Surya Siddhanta

© All Rights Reserved

88 vues

Surya Siddhanta

© All Rights Reserved

- 3
- MODUL SET A
- Lesson 1 Universe and the Solar System
- DLL ELS WEEK 2
- The Feng Shui Compass
- Ray Douglas Astrology and the Inner Self
- Murkhill Subsector
- Mercury Retrograde in Cancer Jun 15 - July 9 2007 - Roberto Ohotto
- NASA Changing Space-Time With Vortex Energy Blasts
- 6 Min New Stars Discovered
- Lecture 32-rocket theory
- Mn
- Indian Horoscope
- Astro
- Halloween 2012 - Planetary Positions Report Sheet
- Schiller Institute manual_book_1 A manual on the rudiments of tining and registration.pdf
- VedicReport1-3-20154-21-01PM
- space science lesson
- Crimaldi - Mercury and its karmic and evolutive valence - part 2.pdf
- Solar Planets

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 183

StRIA SIDDHANTA

PUNDIT BiFZT DGVA fNCSTRI,

ABB OB TUB

SIDDHANTA SIRGMANI

BY THE LATE

LANCELOT WILKINSON, ESQ., 0. S.,

REVISED BY

PUNDIT BAPIT DEVA SASTRI,

PROM THE^JSANSKRIT.

CALCUTTA:

TRlffTSD BY 0. B. LEWIS, AT THE BAPTIST MISSION PRESS

1861.

TRANSLATION

OF THE

StTBTA SIDDHA'NTA.

CONTENTS,

Page

Chapteb I.Called Madhya-qati which treats of the Rules for finding the mean place

s of the planets, ... ... 1

""IJhapteb JI.Called Sphuja-oati which treats of the Rules for finding the true p

laces of the planets, ... ... 13

Chapteb III.Called the Tbipbas ha, which treats of tho * Rules for resolving the

questions on time, the position of places, and directions,... ... ...

... 26

^Jhaptjbb IV.On tho Eclipses of the Moon, ... ... 41

Cilapteb V.On $he Eclipses of tho Sun, ... ... 48

Citapteb VI.On tho projection of Solar and Lungu Eclipses, 52 Chapteb VII.On the c

onjunction of the planets, ... 56

Chapteb VIII.On tho conjunction of tho planets with the

dfcars, ... ... ... ... ^ .. 61

Chapteb IX.On the heliacal rising and setting of the planets

and stars,... ... ... ... ... 65

Chapteb X.On the phases of the Moon qnd the position of the Moons cusps, ...

... ... ... 69

Chapteb XI.Called PItXdhieXba, which treats of the Rules for finding the time at

which the declination of the Sun and Moon become equal, ... ... ... 72

r+

Chapteb XII.OnCosmographicalmatters, ... ... 76

Chapteb XIII.On the construction of the armillary sphere .

and other astronomical instruments, ... ... $7/

Chapteb XIV.On kinds of time, ... ... ... 91

CHAPTER I.

Called Madhya-GATI which treats of the Rules for finding the mean places of the

planets.

Invocation.

1 Salutation to that Supreme Being which is of inconceivable and imperceptible f

orm,void of properties (of all created things), the external source of wisdom an

d happiness, and the supporter of fhe whole world in the shapes (of Brahm/, Vish

nu and Siva.)

, 2 & 8. Some time before the end

Introductory. _ _ _

of the KurtA yuga, a great Demon named Maya, being desirous of obtaining the sou

nd, secret, excellent, sacred and complete knowledge of Astronomy, which -is the

best of the six sciences subordinate to the Vida, practised the most difficult

penance, the worship of the Sun. ,

4. The self-delightful Sun, being gratified at such (difficult)

penance of Maya, bestowed on him the knowledge of the science of Astronomy which

he was inquiring after. J

The illustrious Sun said.

5. (0 Maya,) I am informed of your intention (of attaining the knowledge of

the science of Astronomy) and pleased with your penance. I, therefore will gran

t you tlie great knowledge of Astronomy which treatsiof time.

6. (But Bince) nobody can bear my light and I have no time to teach you (th

e scienoe,) this man who partakes of my natme > will impart to you the whole of

the science.

7. The God feun, having .thus spoken to,cand ordered the < mqn born from hi

mself (to teach Maya), disappeared.cThat man spolce t Maya, who Btood bonding and

folding his hands closo( to his forehead, in the following manner.

8. .(O&Llya), hear attentively the excellent knowledge(of the science of As

tronomy) which the Sun himself formerly taught to the great saints in each of th

e Yugas.

9. I teach you the same ancient scionce, which the Sun hiihself formerly ta

ught. (But) the difference (between the present and the ancient works) is caused

only by time, on account of the revolution of the Yugas.

Kinds of time.

10. Time is of two kinds; the first (is continuous and endless which) destro

ys all animate and inanimate things (which is also the cause 1 of creation and p

reservation), the second is that which can be known. This (latter kind of time)

is also of two kinds; the one is called MffaTA (measurable) and the other is Am(

jeta (immeasurable, by reason of bulkiness and smallness respectively),

11. The-time called MiJuta, begins

Pala OhatikC. ,

with Pbana (a portion of time which

Contains four seconds,) and the time called Am<;rta begins with Twrfi (a very sm

all portion of time which is the yyf^th part o 4 second.) The time which contains

six Fionas is called a Pala, and that which oontainB sixty Palab is cplled a Gf

iATlKi,

12. # Thetime, which contains sixty

and Month. (JHAfixfo is called a NXKSHATBjj Aho-

ItATkA (a sidereal day and night) and a NXkbhat&a MXsa (a sidereal month) consis

ts of thirty NXkshatba AuoeXtras. Thirty SXvANA (terrestrial) days (a terrestria

l day being reckoned from sun-rise to sunrise) make a SXvama month.

13. Thirty lunar days make a lunar month, and a solar month is the time whic

h the Sun requires to move from

m

ft i

one sign <1> of the Zodiac to the next. A solar \year consists <2> of

<1> It i* to be observed here that the sign* Aries, Taurus, &e., are rec

koned from the star ftsviri ( Fiaoium,) and a solar year corresponds to a siderea

l year. B.D.

t These two words will be explained in the sequri. B. D.

% It is stated that Dharma stands with four legs in the Kb;ta, with three legs i

n the TnrA, with two legs in the DwApaba and with one leg in the Kill, Therefore

the number of the years of the Kbita, TbitA, DwApaba, and Kau are proportional

to 4,8,2 aud 1 respectively. B. D.

<2> It i* to be observed here that the sign* Aries, Taurus, &e., are rec

koned from the star ftsviri ( Fiaoium,) and a solar year corresponds to a siderea

l year. B.D.

t These two words will be explained in the sequri. B. D.

% It is stated that Dharma stands with four legs in the Kb;ta, with three legs i

n the TnrA, with two legs in the DwApaba and with one leg in the Kill, Therefore

the number of the years of the Kbita, TbitA, DwApaba, and Kau are proportional

to 4,8,2 aud 1 respectively. B. D.

twelve sq^r nfonths; and this is called a day of the Gods. <3>

<3> It i* to be observed here that the sign* Aries, Taurus, &e., are rec

koned from the star ftsviri ( Fiaoium,) and a solar year corresponds to a siderea

l year. B.D.

t These two words will be explained in the sequri. B. D.

