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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONIC AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

Pro-forma to accompany assignment / coursework 2016/2017

This pro-forma should be the first page to any set assignment / coursework. A full assignment brief
should accompany this pro-forma.

Module Code: EE2604 Module Title: Electronic Systems

Module Leader: Maysam Abbod Assessor: Maysam Abbod

Assessment Title: Electronic Design Project Weighting: 30%

Main Objectives of the Assessment:


Design, simulate and build an electronic circuit to perform a pre-defined task

Brief Description of the Assessment:


Construct two types of transistor circuits and perform measurements of the circuits

Learning Outcomes for the Assessment: Assessment and marking criteria


(A) Knowledge and Understanding The students will be required to:
Design and integration of electronic circuits. Design, simulate and build a circuit.

(B) Cognitive (thinking) Skills


Circuit design and functionality, fault finding.

(C) Other Skills and Attributes


(Practical/Professional/Transferable)
Practical building of electronic circuits, report
writing, group working

Assessment method by which a student can demonstrate learning outcomes:


Design, simulation and construction of the circuits

Format for the assessment/coursework (Guidelines on the expected format and length of submission):
Written report (20 pages maximum)

Distribution date to
16 Jan 2017
students:
Submission Deadline: 6 March 2017
Indicative Reading List: Lecture notes
Further information:
Electronic and Computer Engineering Department
College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences
Brunel University London

Assessed Coursework 2014/15

Courses: E&EE, E&Com, E&CE


Level: 2
Module Code: EE2604
Module Name: Electronic Systems
Title of Assessment: Electronics Design Project
Set By: Dr M Abbod
Contribution to Module Mark: 30% (EE2604)

Late Submission Penalty


Standard late submission penalty will be applied. The number of days late is calculated as the number of
days when the University is open. Please note that if, for example, a deadline is set for 4pm on a given
day and you submit your work at 9am on the following day, this will be counted as 1 day late.

The absolute cut-off date, after which no submission will be accepted, is one week after the last day of
the Semester in which the submission deadline occurs. The Department will not accept any work after
this date.
PROGRAMME

Briefing
Wk18 Group work (simulation) TC312
Wk19 Group work (simulation) See the latest lab rota for the TC312
Wk20 Individual work (Build and Test) scheduled lab. TB206
Wk21 Individual work (Demonstration) TB206
Wk23 Submit Individual Report Deadline: 6/3/2017

