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A STUDY ON SWITCHYARD, POWER SYSTEMS

PROTECTION AND PROTECTIVE RELAYS AT


MAONA 33 MW GAS GENERATOR POWER PLANT
(SUMMIT POWER LIMITED)

MaonaPowerPlant

A STUDY ON SWITCHYARD, POWER SYSTEMS


PROTECTION AND PROTECTIVE RELAYS AT
MAONA 33 MW GAS GENERATOR POWER PLANT
(SUMMIT POWER LIMITED)

Practicum Report
On

A Study on Switchyard, Power Systems Protection and Protective Relays at


Maona 33 MW Gas Generator Power Plant (Summit Power Limited).

Presented To:
Engr. Md. Abul Bashar
Course Coordinator
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.

Presented By:
Md. Reapon Khan
ID: 13105154
Program: BSEEE

IUBATInternational University of Business Agriculture and Technology

December 15, 2016

Letter of transmittal

15 December 2016
To
Course Coordinator
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
IUBATInternational University of Business Agriculture and Technology
Sector 10, Uttara Model Town, Dhaka-1230.

Subject: Letter of Transmittal of the Practicum Report.

Dear Sir,
It is so happiness for me to submit the report on A Study on Switchyard, Power Systems
Protection and Protective Relays at Maona 33 MW Gas Generator Power Plant (Summit
Power Limited) as requirements to complete the partial fulfillment of B.Sc. Engineering
degree in BSEEE from IUBAT.I have done this report with my best effort.

I tried to accommodate as much information as I could to make this report informative and
valuable. Thank you very much for giving me the opportunity and necessary guidance as
well as direction needed to prepare this report.

Thank you very much for giving me the chance and direction to prepare this report. Now
I submit my report to you for your nice and valuable comments.

Yours sincerely
-------------------------------
Md. Reapon Khan
ID # 13105154
Program: BSEE

Students Declaration

This is to inform that the Practicum Report on A Study on Switchyard, Power Systems
Protection and Protective Relays at Maona 33 MW Gas Generator Power Plant (Summit
Power Limited) has only been prepared as a partial fulfillment of the Bachelor of Science
in Electrical and Electronics Engineering Program. It has not been prepared for any other
purpose reward or presentation.

I also confirm that the report is only prepared to fulfill the academic requirement and not
for any other purpose. It will not be used with the interest of any other student.

.
Md. Reapon Khan
ID # 13105154
Program: BSEE

Acknowledgement

All praise is to the Supreme Being; creator and ruler of the universe, Almighty Allah,
whose mercy keeps us alive and to pursue my education in Electrical and Electronics
Engineering and to complete the Practicum Report.

This Practicum Report which is entitled as A Study on Switchyard, Power Systems


Protection and Protective Relays at Maona 33 MW Gas Generator Power Plant (Summit
Power Limited) in Summit Power Limited is the concrete effort of a number of people.

In the process of conducting this research project, I would like to express my gratitude and
respect to some generous persons for their immense help and enormous cooperation.

First of all, I would like to pay gratitude to Honorable Vice Chancellor Prof. Dr. M.
Alimullah Miyan for giving me chance to prepare my research about this splendid topic.

I am very much grateful to my respected Course Coordinator Engr. Abul Bashar for his
painstaking guidance and constant inspiration to do this report. I would like to thank my
respected faculty Engr. Suman Chowdhury & also Engr. Razin Ahmed for their helping
hand.

After that I would like to express my special gratitude to Engr. Md. Abu Hanif, Plant
Manager, Maona Power Plant. I am very much grateful to my respected Supervisor Engr.
Kamrul Islam, Head of Electrical Maintenance and Foreman Md. Zakaria for their
guidance, and also Control Room Operator (Electrical) Md. Rasel parvez & Md. Shakil
for their diligent struggle for my practical experience and encourage me to do this work.

Finally, I also feel it is important to acknowledge and thanks to my classmates, friends


especially to those who appreciate me to do this internship program in a power plant.

Executive Summary

This project paper provides a summary assessment of A Study on Switchyard, Power


Systems Protection and Protective Relays at Maona 33 MW Gas Generator Power Plant
(Summit Power Limited).
Power is the main factor for any country. Energy is required for everything that we do, and
it is the next important thing apart from the food upon which the lives of nations depend.
Lack of power could cause economies to cripple. The flourishing power generation
industry is considered to be a sign of prosperity for any nation. Power supply for any
company is a complex issue. Maona power plant uses gas as a fuel for generating
electricity. Then it transmits to REB. How a gas after producing, substation is operating
and their maintenance are also discussed. Natural gas accounts for 100% of all of the
energy consumed in Bangladesh. It is used for electricity production in industrial
processes, residential and commercial and electric power generation.

Sometimes Maona power plant also used electricity from PBS line for starting the Engine.
They supply 33 KV but there are some engine instruments which need 220V to 400V. This
high voltage electricity line is connecting control panel. From control panel, it is going to
the stepdown transformer and output is 400V. As Maona power plant used gas generator,
gases are supplied from Titas gas company Ltd. Natural gas are used as a raw material of
the gas generator. Natural gas goes through the generator engine prime mover and from
prime mover mechanical energy goes through the alternator and its output is electrical
energy. After generation, transmitted to the substation circuit breaker and circuit breaker
supplied electricity to the step-up transformer and its output is 33KV, and then it goes
through the bus bar. Bus bar distribute electricity to the PBS line. In this power supply
system, its need some metering instrument like ammeter, voltmeter, ohmmeter for measure
the current, voltage. If any troubleshooting occurs, operation team informed the
maintenance team for solving it and maintenance team help them as early as possible.

Table of Content

1.1SourceoftheReport.............................................................................................................................16
1.2Background...........................................................................................................................................16
1.3Objectives..............................................................................................................................................16
1.3.1BroadObjective..................................................................................................................................16
1.3.2SpecificObjective...............................................................................................................................16
1.4Scope.....................................................................................................................................................17
1.5Methodology.........................................................................................................................................17
1.6Limitations.............................................................................................................................................18
2.1Introduction.........................................................................................................................................20
2.2BackgroundofSummit..........................................................................................................................20
2.3CompanyAim........................................................................................................................................21
2.4CompanyVision....................................................................................................................................21
2.5CompanyMission..................................................................................................................................21
2.6Commitment.........................................................................................................................................21
2.7CorporateSocialResponsibility............................................................................................................21
2.8OrganGramofMaonaPowerPlants,SummitPowerLtd....................................................................22
2.9Boardofdirectors.................................................................................................................................23
2.10PowerPlantsofSummitPowerLimited.............................................................................................24
2.11ProductionoftheSummitPowerLimited..........................................................................................25
2.12Technicalreferences...........................................................................................................................25
2.12.1SpecificationofABBAlternatorforWartsila20V34SG.....................................................................28
2.13Theclient/consumer/customerofSPL..............................................................................................29
2.14 Layout of 33 MW Maona power plant................................................................................................29
3.1Switchgear.............................................................................................................................................31
3.2EquipmentusedinSwitchgear.............................................................................................................32
3.3LightningArrester.................................................................................................................................32
3.3.1TypesofLightningArresters..............................................................................................................33
3.3.2WorkingPrincipleofLightningArrester.............................................................................................33
3.3.3CharacteristicofLightningArrester...................................................................................................34
3.3.4LightingArresterSpecificationusedinMaonaPlant.........................................................................35

3.4Isolator..................................................................................................................................................35
3.4.1TypesofIsolator.................................................................................................................................37
3.4.2IsolatorSpecificationusedinMaonaPowerPlant............................................................................37
3.5CircuitBreaker......................................................................................................................................37
3.5.1TypesofCircuitBreaker.....................................................................................................................38
3.5.2LowVoltageCircuitBreaker...............................................................................................................38
3.5.3MCB(MiniatureCircuitBreaker).......................................................................................................38
3.5.4MCCB(MoldedCaseCircuitBreaker)................................................................................................39
3.5.5VacuumCircuitBreaker.....................................................................................................................40
3.5.6ComponentsofVacuumCircuitBreaker............................................................................................41
3.5.7SpecificationofOutdoorVCB............................................................................................................41
3.5.8SulphurHexafluoride(SF6)CircuitBreaker........................................................................................41
3.5.9TypesofSF6CircuitBreaker...............................................................................................................42
3.5.10ListofSulphurHexafluorideGasProperties....................................................................................43
3.5.11SF6CircuitBreakerSpecificationinMaonaPowerPlant.................................................................44
3.5.12AirBreakCircuitBreaker..................................................................................................................44
3.5.13TypesofACB....................................................................................................................................45
3.5.14PresenttrendsinchoiceofCircuitBreakers....................................................................................45
3.5.15TechnicalParticularsofacircuitbreaker.........................................................................................46
3.6 Potential Transformer...........................................................................................................................46
3.6.1ErrorinPotentialTransformer...........................................................................................................47
3.6.2CauseofErrorinPotentialTransformer............................................................................................47
3.6.3SpecificationofPotentialTransformer..............................................................................................47
3.6.4Testingofpotentialtransformer.......................................................................................................48
3.6.5constructionofpotentialtransformer...............................................................................................48
3.6.6PotentialTransformerSpecificationofMaonaPowerPlant.............................................................48
3.7ThePowerTransformer........................................................................................................................49
3.7.1Tapchanger........................................................................................................................................49
3.7.2TypesofTapChanger.........................................................................................................................50
3.7.3OFFLoadTapChanger.......................................................................................................................50
3.7.4ONLoadTapChanger........................................................................................................................50
3.7.5TransformerInformation...................................................................................................................51
3.8CurrentTransformers...........................................................................................................................51