% It is stated that Dharma stands with four legs in the Kb;ta, with three legs i

n the TnrA, with two legs in the DwApaba and with one leg in the Kill, Therefore

the number of the years of the Kbita, TbitA, DwApaba, and Kau are proportional

to 4,8,2 aud 1 respectively. B. D.

U. An AhorXtra (day and nighty

The length of the year of f the Gods and that of the Demons the Gods and Demon <

4>. ^ , ,

<4> It i* to be observed here that the sign* Aries, Taurus, &e., are rec

koned from the star ftsviri ( Fiaoium,) and a solar year corresponds to a siderea

l year. B.D.

t These two words will be explained in the sequri. B. D.

% It is stated that Dharma stands with four legs in the Kb;ta, with three legs i

n the TnrA, with two legs in the DwApaba and with one leg in the Kill, Therefore

the number of the years of the Kbita, TbitA, DwApaba, and Kau are proportional

to 4,8,2 aud 1 respectively. B. D.

a are mutually the reverse of each other,

(viz. a day of the Gods is the night of the Demonsand con-versly, a night of the

Gods is the day of the Demons). Sixty Ahobatjras, multiplied by six, make a yea

r of the Gods and demons. 1

15 & 16. The time containing twelve yooa. lengtl1 f <5> 8r8at thousand years of

the Gods is called a Chaturyuga (the aggregate of the four yuoas, Kbita, TbetX

, DwXpara and Kali).

<5> It i* to be observed here that the sign* Aries, Taurus, &e., are rec

koned from the star ftsviri ( Fiaoium,) and a solar year corresponds to a siderea

l year. B.D.

t These two words will be explained in the sequri. B. D.

% It is stated that Dharma stands with four legs in the Kb;ta, with three legs i

n the TnrA, with two legs in the DwApaba and with one leg in the Kill, Therefore

the number of the years of the Kbita, TbitA, DwApaba, and Kau are proportional

to 4,8,2 aud 1 respectively. B. D.

These four yugas including their Sandhy^ and Sax-DHYANS a contaih 4,320,000 sola

r years.

The numbers of years included in these fouft small yogas are proportional to the

numbers of the legs of DhabmaJ; (virtue personified). /

17. The tenth part of 4,320,000 -SrJaP f ^ hm the number of years in a great

yoga, multiplied by, 4, 3, 2, 1 respectively make up the years of each of the

four yugas, Krjta and others, the years of each yuga include their own sixth par

t, which is collectively the number of years of SandhyX and Sandhy&s a, (the per

iods at the commencement and expiration of eaoh yugA/.

Th. length Of period 18, (-^cording to the technicality of called Maw and that o

f it <6> the time called Mtf bta,) 71 great yug^S (containing a 806,720,000 sola

r years) constitute a Manwantara (a period from the beginning of a

<6> It i* to be observed here that the sign* Aries, Taurus, &e., are rec

koned from the star ftsviri ( Fiaoium,) and a solar year corresponds to a siderea

l year. B.D.

t These two words will be explained in the sequri. B. D.

% It is stated that Dharma stands with four legs in the Kb;ta, with three legs i

n the TnrA, with two legs in the DwApaba and with one leg in the Kill, Therefore

the number of the years of the Kbita, TbitA, DwApaba, and Kau are proportional

to 4,8,2 aud 1 respectively. B. D.

4 . Trmdatim of tliA

Mam to its end) and at the end of it, 1^728,006 the whole number of the (solar)

years of the Krjta, is called it^ Sandhi \ ancHt is the time when a universal del

uge happens.

* 19. Fourteen such Manus with

The lengt^ of a Kitr . ^ejr gANDH18 (aB mentioned before),

constifotd a Kalfa, at the beginning of which is the fifteenth Sandhi which cont

ains as many years as a Krta does.

20. Thus a thousand of the great

Tr8A8 make Kalpa< a Penofl wki<

destroys the whole world. It is a day of the God BrahmX, and his night is equal

to his day.

21. And the age of BrahmX con-d Mta of a hundred yeara-accordinjf

to the enumeration of day and night (mentioned in the preceding sloba). One half

of his age has elapsed, and this^resent Kalta is the first in the remaining hal

f of his age.

Cc 22. Out of this present Kalta six Manus with their Sandhis, and twenty-seven

yugas of the seventh Manu called Yaivas-wata have passed away.

e 23. Of the twenty-eighth great yuga, the Krjta Yuga has passed away. Let (a ca

lculator,) reckoning the time from the end of the Kb|ta compute the number of ye

ars passed.

24. 47y400 years of the Gods have elapsed in the creation OrtlTe God BrahkX,

of animate and inanimate things, of the planets, stars, Gods, Demons, Ac.

25. Now the planets (such as the

planeU m0Te Sjjin) being on their orbits, go very

rapidly and continually with the stars towards the west and hang down (from thei

r places towards east) at an equal distance, (i. e. they describe equal spaces d

aily towards the east,) as if overpowered by the stars (by reason of their very

rapid motion caused by the air called Pbavaha.)

* The Hindu Aetronomen euppose ttat ell the planet more in their white with the

Mine velocity. B. D.

Swrya-Siddhdnta. 5

*

26. Therefore, ti|je motions of the planets appear towards

the east, epd their daily motions determined by thoir revolutions (by applying t

he rule of proportion to them) are unequal to each other, inconsequence of the c

ircumferences^ of their orbits; and by this unequal motion, they pass the signs

(pf the Zodiac.) .

27. The planet which moves rapid-Jutto?8 f lMw6al requires a short time, to p

ass the signs (of the Zodiac,) and the plaribt

that moves slowly, passes the signs (of the Zodiac) in a long time. Bhagana mean

s that revolution through the signs (of the Zodiac which a planet makes by passi

ng round) up to the end of the true place of the star called RbvIti ({ Piscium,

from which end they set out.) a

. . 28. Sixty VikalAs (seconds) make

The circular measures. __ , _ , ... .

a Kala (a minute) and sixty mmutes constitute an Ans a (a degree.) A Risi (a sig

n) consists of thirty degrees and just twelve Bis is (signs) make a Bhagapa (rev

olution.)

29. In a great yuga each of tho

ofthBSu^erou^VennaJ P^anetsi the Sun, Mercury, Venus and and the S ighroohcha 5 t

he S^ghrochcha (i. e. the farthest l^Tgreat tuoa?^ JupltW point from the centre

of the Earth in the orbit of each of the planets) Mars, Saturn and Jupiter movin

g towards the east make 4,320,000 revolutions (about the Earth).

Of Moon and Man.

30. There are 57,753,386 revolu- tions of the Moon and 2,296,832 revolutions

of the planet Mars.

81. There are 17,937,060 revolu-and Juplte^1 S ^hroolloh tions of the S fGHRocHC

HA of the planet . Mercury and 364,220 revolutions of

the planet Jupiter.

* The revolution of (he Sfghrochebas of Mercury and Venn correspond to their rev

olutions about the Sun. . D.

82. There arq 7,022,376 revolutions of tlje SfoHBOCHCHA ofthe planet Venus and 1

46,568 revolutions of

Of Venus S ighrochcha # and^f Saturn.

the planet Saturn.

