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Physical Hazards

1. 1. INFANCY (Birth to 2nd week )


2. 2. One of the most hazardous periods in the life span. Some are of only temporary
significance while others can affect the individuals life
3. 3. It can result to infants difficulty adjusting to post natal life. Prolonged and intense
maternal stress, for example, may cause the infant to be tense and nervous. Hazardous
only when the fetus becomes so large that the birth requires the use of instruments or
surgery. Infants may also experience neonatal adjustments problem.
4. 4. Frequently results in temporary or permanent brain damage. The more complicated
the birth the more damage there is to the brain tissue, the greater the effect on the infants
postnatal adjustments. Effects of brain damage are shown in uncoordinated behavior,
hyperactivity, learning difficulties and emotional patterns.
5. 5. Usually smaller and weaker than singletons as a result of crowding during the prenatal
period which inhibits fetal movements. These babies tend to be born prematurely, which
adds to their adjustment problems.
6. 6. It causes more neonatal deaths than any other condition. Affects adjustment for many
years thereafter due to the result of the fact that the brain and the nervous system is not fully
developed and others due to neurological disorders resulting from birth injuries and anoxia.
The most critical times for death during the period of infancy are the day of birth (2/3 of all
neonatal deaths occur) and second and third days of birth.
7. 7. BABYHOOD (End of 2nd week End of 2nd year)
8. 8. In the first year of babyhood, physical hazards tend to be more numerous and more
serious than psychological ones, while the reverse is true during
9. 9. During the first year of babyhood, death is usually caused by serious illness while during
the second year, death is more often due to accidents. Occurs after a long period of sleep;
due to abnormalities in breathing or who have had some abnormal condition at birth; also
common to babies who had oxygen therapy during the newborn period.
10. 10. Respiratory complications, colds and digestive upsets; prolonged illnesses can
interfere with the normal growth pattern. It causes stunted growth but also leads to physical
defects such as carious teeth, bowed legs, and a tendency to suffer from more or less
constant illness; brain growth and development may be impaired.
11. 11. True when babies are on their second year when they can move about more freely.
Some babyhood accident such as bruises and scratches, are minor and have no
permanent effects. Others, such as blows on the head or cuts, may be serious enough to
leave permanent scars or may even be fatal.
12. 12. Babies who are fed large amounts of carbohydrates during this critical period of fat-cell
development are not only overweight but are subject to diabetes and heart diseases as they
grow older. Bottle-fed babies are more likely to be overfed than breast-fed babies.
13. 13. EATING HABITS babies who suck for long periods show signs of tenseness. They
engage in nonnutritive sucking, have more sleep difficulties, and are more restless.
Resistance of semi-solid foods if they are introduced too early. SLEEPING HABITS
crying, strenuous play with an adult, or noise can make babies tense and keep them from
falling asleep. Sleep schedules must meet the requirements to avoid tense and resistant to
sleep. HABITS OF ELIMINATION trying to toilet train babies too early will make them
uncooperative while delay results in habits of irregularity and lack of motivation on the babys
14. 14. EARLY CHILDHOOD (2nd year 6 years old)
15. 15. These hazards have psychological as well as physical repercussions, especially such
hazards as illness,
16. 16. Deaths are more often the result of accidents than of illness. During this period,
deaths are more frequent among boys than among girls. Young children are highly
susceptible to all kinds of illness, though respiratory illness are the most common.
17. 17. Most young children experiences cuts, bruises, infections, burns, broken bones,
strained muscles, or similar minor disturbances resulting from accidents. Due to delay in
motor development and as a result, they cannot keep up with their age-mates and being left
out of their play.
18. 18. It leads to health hazard. They are likely scorned by their peers and labeled Fatty.
The habit of overeating will lead to an obesity problem that will plague them throughout life.
It can affect childrens educational success and, later, their vocational success or their
social adjustments.
19. 19. The less attractive appearance of young children added to their changed behavior
makes them less appealing to their parents and adults. They interpret it as rejection and
bitterly resent it.
