The above chat denotes that the command or request were sound more

polite or soften an imposition if it was uttered in English (rather than in Bahasa

Indonesia). If it was uttered in Bahasa Indonesia, the odds are overwhelming

that the level of its politeness were reduced and other interlocutors were

adversely respond to such an utterance. That is why, the role of code mixing

plays a principal role in softening an imposition to others.

4.2.4 Pragmatic Reasons

According to Malik (1994 : 54), sometimes the alternation between two

languages is highly meaningful in terms of the conversational context.

45
In the above chat, the two netizens were talking about domestic animal and

language skills using code mixing. From the pragmatic point of view, it seems

that they were talking about a picture with a cat and books at hand and it makes

their chatting more meaningful. Since they belong to the same (linguistic)

background, a cat with books was responded as having reading, speaking and

writing ability. In this example, the features of showing identity with a group is

also obvious. Their identity as belonging to the same background shows that the

second interlocutor (Salmi Rahmawati) responded with the same jargon (language

skills, speaking, reading and writing). On the other hand, the above example also

shows a sense of addressing a different audience. As mentioned by Malik (1994 :

24), code-mixing is also used when the speaker intends to address people coming

from various linguistic backgrounds. In this context, Asia Susanti actually wanted

46
to address other netizens from the same linguistic background with the domestic

animal and books.

4.2.5 Mood of the Speaker

Malik (1994 : 67) claims that usually when bilinguals are tired or angry,

code-mixing takes place with a new dimension. This means, when the speaker is

in the right state of mind, he/she can find the appropriate word or expression in

the base language.

The above example really indicates that she seems to be in low spirits.

The fact that she was actually in a bad mood is reinforced by the presence of the

intensifying adverb asli in Bahasa Indonesia. Nowadays, in the social media,

there is a strong tendency among netizens to make use of the social media as a

means of confiding in their problems or other unpleasant things. No wonder, if we

log in a Facebook or Twitter account for instance, we were encounter a plethora

of netizens expressing their bad mood one another. On the other hand, the above

example also shows that she wanted to attract attention from other netizens to

induce a proper response in an effort to cheer her up from something unpleasant

or unfavorable. Besides, it seems that she also wanted to emphasize a point, that

47
is, the use of code mixing gloomy in the above example serves as a means of

adding more force to the statement (Malik, 1994 : 36).

4.3 Summary of The Findings

Based on the above data analysis, there are some crucial points to discuss

as the gist of the findings above :

From the viewpoint of the types of code mixing according to Hoffman

(2004 : 7), it seems that from emblematic, intra-sentential, inter-sentential, intra-

lexical, establishing continuity with the previous speaker, and involving a change

of pronunciation, the most dominant type is emblematic type.

Sometimes the purpose of directing considerable attention to others is also

discernible in particular context. For instance, in preparation for themselves

before going abroad, the use of code mixing serves as drawing attention to other

netizens using particular English words.

The use of introductory exclamatory word such as well has been a

common practice among bilingual netizens, indicating that they tend to mix codes

for the next utterances.

The introductory statement mixed in Bahasa Indonesia, such as inti-nya

is also a common practice. This type of emblematic code mixing is a common

practice among Indonesians who are virtually bilingual in Bahasa Indonesia and

English, especially when they want to uncover something important.

Now days, there is a marked tendency among Indonesians to mix codes

simply for the purpose of laying greater emphasis on a particular point or idea.

For instance, the use of the word deadline is more preferable than that in

48
Bahasa Indonesia batas waktu in order to emphasize that other netizens were

pay more attention to the key word.

Also, there is a growing tendency among Indonesians when they chat in

the social media with the feeling of utter dejection, they usually combine with

code mixing of emblematic type having the sense of intensifying adverbs like

asli, abis or something like that. The use of these typical intensifying adverbs

in Bahasa Indonesia were usually assign a more dramatic meaning if they change

into intensifying adverbs in English, such as very, fairly, highly, and so forth.

In social media, sometimes people have sociable chat or a kind of talk just

to amuse one another using emblematic code mixing like the above example. In

this case, sociable chat is sometimes related to ridiculous comparisons.

Code mixing can also be used to criticize other people (either particular

people or people in general) when the use of words in Bahasa Indonesia seems to

be more impolite. Thus, code mixing in this context plays an important role in

avoiding discord with other people.

Sometimes intra-sentential code mixing shows the true feeling of people

detesting or taking pleasure in something. Expressing feelings through code

mixing is another phenomenon in social media. It seems that netizens think it

would be better to confide in Facebook or Twitter for instance rather than to

unload on a person directly. It sounds reasonable since in social media, more

people were call forth their responses than directly confiding in someone directly

(offline).