Apogee and

Of j^ooV Node.

33. In a great yuga, there are 488,203 revolution of the Moon s Mandochcha (

apogee,) and the number

of the retrograde revolutions of the Moon s ascending node ^ is232,238.

34. There are 1,582,237,828 sidere-

Numberof sidereal rero- , . , ,

lutions and the mode of al revolutions in a great yuga (a sidereal

finding the number of riainga revolution is tho time from one rising of the plan

ets in a YUai.

of a star to the next at the eqnator and it is a sidereal day as mentioned ip th

e twelfth S loka.) These sidereal revolutions diminished by each planet s own re

volutions (before mentioned) are its own risings in a great yuga.

35. The number of Lunar months

The mode of finding the . , , ,L

No. of Lunar month and 18 eqd to the difference between the

that of the additive months revolutions of the Moon and those of uarabL

the Sun; and the remainder of the Lunar Months lessened by the Solar months is t

he number of AdhihIsas (additive months.)

No, of subtractive days in a Tyuoa and the definition of

36. If the Savana (terrestrial) days The mode of finding the gu^pa0^i from t

he Lunar days,

a terrestrial day.

the remainder constitute the days called the Tithi-kshaya (subtractive 4ays.) Th

ere the Savana days are those in which a SIvana dhy or terrestrial! day ds eqfia

l to the time from sun-rise to sun-rise (at the equator).

37. There are 1,577,917,828 terres-^No. of terreatrial and lunar trial days

and 1608,000080 lunar days

in agreat.YUGA.

* The revolution! of the Sighroehohas of Mercury and Venn correspond to their re

volution! about the Sun. B. 1). t A terreatrial day ia that which the English ca

ll a solar day. B. D.

38. (In a great VuGa) there aie 1,593,336 additive months ^nd, 25,082,252 su

btractive days.

No. additue months and that of subtractiro days.

Ng. of Solar months in a yuga and the way to know the No. of terrestrial day.

39. There are 51,840,000 Solar mouths in a great yuga, and thb terrestrial da

ys are the sidereal days

diminished by the Sun s revolutions.

_40. The revolutions of tho planets, the additive months, the subtractive days,

the sidereal days, the lunar days and the terrestrial days (mentioned above) sep

arately multiplied by 1000 make the revolutions, the additive months &c., in a K

alpa, (because a Kalpa consists of 1000 great yugas.)

41 & 42. In a Kalpa, there are Ap^gL^ 387 revolutions of the Sun s Apogee (about

the North), 204 of Mars apogee, 368 of Mercury s apogee, 900 of Jupiter s apoge

e, 535 of Venus apogee and 39 of Saturn s apogee.

Now we proceed to mention tho rotrogrado revolutions of the Nodes (of the planet

s Mars, &c.)

43 & 44. There are 214, 488, 174, 903, 662 revolutions of the Nodes of tho plane

ts Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn respectively. We have already mentio

ned the revolutions of the apogoe and node of the Moon.

45, 46 & 47. Collect together the **with six when the planetary motions SAN

DHIS, and the SANDHI which lies in tiie last Erita yuga. the beginning of

the Kalpa, those of

twenty-seven groat yugas of the present Manu named Vaivaswata and those of the K

bita yuga ; and subtract from the sum, the said number of years of the Gods, red

uced to solar years} required (by the God Brahmfi) in the creation of the univer

se, (before the commencement of the planetary montions,) and the remainder 1,953

,720,000 is i the number of solar years before tho end of the Kbita yuga.

To find the^HABOAsri or ^ 1 <7>958,tf20J)00 the number

<7> That lunar month which ends, when the Sun ia in Mbbha (stellar Aries

) the first sign of the Zodiac, is called Chaitra, and that whioh terminates whe

n t the Snn is in Vbishabua (Taurus) the second sign of the Zodiac, is called

Tais akha and sojrfh. Thus the lunar months corresponding tathe twelve signs ^Jf

esha (Aries,) /V ribhabha (Taurus,) TOithuha (Obmihi,) Kama (Cancer,) >/8xvha (L

eo,)wKAWYX (Virgo,> Tula g(Libra,) ATrxs ohika (Scorpio,/ Dhahu (Sagittarius,) M

amba (Oapilpornus,) Kumbha (Aquarius) and ^{ha (Pisces,) are CHAITRA, TAXp JtXHA

, JTB8HTHA, ^tsjApHA, t8/JliVA*A, BhAdRAPADA, v Ab wiha, KAhtika, MAaeAB fBBHA

, Paubha, MAgha and PhIlouha.

If two lunar months terminate when the Sun is only in one isign of the Zodiac, t

he second of these is called AdhiAXsa (an additive or intercalary month.) The 80

th part of a lunar month is called Tithi (a lunar day.) B. D.

t The proof of the process for finding tUfe Ahakgana stated-in the S lokas from

48th to 51st will be clearly understood from the following statement.

In order to find the Ahabgava, let the number of the Solar yean elapsed be 1 mul

tiplied by 12; and the produot is the number of elapsed solar months to the last

mean Misha SabxbXbtx (i. e. the time when the mean Sun enters the first stellar

sign of the Zodiac called stellar Aries j) to this let the number of passed

thr No. of terrestrial days of elapsed years, add the Qiumber of from the time t

he planetary . ... _ .

. motions commenced to the years elapsed (from the end of the last

present mid-night. <8> Kbta yuga to the present year;) reduce

<8> That lunar month which ends, when the Sun ia in Mbbha (stellar Aries

) the first sign of the Zodiac, is called Chaitra, and that whioh terminates whe

n t the Snn is in Vbishabua (Taurus) the second sign of the Zodiac, is called

Tais akha and sojrfh. Thus the lunar months corresponding tathe twelve signs ^Jf

esha (Aries,) /V ribhabha (Taurus,) TOithuha (Obmihi,) Kama (Cancer,) >/8xvha (L

eo,)wKAWYX (Virgo,> Tula g(Libra,) ATrxs ohika (Scorpio,/ Dhahu (Sagittarius,) M

amba (Oapilpornus,) Kumbha (Aquarius) and ^{ha (Pisces,) are CHAITRA, TAXp JtXHA

, JTB8HTHA, ^tsjApHA, t8/JliVA*A, BhAdRAPADA, v Ab wiha, KAhtika, MAaeAB fBBHA

, Paubha, MAgha and PhIlouha.

If two lunar months terminate when the Sun is only in one isign of the Zodiac, t

he second of these is called AdhiAXsa (an additive or intercalary month.) The 80

th part of a lunar month is called Tithi (a lunar day.) B. D.

t The proof of the process for finding tUfe Ahakgana stated-in the S lokas from

48th to 51st will be clearly understood from the following statement.

In order to find the Ahabgava, let the number of the Solar yean elapsed be 1 mul

tiplied by 12; and the produot is the number of elapsed solar months to the last

mean Misha SabxbXbtx (i. e. the time when the mean Sun enters the first stellar

sign of the Zodiac called stellar Aries j) to this let the number of passed

the sum.to months (by multiplying it by 12;) to the resulted

the number of lunar months from the beginning of the light half

of the Chaitra <9> (of the current year to the present lunar month.)