20. 20. LATE CHILDHOOD (6 years old 11 to 12 years old)
21. 21. As a result of new medical techniques for diagnosing, preventing and treating illnesses,
mortality during the late childhood occurs much less frequently than in
22. 22. It upsets the bodys homeostasis which in turn makes children irritable, demanding and
difficult to live with. Older children tend to be more cautious after an accident. This may
lead to timidity concerning all physical activities and even spread to other areas of behavior.
23. 23. This may be due to glandular condition but more often due to overeating. Obese
children are more prone to diabetes. Obese children lose out in active play and they miss
opportunities to acquire the skills so essential to social success. Prevent them from doing
what their playmates do or from keeping pace with them in play. They start to think of
themselves as being inferior to their playmates.
24. 24. Most of these are the aftereffects of accidents. The seriousness depends on the
disability and on the way others treat the child. Most disabled children become inhibited and
ill at ease in social situation. It is a hazard if other people react unfavorably and
communicate their feelings by the way they treat homely children. The interpretation of
rejection can have a harmful effect on their developing self-concepts.
25. 25. Girls with masculine body builds and boys with girlish physiques are likely to be
ridiculed by their peers and pitied by adults. This leads to personal and social
maladjustments.
26. 26. The major physical hazards of puberty are due to slight or major malfunctioning of the
endocrine glands that control the puberty growth spurt and the sexual changes that take
place at
27. 27. Physical hazards in this stage are now less numerous and less important than the
psychological hazards.
28. 28. Mortality as a result of illness is far less common although deaths due to automobile
accidents increase. These are more serious than at any other time during the life span.
This has serious impact on social maladjustments and self-concept.
29. 29. Many boys and girls who commit or attempt to commit suicide have been socially
isolated for a period of time before and many have experienced family disruptions and school
problems. These defects prevent adolescents from doing what their peers do.
30. 30. Far more disturbing to an adolescent than to a child mainly because they are judged
more by their sex-appropriate appearance and they are aware that once their growth is
nearly complete as it is when adolescence draws to close, their body build is for life.
31. 31. EARLY ADULTHOOD (21- 40 years old)
32. 32. The major hazards stems from a failure to master some or most of the important
developmental tasks for that age making the individual seem immature as compared
33. 33. Adults who are handicapped by poor health cannot achieve what they are capable of in
their vocational or social lives which results to frustrations. Adults find their unattractive
appearance detrimental and an almost insurmountable barrier to upward social mobility.
34. 34. MIDDLE ADULTHOOD (40 - 60 years old)
35. 35. The major hazards stems from the tendency of many men and women to accept the
cultural stereotype of the middle-aged person as fat, forty and balding.
36. 36. It has a profound influence on attitudes toward the physical changes that comes with
advancing age. Many middle-aged people are in constant rebellion against the restrictions
age places on their usual patterns of behavior.
37. 37. Changing role is never easy, especially after one has played and has learned to derive
satisfaction from them. Too much success in one role make adjustments to another role
difficult. They are likely to become bored and wonder how they can spend their leisure
time.
38. 38. Can be a hazard if families cannot afford the status symbols they want. These tends
to lead to frictional relationships with spouses. They face a serious hazard when they
realize they have fallen short of their goals and that time is fast running.
39. 39. LATE ADULTHOOD (60 years old onwards or to death)
40. 40. This is due partly to the physical and mental decline that makes the elderly more
vulnerable to potential hazards and partly to lack of recognition of these potential hazards on
the part of the social group.
41. 41. Elderly people are most commonly inflicted by circulatory disturbances, metabolic
disorders, involutional mental disorders, disorders of the joints, tumors, heart disease,
rheumatism, arthritis, visual and hearing impairment, hypertension, gait disorders and mental
and nervous conditions.
42. 42. This is due to more psychological that economic causes. The most common is lose
of appetite resulting from anxiety and depression. They have difficulties in chewing foods
rich in protein, such as meat, and may concentrate those high in carbohydrates.
43. 43. Happily married elderly people are healthier and live longer than those who never
married, who have lost a spouse, or who become sexually inactive. They are more
accident-prone. Even when the accident is not fatal, they frequently leave the individual
disabled for life.