10

3.8.1TypesofCurrentTransformer:..........................................................................................................52
3.8.2DescriptionofCurrentTransformer..................................................................................................52
3.8.3CurrentTransformerSpecificationusedinMaonaPowerPlant.......................................................53
3.8.4StationTransformer...........................................................................................................................53
3.8.5SpecificationofStationTransformeratMaonapowerplant............................................................54
3.9Busbar..................................................................................................................................................54
3.9.1MaterialsofBusbars.........................................................................................................................55
3.9.2BusbarDesign...................................................................................................................................55
3.9.3ClearanceforOpenOutdoorBusbars...............................................................................................56
3.9.4TypesofconstructionofBusbar.......................................................................................................56
3.9.5Busbararrangement.........................................................................................................................57
3.9.6Singlebusbararrangement...............................................................................................................57
3.9.7Duplicatebusbararrangement.........................................................................................................58
3.9.8Specializationofbusbar....................................................................................................................58
3.9.9.Ringbusbar......................................................................................................................................59
3.9.10Oneandhalfbreakerarrangement.................................................................................................59
3.9.11Mesharrangement..........................................................................................................................60
3.10LoadBreakSwitch...............................................................................................................................60
3.11Fuse.....................................................................................................................................................61
3.11.1FuseWireRating..............................................................................................................................61
3.11.2FuseCharacteristic...........................................................................................................................61
3.11.3HRCFuse..........................................................................................................................................62
3.12MagneticContactor............................................................................................................................62
3.12.1Ratings..............................................................................................................................................64
3.12.2SelectionofMagneticContactor.....................................................................................................64
3.12.3UseofMagneticContactor..............................................................................................................64
3.13 Earthing switch...................................................................................................................................64
4.1FaultsandAbnormalConditions...........................................................................................................67
4.1.1Faultscanbeclassifiedas..................................................................................................................67
4.1.2Theotherabnormalcondition...........................................................................................................67
4.2Faultscalculation..................................................................................................................................67
4.2.1ProcedureofFaultCalculations.........................................................................................................68
4.3ImportantElementsforPowerSystemProtection...............................................................................68

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4.3.1ObjectiveofPowerSystemProtection..............................................................................................68
4.4ProtectiveRelaying...............................................................................................................................69
4.4.1FunctionalRequirementsofProtectionRelay...................................................................................69
4.4.2TypesofProtectiveRelays.................................................................................................................69
4.4.3 Relays for Transmission & Distribution Lines Protection.................................................................70
4.4.3DifferentialProtectionRelay..............................................................................................................70
4.4.4DifferentialProtectionofaStationBus.............................................................................................71
4.4.5PercentageDifferentialRelays...........................................................................................................71
4.4.6 Differential Protection of Three Phase Transformer..........................................................................72
4.4.7TransformersConnectedYYorDeltaDelta......................................................................................72
4.5 Some part of the Relay panel of summit 33 MW Maona power plant..................................................73
4.6TheControlPanel..................................................................................................................................73
4.7AlarmAnnunciator................................................................................................................................74
5.1Introduction..........................................................................................................................................76
5.2WorkingPrincipalofaTransformer......................................................................................................76
5.3TransformerComponents.....................................................................................................................77
5.4PartsoftheTransformer.......................................................................................................................80
5.5TransformerTypes................................................................................................................................81
5.5.1ClassificationofTransformersAccordingtotheUsed.......................................................................81
5.5.2ClassificationofTransformersAccordingtotheCoolingMethod.....................................................82
5.5.3ClassificationofTransformersAccordingtotheInsulatingMedium.................................................82
5.6ProtectionofTransformer....................................................................................................................83
5.7TransformerFailures.............................................................................................................................83
5.8TransformerTests.................................................................................................................................84
5.9TheFollowing........................................................................................................................................84

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List of Figure
Figure2.14:Schematicdiagramof33MWMaonaPowerPlant................................................................29
Figure3.1:Switchyard.................................................................................................................................31
Figure3.3:LightningArrester.....................................................................................................................33
Figure3.3.2:WorkingPrincipleofLightningArrester................................................................................34
Figure3.4:IsolatorusedinMaonaPowerPlant.........................................................................................36
Figure3.5.3:Miniaturecircuitbreakers.....................................................................................................39
Figure3.5.4:MoldedCasecircuitbreakers................................................................................................40
Figure3.5.5:OutdoorVacuumCircuitBreakerUsedinMaonaPowerPlant.............................................40
Figure3.5.8:SF6circuitbreaker.................................................................................................................42
Figure3.5.12:AirBreakCircuitBreaker......................................................................................................44
Figure3.6:PotentialTransformer...............................................................................................................46
Figure3.7:Powertransformer....................................................................................................................49
Figure3.7.4:TapChangerPanels................................................................................................................50
Figure3.8:Currenttransformer..................................................................................................................51
Figure3.9:BusBar......................................................................................................................................54
Figure3.9.6:Singlebusbararrangement...................................................................................................57
Figure3.9.7:Duplicatebusbararrangement.............................................................................................58
Figure3.9.8:Specializationofbusbararrangement..................................................................................58
Figure3.9.9:Ringbusbar...........................................................................................................................59
Figure3.9.10:Oneandhalfbreakerarrangement.....................................................................................59
Figure3.9.11:Mesharrangement..............................................................................................................60
Figure3.10:LoadBreakSwitch...................................................................................................................60
Figure3.11:HRCfuse..................................................................................................................................62
Figure3.12:MagneticContactor................................................................................................................63
Figure3.13:Earthingswitch........................................................................................................................65
Figure4.4.3:DifferentialProtectionofaGenerator...................................................................................70
Figure4.4.4:DifferentialProtectionofBusbar..........................................................................................71
Figure4.4.5:PercentageDifferentialRelay................................................................................................71
Figure4.4.6:DifferentialProtectionofThreePhaseTransformer's...........................................................72
Figure4.4.7:DifferentialProtectionforaYYConnectedTransformer.....................................................72
Figure4.5:Relaypanel................................................................................................................................73

13

Figure4.6:TheControlPanel......................................................................................................................73
Figure4.7:AlarmAnnunciator....................................................................................................................74
Figure5.2:Transformer..............................................................................................................................76
Figure5.3:OilimmersedTransformer.......................................................................................................77

14

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

15

1.1 Source of the Report


As a partial fulfillment of Bachelor of Science in Electrical & Electronics Engineering program I
have done this practicum report. My report named as A Study On Switchyard, Power Systems
Protection And Protective Relays At Maona 33 MW Gas Generator Power Plant in summit
power Ltd. Basis on this three months duration practical experience I have done this report and I
have worked under the instruction of Engr. Md. Kamrul Islam Head of Electrical Maintenance,
and Foreman Md. Zakaria for their guidance, and also Control Room Operator (Electrical) Md.
Rasel parvez & Md. Shakil for their diligent struggle for my practical experience and encourage
me to do this work.

1.2 Background
Power Plant is one of the few important issues in Bangladesh generating huge foreign direct
investment and also a significant number of employment opportunities. This industry is one of the
major driving forces of national economy and with the continuous development of Technologies
worldwide. In the Power sector, Power industry of Bangladesh promises to bloom further in the
coming years. In our country, the crisis of electricity in national grid is a common problem where
in industrial sector the electricity is required for 24 hours in a day. The Power Development Board
of Bangladesh always trying to overcome this problem by supplying uninterrupted power supply.

1.3 Objectives
There are two types of objective. Those are discussed below.

1.3.1 Broad Objective


The board objective is to gather practical work experience and implement theoretical knowledge
in the field of power plant engineering.

1.3.2 Specific Objective


The specific objectives of this report include:

Study on Gas generator, Transformer, Switchyards.

16

Maintenance of Electrical Machines (LV & MV) and Equipments.

Identify the different types of problem which arise for generation and substation.

Troubleshoot and Isolate the probable problems occurred in power Generation and
substation.

1.4 Scope

This report will cover the types of machinery used in Maona 33 MW Gas Engine Power Plant,
the operating and controlling of these machines, Transformer, Power Factor Improvement,
troubleshooting, switchyards and its protection systems, what equipment is placed in which zone,
how the equipment has been synthesized etc. The scope will be limited to only this types of power
generation & transmission system.

1.5 Methodology

In my report, there are primary and secondary data. I collect that data to complete my report
properly. The report is about A Study on Switchyard, Power Systems Protection and
Protective Relays at Maona 33 Mw Gas Generator Power Plant in summit power Ltd.

Primary data:

Primary data are collected from Operation manual book equipments manual book and
control room log sheet.

The author of the report is directly working in the Operation and Maintenance unit of
Summit Power Ltd.

Secondary data:

Secondary data are collected from websites and academic text books.

17

1.6 Limitations

There were some limitations while conducting the study. These are summarized below:

The distribution line connects only with PBS line. When the 33 KV line feeder of PBS
tripped then the whole plant will be shut down and under degenerated condition.

Power plant is the place of vast knowledge of engineering. In this report, not all things can
highlight deeply because of duration of time.

There is some part cannot conduct in this report for priority of the major elements.

Confidentiality of information was another barrier that hindered the study. Every
organization has its own secrecy that they do not allow to someone outside the
organization. While collecting data at

Maona Power Plant, authority did not disclose enough information for the sake of
confidentiality rule of the organization.

Some portion of the study had been conducted based on the secondary data, such as internet
and engine manual.

There is another problem of demand. Sometime the plant cannot supply the demand.

18

CHAPTER TWO
AN OVERVIEW: SUMMIT POWER LTD

19

2 .1 Introduction
Summit Power Limited is the pioneer among Bangladeshi private sector power generation
companies. It started power generation from 2000 and over the years, it has gained experience in
project (power plant) implementation, operation and maintenance. This has given Summit Power
Limited a competitive edge over others in becoming the leading Bangladeshi Company with
thirteen operating plants of its own and two operating plants with co-ownership. Summit Power
Limited holds 17.64% of ownership of Khulna Power Company Limited (KPCL) and 30% of
Summit Meghnaghat Power Company Limited. That means total capacity has been now of 1,082
MW in which it has operational association directly or indirectly. Summit Power Limited and its
subsidiaries at present operate 13 power plants including two that has gone for Commercial
Operation in this March of 2016. In 2015, all these power plants were available to the extent
required as per the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA), indicating excellent operational
performance of your Company. As a result, this year these plants could deliver electrical energy
to the national grid totaling to 1,976,414million Kwh.