<9> That lunar month which ends, when the Sun ia in Mbbha (stellar Aries

) the first sign of the Zodiac, is called Chaitra, and that whioh terminates whe

n t the Snn is in Vbishabua (Taurus) the second sign of the Zodiac, is called

Tais akha and sojrfh. Thus the lunar months corresponding tathe twelve signs ^Jf

esha (Aries,) /V ribhabha (Taurus,) TOithuha (Obmihi,) Kama (Cancer,) >/8xvha (L

eo,)wKAWYX (Virgo,> Tula g(Libra,) ATrxs ohika (Scorpio,/ Dhahu (Sagittarius,) M

amba (Oapilpornus,) Kumbha (Aquarius) and ^{ha (Pisces,) are CHAITRA, TAXp JtXHA

, JTB8HTHA, ^tsjApHA, t8/JliVA*A, BhAdRAPADA, v Ab wiha, KAhtika, MAaeAB fBBHA

, Paubha, MAgha and PhIlouha.

If two lunar months terminate when the Sun is only in one isign of the Zodiac, t

he second of these is called AdhiAXsa (an additive or intercalary month.) The 80

th part of a lunar month is called Tithi (a lunar day.) B. D.

t The proof of the process for finding tUfe Ahakgana stated-in the S lokas from

48th to 51st will be clearly understood from the following statement.

In order to find the Ahabgava, let the number of the Solar yean elapsed be 1 mul

tiplied by 12; and the produot is the number of elapsed solar months to the last

mean Misha SabxbXbtx (i. e. the time when the mean Sun enters the first stellar

sign of the Zodiac called stellar Aries j) to this let the number of passed

49. Write down the result separately; multiply it by the . number of additive m

onths (in a yuga) and divide the pfoduct by the number of solar months (in a yug

a); the quotient, (without the remainder,) will be the elapsed additive months.

Add the quotient (without the remainder) to the said result, reduce the sum to d

ays (by multiplying it by thirty) and increase it by the number of (lunar) days

(passed of the present,lunar month).

^ 50 and 51. Write down the amount in two places; (in one place,) multiply it by

the number of subtractive days (in a yuga) ; divide the product by the number o

f lunar days (in a yuga) and the quotient (without the remainder) will be the nu

mber of olapsed subtractive days. Take the number of these days from the amount

(which is written in the other place) and the remainder will be the number of el

apsed terrestrial days (from the time, when the planetary motions commenced) to

the present midnight at 1/ANKi.t

From the number of these elapsed days, the Rulers. of the present dajr month and

year pan be known (by reckoning order of them) from the Sun.

Divide the .number of elapsed ter.

remain der/rom the sun-day, the Ruler

To tod tluBula of the ^ by 7> ^

prawns any. . a - il J

Divide the number of elapsed

present terminal month and terrestrial days by the number of dafs

in a month and by that in a year (i. e.

by 30 and 360) multiply the quotients (rejecting the remainders) by 2 and 3 resp

ectively, and increase the products by 1. Divide the results by 7, and reckoning

(the order of the Rulers) from the Sun, the remainders will give the Rulers of

the present (terrestrial) month and year respectively.

lunar months Chutbjl, Ac., considering them as solar, be addod: the sura is the

elapsed solar mouths up to the time when the Sun enters the stellar sign of the

Zodiac corresponding to the present lunar month. To make these solar mouths luna

r, let the elapsed additive months be determined by proportion in the following

manner.

As the number of solar months in a TX70A : the number of additive month in that

period :: the number of solar months just found : the number of additive months

elapsed.

. If these additive months with their remainder he added to the solar months ela

psed, the sum will be the number of lunar months to the end of the solar month j

but we require it to the end of the last lunar month. And as the remainder of t

he additive months lies between tho end of the lunar month and-that of its corre

sponding solar month, let the whole number of addiUgg months, without the remain

der, be added to the solar months elapsed j and the sum is the number of the lu

nar months elapsed to the end of the last lunar month.

This number of lunar months elapsed, multiplied by 80 and increased fay the numb

er of the passed lunar days of the present lunar month, is the number of lunar d

ays elapsed. To make these luna days terrestrial, the elapsed subtractive days s

hould be determined by proportion is follows.

As.the number of lunar days in a ttjqa ,

f : the.number of subtractive days in that period

: t the number of lunar days just found i the number of subtractive days elapsed

.

10 Translation of the Cl

, 0

T. i.attomin pl.crf e?- M"lipy. he number of tl planets al a given mid- elapsed terr

estrial days by the number

* lilgkt at LanxA. - , 1 J. / xr n

of a planers revolutions (m a Kalpa) ;

divide tjie product by .the number of terrestrial days (in a Kalina) j and the q

uotient will be the elapsed revolutions, signs, degrefes &c. of the planet. Thus

the mean place of each of the planets can be found.

To Rod the plicca of the 64 > , wa 4116 a,e#n

Bghroohohai, apogees and places of the S fGHROCHCHA and MaN-nodes of the planets.

. , ...

dochcha (apogee) whose direct revolutions (in a Kalpa) are mentioned before, and

those of the nodes of the planets can be found. But the places of the nodes, th

us found, must be subtracted from twelve signs, because their motions are contra

iy to thec ordor of the signs.

55. Multiply the number of elapsed tatsaba? tlie pre^ntSAK revolutions of Jnp

iter by 12; to the product add the nnmber of the signs from the stellar Aries to

Chat occupied by Jupiter; divide the amount by 60, and reckoning the remainder

from Yuata, yon will find the present Samvatsaba.

, An easy method for Rod. 86- T8eBe processes are mentioned ing the mean places o

f the (from 45th S LOKA to 54th) in detail, but, for convenience1 sake, let (an

astronomer) computing the elapsed terrestrial days from the beginning of the Tbi

tX yuga, find easily the mean places of the planets.

57. At the end of this KafTA yuga the mean places of all the planets, except

their nodes and apogees, coincide with 6ach other in the first print oP stellar

Aries.

58. (At the same instant) the place of the Moons apogee= nine signs, her asce

nding node=six signs, and the places of the other slow moving apogee^ and nodes,

whose revolutions are mentioned before, are not without degrees (i. e. they con

tain aome signs and also degrees).

V

Astrologer reckon SO Saxvaisabas, Yuata Ac., which answer suooesrivelj to the pe

riods required bj mean Jupiter to move from one vgn to the next. B. D

The lengthi of th/Etrtlf i 69 Tto diameter Of. the Barth fc

diameter aadbite ciroumfer- 1600# YoJAUAS. Multiply the Square, ence of the d

iameter by 10, the square-root

of the product will be the circumference of the Earth. \

60. The Earth s circumference mul-

mS -T KrthT^J tipped by the sine of eo-latitnfle (of Deorreetian in ^ ^ven place)

and divided by the radius is the Sphuja or rectified circumference (i. e. the p

arallel of latitude) at that place.

Multiply the daily motion (in minutes) by the distande of the given place from t

he Middle Line of the Earth, and divide the product by the rectified circumferen

ce of the Earth.

61. Subtract the quotient in minutes from the place of the planet (which is

found at the mid-night of LankI, as mentioned in S loka 53,) if Ihe given place

be east of the Middle Line, but if it be west, add the quotient to it, and (you

will get) the planet s place at (the mid-night of) the given place.

