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To understand the organisation

of terrestrial plants we are
going to look at the time when
they first conquered land,
about 400 million years ago.
They had to solve many
problems to survive out of
the water.

Problem 1. In some places vegetation is very Problem 2. Plants now live in a dry
dense and plants need to grow a lot to atmosphere, the air. How do they protect
reach the light. How do they manage to themselves from drying out?
stay upright?

Problem 4. A damp environment is

necessary for fertilisation to take place.
Problem 3. Their leaves are far from the soil. How can fertilisation occur in such a dry
How do they manage to take water? environment as the desert?

1 2 3 4

 1 Connect the three columns to show how plants solved their problems.

Problem 1 Structures are covered with layers and protective Stem.
substances which prevent the loss of water.
Problem 2 Through a protected organ (with a damp
Xylem and
interior) which contains reproductive cells.
phloem vessels.
Problem 3 Stems become much more resistant. Bark of stems.

Problem 4 Vessels are formed to transport substances Flower.

throughout the plant.

Natural Science 5. Unit 1 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL