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3/9/2017

Newton'sLawofCooling

3/9/2017 Newton'sLawofCooling InitialValueProblemsforGrowthandDecay UBCCalculusOnlineCourseNotes

Otherdifferentialequations

Wehaveexaminedthebehaviouroftwosimpledifferentialequationssofar,oneforpopulationgrowth,

andonefortheradioactivedecayofasubstance.Themethodswehavedevelopedareactuallyuseful

formanyotherinterestingproblems,andcanhelpustomakepredictionsaboutothersystemsthat,at

firstsight,donotseematallrelated.Wewillfindthatthecommonthreadinallthesesystemsisthe

simpledifferentialequationoftheform

simpledifferentialequationoftheform

Thisequationisofinterestforeitherpositiveornegativevaluesoftheconstant .Infact,inthe

examplesstudiedsofar,welookedatonecaseinwhich

.Infact,inthe examplesstudiedsofar,welookedatonecaseinwhich ,andanothercaseinwhich

,andanothercaseinwhich

,andanothercaseinwhich

Beforecontinuing,letusrecallthatthebehaviourofthesolution(s)tothisequationdependonwhether theconstant ispositiveornegative:

theconstant ispositiveornegative: . positive negative Allthesolutionsgrowexponentially

.

positive

positive

negative

negative

positive negative Allthesolutionsgrowexponentially Allthesolutionsdecaytozero
positive negative Allthesolutionsgrowexponentially Allthesolutionsdecaytozero
positive negative Allthesolutionsgrowexponentially Allthesolutionsdecaytozero

Allthesolutionsgrowexponentially Allthesolutionsdecaytozero

positive negative Allthesolutionsgrowexponentially Allthesolutionsdecaytozero

Withthisinmind,letusexamineanotherrealizationofadifferentialequation,thistimeconnectedwiththe

propertyofcooling(orlossofheat)ofawarmobjectinacolderenvironment.Thefollowing"Law"isan

approximatedescriptionofexperimentallyobservedbehaviour.

Newton'sLawofCooling

Newton'sLawofCoolingstatesthattherateofchangeofthetemperatureofanobjectis

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Newton'sLawofCooling

proportionaltothedifferencebetweenitsowntemperatureandtheambienttemperature(i.e.the

temperatureofitssurroundings).

Newton'sLawmakesastatementaboutaninstantaneousrateofchangeofthetemperature.Wewill

seethatwhenwetranslatethisverbalstatementintoadifferentialequation,wearriveatadifferential

equation.Thesolutiontothisequationwillthenbeafunctionthattracksthecompleterecordofthe

temperatureovertime.Newton'sLawwouldenableustosolvethefollowingproblem.

Example1:TheBigPotofSoupAspartofhissummerjobataresturant,Jimlearnedtocookupa

bigpotofsouplateatnight,justbeforeclosingtime,sothattherewouldbeplentyofsouptofeed customersthenextday.Healsofoundoutthat,whilerefrigerationwasessentialtopreservethesoup overnight,thesoupwastoohottobeputdirectlyintothefridgewhenitwasready.(Thesouphadjust

boiledat100degreesC,andthefridgewasnotpowerfulenoughtoaccomodateabigpotofsoupifit

wasanywarmerthan20degreesC).Jimdiscoveredthatbycoolingthepotinasinkfullofcoldwater,

(keptrunning,sothatitstemperaturewasroughlyconstantat5degreesC)andstirringoccasionally,he

couldbringthttemperatureofthesoupto60degreesCintenminutes.Howlongbeforeclosingtime

shouldthesoupbereadysothatJimcouldputitinthefridgeandleaveontime?

Solution:Letussummarizetheinformationbrieflyanddefinenotationforthisproblem.

Let

=Temperatureofthesoupattimet(inmin).Let =InitialTemperatureofthesoup=100deg.

=InitialTemperatureofthesoup=100deg.Let =Temperatureofthesoupattimet(inmin). =Ambienttemperature(tempofwaterinsink)=5deg. Given:

=Ambienttemperature(tempofwaterinsink)=5deg.=InitialTemperatureofthesoup=100deg. Given: Therateofchangeofthetemperature

Given:Therateofchangeofthetemperature ,is(byNewton'sLawofCooling)proportional

,is(byNewton'sLawofCooling)proportional andtheambienttemperature This

andtheambienttemperature This

andtheambienttemperature This tothedifferencebetweenthetemperatureofthesoup meansthat:

tothedifferencebetweenthetemperatureofthesoup

meansthat:

tothedifferencebetweenthetemperatureofthesoup meansthat:

Hereabitofcareisneeded:Clearlyifthesoupishotterthanthewaterinthesink

thesoupiscoolingdownwhichmeansthatthederivative

connectionbetweenadecreasingfunctionandthesignofthederivative?).Thismeansthattheequation

weneedhastohavethefollowingsignpattern:

weneedhastohavethefollowingsignpattern: ,then shouldbe negative .(Rememberthe where

,then

weneedhastohavethefollowingsignpattern: ,then shouldbe negative .(Rememberthe where isapositiveconstant.

shouldbenegative.(Rememberthe

,then shouldbe negative .(Rememberthe where isapositiveconstant. Thisequationisanotherexampleofa
,then shouldbe negative .(Rememberthe where isapositiveconstant. Thisequationisanotherexampleofa

where isapositiveconstant. Thisequationisanotherexampleofadifferentialequation.Theindependentvariableis fortime,the

differentialequation .Theindependentvariableis fortime,the

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Newton'sLawofCooling

3/9/2017 Newton'sLawofCooling functionwewanttofindis ,andthequantities areconstants.Infact,fromJim's
3/9/2017 Newton'sLawofCooling functionwewanttofindis ,andthequantities areconstants.Infact,fromJim's

functionwewanttofindis ,andthequantities areconstants.Infact,fromJim's measurements,weknowthat ,butwestilldon'tknowwhatvaluetoputinfortheconstant . Wewilldiscussthisfurtherbelow.

. Wewilldiscussthisfurtherbelow. Foryourconsideration:
. Wewilldiscussthisfurtherbelow. Foryourconsideration:
. Wewilldiscussthisfurtherbelow. Foryourconsideration:

Foryourconsideration:

(1)Checkthatthedifferentialequationabovemakessense.Canitalsodescribethecaseofa

coldobjectheatingupinawarmerenvironment?

coldobjectheatingupinawarmerenvironment? (2)Whatdoyouthinktheconstant represents?

(2)Whatdoyouthinktheconstant represents?

(3)Whatunitswouldthisconstanthave?

(4)Ifyouweretocomparetherateofcoolingofthesoupinsideasealedstyrofoamcontainer,

andinsideametalpot,whichonemightcorrespondtoalargervalueofk?

Backtothesameoldequation

Theequationwearrivedatabovelooksdifferentfromtheoneswehavejustinvestigated,butasweshall

soonsee,thedifferenceisrathersuperficial.Indeed,bydefininganewvariable,wewillshowthatthe

equationisreallycompletelyrelatedtotheexponentialdecayseenpreviously.Toseethis,define

=Temperaturedifferencebetweensoupandwaterinsinkattimet.

=Temperaturedifferencebetweensoupandwaterinsinkattimet.

=Temperaturedifferencebetweensoupandwaterinsinkattimet. =Initialtemperaturedifferenceattimet=0

=Initialtemperaturedifferenceattimet=0

Notethatifwetakeaderivativeof

Notethatifwetakeaderivativeof ,andusetheNewton'slawofcooling,wearriveat

,andusetheNewton'slawofcooling,wearriveat

,andusetheNewton'slawofcooling,wearriveat (Wehaveusedthefactthat
,andusetheNewton'slawofcooling,wearriveat (Wehaveusedthefactthat
,andusetheNewton'slawofcooling,wearriveat (Wehaveusedthefactthat

(Wehaveusedthefactthat isconstanttoeliminateitsderivative,andwepluggedin for inthelaststep.)Whatanicesurprize!Bydefiningthisnewvariable,wehavearrivedoncemoreatthe familiarequation

familiarequation whosesolutioniswellknowntous,namely:
familiarequation whosesolutioniswellknowntous,namely:

whosesolutioniswellknowntous,namely:

familiarequation whosesolutioniswellknowntous,namely: Wecanusethisresulttoconclude(bypluggingin and )that

Wecanusethisresulttoconclude(bypluggingin

Wecanusethisresulttoconclude(bypluggingin and )that Itfollowsthat

and

Wecanusethisresulttoconclude(bypluggingin and )that Itfollowsthat
Wecanusethisresulttoconclude(bypluggingin and )that Itfollowsthat

)that

Itfollowsthat

and )that Itfollowsthat

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Newton'sLawofCooling

Wefoundthesolutioningeneralform,butitlooksquitecomplicated.Let'strytounderstandthis

expressionanditspredictionsinthecaseoftheproblemdescribedabove.