Middle Line of the Earth.

62. (The cities named) RonfTAKA, ; UjJATiNf, Kurukshetra &g. are at the

line between LankX and the north polo of the Earth, (this line is called the Mid

dle Lino of the Earth.).

63, 64 and 65. At the given place lo5ti^of.thplJrlrU ifthe Moons total darkness

(inker

eclipse) begins or ends after the instant when it begins or ends at the Middle L

ine of the Earth, then the given place is east of the Middle Line, (but if it be

gins or ends) before the instant (when it begins or ends at the Middle <10> Line

, then) the given place is west ofthe Middle Line.

<10> Dss ivTABA is the correction decenary to be applied to the place of

a : planet in eonseqiiftnee of the longitude of a place, reckoned from the Midd

le : Liue of the Earth or the Meridian of LivxX. B. D.

Find the difference in GhatikIs .between the times (of the | beginnings or ends

of the Moon s total darkness at the given place and the mid-night, which differe

nce is called the Des In-tara GhatikXs.) .

12 Translation of the ,

#

Multiply the (rectified circumference of the Earth by this difference and divide

the product by 60. The quotient will be the east or west distance (in Yojanas)

of the given place from the Midc(lo Line.

Apply, the minutes, found by this distance, to the places of the pldnets (as dir

ected before in S lokas60 and 61).

66. A day of the week begins at tho Dis jChtaba GhatikXs after or be-fore th

e mid-night at the given place

according as it is east or west of tho Middle Line.

67. (If you want to know the place of! ptart tfnntmT of a planet at a given

time after or

before a given mid-night,) multiply the daily motion of the planet by $he given

time in GhatikIs, divide the product by 60, and add or subtractthe quotient, in

minutes, to or from the place of the planet found at the given (mid-night,) and

you have the place of the planet at the given time after or before the given mid

-night. The place of the planet, thus found, is called its TXtkXlika or instanta

neous place.

68. The Moon s deflection to the north and south from the end of the declina

tion of her corresponding point at the Ecliptic is caused by her node. .The meas

ure of her greatest deflection is equal to the T\,th part of the minutes in a ci

rcle.

69. The measures of the greatest deflections of Jupiter and Mars caused by t

heir nodes are respectively % and } of that of the Moon, and that of Mercury, Ven

us and Saturn is } of tile Moon s greatest deflection.

70. Thus the mean greatest latitudes of the Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Ve

nus and Saturn are declared to be 270, 90, 120, 60, 120 and 120 minutes respecti

vely.

End of the 1st chapter of S^bta-siddhXnta called Madhy^. t c&x (which treats of

the Buies for finding the mean places of the planets.)

CHAPTER II.

Called Sphuta-gaji which treats of the Rules forfiidwg the true places of the pl

anets.

Cause of the planetary mo- I. The Deities, invisible (to hu-tl0nB man sigh

t), named S Ighrochcha,

Mandochcha (Apogees) and Pata (Nodes,) consisting of (continuous and endless) ti

me, being situated at the ecliptic, produce the motions of the planets.

2. The Deities, (S Ighrochcha and Mandochcha) attract the planets (from the

ir uniform course) fastened by the reins of winds borne by the Deities towards

themselves to the east or the west, with their right or left hands according as

they are to their right or left.

3. (Besides this) a (great) wind called Pravaha carries the planets (westwa

rd) which are also attracted towards their apogees. Thus the planets being attra

cted (at once) to the east and west get the various motions.

4. The Deity called Uchcha (apogee) draws the planet to the oast or west (f

rom its uniform progress) according as the Doity is cast or west of the planet a

t a distance less than -six signs.

5. As many degrees &c., as the planets, being attracted by, their apogees,

move to the east or the west, so many are called additive or subtractive (to or

from their mean places).

6. In the same way, the Deity node named RXau by its power deflects the pla

net, such as the Moon, to the north or to

the south from (the end of) the declination (of its corresponding

* The place of a planet rectified by the 1st or 2nd equation is nearer to its hi

gher apsis (Mahdochoha or S ighrochoha) in its orbit, than the olonet i unrocti

fied plaoe. The cause of this is that the Deities have bands furnished with runs

of winds and by them they attract the planet towards themselves.

This will expluin the meaning of the 2nd KlOKA. B. D.

14 Ti unslation of the

point at tlie ecliptic). This deflection ,is called Vikshepa (celestial latitude

). r

* f. The Deity node draws the planet to the north or to the south (from the ecli

ptic) according as the node is west or oust of the planet at a distance loss tha

n six signs.

8. (But in respect of Mercury and Yenus) when their PXtas (or nodes) are i

n the same direction at the same distance (as mentioned in the preceding Sloka)

fromtheir SIgiirochchas, tlfoy deflect in the same manner (as mentioned before)

by the attractions of their SIghrochchas.

9. The attraction of the Sun (by its apogee) is very small by reason of the

bulkiness of its body, but that of the Moon is greater than that of the Sun, on

account of the Bmallness of the Moons body.

10. As the bodies of the (fivo) minor planets, Mars, &c. are very small, the

y are attracted by the Deities SIghrochcha and Manbochcha very violently.

11. And for this reason, the additive or subtractive equation of the minor p

lanets caused by their movement (which is produced by the attraction by their Uc

iichas) is very great. Thus, the minor planets, being attracted by their S Ichro

chcha and Manbochcha and carried by the wind Pkavaha, move in the heavens.

12. (And therefore) the motion of

Kinds of motion. ,, . , . .

the planets is of eight kinds, l. e.

yyl. VakrX (decreasing retrograde motion).

^11. Ativakra (increasing retrograde motion).

vIII. VikalA (stationary). %

1Y. MandX (increasing direct motion less than the mean motion).

Y. MandatarX (decreasing direct motionless than the mean motion).

YI. Sana (mean motion).

c VII. S fGHRATA&X or AtisIghba (increasing direct motion greater than the mean

motion).

> Surya-Siddhdnta, 15

n/VIII. S faHRA (decreasing direct motion greater .than the mean motion).

i

13. Of these kinds, the five motions Aiisfainur,, S ltnW,

MandA, MandatabA and Saha are direct %nd the two motions" A^akrA and AtivakrA ar

e retrograde.

14. (Now) I explain carefully the Rules for findingathe true places (of the

planets) in suoh a manner that the places found by the Rules coincide with those

, determined by observation, of tho planets which move constantly with various m

otions.

The Buie for finding the 15. The eighth part of the number Zdr.n^r^ci^tah of

contained in a sign (i. e.

Kadius=3488. 1800) is the first sine. Divide the

first sine by itself, subtract the quotient from that sine, and add the remainde

r to that sine: the sum will be the second sine.

16. In the same manner, divide successively the sines (found) by the first s

ine; subtract (the sum of)the quotients from the divisor and add the remainder t

o the sine last found and the sum will be the next sine. Thus you will get twent

y-

* This method is proved thus.

Let sin. Asin. 0 = ci,; sin. 2 Asin. A da j sin. 3 Asin. 2 A = rfa j ,

&C. sir fa,

sin. n A sin. (1) A = dn \ sin (w+l) Asin. A ~ -|-1.

