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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

FIJI YEAR 11 FINAL EXAMINATION 2015

CHEMISTRY

Time Allowed: Three Hours


(An extra ten minutes is allowed for reading this paper.)

INSTRUCTIONS

1. Write all your answers in the Answer Book provided.

2. Write your Name and Year Level on the front page of the Answer Book.

3. If you need more paper, ask the supervisor for extra sheets. Secure these inside the Answer Book
at the appropriate places.

4. You may use a calculator, provided it is silent, battery-operated and non-programmable.

5. In Sections B and C, working should be shown for the questions involving calculations and final
answers must be expressed using the correct number of significant figures.

6. All equations used in your answers should be balanced and the physical states of all the
reactants and products must be included in the final equations.

7. There are three sections in this paper. All the sections (A, B and C) are compulsory.

Note: A Periodic Table of Elements is provided for your use during the examination.
Both the atomic number and the relative atomic mass for each element are given.

SUMMARY OF QUESTIONS

Section Guidelines Total Mark Suggested Time

A There are twenty multiple-choice questions. 20 36 minutes


All the questions are compulsory.

B There are five questions. 30 54 minutes


All the questions are compulsory.

C There are five questions. 50 90 minutes


All the questions are compulsory.

COPYRIGHT: MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FIJI, 2015.


2.

SECTION A [20 marks]

The multiple-choice questions are all compulsory. Each question is worth 1 mark.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1. In your Answer Book, circle the letter which represents the best answer. If you change
your mind, put a line through your first choice and circle the letter of your next choice.

For example: 12 A B C D

2. If you change your mind again and like your first answer better, put a line through your
second circle and tick () your first answer.

For example: 12 A B C D

3. No mark will be given if you circle more than one letter for a question.

1. Chemistry is often referred to as the central science because it links and contributes to most
other sciences. Which of the following statements is incorrect about Chemistry?

A. Chemistry has importance in everyday life.


B. Chemistry is a branch of physical science.
C. Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it can undergo.
D. All the above statements are correct.

2. When a beaker of water is heated its volume increases a little. What is happening to the particles
in the liquid?

A. They are moving faster.


B. They are getting smaller.
C. They are getting bigger.
D. They are moving slower.

3. What happens to the density of a solution as its concentration increases?

A. It increases.
B. It decreases.
C. It becomes zero.
D. It remains the same.

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY11FE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


3.

4. An atom can accommodate a maximum of _____________ electrons in its third electron shell.

A. 2
B. 6
C. 8
D. 18

5. How is a mixture different from a compound?

A. Composition of a mixture may be constant.


B. Particles of a mixture are combined chemically.
C. Components of a mixture can only be separated chemically.
D. Components of a mixture can be separated by physical means.

6. Which of the following does not contain a covalent bond?

A. H2O
B. CaF
C. HF
D. NH3

7. According to the Law of Definite Composition,

A. the total mass after a chemical change is the same as before the change.
B. the ratio of the masses of the elements in a compound is always the same.
C. it is not possible for the same two elements to form more than one compound.
D. the same two elements form two different compounds in the same ratio.

8. In a reaction in which hydrogen reacts with oxygen to produce water, which substance(s) are the
reactants?

A. Oxygen only
B. Hydrogen only
C. Hydrogen and water
D. Both hydrogen and oxygen

9. Oxidation is

A. loss of oxygen.
B. loss of electrons.
C. gain of electrons.
D. gain of hydrogen.

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY11FE 2015: CHEMISTRY.
4.

10. The current Fiji five dollar note is an example of the polypropylene polymer.
This polymer is made up of

A. propene monomers.
B. ethene monomers.
C. butene monomers.
D. pentene monomers.

11. Fizzy drinks, like cola, have dissolved carbon dioxide which makes it an acidic solution. The pH
of fizzy drinks is thus expected to be

A. equal to 7.
B. less than 7.
C. equal to 14.
D. more than 7.

12. Out of the four metals given below, the most reactive metal is _____________.

A. Fe
B. Zn
C. Al
D. K

13. All of the following are colourless gases except for _____________.

A. Cl2
B. N2
C. O2
D. H2

14. The reaction of a metal with oxygen produces

A. an ionic oxide.
B. a covalent oxide.
C. a metal hydroxide.
D. a non-metallic oxide.

15. Which of the following air pollutant is not released directly from vehicles?

A. Ozone
B. Sulphur dioxide
C. Nitrogen dioxide
D. Carbon monoxide

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY11FE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


5.

16. Recently, a broken sewerage pipe led to untreated sewage spill in some rivers in Suva. These
spills can lead to a reduction in dissolved oxygen in the water, which will most likely lead to

A. a decrease in water temperature.


B. an increase in all fish populations.
C. an increase in the depth of the water.
D. a decrease in most aquatic animal populations.