LABORATORIES

day Wk18 Wk19 Wk20 Wk21


E&CE Tue TC312 TC312 TB206 TB206
EE3, ECom Wed TC310 TC308 TB206 TB206
EE1 Thu TC312 TC312 TB206 TB206
EE2604 ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
ELECTRONIC DESIGN ASSIGNMENT
AIMS
The aims of this assignment are to provide experience of the processes involved in designing small
electronic systems which are to perform to a given specification. It is also intended that the exercise be
relevant to the EA1 requirements of the Institution of Electrical Engineers.
OBJECTIVES
The principal object is to gain experience in using initiative when working on an unrehearsed problem.
The advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to satisfying a design specification will need
to be assessed. Experience will also be gained of prototype construction techniques, of the selection and
use of laboratory equipment to assess prototype performance, and of PCB layout.
ABOUT THE ASSIGNMENT
The initial design is to be done in groups of 4 students. Each pair of students must generate an initial
design solutions and a test specification for a given electronic design specification. Each individual
student is required to understand the simulation of the initial group design solutions. Each student is to
make a prototype circuit, hopefully a working one, to demonstrate its operation with a demonstration and
to write a report. Even though the initial design is a group activity and discussions with others are
encouraged, the simulation, the building of the prototype and the individual report MUST be individual
work. One of a number of topics will be allocated to each group. Changing topics is not allowed. Anyone
doing the wrong topic "by mistake" is liable to receive zero marks.
Each group must produce work that describes the initial theoretical design with proposed solutions and
test. From the group design and simulations, individual experimental work must be carried out
subsequently. Two laboratory sessions are scheduled (Weeks 18-19) for the building and testing of a
prototype. You will not be allowed to start practical work in the laboratories until the simulation of the
initial design has been discussed and approved by your supervisor. In Week 21 you are required to
demonstrate your design and prototype. Prototypes will be assessed for performance and quality of
construction. An individual report must be submitted by Thursday 18 Feb 2014 (Week 22) by 4 pm. The
report should describe the final design, any modifications made and testing and must contain a circuit
diagram and a prototype PCB layout.
In order to assist in the understanding of the task required, there are working prototypes of most of the
design assignments in TB206. The prototypes are relatively simple systems and their performance could
no doubt be improved. They are intended to help understand what is required. If you require advice and
clarification, consult your allocated supervisor. Your supervisor will not do the design work for you, but
will offer suggestions and guidance in overcoming difficulties.
With the agreement of the technicians you may do practical work on Wednesday afternoons provided
you are not alone and an extra work form has been completed. This restriction is to prevent time being
given to the design assignment which should have been spent on other modules. It is not necessary to
construct a complete and fully working prototype to obtain reasonable marks. It is recognised that many
may not achieve this goal within the time scale. Having to produce results within a given time is an
important part of an engineers training. The most important factor that will be assessed is your approach
to the assignment. What is looked for is a logical approach with some reasonable ideas proposed.
THEORETICAL DESIGN
Someone once defined an art as being a science with more than seven variables. On this definition
electronic system design is an art. The work of an artist involves numerous revisions and corrections; so
do not expect your first thoughts to lead to the best working system. There are too many options and
requirements that have to be considered for first ideas to be always right. Note there are no unique
correct designs for the topics in this assignment.
Start by developing a block diagram showing the processes involved and the type of circuits required.
You must take account of any figures in the given design specifications. Do not overlook that simplicity
usually leads to a cheaper system and better reliability. You need to consider critical issues in connecting
up building blocks, for example, impedance matching and voltage levels.
Once the initial design has been specified, you should work individually to calculate specific component
values, voltage and current levels and detailed interface requirements between building blocks. Your
detailed design should then be simulated. Computer simulation is very useful for checking that there are
no basic faults in the design. It is advisable to first simulate small parts of the circuit to gain familiarity
with the software. It is not desirable to simulate all aspects of the system in details (at least not
initially). Simulation can be done with either MultiSim (full version is available through the departmental
network), or Pspice (Student version is also available through the departmental network). The design
may need modification in the light of the simulation results and then remember that simulation is very
useful tool, but it does not guarantee that a design will work exactly as predicted, in practice.
PROTOTYPE CONSTRUCTION
There are two obvious ways to build prototypes; one is using a plug-in breadboard and the other is to
solder components to a piece of copper strip board, such as Veroboard. The former is useful for very
small circuits, but with more than a few components it develops into a "birds nest" of wires in which it is
difficult to see what goes where. The contacts have poor reliability; even for boards sold with a life-time
guarantee. Another problem is that components are not securely held in place. Moving the boards is
likely to result in large components becoming disconnected. There is no time to assemble trial circuits on
breadboards before proceeding to Veroboard. With proper preparation this intermediate step should not
be necessary.
Soldering is a basic skill that all engineers should acquire, so this assignment uses Veroboard board. It is
a printed circuit of parallel copper strips 0.1 inch apart drilled with holes every 0.1 inch. Before starting to
assemble your circuit plan the layout on a sheet of squared paper. You are likely to get into a mess if you
attempt to position the components as you proceed with construction. Special cutters are available to
break tracks as required. Holders should be used for integrated circuits, otherwise a faulty one is difficult
to replace. Care is needed when soldering the Veroboard as it is rather easy to form a solder bridge
between two tracks. If things go wrong a fluxed braid called solder-wick or a solder-sucker pump can be
used to remove excess solder.
In addition, you are required to design a PCB layout of the above prototyping. Hence, you are expected
to have spent some time on your own becoming familiar with the PCB software.
ASSESSMENT
The Electronic Design Assignment (EDA) consists of two parts: Group and Individual work. The final
contribution of the EDA to the Electronic systems module is (EE2604) is 30%.
The report should consist of two parts: The group work, and the individual work.
Part 1: Group Work
The group design specification should contain a functional description with a block diagram detailing the
major building blocks. The operation of each building block should be clearly defined using the
appropriate sketches of waveforms (your sketch should always include voltage levels, rise times, etc.).
Design choices should be clearly stated and justification should be made for the particular solution(s)
selected.
Your report should include a brief description of how your circuit might be tested, for example, which
blocks can be tested in isolation? Are any test points required? Are there any key construction
requirements to enable the test to be carried out?
Part 2: Individual Work
The individual activity includes a demonstration of the designed and prototyped electronic circuits. The
individual report should address the points listed below.
Initiative shown in arriving at the proposed design.
What alternatives have been considered? What basis was used to select the final design?
The quality of the proposed design in terms of it meeting the specification, lack of unnecessary
complication freedom from errors, etc.
A general description of the circuit should be given together with a brief explanation of why it is the
proposed solution. Does it meet the points in the specification and any other obvious user requirements?
Is it needlessly complex? Complexity increases manufacturing costs and may reduce reliability.
Understanding of how the proposed design operates or should operate.
A clear description is required of how the circuit works, or is intended to work. Changes can be proposed
in the light of your experience in the laboratory that is intended to solve problems encountered. It is
important to show that you do fully understand the operation of the design, both its good features and
any possible weakness in it.
Mechanical construction and layout of the prototype.
Is the layout neat and logical, or is it a "birds nest" of wires in which it is difficult to see what goes where?
Are the soldered joints properly made? Is the prototype mechanically robust so that it could survive a
limited mechanical shock, such as an accidental fall from the bench? Whether or not your prototype
design works, you should specify a PCB layout for your final circuit.
Modifications to the original design and testing the prototype.
Are any changes to the design presented in the group report sensible? Does the prototype work, and if
so, does it satisfy the specification? If it does not work, do any parts of the circuit work? How are you
testing the system? Suggestions for improvements to the prototype design.
The report as an exercise in communication.
Is the report easy to read and follow? Does it make sense? This part of the assessment obviously
involves a good standard of grammar and spelling. Are the diagrams clearly drawn and easy to
understand? Please note that a report should always have an introduction and a conclusion.

LABORATORY FACILITIES
In addition to resistors, capacitors, etc. in the component draws, the following components, and relevant
data sheets, are available in TB31. The technician in-charge is Mr Michael Lateo. The selection should
be adequate for all topics. You may use others, but if they are not available from the Departmental stores
in tower B you will have to obtain them yourself. Special orders will not be placed.
CMOS Digital lC
4001B Quad 2-i/p NOR
4016B Quad analogue switch
4093B Quad 2-i/p Schmitt NAND
4538B Dual re-triggerable monostable
4011B Quad 2-i/p NAND
4027B Dual JK bistable
4520B Dual 4-bit counter

This range is chosen as it can operate from supply voltages between 3 and 18 volts. TTL devices could
be used but they require an accurate 5 volts supply which is not generally compatible with analogue ICs.
OTHER IC
TL081 Compensated FET op-amp
TL082 Dual compensated FET op-amp
DG211 and DG212 Quad analogue switches
555 Timer

DISCRETE COMPONENTS
1N4148 Small signal silicon diode
1N4002 1 amp rectifier
BC182 n-p-n low level silicon transistor
BC212 p-n-p low level silicon transistor
TIP31A n-p-n power silicon transistor
TIP32A p-n-p power silicon transistor

Zener diodes with breakdown voltages from 3.3 to 18 volts.

SOME THINGS TO DO, NOT TO DO AND SUGGESTIONS


DO read the data sheets carefully. If you know how the device works little information is required from
them beyond the pin-out and supply voltage limitations. You should normally operate at least 10% below
the absolute limit for supply voltages stated in the data sheets.
DO ask for help if you have no experience of soldering electrical components and Veroboard.
DO decouple supply lines, with capacitors of around100 nF to the 0 volts rail; the value is not critical.
Integrated circuits are designed assuming low impedance supply rails. A loop of two separated half
metre lengths of wire has an appreciable inductance and hence considerable impedance at high
frequencies. Twisting the supply wires together reduces their inductance, but decoupling is still
advisable. Ceramic capacitors, being small, have a low self inductance and so are good for this purpose.
DO realise that simple circuits, such as amplifiers and comparators, must work if wired correctly with
good components. The repeated replacement of components in the hope of finding a working one in
among all the presumed faulty ones, is a waste of time and effort! The most likely cause of circuits not
working is incorrect wiring.
DO NOT use a ceramic capacitor where an accurate, low-loss component is required (If it is a very small
capacitor it is almost certainly a ceramic one.)
DO NOT apply power to a circuit without checking that there are no obvious design and wiring errors.
This can save a lot of wasted time unsoldering failed components.
DO NOT bother earthing unused pieces of copper strip. The design topics do not involve high gain at
high frequencies, so stray capacitive feedback is unlikely to cause problems.
DO find out about any devices in the list that you have not met in lectures. They could be very useful in
some topics, particularly analogue switches and re-triggerable monostables; see below.
The three-resistor, one-capacitor relaxation oscillator built round an op-amp is a very useful circuit. It
provides a square wave type output and, if only the first part of the capacitor charging/discharging
waveform is used with suitable buffering, a good approximation to a linear ramp. The basic theory
assumes the slew rate of the op-amp can be neglected. If a circuit is operated with times comparable to
the output slewing time of the op-amp, the basic theory will not agree with practice with the frequency
lower than calculated.
Re-triggerable monostables provide output pulses in response to a trigger edge with the pulse duration
set by external components. The 4538 has two input terminals; A responds to a positive going edge and
B to a negative one. The unused terminal has to be held at the correct high or low level as specified on
the data sheet. The device is re-triggerable as trigger edges arriving during the timed period start the
timing process all over again. It has been found in practice that the B input is more reliable than the A
input for triggering from a non-logic circuit such as an op-amp. This is not apparent from the data sheet
and is the type of unspecified peculiarity that makes prototype construction so important. The 555 timer
IC can also be arranged to be a re-triggerable monostable.
Analogue switches are ICs that behaves like a mechanical switch in that they can handle analogue
signals. Whether the switch is open or closed depends on a logic level. They require powering to work
and the analogue signal must lie within the range of power rail voltages. The DG211 and DG212 can
work from up to +/-15 volt rails and the logic terminal can be used to set the logic level for the on/off
threshold. The difference between them is the logic level, high or low, required to close the switches.
There are four switches in each device. The 4016 is more limited as its total supply voltage must not
exceed 18 volts and the logic threshold is preset at around half supply voltage. Do not overlook the fact
that all these switches have finite on and off resistances; they must not be considered as zero and
infinity respectively.
The 4027 dual master-slave JK flip-flop has set and reset inputs that operate independently of the clock.
Using these inputs and ignoring the others makes it an effective RS flip-flop.
A number of the topics require an indication of the state of an output. Meters could be used but they are
not cheap, particularly analogue ones. Digital ones are not good at showing varying conditions. The
human eye is poor at assessing the brightness of one light, but good at comparing the brightness of two
lights. Two LEDs can make an accurate and cheap indicator of balance in a bridge type circuit.