2.2 Background of Summit

The Summit Group is one of the leading private sector conglomerates of Bangladesh, comprising
more than twenty business units ranging from power to shipping to communications and currently
generating 1,082 MW of electricity. Summit Power Limited (SPL), a subsidiary of Summit Group
is the first Bangladeshi Independent Power Producer (IPP) in Bangladesh in private sector
providing power to national grid. SPL was incorporated in Bangladesh on March 30, 1997 as a
Private Limited Company. On June 7, 2004, the Company was converted into Public Limited
Company under the Companies Act 1994.Today Summit Power Limited owns and operates 13
(thirteen) power plants at different locations across the country having a total capacity of 482 MW
of its own. Our power plants are equipped with engines manufactured by world famous technotex
companies, i.e. Wartsila Finland, Caterpillar - USA, and GE Jenbacher, Austria. All of its power
plants run 24 hours a day to support the national grid. As per private sector power generation policy
of Bangladesh, Summit sells electricity to the Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) and
Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board (BREB) only. Due to the practice of Integrated
Management System (IMS) to run the day-to-day business operation, the Company has been

20

certified by ISO 9001: 2008 - Quality Management System, ISO 14001: 2004 - Environmental
Management System and OHSAS 18001: 2007 - Occupational Health and Safety Assessment
System.

2.3 Company Aim

Summit has already set a milestone in power generation in Bangladesh. Their company aim is
given below:

Generate and provide uninterrupted reasonably priced electricity to our customers.

Efficient utilization of capital, machines, material and human resources.

Continuous improvement of customer satisfaction and resource management.

2.4 Company Vision

To provide quality & uninterrupted electricity to the vast majority of rural Bangladesh for their
personal, social & economic development.

2.5 Company Mission

Empowering Bangladesh, we can & we will. To expand the company into a power generation
capacity to the tune of 1000 MW which is 20% of the electricity requirement of Bangladesh and
maintain that level.

2.6 Commitment

Summit Power Limited has acknowledged the responsibility to eradicate the deficit in countrys
development. Over the years, Summit Power Limited has acquired expertise with competitiveness
in terms of efficiency and on time delivery.

2.7 Corporate Social Responsibility

As part of the ongoing commitment to the society and environment in which the Company
conducts its business, SPL continues to perform its obligations. As in the previous years, the
Company remains committed to support CSR projects that included:

21

Summits contribution through its welfare wing, Siraj-Khaleda Trust, in the construction
of a 200 Bed Hospital in Dhaka Cantonment is a Completed Projects of the Company and
we remain committed to extend all support to facilitate availability of modern medical
treatment at low cost to the underprivileged people of the adjoining area.

We are committed to the sponsors of Prothom Aloo Sahayak Thabile for our continued
support to the cause of acid burn victims and remain.

Sponsoring Summit Cup Golf Tournament (Pro-Am) every year to promote.

2.8 Organ Gram of Maona Power Plants, Summit Power Ltd

22

2.9 Board of directors

Name Position

Muhammed Aziz Chairman

Md. Farid Khan Vice-Chairman

Tauhidul Islam Managing Director

Anjuman Aziz Khan Director

Md. Latif Khan Director

Ayesha Aziz Khan Director-Finance

Mr. Jafer Ummeed Khan


Director

Helal Uddin Ahmed


Director

Syed Fazlul Haque FCA


Director

Abbas Uddin Ahmed


Director

Faisal Karim Khan Director

Mahmud Hasan FAMA Company Secretariat

Rahmat-e-Rabbi Company Secretariat

23

2.10 Power Plants of Summit Power Limited

Summit Power Limited has several power generation plants. Every plant has specific power
capacity.

Address of plant Capacity of the plant

Ashulia, Savar 45 MW

Madhabdi, Narsingdi (Gas) 35MW

Chandina, Comilla (Gas) 25 MW

Ullapara, Sirajganj (HFO) 11 MW

Maona, Gazipur (Gas) 33 MW

Jangalia, Comilla 33 MW

Rupganj, Narayanganj (Gas) 33 MW

Madanganj, Narayanganj (HFO) 157 MW

Sylhet (combined cycle) 350MW

Barisal (HFO) 100MW

Chattagram (HFO) 200MW (Proposed)

Meghnaghat (steam turbine) 200MW

Kaliakoir hitech park (HFO) 100MW (Proposed)

24

2.11 Production of the Summit Power Limited

Summit power limited produces electrical energy. SPL produce approximately 1024 MW of whole
power of Bangladesh. There price per unit area vary by plant to plant on the basis of fuel use. Some
plant production costs are high because of high rate fuel. Gas power plants are lower cost power
plant. HFO cost is high. In Maona power plant, they use gas as fuel of engine. Therefore, the cost
is little bit lower than the other plants. Following are shown in table for Maona power plant
production and cost-

Duration General production Unit price (Taka) Earn (Taka)

One day/ 24Hrs 600000 Kwh 2.80 1680000

One month/30 Days 18000000 Kwh 2.80 50400000

One year/ 365 Days 219000000 Kwh 2.80 613200000

2.12 Technical references

25

Parameter Value / type


Engine
Engine type W20V34SG
Number of cylinders 20
Cylinder bore 340 mm
Stroke 400 mm
Speed 750 rpm
Rated output 9000 kW
Main voltage 400 V; 50 Hz
Secondary voltage 24 VDC
Oil sump WET
Main bearings Bi-metal
Connecting rod bearings Tri-metal
Camshaft bearings GC-CuS
Piston type 1
Rotation direction Clockwise
Generator
Generator type AVK DIG 167 f/8
Output 10,913 kVA
Power factor 0.80
Voltage 11,000 V
Current 573 A
Frequency 50 Hz
Speed 750 rpm
Anticondensation heater power 1.5 kW
Other equipment
Flexible coupling Renold DCB GS658.5 SM60
Vibration damper GEISLINGER D90/44
Turbocharger EGT NAPIER 357

26

Parameter Value Note

Medium voltage system


Voltage 11 kV

Low voltage system


Voltage 415 V
DC system
Voltage 24V

Parameter Value Note


Exhaust gas ventilation unit
Motor power 4 kW

Parameter Value Note


Preheating unit
Pump capacity 7200 l/h

Motor power, pump 0.65 kW

Heater power 54 kW
Expansion vessel
Volume 450 l
Circulation pump of expansion vessel

Motor power 0.5 kW


Radiators
Number of radiators per engine 2
Number of cooling fans per 6
Motor power 7.5 kW

27

2.12.1Specification of ABB Alternator for Wartsila 20V34SG

Name Synchronous AC Generator

Output 10913 KVA


Power 8.73 MW
Phase 3
Connection Y
Frequency 50Hz
Voltage 11000V
Current 573 A
Power Factor 0.8
Speed 750 rpm
Over speed 900 rpm
Excitation Voltage
No load 23.7V
Rated load 68.1V
Excitation Current
No load 3.3A
Rated load 9.3A
Efficiency 98.10%
Driving Equipment 20V34SG
Appr. Mechanical Power 8955KW
Weight 27000 KG
Direction of Rotation CCW
Resistance at 20C
Stator Winding 0.0482
Field Winding 0.7181
Excitation Winding 5.7

28

2.13 The customer of SPL

The following organizations are directly consumer of SPL:


Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB).
Rural Electrification Board (REB).

2.14 Layout of 33 MW Maona power plant

Figure 2.14: Schematic diagram of 33 MW Maona Power Plant

29

CHAPTER THREE
SWITCHYARDS

30

3.1 Switchgear
switchgear or electrical switchgear is a generic term which includes all the switching devices
associated with mainly power system protection. It also includes all devices associated with
control, metering and regulating of electrical power system. Assembly of such devices in a logical
manner forms switchgear. In other words, apparatus used for switching, controlling and protecting
the electrical circuits and equipment is known as switchgear.

In an electric power system, switchgear is the combination of electrical disconnect switches, fuses
or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate electrical equipment. Switchgear is used both
to de-energize equipment to allow work to be done and to clear faults downstream. This type of
equipment is directly linked to the reliability of the electricity supply.

The earliest central power stations used simple open knife switches, mounted on insulating panels
of marble or asbestos. Power levels and voltages rapidly escalated, making opening manually
operated switches too dangerous for anything other than isolation of a de-energized circuit. Oil-
filled equipment allowed arc energy to be contained and safely controlled.

Switchgear protection plays a vital role in modern power system network, right from generation
through transmission to distribution end. The current interruption device or switching device is
called circuit breaker in switchgear protection system.

Figure 3.1: Switchyard

31

3.2 Equipment used in Switchgear

Lighting Arrester

Isolator

Potential Transformer

Earthing Switch

Current Transformers

Circuit Breaker

Bus bar

Load Break Switch

Fuse

Magnetic Contactor

Relays

3.3 Lightning Arrester

Lighting arrester is a protective device for electrical equipments which reduces excessive voltage
resulting from lightning to a safe level by grounding the discharge. Metal oxide varistors (MOVs)
have been used for power system protection since the mid-1970s. The typical lightning arrester
also known as surge arrester has a high voltage terminal and a ground terminal. When a lightning
surge or switching surge travels down the power system to the arrester, the current from the surge
is diverted around the protected insulation in most cases to earth. Overhead lines are exposed to
atmosphere in accordingly they may suffer from lighting strikes which calls very high voltage to
be induce in overhead lines. These induced over voltages may cause rupture of overhead insulators
or other power system equipment. In order to protect them from failure of insulator due to over
voltages lighting arrester are employed such that over voltages met lighting arresters first before
meeting any of power system equipments. Lightning arrester is to protect electrical equipment in
power System from damage of over voltage and high voltage. A lightning rod is a single
component in a lightning protection system.

32

Figure 3.3: Lightning Arrester

3.3.1 Types of Lightning Arresters

There are several types of lightning arresters in general use. They differ only in constructional
details but operate on the same principle viz, providing low resistance path for the surges to the
round. Following are the different types of lightning relays:

Rod arrester

Horn gap arrester

Multigap arrester

Expulsion type lightning arrester

Valve type lightning arrester

3.3.2 Working Principle of Lightning Arrester

The figure shows a basic form of a surge arrester. It consists of a spark gap in series with a non-
linear resistor. One end of the diverter is connected to the terminal of the equipment to be protected

33

and the other end is effectively grounded. The length of the gas is so adjusted that normal line
voltage is not enough to cause an arc across the gap but a dangerously high voltage will break
down the air insulation and form an arc. The property of the nonlinear resistor is that its resistance
decreases as the voltage/current increases and vice-versa.

Figure 3.3.2: Working Principle of Lightning Arrester

3.3.3 Characteristic of Lightning Arrester

High performance zinc oxide varistor, high-capacity, low-leakage.

Real with DC reference voltage, square-wave-pass flow capacity and high current tolerance is
higher than the national standard.

Special structure, the overall compression molding, no air gap, high sealing performance,
moisture proof explosion-proof.

Large creep age distance, good hydrophobic, strong resistance to incompetence, stable
performance and reduce operation and maintenance.

Smaller in size, Light in weight, High withstand collision, Flexible installation, Particularly
suitable for use in the switch cabin.

34

3.3.4 Lighting Arrester Specification used in Maona Plant

Type Y10W5-126/315 kV (porcelain bushing type)

Rated voltage 126 kV

Rated current 50Hz

Rated discharging current 10kA

Residual voltage under thunder I n 10kA 315kVpeak

Standard discharging current 1.0kApeak

Continuous operating voltage 100.8kV

Leave factory date 1050

3.4 Isolator

Isolator is a mechanical switch which isolates a part of circuit from system as when required.
Electrical isolators separate a part of the system from rest for safe maintenance works.
So, definition of isolator can be rewritten as Isolator is a manually operated mechanical switch
which separates a part of the electrical power. Isolators are used to open a circuit under no load.
Its main purpose is to isolate one portion of the circuit from the other and is not intended to be
opened while current is flowing in the line. Isolators are generally used on both ends of the breaker
in order that repair or replacement of circuit breaker can be done without and danger.

Depending upon the position in power system, the isolators can be categorized as:
Bus side isolator the isolator is directly connected with main bus
Line side isolator the isolator is situated at line side of any feeder
Transfer bus side isolator the isolator is directly connected with transfer bus.

To prevent the manual operation, the insulator is provided with the following interlocking:

Interlocking between three poles for simultaneous operation.


Interlocking with circuit breakers.

35

These are essentially off load devices although they are capable of dealing with small charging
currents of bus bars and connections. The design of isolators is closely related to the design of
substations. Isolator design is considered in the following aspects:
Space Factor
Insulation Security
Standardization
Ease of Maintenance
Cost

Figure 3.4: Isolator used in Maona Power Plant

36

3.4.1 Types of Isolator

There are different types of isolators available depending upon system requirement such as

Double Break Isolator.


Single Break Isolator.
Pantograph type Isolator.

3.4.2 Isolator Specification used in Maona Power Plant


Type GW4-145TH/1250earthing switch in both sides)
Rated voltage: 145kV
Rated current: 1250A
Rated frequency: 50Hz
Short time current/peak current: 40kA for 4s/80 kA (peak
Power frequency withstand voltage: 275kV
Operating mechanism: Motor drived CJ7A for isolator Manual derived
CS19 for earthing switch
Circuit resistance 150
Earthing loop resistance 290.

3.5 Circuit Breaker


Electrical circuit breaker is a switching device which can be operated manually as well as
automatically for controlling and protection of electrical power system respectively. As the modern
power system deals with huge currents, the special attention should be given during designing of
circuit breaker to safe interruption of arc produced during the operation of circuit breaker. The
dielectric strength of the media in between contacts can be increased in numbers of ways, like by
compressing the ionized arcing media since compressing accelerates the deionization process of
the media, by cooling the arcing media since cooling increase the resistance of arcing path or by
replacing the ionized arcing media by fresh gasses. Hence a numbers of arc quenching processes
should be involved in operation of circuit breaker.

37

3.5.1 Types of Circuit Breaker


According to their arc quenching media the circuit breaker can be divided as-
Oil circuit breaker.
Air circuit breaker.
SF6 circuit breaker
Vacuum circuit breaker.
According to their services the circuit breaker can be divided as-
Outdoor circuit breaker
Indoor breaker.
According to the operating mechanism of circuit breaker they can be divided as-
Spring operated circuit breaker.
Pneumatic circuit breaker.
Hydraulic circuit breaker.
According to the voltage level of installation types of circuit breaker is referred as-
High voltage circuit breaker.
Medium voltage circuit breaker.
Low voltage circuit breaker.

3.5.2 Low Voltage Circuit Breaker


Low voltage (less than 1000 VAC) types are common in domestic, commercial and industrial
application, include.

3.5.3 MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker)


Nowadays we use more commonly miniature circuit breaker or MCB in low voltage electrical
network instead of fuse. Rated current up to 100A.

38

Figure 3.5.3: Miniature circuit breakers

The MCB has some advantages compared to fuse.


It automatically switches off the electrical circuit during abnormal condition of the network
means in overload condition as well as faulty condition. The fuse does not sense but
miniature circuit breaker does it in more reliable way. MCB is much more sensitive to over
current than fuse.
Another advantage is, as the switch operating knob comes at its off position during tripping,
the faulty zone of the electrical circuit can easily be identified. But in case of fuse, fuse
wire should be checked by opening fuse grip or cut out from fuse base, for confirming the
blow of fuse wire.
Quick restoration of supply cannot be possible in case of fuse as because fuses have to be
rewireable or replaced for restoring the supply. But in the case of MCB, quick restoration
is possible by just switching on operation.
Handling MCB is more electrically safe than fuse. Because of too many advantages of
MCB over fuse units, in modern low voltage electrical network, miniature circuit breaker
is mostly used instead of backdated fuse unit. Only one disadvantage of MCB over fuse is
that this system is costlier than fuse unit system.

3.5.4 MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker)


Rated current up to 1000 A. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation. Trip current may be
adjustable in larger ratings. Low voltage power circuit breakers can be mounted in multi-tiers in
LV switchboards or switchgear cabinets.

39

Figure 3.5.4: Molded Case circuit breakers

3.5.5 Vacuum Circuit Breaker


A vacuum circuit breaker is such kind of circuit breaker where the arc quenching takes place in
vacuum. The technology is suitable for mainly medium voltage application. For higher voltage
vacuum technology, has been developed but not commercially viable. The operation of opening
and closing of current carrying contacts and associated arc interruption take place in a vacuum
chamber in the breaker which is called vacuum interrupter.

Figure 3.5.5: Outdoor Vacuum Circuit Breaker Used in Maona Power Plant

40

3.5.6 Components of Vacuum Circuit Breaker

Terminal Plate
Insulator (Ceramic)
Arc chamber (Metallic) (Condensing Shield)
Fixed Contact piece
Insulator
Metal below
Moving contact Guide

3.5.7 Specification of Outdoor VCB

Rated System Voltage 33KV

Rated Maximum Voltage 36KV

Current 600A

Making Current 66 kAp

Auxiliary Supply 220V (AC)

Frequency 50Hz

1 min Power Frequency Withstand (KV rms) 70

System Breaking Current (KA rms) 264

Closing Coil 110 VD

Tripping Coil 110 VDC

3.5.8 Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) Circuit Breaker

A circuit breaker in which the current carrying contacts operate in Sulphur Hexafluoride or SF6
Gas is known as an SF6 circuit breaker.SF6 has excellent insulating property. SF6 has high electro-

41

negativity. That means it has high affinity of absorbing free electron. Whenever a free electron
collides with the SF6 gas molecule, it is absorbed by that gas molecule and forms a negative ion.

Figure 3.5.8: SF6 circuit breaker

3.5.9 Types of SF6 Circuit Breaker

There are mainly three types of SF6 CB depending upon the voltage level of application-
Single interrupter SF6 CB applied for up to 245 KV (220 KV) system.
Two interrupter SF6 CB applied for up to 420 KV (400 KV) system.
Four interrupter SF6 CB applied for up to 800 KV (715 KV) system.

42

3.5.10 List of Sulphur Hexafluoride Gas Properties

Density at 20C 6.14 kg/m3

Color of Gas Colourless

Molecular Weight 146.06

Thermal Conductivity 0.0136 w/mK

Critical Temperature 45.55C

Critical Density 730 Kg/m3

Critical Pressure 3.78 MPa

Sound Velocity in SF6 136 m/s. It is 3 times less than that in air

Refractive Index 1.000783

Formation Heat -1221.66 Kg/mol

Specific Heat 96.6 j/mole K

Breakdown Field Relative to Pressure 89 V/m Pa

Relative Dielectric Constant at 25C and 1 bar absolute 1.00204

Dissipation Factor or tan at 25C and 1 bar absolute <2 10-7

43

3.5.11 SF6 Circuit Breaker Specification in Maona Power Plant

Circuit Breaker Gas SF6


SF6 Reactive Pressure at 20C 2.3bar
Voltage 12KV
Breaking Capacity 25KA
Making Capacity 63KA
Short Time Current 25KA-1s
Mass of SF6 480g
Current In 630A
Impulse Voltage 75 KVp
Mass 170kg
Frequency 50Hz.

3.5.12 Air Break Circuit Breaker

This type of circuit breakers, is those kind of circuit breaker which operates in air at atmospheric
pressure. After development of oil circuit breaker, the medium voltage air circuit breaker (ACB)
is replaced completely by oil circuit breaker.

Figure 3.5.12: Air Break Circuit Breaker


44

3.5.13 Types of ACB

There are mainly two types of ACB are available.

Plain air circuit breaker.


Air blast Circuit Breaker.