17. Which of the following fertilisers has the highest nitrogen content?

A. Urea
B. Ammonia
C. Ammonium nitrate
D. Ammonium sulphate

18. The desirable soil pH range for optimum plant growth is between

A. 1-3.
B. 3-5.
C. 6-7.
D. 11-12.

19. The most abundant greenhouse gas in the earth's atmosphere is

A. methane.
B. nitrous oxide.
C. water vapour.
D. carbon dioxide.

20. In the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution, the cathode reaction can be best described as

A. oxidation of water.
B. reduction of water.
C. reduction of sodium.
D. oxidation of chlorine.

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY11FE 2015: CHEMISTRY.
6.

SECTION B [30 marks]


The five questions in this Section are all compulsory.
Each question is worth 6 marks.

Reminder: For the questions involving calculations and equations:


Ensure that the working is shown and that the equations used in your answers are
balanced.
Express your answers to the correct number of significant figures.
Indicate the physical states of all the reactants and products in the final equations.

QUESTION 1

(a) Sulphur dioxide can be produced in the laboratory by the action of dilute acids
to sodium sulphites or bisulphites, as illustrated in the figure below. Answer the
questions that follow.

Dilute Acid

Sodium Sulphur
sulphite dioxide
or
bisulphite

Heat
Concentrated
H2SO4

Source: http://chemistryhomeworkhelp.blog.com

(i) Describe the method that is used to collect sulphur dioxide in this
experiment. (1 mark)
(ii) Describe a test for sulphur dioxide in the above experiment. (1 mark)

(b) A hydrochloric acid solution was standardised using a standard solution of


sodium carbonate in one of the practical classes for Year 11 Chemistry.
Hydrochloric acid solution was added from the burette into the conical flask
containing sodium carbonate solution, until the indicator changed colour.
Compare the procedures for washing the burette and the conical flask
before the titration. (1 mark)

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY11FE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


7.

(c) Sulphur is the primary source in the production of sulphuric acid, which is one
of the world's most widely used chemical.

(i) Sulphur has many allotropes. Name any two allotropes of sulphur and
describe their structures. (2 marks)

(ii) State one use of sulphur in agriculture. (1 mark)

QUESTION 2

(a) The knowledge gained through the study of Chemistry opens many career
pathways.

(i) Name two careers that require knowledge of Chemistry. (1 mark)

(ii) Give one example of a chemical based industry in Fiji. (1 mark)

(b) Crude oil, which is mixture of hydrocarbons, can be separated into its
constituents in a refinery using the process illustrated in the diagram below.

Petroleum gases fraction

Petrol fraction

Paraffin fraction

Crude oil vapour Diesel oil fraction

Lubricating oils fraction

Heavy fuel oils fraction

Liquid crude oil


Heated to turn to a vapour

Bitumen fraction
Source: http://chemicalminds.wikispaces.com

(i) Describe the separation process shown above. (1 mark)

(ii) The Paraffin fraction of crude oil is also known as kerosene. State one
use of kerosene in everyday life. (1 mark)

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY11FE 2015: CHEMISTRY.
8.

SECTION B (continued)

(c) Study the heating curve of water and answer the questions that follow.

100

Temperature
(C)
Liquid/gas
mixture
0
Liquid Gas

Solid/liquid
mixture
Solid
Enthalpy

Source: http://www.schoolphysics.co.uk

(i) Describe the process that is occurring at the liquid/gas mixture phase of
water. (1 mark)

(ii) Briefly explain why the process of water changing from its solid to liquid
phase cannot be classified as a chemical change? (1 mark)

QUESTION 3

(a) In dentistry, an alloy of mercury with various metals is used for dental fillings
to prevent tooth decay.

(i) What do you understand by the term alloy? (1 mark)

(ii) Compare one enhanced property of an alloy over its constituents. (1 mark)

(b) Carbon monoxide is colourless, odourless, tasteless, yet a highly poisonous gas.

(i) Describe the most common source of carbon monoxide in the


environment. (1 mark)

(ii) Explain how carbon monoxide poisoning is caused in human beings. (1 mark)

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY11FE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


9.

(c) A standard solution of sodium carbonate can be prepared using the steps
illustrated in the figures below. The steps are not in correct order.

Sodium carbonate

Distilled water

A B C D E
Source: http://spmchemistry.onlinetuition.com.my

(i) Using letters, arrange the preparation steps in the correct order. (1 mark)
(ii) State the use of apparatus A. (1 mark)

QUESTION 4

(a) Climate change is considered to be one of the most important environmental


issues of our time.

(i) Differentiate between global warming and climate change. (2 marks)


(ii) State one way in which climate change can be mitigated. (1 mark)

(b) Sodium combines with chlorine gas to form the white crystalline compound,
sodium chloride, which is commonly used as a food additive.