Howthesoupwillcool

Fromtheinformationintheproblem,weknowthat

Howthesoupwillcool Fromtheinformationintheproblem,weknowthat sothat,

sothat,

Fromtheinformationintheproblem,weknowthat sothat, Wealsoknowthatafter10minutes,thesoupcoolsto60degrees,sothat

Wealsoknowthatafter10minutes,thesoupcoolsto60degrees,sothat

Pluggingintothelastequation,wefindthat

Pluggingintothelastequation,wefindthat Rearranging, .
Pluggingintothelastequation,wefindthat Rearranging, .

Rearranging,

.

Pluggingintothelastequation,wefindthat Rearranging, .

(Thestepsaremuchthesameasinourpreviousworkintheexampleonradioactivedecay.Inthelast

stepwetookareciprocalofbothsidesoftheequation.Thisjustmakesallthequantitiescomeouttobe

positiveinthenextstep,soitisdoneforconvenience,thoughitisnotanessentialstep).Wehavefound

that

that Takingthenaturallogarithmofbothsides,andsolvingfor
that Takingthenaturallogarithmofbothsides,andsolvingfor

Takingthenaturallogarithmofbothsides,andsolvingfor ,wefindthat

,wefindthat Thus, perminute.Nowwecan

Thus,

,wefindthat Thus, perminute.Nowwecan

perminute.Nowwecan

specifythesolutionfully,sinceallconstantshavebeendeterminedfromtheinformationintheproblem.

Soweseethattheconstantwhichgovernstherateofcoolingis

Soweseethattheconstantwhichgovernstherateofcoolingis Thepredictionisthatthetemperatureofthepotofsoupattimetwillbe

Thepredictionisthatthetemperatureofthepotofsoupattimetwillbe

Thepredictionisthatthetemperatureofthepotofsoupattimetwillbe

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Newton'sLawofCooling

3/9/2017 Newton'sLawofCooling Thebehaviourofthissolutionisshowninthediagram. Foryourconsideration:

Thebehaviourofthissolutionisshowninthediagram.

Thebehaviourofthissolutionisshowninthediagram. Foryourconsideration:

Foryourconsideration:

(1)Lookatthebehaviourofthesolutioncorrespondingtothefunction

afteraverylongtime?Whatwilltheeventualtemperatureofthesoupbe?

.Whatwillhappen

.Whatwillhappen

(2)Howcanthisbeunderstoodfromtheexpressionfor

theterm

(2)Howcanthisbeunderstoodfromtheexpressionfor theterm ?Inparticular,whatwillhappento

?Inparticular,whatwillhappento

theterm ?Inparticular,whatwillhappento ?Willthistermbeincreasingordecreasingwithtime?

?Willthistermbeincreasingordecreasingwithtime?

(3)Whatwillthetemperatureofthesoupbeafter1hour?

(4)Istheresomethinganalogoustoahalflifeinthisproblem?

(5)WhatwouldhappenifJimdidnotstirrthesoupoccasionally?Woulditstillcoolthesameway

?WouldNewton'sLawofCoolingapplyjustasbefore?Whyareweassumingthatthepotis

well­stirred?

(6)Whatwouldhappenifthewaterinthesinkwasnotrunning?Howwouldthischangeour

assumptionthattheambienttemperaturewasaconstant?

SolvingJim'sSoupproblem

Tofinishourwork,letusdeterminehowlongittakesforthesouptobecoolenoughtoputintothe

refrigerator.Weneedtowaituntil

refrigerator.Weneedtowaituntil ,soatthattime: Thisequationcanbesolvedfor

,soatthattime:

refrigerator.Weneedtowaituntil ,soatthattime: Thisequationcanbesolvedfor

Thisequationcanbesolvedfor inmuchthesamewayasbefore.Subtracting5frombothsidesand

dividingby95weget:

dividingby95weget:

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Newton'sLawofCooling

3/9/2017 Newton'sLawofCooling Takinglogarithmsofbothsides,wefindthat Thus,usingthefactthat wehave

Takinglogarithmsofbothsides,wefindthat

Thus,usingthefactthat

Takinglogarithmsofbothsides,wefindthat Thus,usingthefactthat wehave
Takinglogarithmsofbothsides,wefindthat Thus,usingthefactthat wehave

wehave

Thus,usingthefactthat wehave

Thus,itwilltakealittleoverhalfanhourforJim'ssouptocooloffenoughtobeputintotherefrigerator.

Summary:

Wehavejustseenyetanotherexampleofasimpledifferentialequationandhowitcanbeusedtomake

predictions.Tosummarizewhatwefound,hereistheconnectionbetweenthedifferentialequationof

Newton'sLawofCoolinganditssolution:

Newton'sLawofCooling Solution

Newton'sLawofCooling Solution

Newton'sLawofCooling Solution
Newton'sLawofCooling Solution
Newton'sLawofCooling Solution