3.5.14 Present trends in choice of Circuit Breakers

Rated voltage Preferred type Remarks

Below 1 kv Air break circuit breaker Metal enclosed switchgear


(low voltage) Metal enclosed control gear

3.6kv to 12kv Vacuum Circuit breakers Metal enclosed switchgear, Indoor use
Vacuum switchgear preferred.
Single Pressure SF6 preferred.

36 kv Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker. Outdoor Type in Kiosk MOCB becoming


Vacuum C.B. SF6 Circuit obsolete.
Breaker.

145kv and Minimum oil circuit breaker SF6 Circuit Breaker Preferred.
245kv outdoor MOCB becoming obsolete.
SF6 Outdoor Puffer type

420kv SF6 Outdoor Puffer type F6 Circuit Breaker Preferred.

45

3.5.15 Technical Particulars of a circuit breaker

A circuit breaker is identified by the following particulars:

Type of medium for arc extinction.


Rated voltage, this corresponds to highest power frequency voltage between phase to
phase, e.g. 3.6kv, 7.2kv, 12kv, 36kv, 72.5kv, 14 5kv, 245kv.
Rated breaking current.
Type of construction:
Indoor metal clad type, draw out type.
Outdoor type
Metal clad SF6 gas insulated type.
Types of operating mechanism.
Total break time e.g. 2cycle, 3 cycle, 5cycle.
Structural form.

3.6 Potential Transformer

Potential transformer or voltage transformer


gets used in electrical power system for
stepping down the system voltage to a safe
value which can be fed to low ratings meters
and relays. Commercially available relays
and meters used for protection and metering,
are designed for low voltage. The system
voltage is applied across the terminals of
primary winding of that transformer, and then
proportionate secondary voltage appears
across the secondary terminals of the PT.

Figure 3.6: Potential Transformer

46

3.6.1 Error in Potential Transformer

Voltage Error or Ratio Error in Potential Transformer.


Phase Error or Phase Angle Error in Potential Transformer.

3.6.2 Cause of Error in Potential Transformer


The voltage applied to the primary of the potential transformer first drops due to the internal
impedance of the primary. Then it appears across the primary winding and then transformed
proportionally to its turns ratio, to the secondary winding. This transformed voltage across the
secondary winding will again drop due to the internal impedance of the secondary, before
appearing across burden terminals. This is the reason of errors in potential transformer.

3.6.3 Specification of Potential Transformer

Rated primary voltage: The primary voltage marked on the rating plate of the voltage
transformer. The method of connection of primary winding to system and system voltage
should be considered while selecting the VT of correct primary voltage rating. There are
several values of standard primary voltages.

Rated transformation ratio: The ratio of rated primary voltage to rated secondary voltage.
Rated secondary voltage: It is the value of secondary voltage marked on the rating plate.
Residual voltage: it is defined as vector sum of three lime to earth voltages.
Residual voltage transformer: A three phase voltage transformers or a group of three single
phases residually connected voltage transformer in which residual voltage appears across
secondary terminals when three-phase voltages error is given in to primary winding.
Ratio error: Percentage ratio error sometimes called percentage voltage error is given in
below.
Voltage factor: The upper limit of operating voltage (primary) is given by rated primary
voltage x voltage factor, is specified for certain time.

47

3.6.4 Testing of potential transformer


Error measurements: The errors are generally measured by comparison method that is
comparing the voltage transformer under test with a sub-standard voltage transformer of
high accuracy and known errors. Errors are measured for various primary voltages. For
burdens.
Core losses: Measurement of core loss and exciting current are made to check the quality
of core material and short-circuits in winding between turns.
Insulation tests: Routine insulation tests are of two kinds, applied and induced over
voltage tests. In applied tests, the primary winding is short-circuited and test voltage is
applied between primary winding and earth, for specified time and of specified value.

3.6.5 construction of potential transformer


There are two type of construction:

Electromagnetic potential transformer: In which primary and secondary are wound on


magnetic core like in usual transformer.
Capacitive potential transformer: In which potential transformer, the primary voltage is
applied to a series capacitor group. The voltage across one of the capacitors is taken to
auxiliary voltage transformer.

3.6.6 Potential Transformer Specification of Maona Power Plant

Type JDCF-145THW2
Serial number 04J02031-1
Device maximum operating voltage 145kV
Rated voltage 132/3kV/100/3V/100V
Rated output 200/75VA
Rated frequency 50Hz
Maximum output 2000VA
Technique standard IEC 60044-2:1997

48

3.7 The Power Transformer


A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another without
changing frequency. Power transformers are usually the largest single item in a substation. For
economy of service roads, transformers are located on one side of a substation, and the connection
to switchgear is by bare conductors. Because of the large quantity of oil, it is essential to take
precaution against the spread of fire. Hence, the transformer is usually located around a sump used
to collect the excess oil. Transformers that are located and a cell should be enclosed in a blast proof
room.

Figure 3.7: Power transformer

3.7.1 Tap changer


A tap changer is a connection point selection mechanism along a power transformer winding that
allows a variable number of turns to be selected in discrete steps. A transformer with a variable
turns ratio is produced, enabling stepped voltage regulation of the output. The tap selection may
be made via an automatic or manual tap changer mechanism.

49

3.7.2 Types of Tap Changer


OFF Load Tap Changer.

ON Load Tap Changer.

3.7.3 OFF Load Tap Changer


If the required change in voltage is infrequent, then an off load tap changer is installed on a
transformer and taps can be changed after completely isolating a transformer from the circuit. Such
kind of a tap changer is usually installed on distribution transformer.

3.7.4 ON Load Tap Changer


With the expansion and interconnection of power system it often becomes necessary to change the
transformer taps several times daily to obtain the required voltage on system as per load demand.
The demand of continuity of supply does not permit to disconnect the transformer from system for
off load tap changing. To meet this requirement, on load tap changers are installed on the majority
of power transformers.

Figure 3.7.4: Tap Changer Panels

50

3.7.5 Transformer Information

Code Description

412T, 422T Rated Power:


Current :20/25 MVA
Voltage :11/33 KV
Cooling Type: ONAN/ONAF

432T Rated Power:


Current: 750 KVA
Voltage :33/11KV
Cooling Type : ONAN/ONAF

3.8 Current Transformers


A current transformer is a transformer that is used to produce an alternating current in its
secondary which is proportional to the AC current in its primary. Current transformers, together
with voltage transformers or potential transformers, which are designed for measurement, are
known as instrument transformers. When a current is too high to measure directly or the voltage
of the circuit is too high, a current transformer can be used to provide an isolated lower current in
its secondary which is proportional to the current in the primary circuit.

Figure 3.8: Current transformer

51

3.8.1 Types of Current Transformer


There are three basic types of current transformers: wound, toroidal and bar.

Wound Current Transformer The transformers primary winding is physically


connected in series with the conductor that carries the measured current flowing in the
circuit. The magnitude of the secondary current is dependent on the turns ratio of the
transformer.

Toroidal Current Transformer These do not contain a primary winding. Instead, the
line that carries the current flowing in the network is threaded through a window or hole
in the toroidal transformer. Some current transformers have a split core which allows
it to be opened, installed, and closed, without disconnecting the circuit to which they
are attached.

Bar-type Current Transformer This type of current transformer uses the actual cable
or bus-bar of the main circuit as the primary winding, which is equivalent to a single
turn. They are fully insulated from the high operating voltage of the system and are
usually bolted to the current carrying device.

3.8.2 Description of Current Transformer


Rated primary current: The value of primary current which appears in the designation
of the transformer and on which the performance of the current transformer is based
Rated secondary current: The value of secondary current which appears in the
designation of the transformer and on which the performance of the current transformer
is based.
Rated burden: The apparent power of the secondary circuit in Volt-amperes expressed
at the rated secondary current and at a specific power factor (0.8 for almost all
standards).
Rated output: The value of the apparent power (in volt-amperes at a specified power
(factor) which the current transformer is intended to supply to the secondary circuit at
the rated secondary current and with rated burden connected to it.
52

3.8.3 Current Transformer Specification used in Maona Power Plant


Type LCWB-145THW2 (outdoor, oil immersed type)
Serial number 04L01024-1
Device maximum operating voltage 145kV
Rated voltage 132kV
Rated current 1000/1A
Level group 5P20/5P20/5P20/5P20/0.5/0.2s
Rated output 60/60/60/60/30/30VA
Power factor 0.8
Rated frequency 50Hz
Technique standard IEC 60044-1:1996
Manufacturer Dalian NO 1 instrument transformer factory

3.8.4 Station Transformer


There are 2 station transformers in Maona Power Plant. Two station transformers at Wartsila plant.
The transformers are mainly 11000/415V step down transformer. This 415V is used to operate the
auxiliary equipment of the plant, as- ventilators, radiator motors, overhead crane etc.

53

3.8.5 Specification of Station Transformer at Maona power plant


Rated Power 750KVA

Phase 3

Rated Frequency 50Hz

Type of Cooling ONAN

Rated Voltage

HT 11000V

LT 415V

Rated Current

HT 39.6A

LT 1043.4A

Impedance Voltage 6%

Total Weight 2800Kg

Winding Temperature Rise 65C

3.9 Bus bar


An electrical bus bar is defined as a conductor aluminum.
or a group of conductor used for collecting
electrical energy from the incoming feeders
and distributes them to the outgoing feeders.
In other words, it is a type of electrical
junction in which all the incoming and
outgoing electrical current meets. The bus-
bars used in electrical substations usually
have rectangular cross section bars, but they
can be in another shape also, as round tubes,
Figure 3.9: Bus Bar
solid round bars, or shape tubes. The bus-bar
54

3.9.1 Materials of Bus bars


Copper and aluminum are used for bus bars. Copper being scarce and costly, aluminum is being
increasingly used for bus bars. The material used for bus bars should have low resistivity, higher
softening temperature, good mechanical properties and low cost. Now aluminum is being
increasingly used for various switchgear applications. While using aluminum for bus-bars, the
difficulties arise due to following aspects:
Higher resistivity hence associated problems of temperature rise.
Lower tensile strength than copper
Lower thermal conductivity than copper.
Higher coefficient of linear expansion than copper.
Higher joint resistance and associated problems about jointing
Special welding techniques are necessary.