49
Sometimes, an intra-sentential code mixing is used to reinforce the

previous ideas or statements. Thus, code mixing in this case serves as

strengthening the meaning of the earlier statements. If we attempt to repeat the

previous ideas or points in the same language, then the effects were be more

subtle.

The use of code mixing in the context of inter-sentential in a social media

sometimes denotes the primary and secondary messages in an utterance. For

instance, a sequence of utterances begins with English introductory remarks,

serving as the secondary message, and then followed by some utterances in

Bahasa Indonesia, serving as the primary messages.

On the other hand, from the viewpoint of the reasons of code mixing,

based on the results of the interview with some netizens who often use code

mixing in the social media, most netizens say that their principal reasons in code

mixing are :

1. to emphasize a point

2. to attract attention,

3. to show identity with a group.

Based on the question concerning the three main reasons why they mix

codes in the social media, those three feedbacks are the most dominant. However,

when they are asked about which point is the most dominant pertaining to the

reasons they mix codes, it turns out that showing identity with a group is the most

prevailing. It signifies that showing identity with a group is closely related to

50
their bilingual ability, that is, a group of netizens having a good command of

English and Bahasa Indonesia.

On the other hand, based on the data analysis concerning the reasons why

netizens use code mixing, they sometimes prefer to talk about a particular topic in

one language rather than in another. Sometimes, netizens feels free and more

comfortable to express their emotional feelings in a language that is not their

everyday language. In other words, the use of code mixing in this context shows a

strong emotional feeling being expressed in English rather than being expressed in

Bahasa Indonesia.

Sometimes, the use of code mixing also serves as having had the decency

to express something unfavorable or unpleasant. In this case, expressing

something unfavorable or unpleasant in Bahasa Indonesia were certainly lead to

negative effects. For instance people may easily get offended by such

discourteous remarks if they are uttered in their mother tongue.

The most conspicuous thing regarding the reasons of code mixing in the

social media is showing identity with a group. Their identity as belonging to the

same linguistic background shows that most of all, in the process of code mixing

they tend to use the same jargons representing their own group.

51
CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 CONCLUSIONS

From the data analysis and its discussions above, it could be concluded

that, based on the types and reasons of the use of code mixing in the social media,

there are some typical characteristics pertaining to the types and reasons of the use

of code mixing in the social media. Based on the sample of data, There are six

types of code-mixing proposed by Hoffman (2004 : 7) is emblematic, intra-

sentential, intersentential, intra-lexical code mixing, establishing continuity with

the previous speaker and involving a change of pronunciation but researchers did

not find the kind of code mixing in social media (FB & Twitter) that intra-lexical

code mixing. The most dominant type is emblematic. There are seven

respondances from fourteen samples of the data found by the researchers

dominant choose what kind of emblematic.

Based on the sample of data, Researchers found few reasons why peoples

enter code-mixing in social media on their statement in theory Hoffman, Savile

troike and Malik are to soften or Strengthen request or comman, talking about a

particular topic, the mood of the speaker, to emphasize a point, pragmatic reason.

There are two respondances of six sample data were found by researchers. The

use of introductory exclamatory word has been a common practice among

bilingual netizens, indicating that they tend to mix codes for the next utterances.

Code mixing is also a common practice especially when netizens want to uncover

52
something important. There is a marked tendency among netizens to mix codes

simply for the purpose of laying greater emphasis on a particular point or idea.

Also, there is a growing tendency among netizens when they chat in the social

media with the feeling of utter dejection.In social media, sometimes netizens have

sociable chat or a kind of talk just to amuse one another using emblematic code

mixing.

From the viewpoint of the factors affect why the netizens mix codes,

based on the interview with some netizens, their principal reasons in code mixing

are to emphasize a point, to attract attention, and to show identity with a group.

The most dominant reason why the netizens mix code is showing identity with a

group. Their identity as belonging to the same linguistic background shows that

most of all, in the process of code mixing they tend to use the same jargons

representing their own group.

53
5.2 SUGGESTIONS

Code mixing is a widespread, and even a global phenomenon in social

media. That is why, this study is supposed to be able to make a substantial

contribution to other researchers delving deeply into the phenomena of code

mixing, especially in the social media. This research of course have some

questions remain unanswered, for instance the phenomena of lexical borrowings,

Anglicisms (a word or phrase from the English language that is used in another

language), phonetic typing, and so forth, in the context of English and Indonesian

bilinguals. These related phenomena could be investigated further by other

researchers because they are closely related to the phenomenon of code mixing.

54
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57
APPENDICES

The data of sample code mixing from FB and Twitter on social media those are:

Data 1

Data 2

58
Data 3

Data 4

Data 5

59
Data 6

Data 7

60
Data 8

Data 9

61
Data 10

Data 11

62
Data 12

Data 13

63
Data 14

Data 15

64