(i) Describe the type of forces that exists in sodium chloride. (1 mark)
(ii) Draw the electron dot-and-cross diagram for sodium chloride in the
Answer Book. Use dots () for sodium electron and crosses (x) for
chlorine electrons. (2 marks)

QUESTION 5

(a) The Water Authority of Fiji operates the Wailoku water treatment plant in Suva
for treating surface water, such as river water, for drinking purposes.

(i) Explain why river water should be treated before drinking. (1 mark)

(ii) Describe the process that is involved in the third stage of the
water treatment plant. (1 marks)

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY11FE 2015: CHEMISTRY.
10.

SECTION B (continued)

(b) Air is a mixture of gases, including oxygen. Liquid oxygen is widely used in
medical emergencies for patient care.

(i) Describe a method for obtaining liquid oxygen from the air. (1 mark)

(ii) Give one other use of oxygen gas in the industry. ( mark)

(c) Ozone (O3) is found in two regions of the Earth's atmosphere, at ground
level and in the upper regions of the atmosphere.

(i) Explain the role of ozone in the upper regions of the atmosphere. (1 mark)

(ii) State the name and source of a chemical which can cause ozone
depletion. (1 mark)

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY11FE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


11.

SECTION C [50 marks]


The five questions in this Section are all compulsory.
Each question is worth 10 marks.
Reminder: For the questions involving calculations and equations:
Ensure that the working is shown and that the equations used in your answers
are balanced.
Express your answers to the correct number of significant figures.
Indicate the physical states of all the reactants and products in the final
equations.

QUESTION 1

(a) The image below shows the burette readings of a solution during a titration.

Initial Reading Final Reading


= 9.63 mL = 24.16 mL
Source: http://jr.stryker.tripod.com

(i) Explain why it is important to have the meniscus at eye level when
reading a burette. (1 mark)

(ii) A burette is usually graduated with the smallest graduation as 0.1 mL.
How is the second decimal place obtained in a burette reading? (1 mark)

(iii) Calculate the titre used in the titration in litres. (1 mark)

(b) Although both cane sugar (C12H22O11) and table salt (NaCl) are soluble in water,
the way in which they dissolve is different.
(i) Explain why these differences exist. (1 mark)

(ii) Which solution will conduct electricity, the sugar or salt solution?
Justify your answer. (1 marks)

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY11FE 2015: CHEMISTRY.
12.

SECTION C (continued)

(c) Complete the equation below for the preparation of PbI2, a water insoluble salt.

__________ + 2KI(aq) PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) (1 marks)

(d) The simple experiment on the synthesis of iron sulphide below demonstrates
the Law of Conservation of Mass. 16.0 g of sulphur reacted completely
with 28 g of iron to form 44 g of iron sulphide.

Source: http://ww.docbrown.info

(i) Identify the type of reaction shown above. ( mark)

(ii) Explain how the above example supports the Law of Conservation of
Mass. (1 mark)

(iii) Determine the percentage of sulphur that is present in 44 g of iron


sulphide. (1 marks)

QUESTION 2

(a) An grey iron nail was accidently dropped into a light blue copper sulphate
solution. It was observed that the nail rapidly became coated with brown
deposits. The following equation describes the reaction that must have taken
place.

CuSO4(aq) + Fe(s) Cu(s) + FeSO4(aq)

(i) Identify the brown deposits formed on the nail. ( mark)

(ii) Write the oxidation and reduction half-equations for the above reaction. (2 marks)

(iii) Some redox reactions can also be called displacement reactions and
the above reaction is one such example. Explain the reason for this
conclusion. (1 mark)

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY11FE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


13.

(b) The graph below shows the solubilities of four salts (NaClO3, KNO3, KBr and
NaCl) in water with respect to temperature.

Source: http://www.cstephenmurray.com

(i) Explain the general trend observed in the solubilities of the four salts
with respect to temperature. (1 mark)
(ii) What mass of KNO3 will dissolve in 100 g of water at 40 C? ( mark)
(iii) What mass of KBr will dissolve in 200 g of water at 70 C? (1 mark)
(iv) Which salt has the greatest solubility at 80 C? (1 mark)

(c) Methane, a covalent compound with the chemical formula, CH4, is the main
component of natural gas.

(i) Complete the Lewis structure for methane in the Answer Book by
representing the carbon valence electron with a dot () and the hydrogen
valence electron with a cross (). (1 mark)
(ii) Briefly explain how the carbon atom satisfies the octet rule in methane. (1 mark)

(d) Kiribati and Marshall Islands have low lying atolls. Describe one impact that
global warming can have on these island nations. (1 mark)

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY11FE 2015: CHEMISTRY.
14.