3.9.2 Bus-bar Design


Bus bars are produced in a variety of shapes such as flat strips, solid bars and rods, solid or hollow
tubes, and braided wire. Some of these shapes allow heat to dissipate more efficiently due to their
high surface area to cross-sectional area ratio. The skin effect makes 5060 Hz AC bus bars more
than about 8 millimeters (0.31 in) thickness inefficient, so hollow or flat shapes are prevalent in
higher current applications. A bus bar may either be supported on insulators, or else insulation may
completely surround it.
The factors to be considered for bus bar design as follows:
Material.
Cross-section of conductors.
Temperature rise during continuous normal current.
Temperature rise during continuous short circuit current of 1 second or 3 seconds.
Design of insulator-creepage distance and clearance.
Distance between phase conductors.
Force on insulators during peak short circuit current.
Span of insulator supports.

55

3.9.3 Clearance for Open Outdoor Bus-bars

Rated voltage, Minimum Clearance to Earth Maximum Clearance between Phases


rms kv (mm)

6.6 140 178

11 178 229

15 216 267

22 279 330

33 381 431

66 685 786

110 1068 1219

132 1270 1473

220 2082 2361

3.9.4 Types of construction of Bus-bar


Types of construction
Indoor or outdoor
Open or Enclosed
Rigid Tubular
Flexible ACSR
Non-segregated metal enclosed bus ducts.
Segregated metal enclosed bus ducts.
Isolated phase bus ducts of continuous type of discontinuous types.

56

3.9.5 Bus bar arrangement


There are several ways for arranging bus bar in a system. The choice of a particular depends on
system voltage, location of system in the power system, flexibility of operation and reality needed
in addition to these the technique points which must be consider are
simplicity of operation
Maintenance or repair works without interruption of supply.
Alternative arrangement available in case of failure of one or more equipments.
Provision for future expansion.
Economical as per as possible.

3.9.6 Single bus bar arrangement


These simple arrangements consist of single bus bar (one for each phase) to which all the feeders
and distributors are connected in case of fault on maintained of the enter system has to be designed
which leads to total shut down.

Figure 3.9.6: Single bus bar arrangement.

57

3.9.7 Duplicate bus bar arrangement


This type of arrangement provides flexibility of operation, continuity of supply and
periodic maintenance without shut down.

Figure 3.9.7: Duplicate bus bar arrangement.

3.9.8 Specialization of bus bar


In this arrangement, there are a number of sections which can be interconnected in each
other hence for repair maintained or fault in any of section to the shutdown is not needed.

Figure 3.9.8: Specialization of bus bar arrangement.

58

3.9.9. Ring bus bar


The disadvantage of sectionalized bus bar is remove here or any fault in any bus bar. Two
circuits always open with associative isolator then the remaining system continue to
operate together and power transfers between bus bar remain same.

Figure 3.9.9: Ring bus bar

3.9.10 One and half breaker arrangement


This arrangement uses three circuit breakers along with associative isolator for two
circuits. So, the number of circuit breaker per circuit is one and half hence the name is one
and half.

Figure 3.9.10: One and half breaker arrangement.

59

3.9.11 Mesh arrangement


For economic use of costly circuit breaker mesh arrangement may be employed. In this
type of arrangement, circuit breakers are inserted in the mesh from by the bus bar of no
loads. Four circuit breakers are used for eight circuits.

Figure 3.9.11: Mesh arrangement

3.10 Load Break Switch


A load break switch is a disconnect switch that has been designed to provide making or
breaking of specified currents .Disconnect switches can be supplied with equipment to
provide a limited load switching capability. Arcing horns, whips, and spring actuators are
typical at lower voltages.

Figure 3.10: Load Break Switch

60

3.11 Fuse
In electronics and electrical engineering, a fuse is a type of low resistance resistor that acts
as a sacrificial device to provide overcurrent protection, of either the load or source circuit.
Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows
through it, interrupting the circuit that it connects. Short circuits, overloading, mismatched
loads, or device failure are the prime reasons for excessive current. Fuses can be used as
alternatives to circuit breakers.

3.11.1 Fuse Wire Rating


The melting point and specific resistance of different metals used for fuse wire.

Metal Melting point Specific Resistance

Aluminum 240o F 2.86 - cm

Copper 2000o F 1.72 - cm

Lead 624o F 21.0 - cm

Silver 1830o F 1.64 - cm

Tin 463o F 11.3 - cm

Zinc 787o F 6.1 - cm

3.11.2 Fuse Characteristic


Low melting point.
High conductivity.
Least deterioration due to oxidation.
It carries the normal current without overheating.

61

3.11.3 HRC Fuse

HRC fuse or high rupturing capacity fuse- In that type of fuse, the fuse wire or element can carry
short circuit heavy current for a known time period. During this time if the fault is removed, then
it does not blow off otherwise it blows off or melts. The enclosure of HRC fuse is either of glass
or some other chemical compound. This enclosure is fully air tight to avoid the effect of
atmosphere on the fuse materials.

Figure 3.11: HRC fuse

3.12 Magnetic Contactor


A Magnetic contactor is a switching device capable of making, carrying and breaking
currents under normal circuit conditions including operating in overload conditions. Based
on the working principle, there are so many types of contactors are available, i.e.,
pneumatic, Hydraulic, Electromagnetic etc. But the most commonly used one is
Electromagnet type because of its simple operating principle and rugged construction.

62

Figure 3.12: Magnetic Contactor

A contactor is composed or the following 3 systems.

Contact System
This is the current carrying part of the contactor. This includes Power contacts, Auxiliary contacts
& contact springs. Contactors making capacity is at 10 times the rated current of the contactor.
Electro magnet System
This is a driving unit of contact system. Force for closing of contacts is provided by the
'Electromagnet:' it consists of Fixed & Moving core & coil.
Enclosure System
An external frame housing the contact and the electromagnet made of insulating materials like
Bakelite, Nylon 6, thermosetting plastics etc. to constitute a protective structure, adequate
insulation, protection to the components within, protection to personnel coming in contact &
protection against dust & ingress of vermin.

63

3.12.1 Ratings
The current rating of the contactor depends on utilization category. For example, IEC categories
are described as:
AC1 - Non-inductive or slightly inductive loads
AC2 - Starting of slip-ring motors
AC3 - Starting of squirrel-cage motors and switching off only after the motor is up to speed.
(Make Locked Rotor Amps (LRA), Break Full Load Amps (FLA))
AC4 - Starting of squirrel-cage motors with inching and plugging duty. Rapid Start/Stop.
(Make and Break LRA)
AC11 - Auxiliary (control) circuits

3.12.2 Selection of Magnetic Contactor


Proper selection of a contactor avoids many problems and gives maximum efficiency.
Application to motor control: For selection of contactors for motor application following points to
be taken care of
Type of duty
Rating of the motor
Type of starting DOL, Star-Delta, Autotransformer, etc.
Acceleration time.

3.12.3 Use of Magnetic Contactor


Motor is the most widely used Electrical equipment to convert electrical energy in to mechanical
energy. In day-to-day operations, Contactor accomplishes the desired switching on and off of these
motors from various locations.

3.13 Earthing switch


Earthing switch connect the live parts/ line conductors and earth. This switch is normally
open. Earthing switch is used to earth the live parts during maintenance and during testing.
During maintenance although circuit is open still there are some voltages on line, due to

64

which capacitance between line and earth is charged. Before proceeding to maintenance
work the voltage s discharged to earth, by closing the earth switch.
Maintenance Earthing Switch: These are two or three pole units with a manual
operating mechanism.
High Speed Earthing Switch: These are operated by spring energy. Spring is
charged by motor-mechanism.

Figure 3.13: Earthing switch

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CHAPTER FOUR
POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION &
PROTECTIVE RELAYS

66

4.1 Faults and Abnormal Conditions


During a fault, the fault impedance is low and accordingly, the fault currents are relatively
high. Since the fault currents being excessive, they damage the faulty equipment and the
supply installation. During the faults, the power flow is diverted towards the fault; and the
supply to the neighboring zones is affected.

4.1.1 Faults can be classified as


single line to ground fault
lint to line
double line to ground fault
simulation fault
three phase fault
open circuit.

4.1.2 The other abnormal condition


Voltage and current unbalance
Under frequency
Over voltages
Temperature rise
Reverse of power
Power swing
instability.

4.2 Faults calculation


The fault calculations provide the substation equipment. The fault calculations provide the
information about the fault currents and the voltages at various points of the power system
under different fault conditions. Typical values of fault currents in Distribution and
Transmission systems.

67

4.2.1 Procedure of Fault Calculations


The faults are classified as symmetrical faults as unsymmetrical faults. Symmetrical faults
include three phase fault. Such faults can be solved on per phase basis. The system is
represented by a single-phase system considering phase and neutral. The unsymmetrical
faults are solved by using the method of symmetrical components. The protective relays
are connected in the secondary circuits or current transformers and/or potential
transformers. The relays sense the abnormal conditions and close the trip circuit of the
associated circuit breaker. The circuit breaker opens its contacts.

4.3 Important Elements for Power System Protection


Switchgear
Protective Gear
Station Battery

4.3.1 Objective of Power System Protection


The objective of power system protection is to isolate a faulty section of electrical power system
from rest of the live system so that the rest portion can function satisfactorily without any severer
damage due to fault current. Actually, circuit breaker isolates the faulty system from rest of the
healthy system and this circuit breakers automatically open during fault condition due to its trip
signal comes from protection relay. The main philosophy about protection is that no protection of
power system can prevent the flow of fault current through the system.

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4.4 Protective Relaying


A relay is automatic device which senses an abnormal condition of electrical circuit and
closes its contacts. These contacts in turns close and complete the circuit breaker trip coil
circuit hence make the circuit breaker tripped for disconnecting the faulty portion of the
electrical circuit from rest of the healthy circuit.

