Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 30

Chapter 2

The Structure of the Atom


2.1 Matter
Matter: Anything that occupies space and has
mass
Based on theory: Matter is made up of tiny and
discrete particles. There are spaces between
these particles
Types of particle:
Atoms
Molecules
Ions
Atom: The smallest particle of an element that can
participate in a chemical reaction

Molecule: A group of two or more atoms which are


chemically bonded together

Ion: A positively-charged or negatively-charged


particle
Diffusion: Occurs when particles of a
substance move in between the particles of
another substance
Diffusion of matter occurs most rapidly in
gases, slower in liquids and slowest in solids
due to the different arrangement and
movement of particles
Observe this video
Kinetic Theory of Matter
Types of matter:
Solid

Liquid

Gas
The arrangement and movement of particles
in solid, liquid and gas are described in the
kinetic theory of matter.
The Change in The State of Matter

Sublimation Condensation

Sublimation
Boiling /
Evaporation

Melting

Freezing
When solid is heated;
The particles in the solid gain kinetic energy and
vibrate more vigorously.
The particles vibrate faster as the temperature
increases until the energy they gained is able to
overcome the forces that hold them at their fixed
positions.
At this point, the solid becomes a liquid.
This process called melting.
The temperature at which this happens is called
melting point.
When liquid is heated;
The particles in the liquid gain kinetic energy
and move faster.
The particles move faster as the temperature
increases until the energy they gained is able
to overcome the forces that hold them.
At this point, the liquid becomes a gas.
This process is called boiling.
The temperature at which this happens is
called boiling point.
When liquid is cooled;
The particles in the liquid lose energy and
move slower.
As the temperature decreases, the particles
lose more energy until they did not have
enough energy to move freely.
At this point, the liquid changes into a solid.
This process is called freezing.
The temperature at which this happens is
called freezing point.
Definition:
Melting point
The temperature at which a solid changes into
a liquid at a particular pressure.

Freezing point
The temperature at which a liquid changes
into a solid at a particular pressure.
The heating curve
The temperature remains constant because:
The heat energy absorbed is used to overcome the
force attraction between particles so that solid can
Temperature (C) change into liquid
D
begin
to melt
liquid

Melting B C
point solid-liquid

solid Heat energy is absorbed.


Particles in liquid gain kinetic energy and
move faster
A

Time (min)
Heat energy is absorbed.
Particles in solid gain kinetic energy and
vibrate faster
The cooling curve
The temperature remains constant because:
Temperature (C) The heat loss to the surrounding is equal to the heat
energy formed during particles attraction to form a
solid

E liquid
Heat energy is released.
Particles in solid lose kinetic energy and
vibrate slower

Freezing
point F liquid-solid G
solid

Heat energy is released.


Particles in liquid lose kinetic energy H
and move slower

Time (min)
2.2 The Atomic Structure
Historical development of atomic models
Model Structure Characteristic
Daltons atomic model The atom was
proposed by John imagined as a small
Dalton in 1805 indivisible ball similar
to a very tiny ball.
Thomsons atomic J.J Thomson
model proposed by J.J. discovered electron, a
Thomson in 1897 negatively-charged
particle.
The atom was
described as a sphere
of positive charge
embedded with
electrons.
Model Structure Characteristic
Rutherfords atomic Ernest Rutherford
model proposed by discovered proton,
Ernest Rutherford a positively-charged
in 1911 particle in an atom.
The central region
of atom has a very
small positively-
charged nucleus,
which contains
almost all the mass
of the atom.
Bohrs atomic The electrons in an
model proposed by atom move in shells
Neils Bohr in 1913 around the nucleus
which contains
protons.
Model Structure Characteristic
Chadwicks atomic Chadwick proved
model proposed the existence of
by James Chadwick neutrons, the
in 1932 neutral particle in
the nucleus.
The nucleus of the
atom contains
protons &
neutrons, and the
nucleus is
surrounded by
electrons.
Subatomic particles in atom

Proton
Neutron Subatomic particles
Electron
Properties of subatomic particles
Proton, p

Relative electric charge: +1


Relative mass: 1 Nucleus

Neutron, n

Relative electric charge: 0


Relative mass: 1

Electron, e

Relative electric charge: -1


Relative mass: 0.0005
Proton number and nucleon number
Proton number:
The number of proton in its atom
** also shows the number of electrons in the
atom

Nucleon number:
The total number of protons and neutrons in its
atom
** also known as mass number
What is the relationship??

Nucleon Proton Number of


number = number + neutrons

OR
Nucleon Number of Number of
number = protons + neutrons
Reminder!!!

Proton number

Nucleon number

Neutron number X
Number of neutron
Symbol of elements
Nucleon
number

A
Z X Symbol of
element

Proton
number
2.3 Isotopes and Their Importance
Isotopes:
Atoms of the same element with same
number of proton but different number of
neutrons.
OR
Atoms of the same element with same proton
number but different nucleon number.
Example of elements with isotopes:

Hydrogen
1 2 3
1 H 1 H 1 H
Hydrogen-1 Hydrogen-2 Hydrogen-3
Chlorine

35 37
17 Cl 17 Cl
Chlorine-35 Chlorine-37
Uses of isotopes in our daily lives

In the medical field:


Cobalt-60
Used in radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer
Iodine-131
Treatment of thyroid gland
In the argiculture field:
Phosphorus-32
Study the metabolism of phosphorus in plants
Gamma ray of cobalt-60
Used to destroy bacteria in food
Uses of isotopes in our daily lives

In industrial field:
Sodium-24
Used detect leakages in pipes
In archeology field:
Carbon-14
To estimate the age of fossils and artifacts
2.4 The Electronic Structure of an Atom

Nucleus

The first shell : 2 electrons

The second shell : 8 electrons

The third shell : 8 electrons


Example:
Chlorine atom
Proton number of 17
Hence, chlorine atom has 17 electrons
Electron arrangement:

2.8.7
Valence electrons
The electrons in the outermost occupied shell

Outermost
occupied shell

Valence electron