SECTION C (continued)

QUESTION 3

(a) Water of crystallisation is the number of water molecules, chemically combined


in a definite molecular proportion, with the salt in its crystalline state.

(i) Write the formula of calcium chloride hexahydrate. (1 mark)

(ii) 14.20 g of hydrated calcium chloride is heated until it loses all of its
water. Its new mass is found to be 7.19 g.
Calculate the percentage water of crystallisation in the hydrated calcium
chloride. (2 marks)

(b) Alkene and alkynes are unsaturated compounds that contain at least one multiple
carbon-carbon double bond.

(i) Give the molecular formula of an alkene with three carbon atoms. (1 mark)

(ii) Draw the structure of propyne. (1 marks)

(c) A Year 11 chemistry student mixed some kerosene with water in test-tube during
a solubility test experiment. She observed the formation of two layers after the
mixture had settled. She noted that the top layer was greenish in colour.

Using the above information,

(i) comment on the solubility of kerosene in water. ( mark)

(ii) compare the density of kerosene with that of water. ( mark)

(d) Account for the following:

(i) In 2013, a diesel spill in Suva harbour was a cause for concern. (1 mark)

(ii) A school student faces difficulty in washing his uniform in seawater with
soap. (1 mark)

(iii) Detergents assist in the removal of oil and grease from clothes. (1 mark)

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY11FE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


15.

QUESTION 4

(a) The diagram below shows a method used by some Year 11 students for
determining the volume of an irregular solid.

Source: http://www.slideshare.net

(i) Complete the missing Step 4 that needs to be followed to conduct the
above experiment successfully.

1. Partially fill a measuring cylinder with water and note the volume.
2. Place the solid in the measuring cylinder without splashing the
water.
3. Note the new volume of water in the measuring cylinder.
4. _____________________________________________.
(1 marks)

(ii) After determining the volume, the students measured the mass of the
solid without drying it first.
Explain why will this affect the density calculations. (1 mark)

(b) Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which may contain a mixture of butane and
propane, is used as a cooking gas in Fiji.

(i) Calculate the relative molecular mass, Mr, of butane (C4H10). (1 mark)

(ii) Complete the following equation for the complete combustion of butane
in air.

2C4H10(g) + 13O2(g) ______ + 10H2O(g) (1 mark)

(c) Fiji is surrounded by one of the largest coral reef systems in the South Pacific.
Describe one impact that ocean acidification can have on such reefs. (1 mark)

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY11FE 2015: CHEMISTRY.
16.

SECTION C (continued)

(d) Antacids are taken to relieve heartburn or indigestion caused by excess


stomach acid (HCl). Some antacids contain calcium carbonate (CaCO3),
a base. Write a chemical equation for the neutralisation of stomach acid using
calcium carbonate. (1 marks)

(e) An important ingredient in the production of nitrogen fertiliser is ammonia.


(i) Ammonia is prepared industrially using the Haber Process.
Give an equation for this preparation. (1 marks)
(ii) Ammonia is reacted with different acids to produce nitrogen fertilisers.
Which acid could be used with ammonia to prepare ammonium nitrate? ( mark)
(iii) Describe one important property of nitrogen fertilisers that makes
it useful for agricultural use. (1 mark)

QUESTION 5

(a) Aluminium metal is nowadays widely used for making household utensils
(e.g. pots and pans) and electric wires.
(i) What is your inference of aluminium as a metal from the information
given above? (1 mark)
(ii) Explain why aluminium vessels lose its shine so soon after its use? (1 mark)

(b) A substance was burnt in air. The white residue obtained was added to water.
This water solution turned red litmus into blue. Justify whether the substance
is a metal or a non-metal. (1 marks)

(c) Four stoppered flasks are shown below. Each of these flasks contains a fixed
amount of an ideal gas at the same temperature.

I II III IV
(i) Using the numbers, arrange the flask having the lowest to highest
pressure, in that order. (1 mark)
(ii) Identify the gas law illustrated in the above example. ( mark)

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FY11FE 2015: CHEMISTRY.


17.

(d) A piece of wood that measures 3.0 cm by 6.0 cm by 4.0 cm has a mass of
90.0 grams is placed in a bucket of water.

(i) Calculate the density of the wood. (1 marks)

(ii) If the density of water is 1.0 g cm-3, will the piece of wood float or sink
in water? Explain your reasoning. (1 marks)

(e) While ammonium fertilisers are important addition to soil as nutrients, they
also impact on soil pH.

(i) Explain the impact of ammonium ions (NH4+) on soil pH. (1 mark)

(ii) Suggest one method that can be used to correct the soil problem
explained in (i) above. (1 mark)

THE END

________________________
COPYRIGHT: MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FIJI, 2015.