4.4.1 Functional Requirements of Protection Relay


Reliability
Selectivity
Sensitivity
Speed

4.4.2 Types of Protective Relays


Differential Relay
Directional Relay
Over current/ earth fault Relay
Frequency Relay
Trip Relay
Lockout Relay
Distance Relay
Gas accumulator Relay
Time Relay
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4.4.3 Relays for Transmission & Distribution Lines Protection

SL Lines to be protected Relays to be used


Main-I: Non-switched or Numerical Distance Scheme
400 KV
1
Transmission Line
Main-II: Non-switched or Numerical Distance Scheme
Main-I: Non-switched distance scheme (Fed from Bus PTs)
220 KV
2 Main-II: Switched distance scheme (Fed from line CVTs)
Transmission Line
With a changeover facility from bus PT to line CVT and vice-versa.
Main Protection: Switched distance scheme (fed from bus PT).
132 KV
3
Transmission Line Backup Protection: 3 Nos. directional IDMT O/L Relays and
1 No. Directional IDMT E/L relay.
4 33 KV lines Non-directional IDMT 3 O/L and 1 E/L relays.
5 11 KV lines Non-directional IDMT 2 O/L and 1 E/L relays.

4.4.3 Differential Protection Relay


The differential relay is one that operates when there is a difference between two or more
similar electrical quantities exceeds a predetermined value. In differential relay scheme
circuit, there are two currents come from two parts of an electrical power circuit. These
two currents meet at a junction point where a relay coil is connected.

Figure 4.4.3: Differential Protection of a Generator

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4.4.4 Differential Protection of a Station Bus


The principle of the differential protection of a station bus is the same as for generators.
The sum of all currents entering and leaving the bus must be equal to zero under normal
conditions or if the fault is outside of the protected zone. If there is a fault on the bus, there
will be a net flow of current to the bus and the differential relay will operate.

Figure 4.4.4: Differential Protection of Bus bar

4.4.5 Percentage Differential Relays


The disadvantage of the current differential protection is that current transformers must be
identical, otherwise there will be current flowing through the current relays for faults
outside of the protected zone or even under normal conditions. Sensitivity to the
differential current due to the current transformer errors is reduced by percentage
differential relays.

Figure 4.4.5: Percentage Differential Relay

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4.4.6 Differential Protection of Three Phase Transformer


Differential protection of three phase transformers must take into account the change in
magnitude and phase angle of the transformed current.

Figure 4.4.6: Differential Protection of Three Phase Transformer's

4.4.7 Transformers Connected Y-Y or Delta-Delta


In these two connections, the primary and secondary currents are in phase, but their
magnitudes are different. The difference in the current magnitude must be balanced out by
the current transformer ratios.

Figure 4.4.7: Differential Protection for a Y-Y Connected Transformer

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4.5 Some part of the Relay panel of summit 33 MW Maona power plant

Figure 4.5: Relay panel

4.6 The Control Panel

Figure 4.6: The Control Panel

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4.7 Alarm Annunciator


Alarm Annunciator is placed on the control panel at which anyone can determine what types
of fault had been occurred.

Figure 4.7: Alarm Annunciator

74

CHAPTER FIVE
TRANSFORMER AND ITS PROTECTION

75

5.1 Introduction
The electrical energy produced in the generating station is conveyed to the consumer through
a network of transmission and distribution system. So, at first the generating voltage needs to
transfer from generating station to grid. For this purpose, it needs some apparatus to continue
its operation. An electrical grid is a vast, interconnected network for delivering electricity from
suppliers to consumers.

5.2 Working Principal of a Transformer


The working principle of transformer is very simple. It depends upon Faraday's law of
electromagnetic induction. Actually, mutual induction between two or more winding is responsible
for transformation action in an electrical transformer. Say you have one winding which is supplied
by an alternating electrical source. The alternating current through the winding produces a
continually changing flux or alternating flux that surrounds the winding. If any other winding is
brought nearer to the previous one, obviously, some portion of this flux will link with the second.
As this flux is continually changing in its amplitude and direction, there must be a change in flux
linkage in the second winding or coil. According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction,
there must be an EMF induced in the second. If the circuit of the later winding is closed, there
must be a current flowing through it. This is the simplest form of electrical power transformer and
this is the most basic of working principle of transformer.

Figure 5.2: Transformer

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In brief, a transformer is a device that


Transfers electric one circuit to another
It does so without a change of frequency
It accomplishes this by Electromagnetic Induction and

5.3 Transformer Components

Figure 5.3: Oil-immersed Transformer

Tank
The transformer tank consists of the bottom plate, frame, and the tank sides. The tank sides
are made of corrugated panels in order to increase the total cooling area. The tank of sealed
type transformers (without oil conservator) is filled with oil and is sealed.

Cover
There are two lifting lugs on the tank cover, which are used for lifting and carrying the
transformer. On request, the thermometer pocket and the thermometer with two electrical

77

contacts are placed on the cover. Moreover, a neutral ear thing link is also placed on the cover.
A pressure relief device is usually placed on the cover of the sealed type transformers.

Rollers
The transformers up to 160 kVA are usually manufactured as pole-mounted. The transformers
above 160 kVA are equipped with bi-directional rollers.

Draining and Sampling Oil Valve


In the lower part of the tank side there is a draining and sampling oil valve, which allows the oil
sampling in order to test the oil dielectric strength.

Neutral Ear thing Link


This link ensures the neutral ear thing of the three-phase winding with the transformer tank. For
medium voltage of 6, 10, 20, 30 kV, porcelain bushings according to DIN 42531 are used.
Alternatively, on request, plug-in bushings can be used.

Low Voltage Bushings


Low voltage bushings of 1 kV series, according to DIN 42530, are used in the low voltage.

Tap Changer
The applying medium voltage to the primary winding of transformer is not stable and depends
upon the transformer position in the distribution network. Therefore, taken the primary voltage as
granted, the tap changer is used in order to keep the secondary voltage of the transformer as stable
as possible.

Voltage Selector
The voltage selector (changeover switch) is used for the change of the transformer operating
voltage from one voltage level to another (e.g. from 15 kV to 20 kV and vice-versa) in proportion
with the voltage of the network that the transformer is connected. The handling of the voltage
selector is the same with the handling of the tap changer; the only difference is that the annulus
has two positions (e.g. 15 kV or 20 kV).

78

Lifting Lugs
The lifting lugs are used for lifting and carrying the transformer.

Transformer Thermometer
The thermocouple of the thermometer is set at the higher oil layer, in order to measure the
maximum oil temperature. The electrical contacts of the thermometer are regulated to the desirable
temperatures and are connected to the protection circuit for alarm and tripping of the circuit, when
the corresponding temperature limits are exceeded.

Oil Conservator
During the transformer oil temperature variation, and consequently the oil volume variation, the
oil conservator undergoes this oil volume fluctuation. The oil conservator is equipped with an oil
level indicator with two marks: the first mark shows the oil level at -20C and the second the oil
level at +20C. Transformers with oil conservator are usually equipped with an air dehumidifier
and a Buchholz relay.

Buchholz Relay
The protection of the oil-immersed transformers from internal faults, which cause the development
of gases or strong oil leakage, is implemented with Buchholz relay, which is installed between the
transformer tank and the oil conservator. In case of gases creation (as a result of internal fault) or
lack of oil, the first float is moved downwards and the alarm contact is activated. If the gases are
sufficient (i.e. the internal fault is significant), then the second float is moved downwards and the
trip contact is activated. The trip contact is also activated in case of strong oil flux to the oil
conservator after short-circuit or internal fault. Moreover, the Buchholz relay provides protection
from oil leakage.

Filling Valve
The transformers are equipped with a filling valve, in order to have the ability to fill the
transformers with mineral oil.

79

Oil Level Indicator


For the sealed type transformers (without oil conservator), the oil level indicator is placed on the
tank side or on the transformer cover. For the transformers with oil conservator, an oil level
indicator of tube type (glass transparent tube) or magnetic type is placed on the oil conservator.

Tank Ear Thing Point


Two tank ear thing points are placed near the bottom of the tank (one ear thing point in diametric
opposite direction with the other ear thing point), in order to have the ability for tank ear thing.
The loading and unloading of tank trucks with flammable and combustible products, presents one
of the most serious fire and explosion risks for site operations within the hazardous process
industries.

5.4 Parts of the Transformer

Steel tank
Core
Windings
Conservator
Breather
Thermometer
Pressure relief pipe
Valves
Buchholz relay
Bushings
Tap changing switch
Oil gauge
Radiator
Cooling fans
oil pumps
Transformer insulation

80

5.5 Transformer Types


The transformers are classified into various categories, according to their:

Use
Cooling method
Insulating medium
Core construction

5.5.1 Classification of Transformers According to the Used


According to their use, the transformers are classified into the following categories:

Distribution Transformer
They are used in the distribution networks in order to transmit energy from the medium voltage
(MV) network to the low voltage (LV) network of the consumers. Their power is usually ranging
from 50 to 1600 kVA.

Power Transformer
They are used in the high-power generating stations for voltage step up and in the transmission
substations for voltage step up or step down. Usually their power is bigger than 2 MVA.

Autotransformers
They are used for voltage transformation within relatively small limits, for connection of electric
energy systems of various voltages, for starting of AC (alternative current) motors, etc.

Test Transformer
They are used for the execution of performance tests with high or ultra-high voltage.

Special Power Transformer


They are used for special applications, e.g. in furnaces and in welding.

81

Instrument Transformer
They are used for the accurate measurement of voltage or current.

Telecommunication Transformer
They are used in telecommunication applications aiming at the reliable reproduction of the signal
in a wide range of frequency and voltage.