Tlwn since dxda = 2 vers A. Bin A -5- B;

d9d% = 2 vers A. sin 2A<f K; d.d. = 2 vers A. sin 3A-r Ji;

&c. = &c.

dHdn -f- , = 2 vers A. sin u A -f- B j vre have by addition

dld n + i = c tn A -f- sin. 2 A + + sin. A) or,

J1 # .

sin. A f sin. n Asin. ( +1) A (sin A + sin. 2 A + sin. % A)

sin. (n +1) A= sin. A + sin. A (sin. A sin. 2 A -j sin. n A.)

Sere, A 3 46 ,.-. ==.0042822 = -i-, which is roughly given

. A 2oo.O

in the text =

226

, < four sines (in q quadrant of a circle whgse radius is 3438).

These are as follows. k

The lines.

17 to 22. 225,449,671,890,1105, 1315, 1520, 1719, 1910, 2093, 2267, 2431, 2388,

2728, 2859,2978, 3084, 3177, 3256, 3321, 337,2, 3409, 8 43l, 3438. , -

Subtract these Bines separately from the Radius 3438 in the inverse order, the r

emainders will be the versed sines (for every 3}).

The versed sines.

23 to 27. There are 7, 29, 66,117, 182, 261, 354, 460, 579, 710, 853, 1007, 1171

, 1315, 1528, 1719, 1918, 2123, 2333, 2548, 2767, 2989, 3213, 3438, versed Binos

(in a quadrant).

28. The sine of the (mean) greatest declination, (of each of tho planets)=18

07 (the sine of 24) .

Th. Rule for th. Mnlfiply tlio sino (of the longitude of planet s (mean) declina

tion a planet) by the said sine 1307; divide iroiult8 longitttde the product by t

ho radius 3438; find

the arc whoso sine is oqual to tho quotient. This arc is tho (mean) declination

(of tho planet required).

29. Subtract the place of the planet from those of tho Man-DOCHCHAt and S fQ

HUocncnA: and the remainders^; aro tho Kendbas. From tho Kendra determine the qn

adrant (in which the Kondra ends,) and the sines of the Bhuja and Kofi (of the Ke

ndba).

30. The sine of the Bhuja (of the arc which terminates) in an odd quadrant (

i. o. 1st and 3rd,) is the sine of that part of

* Tho mean declination of a planet it. the declination of its corresponding poin

t in the eeliptioi but the Sun s mean declination is the same as Ibis true decli

nation. B. D.

t Mandochcha ia equivalent to the higher apsis. The Sun s and Moons Makdoohcbab (

higher apsides) are the same as their apogees while the other planets Mavdogho

hab are equivalent td their aphelions. B. D.

X The first remainder ia called the first Kbsdba whieh corresponds with the anom

aly, and the second, the second Kxndb which is equivalent to the commutation add

ed to or subtracted from 180 as the second Krtdba ia greater or loss than 180P. B

.D.

, $ The Bhuja of any given aro is that arc, less than 90, the sine of which ia eq

ual to the sine of that given are; and the Kop of any aro is the complement of t

he Bhuja of that are. B. D.

the given arc which jails in the quadrant where it terminates, but the sine of t

fie Koyi (of that arc) is the sine of that arc which it wants to complete the tyu

kdrant where the givcir too ends; and the sine of the Bhuja (of the arc) which e

nds in an even quadrant (i. e. 2nd and 4th) is the sine of that arc which it wa

nts to complete the quadrant where the given toyends; but the sine of the ]oti (o

f that arc) is the sine of that part of the given arc which falls in that quadra

nt where it terminates.

To fin^ the line of the 31. (Reduce the given degrees given degrees &o. to minut

es.) Divido the minutes by

225: and the sine (in S lokas 1722) corresponding to tho quotient is called the g

ata (the past) sine, (and the next sine is called the gamya to be post sine): mu

ltiply (the remainder in the said division) by the difference between the gata a

nd GAHTA sine and divide the product by 225.

32. Add the quotient to tho sine past: (the sum will be the sine required). This

is tho Rule for finding tho right sines (of the given degrees Ac.) In the samo

way, the versed sines (of the given degrees Ac.) can be found.

Given the sine to find its 33. Subtract tho (next less) sine arc (from th

e given sine); multiply the re-

mainder by 225 and divide the product by the difference (between tho next less a

nd greater sines): add tho quotient to tho product of 225, and that number (whic

h corresponds to tho next loss sine); the sum will be (the number of minutes con

tained in) the arc (required).

Dimension! of (be lit 34. There ore fourteen degrees (of the conoontric) in the

periphery of tho farent or oonoentric. xanda or first epicycle of the Sun, and

thirty-two degrees (in the periphery of the 1st epicycle) of the Moon, when thes

e epicycles are described at the end of an even quadrant (of the concentric or o

n the Line of the Apsides.) But when they are described at the end of an odd qua

drant (of the concentric, or on the diameter of the concentric perpendicular to

the Line of tho Apsides) the degrees in both are diminished by twenty minutes; (

thon thq degrees in the periphery of the Sun s epicyclex= 13 40 and in tfyt of t

ho Mooh sspSl0 40 .)

DimennoqB of the lat tpl- 35 There 80> 12 d

nrdoB of the Man Ac., in 49, (degrees of the concentric in the degrees ef the co

ncentric. . , . ... , . , -

peripheries of the first epicycles of

Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn respectively) at the end of an even qua

drant (of tho concentric, but) at the end of anodd quadrant, thore are 72, 28, 32

, 11, 48 (degree^ of tho concentric.)

Dimensions of the 2nd 36. There are 235, 133, 70, 262 epicycles of Man &o.

^ 39 (degrees of the concentric) in

the peripheries of the S ighba or second epicycles of Mars &c., at the end of an

even quadrant (of the concentric).

37. At the end of an odd quadrant (of the concentric,) thore are 232, 132, 7

2; 260,40 degrees of the concentric in the peripheries of the second epicycles o

f Mars &c.

Given the Kinds of a 38. Take tho difference between peripheries of epicycles of

a planet ry of the epicycle. at the ends of an oven and an odd

quadrant; multiply it by the sine of the Bum a (of the given Kbndra of the plane

t,) and divide the product by the radius. Add or subtract the quotient to or fro

m the periphery which is at the end of an even quadrant according as it is less

or greater than that which is at the end of an odd quadrant: tho result will be

the Sphuta or rectified periphery (of tho epicycle of the planet.)

(Hrm the 1.t or fad ,80- ^ of the Bhd

Kindia of a planet, to find ja and Kofi (of the given 1st and 2nd umdK^ni^rad^e

Kindra of a planet) by the rectified 1st equation of the planet p^pbery (of the

1st and 2nd epicycle

of the planet), and divide the products by the degrees in a circle or 360 (the q

uotients are called the 1st or 2nd Bhuja-phala and Koti-phala respectively). Fin

d the aro whose sine * is equal to the 1st Bhuja-phala : the number of the minut

es

contained in this#arcjs the manda-phala (or,the 1st equation of tho plqnot.)

.. 40. Find tho 2nd Koti-phala ffrom

To find the 2nd equation

of the minor planets Mars a planet s 2nd Kendra as mentioned

before:) it is to be added to the radius when the Kendra is .less than 8 signs o

r greater than 9 signs, but when the Kendra is greater than 3 signs and less tha

n 9, (then the 2ndJKori-PHALA) is to be subtracted (from the radius).