5.5.2 Classification of Transformers According to the Cooling Method


The identification of oil-immersed transformers according to the cooling method is expressed by
a four-letter code. The first letter expresses the internal cooling medium in contact with the
windings. The second letter identifies the circulation mechanism for internal cooling medium. The
third letter expresses the external cooling medium. The fourth letter identifies the circulation
mechanism for external cooling medium. For example, if the internal cooling medium is mineral
oil, which is circulated with natural flow, and the external cooling medium is air, which is
circulated with natural convection, then this cooling method is coded as ONAN (Oil Natural Air
Natural).
In power transformers, various cooling methods are used including oil circulation by pumps, or
forced air circulation by fans, or both of the above. As a result, the following cooling methods
exist:
ONAF: Oil Natural Air Forced.
OFAN: Oil Forced Air Natural. OFAF: Oil Forced Air Forced.
OFWF: Oil Forced Water Forced.

Combinations like ONAN/ONAF, ONAN/OFAN or ONAN/OFAF are also applicable.

5.5.3 Classification of Transformers According to the Insulating Medium


According to their insulating medium, the transformers are classified into the following categories:

Oil-immersed Type Transformers


The insulating medium is mineral oil or synthetic (silicon) oil.

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Dry Type Transformers


The cooling is implemented with natural air circulation and the windings are usually insulated with
materials of H or F class. The materials of H class are designed in order to operate, in normal.

Resin Type Transformers


The resin type transformer is a dry type transformer insulated with epoxy resin cast under vacuum.

5.6 Protection of Transformer


Transformers are a critical and expensive component of the power system. Due to the long lead
time for repair of and replacement of transformers, a major goal of transformer protection is
limiting the damage to a faulted transformer. Some protection functions, such as over excitation
protection and temperature-based protection may aid this goal by identifying operating conditions
that may cause transformer failure.
The following protection should be taken

Differential Protection
Over/Under Voltage Protection
Earth fault Protection
Buchholz Relay
Short Circuit
Oil Temperature
Oil Pressure
Oil Level
Surge Oil Protector

5.7 Transformer Failures


Failures in transformers can be classified into
Winding failures due to short circuits (turn-turn faults, phase-phase faults, phase-ground,
open winding)
Core faults (core insulation failure, shorted laminations)
Terminal failures (open leads, loose connections, short circuits)

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On-load tap changer failures (mechanical, electrical, short circuit, overheating)


Abnormal operating conditions (over fluxing, overloading, overvoltage)
External faults

5.8 Transformer Tests


The transformer tests are classified, in accordance with the specification IEC 76, as follows: Type
tests.
Routine tests.
Special tests.

5.9 The Following Safety Alarm Presence at Transformer

Oil surge trip.


Oil level low trip.
Buchholz alarm.
Oil level high alarm.
Buchholz trip.
PRV trip.
Differential trip.
REF trip.
Oil temperature trip.
Winding temperature trip.
Differential IRF.
BUE/F.
Oil temperature alarm.
Winding temperature alarm.

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Recommendation

The exhaust gas coming out through the chimney has a temperature of 540c. The
heat that is being lost to the atmosphere also pollutes the environment and causes
global warming. Necessary measures should be taken for extracting the heat
energy from the exhaust gas and recycle it for any other purpose.
The plant incoming gas line from Titas which is 4 bars and sometimes it become
less than 3 bars. I should be raised to 12 bars for getting high pressure.
Replacement of faulty and frequent failing equipments should be done with
equipment of better performance and quality.
Need to have some experts continuously in the company to avoid unexpected
damage of equipments. On demand call for expert is too lengthy and does not
serve the protection of equipments. Because an expert can easily identify the
problems and solves the problems in very short time. He may provide technical
tanning to employee and they become more skillful.
Test all the equipment properly.
Proper maintenance schedule is very important to transmit electricity efficiently.

85

Conclusion

Summit Power Limited, Maona Power Plant is one of the very few private power plants in
Bangladesh. Considering the current electricity crisis in Bangladesh it is very much
important that private investment in power sector takes place at a rapid rate. In this regard
the government has a lot to do to ensure smooth running of the power sector in private
sector.
My experience during the short time stay at Summit Power Plant, Maona has not only
increased my depth of knowledge, but also has given me the feeling of challenges faced in
engineering profession. Thanks to Summit Power Limited for providing me with the
opportunity to conduct my internship in their plant. I am also thankful to all the engineers
and employees of Summit Power for their heartiest support.

86

Bibliography

www.summitpower.org
www.summitcentre.com
www.google.com
www.howstuffworks.com
Rao.S, Sunil. Switchgear Protection and Power system 12th edition.Delhi:Khanna. 2003.
Nagpal, G.R. Power Plant Engineering. Fifteenth Edition. Delhi:Khanna Publishers, 2006.
Electrical switchgear and safety, June 23, 2011 <www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg372.pdf>
Switchgear - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, August 01, 2011
www.electrical4u.com
. Electricgenerator- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, August 02, 2011
<en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator>
Transformer- Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, July 30. 2011
<en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformer>

87

Appendix
Appendix- 1 Some Definitions

Active Power: The product of the voltage across a branch of an alternating-current


circuit and the component of the electric current that is in phase with the voltage.

Ampere (amp): A unit used to define the rate of flow of electricity (current) in a
circuit; units are one coulomb (6.24 x 1014 electronics) per second.

Apparent Power: The product of the root-mean-square voltage and the root-mean-
square current delivered in an alternating-current circuit, no account being taken of
the phase difference between voltage and current.

Auxiliary Transformer: Local distribution transformer used for the local


electrical supply of the diesel power plant.

Bus bar: The metal (often copper) bar system which is the distribution media for
the 3 phase high voltage system in the power plant.

Circuit breaker: When looking at the engine from the driving end the shaft rotates
counter-clockwise.

Conductor: A wire or cable for carrying current.

Current Transformer: In electrical engineering, a current transformer (CT) is


used for measurement of electric currents. Current transformers are also known as
instrument transformers.

Exciter Voltage: The voltage required to cause exciter current to flow through a
field winding.

88

Exciter Current: The field current required producing rated voltage at rated load
and frequency.

Feeder: The temperature to which oil must be heated in order to give sufficient
vapor to form a flammable mixture with air under the conditions of the test. The
vapor will ignite but will not support combustion.

Frequency: Number of cycles over a specified time period over which an event
occurs.

Generator: A device that produces electric current, usually by rotating a conductor


in a magnetic field, thereby generating current through electromagnetic induction.

Ground: A connection, either intentional or accidental, between an electric and the


earth or some conducting body

Impedance: The total opposition to electrical flow (resistive plus reactive).

Isolation: The reduction of the capacity of a system to respond to an external force


by use of resilient insulating materials.

Isolator: A passive attenuator in which the loss in one direction is much greater
than that in the opposite direction; a ferrite isolator for waveguides is an example.

Kilowatt Hour (kWh): 1000 watt hours. Kilovolt amperes (kva): 1000 volt amps.

Lightning surge: A transient disturbance in an electric circuit due to lightning.

Load Break Switch: An electric switch in a circuit with several hundred thousand
volts, designed to carry a large amount of current without overheating the open

89

position, having enough insulation to isolate the circuit in closed position, and
equipped with arc interrupters to interrupt the load current.

Maximum Power Rating: The maximum power in watts that a device can safely
handle.

Open Circuit: The lack of electrical contact in any part of the measuring circuit.

Phase Difference: The time expressed in degrees between the same reference point
on two periodic waveforms.

Power Factor: The extent to which the voltage zero differs from the current zero.
(p.f = kW / kVA)

Potential Transformer: An instrument transformer whose primary winding is


connected in parallel with a circuit in which the voltage is to be measured or
controlled. Also, known as potential transformer.

Power Supply: A separate unit or part of a circuit that supplies power to the rest
of the circuit or to a system.

Relay: An electromechanical device that completes or interrupts a circuit by


physically moving electrical contacts into contact with each other.

Resistance: The resistance to the flow of electric current measured in ohms (1/2)
for a conductor. Resistance is function of diameter, resistivity (an intrinsic property
of the material) and length.

Rotor: A rotor is a rotating body whose journals are supported by bearings.

90

Reactive Power: The part of the generated power in an electrical network which
cannot be used at the consumers appliances (cf. active power).

Rectifier: A device for changing alternating current into direct current or


unidirectional current.
Stator: The portion of an electrical machine which contains the stationary parts of
the magnetic circuit and their windings.

Synchronization: Refer to the way in which a power generating source is


connected to another at the exact point in time when they both have the same
frequency and period.

Thermal Conductivity: The property of a material to conduct heat in the form of


thermal energy.

Transformer: A device used to transfer electrical energy from one circuit to


another. With an alternating current, a transformer will either raise or lower the
voltage

Volt: The (electrical) potential difference between two points in a circuit.

Voltage: An electrical potential which can be measured in volts.

Voltmeter: An instrument used to measure voltage.

Voltage Drop: The difference in voltage at no-load and full-load expressed as a


percent of the full-load value

Voltage Regulation: The difference between maximum and minimum steady state
voltage divided by the nominal voltage expressed as a percent of the nominal
voltage.

91

Appendix-2 Acronyms

A
AC Alternating Current (vs. DC)
AVR Automatic Voltage Regulator
B
BD Bottom Dead Centre

CC Constant Current

DC Direct Current (vs. AC)


E
EMF Electromotive force.

HRC High Rupturing Capacitor


HTS High Tension Switchgear
Hz Hertz (cycles per second)
HT High Temperature (cooling water circuit)

KHz Kilohertz (1000 cycles per second)


KVA Kilo Volt Amperes
KWH Kilo Watt Hours
L
LT Low Temperature (cooling water circuit).

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OS Operating System
OVP Over Voltage Protection

PF Power Factor
PG Power Gain
PIV Peak Inverse Voltage
PLC Programmable Logic Controller
PCB Printed Circuit Board.
PID Proportional, Integral, and Derivative control.

QA Quality Assurance
R
RPM Revolutions Per Minute.
S
SCP System Control Panel
SF6 Sulfur Hexafluoride Gas
T
TDC Top Dead Centre
V
VCB Vacuum Circuit Breaker
W
WECS Wartsila Engine Control System.
WISE Wartsila Information System Environment
WOIS Wartsila Operator Interface System.
WOT Wartsila Operator's Terminal System

93