41. Add the square of the result (just found) to that of the sine of the 2nd

Dhuja-phala : the square root of the sum is the S foHRA-KARNA or 2nd hypothenuse

.f

Find tho (2nd) Bhuja-phala of the planet (as mentioned in 8 loka 39th;) multiply

it by the radius and divide the product by tho 2nd liypothenuse (above found).

42. Find the arc whose sine is equal to the quotient (just found); the numbe

r of the minutes contained in the arc is called the S /aiiRA-riiALAj: (or 2nd eq

uation of the planet.)

The 2nd equation of Mars &c. is employed in the first and fourth operations (whi

ch will be explained in the sequel).

To Und truo place of (In 0rdertfind th tme P,a0M

the Sun, the Moon and other of the Sun and Moon,) a single ope-

placto ration called manda (or operation of

finding tho first equation,) is to be employed (that is to say, when you want to

find the true places of the Sun and Moon, fiud their first equation and apply i

t, as will be mentioned in 45th S loka, to their mean places: thus you have the

true places of the Sun and Moon).

But in respect of Mars &o. 1st S faHRA operation (or operation of finding the 2n

d equation,) sfnd Manda operation, 3rd Manda operation, and 4th S /ghra operatio

n, are to be employed successively.

* Maxda-pkaia is the same arthe equation of the centre of a planet. B. D.

t The S foBBA KABVA or 2nd hypothenuee is equivalent to the distance (in minutes

) of the planet from the Barths oentre. B. X>.

$ SfflHBA PHALA or 2nd equation is equivalent to the annual parallax of the supe

rior planets; and the elongation of the inferior planets. B. i).

D 2

44.. Find the .second equation (from the jnean .place of a

planet:) apply the half of it to the mean place, anjl (to the result) apply the

half of the first equation (found from that <11> result; from the amount) find t

he 1st equation again, and apply the whole of it to the mean place of the planet

and (to that rectified mean place) <12> apply the whole of the 2nd equation (fo

und from the rectified mean place: thus yon will find the true place of the plan

et).

<11> The notified mean place of I planet is called its Manda sphv?a plac

e. The Mabda-bphuta places of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn correspond with their hel

iocentric places. B. D. 1

t The BaujivTABA correction is to be applied to the place of a planet found from

the Ababoava for finding the place ox the planet at the true^ mid-night at aris

ing from that portion of the equation of time which ia due to the unequal motion

of the Sun in the Ecliptic. B. D,

<12> The notified mean place of I planet is called its Manda sphv?a plac

e. The Mabda-bphuta places of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn correspond with their hel

iocentric places. B. D. 1

t The BaujivTABA correction is to be applied to the place of a planet found from

the Ababoava for finding the place ox the planet at the true^ mid-night at aris

ing from that portion of the equation of time which ia due to the unequal motion

of the Sun in the Ecliptic. B. D,

ifow tl. Ut d 2nd 45< In tte S foHBA and<MAHDA

equations of the planets are operations, the (second or first) equa-to bo applie

d. / r \ . . . \

tion of a planet in minutes is to be

additive when the (second or first) Kendra (of the planet) is less

than 6 signs; but when it is greater than C signs, the (2nd or

1st) equation is to be subtraotive.

The BHUjiimvAt corree <13> 46. Multiply tho diurnal motion tion iu minutes. i 0f

a planet by the number of minutes

<13> The notified mean place of I planet is called its Manda sphv?a plac

e. The Mabda-bphuta places of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn correspond with their hel

iocentric places. B. D. 1

t The BaujivTABA correction is to be applied to the place of a planet found from

the Ababoava for finding the place ox the planet at the true^ mid-night at aris

ing from that portion of the equation of time which ia due to the unequal motion

of the Sun in the Ecliptic. B. D,

contained in the first equation of tho Sun, and divide the pro-*( duct by tho nu

mber of minutes contained in a circle or 21600 : add or subtract the quotient, i

n minutes, according as the Suns equation is additive or subtractive, to or from

the place * of tho planet (which is found from the Ahargana at tho mean mid-nigh

t at Lank4, the result will be the place of the planet at the true mid-night at

LankX.)

47. Subtract the diurnal motion of the Apogoo of the Moon from her mean diur

nal motion; (the remainder will be the Moons motion from her apogee;) from this r

emainder find the 1st equation of her motion (by the rule which will be explaine

d further on). This equation is to be subtractive or additive to her mean motion

(for finding the true motion of the

Find the .true farad 48. In the ITAND^ operation, find

TsPw th M f pi,etB dinai

t motions of the others. motion from the motion itself, ill the

same way in which the planets first equation is found.

j[Take the difference between the qata and gamya sines which hare boen-foqnd in

finding the sine of tho first &endra of the planet); by the difference between t

ho sines (gata and gahya) multiply the (planets mean) motion (from its apogee) an

d divide the product by 225.

49. The quotient multiplied by the (rectified) periphery of the first epicyc

le of tho planot and divided by 360 (becomes the first equation of the planets mot

ion) in minutes. Add this equation (to the mean diurnal motion of the planet) wh

en the first Kendra is greater than 3 signs and less than 9; but when the first

Kendra is greater than 9 signs or less than 3, subtract tho equation of the moti

on from it ? (thus you have the true diurnal motions of the Sun and Moon, and th

o manda-sphuta motions of the others which are equivalent to their heliocentric

motions.)

To find tbe true diurnal 50. Subtract the MANDA-SrHUfA di-motto of 4 mtaor P4- nrn

al motion of a (minor) planet from its sTghrociichas diurnal motion, and multiply

the remainder by the difference between the radius and the 2nd hypothenuse foun

d in the 4th operation for finding tho 2nd equation.

51. Divide the product by the (said) 2nd hypothenuse, add the quotient (to the m

anda-bphuta motion of the planet) when the 2nd hypothenuse is greater than the r

adius ; but when it is less than the radius subtree^ the quotient (from the MAND

A-SPHUfA motion, the result will be the true motion of tho planet). (But in the

latter case), if the quotiont be greater (than the kanda-sfhuta motion,) subtrac

t (the manda-bphuta motion from the quotient); the remainder will be the retrogr

ade motion of the planet.

^ Notes on 60 and 51. Some commentators of the StJttYi sidduAyta under-tion? n D

tenn n^tt> t1001110 the 2nd equation found in the 4th opera

22 Translation of the

f

The eause of theretrogrei- 52. When a planet is at a great

Sion of the pLmpts. distanco (more than 3 signs), from its

S fodROCHCHA and (therefore) its body is attracted by tho looso | reins (borfie

by the S fa h rochc ha, ) to its loft or right, then the planets motion becomes r

etrograde. r

WUen th. pl.net. beg., 63 d 54 PWa MarS d

to retrograde and when they others (i. e. Mars, Mercuiy, Jupiter, leave their re

trogression. ^ B i ,, , ,

Vonus and Saturn) get the retrograde

motion about the same time when the degrees of (thpir 2nd) Kendras, found in tho

4th operation, are equal to 104,144,130, 163 and 115 (respectively) : and when

tho degrees of (their 2nd) Kendras are equal to the remainders (196, 216, 230, 1

97 and 245,) found by subtracting the (said) numbers (164, 144, 130, 163 and 115

,) from 360 (separately,) the planets leave their retrogression.

55. Venus add Mars (leave their retrogression about tho same time) when (the

ir 2nd Kendra) is equal to 7 signs, on account of the greatness (of the rectifie

d dimension) of their 2nd epicycle: so Jupiter and Mercury (leave their retrogre

ssion) when (their 2nd Kendra) =8 signs, and Saturn loaves its retrogression whe

n (its 2nd Kendra) =9 signs.

To find the latitude of a 56. Add or subtract the 2nd equa-plflnet tions of

Mars, Saturn and Jupiter

(found in the 4th operation) to or from their nodes according as the 2nd equatio

ns applied to the (rectified mean) places of the planets: but in respect of Merc

ury and Venus add or subtract their 1st equations (found in the 3rd operation, t

o or from their nodes) according as their 1st equations ore subtractive or addit

ive respectively (the results are the rectified nodes).

57. (For the argument of latitude of each of the planets^ Mors, Jupiter and Satu

rn) take its rectified node from itB true place: but for (the argument of latitu

de of) Mercuiy or Venus take its rectified node from its S foHROCHCHA; find the

sine (of

$ Notre on 66 and 57. It ia evident that the argument of latitude of each of the

planets, found here, equals the heliocentric placed the planet diminished by the

place of its node. B. 1).

tho argument of latitude of a planet); multiply it /by tlio (greatest), latitude

of tho planet (mentioned in S kjka 70fcli of 1st Chapter) and divide the produc

t by tho 2nd hypothftiiiso found in the 4th operation; but in respect pf the Moo

n divido it ,by the radius: the quotient will be the latitude (of the planet).

,

To find the true decline 58. The (mean) declination (of a tion of a planet.

planet or the declination found by

computation from its corresponding point in tho ecliptic) increased or diminishe

d by its latitude, according as thoy are both of the same or different denominat

ions, becomos tho true (declination of the planet). But the Suns (truo decimation

) is (the same as) his mean declination.

To find the length of a &9. Multiply tho diurnal motion planetii day. # (in mi

nutes) of a planet by the number

Giron the dedinatioii, to . 60- Fkd 4110 d TOr8ed

find the radius of the cQur- gines of the declination (of a planet):

take the versed sine (just found) from the radius, the remainder will be the rad

ius of the diurnal circle south or north of the equinoctial. (This radius is cal

led DyujyX).

To find the fnim"iond 61. Multiply the sine of declination difference. (above f

ound) by the length (in digits)

of the equinoctial shadow, divide tho product by ,12, the quotient is the Kujya

:f The KujyX multiplied by the radius

* The equinoctial shadow is the shadow of a vertical gnomon of 12 digits when th

e Sun is in the equinoctial at tho midday at a given place. B. D.

t Kvni is tho sine of that arc of a diurnal circle which is intercepted between

A tho Horizon and the six oclock lino. B. D.

of Pranas which the sign, in which the planet^ is, takes in its rising (at a giv

en place;) divide the product by 1800 (tho number of minutes which each sign of

the ecliptic contains in itself,) add the quotient, in PrXnas, to tho number of

tho PrXnas contained in a (sidereal) day: tho sum will bo the number of PrXnas

contained in the day and night of that planet (at the given place).

(

and divided by. the Dyujy^ (above found) becomes tho sino of the ascensional dif

ference. Tlio arc of that Bine (in minutes) is th!) ascensional difference in Th

an as.

Toflndtlilength.of<ha . 2- Add and nbtaMt tho ascen-

day and night or a plauot sional difference to and from the fourth and a fined ta

r. papt of the length of the day and night

of tho planot (as found in s loka 59) separately, the results will bo lengths of

the half day and half night respectively of the planet when its declination is

north. ,

03. But when the planet s declination is south, the reverse of this takeB pl

ace (i. e. the results, just found, will bo the lengths of the half night and ha

lf day of the planet respectively). (In both cases,) twice the results ore the l

engths of the day and night (respectively).

In the same way, the lengths of thp day and night of any fixed star can bo deter

mined from its declination which is to be found by adding or subtracting its lat

itudo to or from tho declination (of its corresponding point in the ecliptic).

The Bhoga of a Naxsha- 64. The Bha-buoga (or the space of vba and tithl a Naksha

tra or an Astorism) contains-

800 minutes, aiid tho Bhoga of a titiii (or the space which the Moon describes

from the Sun in tithi or lunar day) contains 720 minutes.

I tod the Naxua.tb4 110 P100 of a Planefc> reduced to

in which a planet is at a minutes, divided by the Bhabhoga or

given time. 800 , gives the number of those Nak-

shatra or Asterisms (countod from As wiNf which are passed by the planet: and the

remainder is that portion of the present Nakshatra which is passed by the plane

t.) (This remainder divided) by the diurnal motion (of the planet) gives the quo

tient in the days, ghatixab, &c. wlpch the planot has taken to pass that portion

of tho present Nakshatra.

To And tho Voga at a 65. Tho sum of tho places of the given time. gun ^ Mo

on (found at a givon time,)

* Yoga is a period of time in which the ram of the places of the Sun and Moon iu

oreascs by 13 or 800 . B.D.

reduced to minutes, ,is to be divided by tin? Biia-bhocw. (or 800 .) The quotien

t is the number of the elapsed Yooas (counted from Vishkarubha) : #(Tlie remaind

er is calleif tlio data of the present Yoga, and the Bha-biioga (or 800 ) dimi-

( nisjied by the gata is called the. gamya of that yooa.) The oata and gamya- of

# the present yoga multiplied by 60 and divided by the sum of the diurnal motions

(of the Sun and Moon) become the numbers of the past and to bo past ghajikas (r

espectively of the present Yoga at tho given time.)

To And the lunar day at a 00. Take tho place of tho Sun from given time.

that of the Moon (found at a given

time); divide tho remainder, reduced to minutes, by tho Bhooa (of a TiTiii or 72

0 ; tho quotient is the number of tho elapsed titliis or lunar days.), (The rema

inder is tho gata of tho present tithi, and tho Biioga of a tithi diminished by

the gata is tho gamya of the present tithi.) The gata and gamya of the present t

ithi, multiplied by 60 and divided by tho difference between the diurnal motions

(of tho Sun and Moon) become the numbers of the past and to bo past onAjiKAS (r

espectively of the present titiii at the given timo).

Invariable KabanaS.

67. The four invariable Karaxas called Sakuni, Naoa, Chatushpada

and Kinstughna (always appropriate to themselves successively tho halves of the

titiiis,) from the latter half of the fourteenth titiii of tho dark half (of a l

unar month to tho first half of the first titiii of tho light half of tho next l

unar month, inclusive).

68. 9 And the seven variabl^ARA-anable BitfAs. nas,^Bava &c. afterwards succ

eed

eact other regularly, through eight repetitions in a (lunar) month.

* 1. Bata. 9. Balta. JA. 7. Bhadba. B. D.

8,- Kaulaya. 4. Taxtxla. 5. Gabaja. G. Vasi

JC

69/ .It is to I?e known that all the Kajaxas answer successively to hirif of a t

ithi.

(0 Mata,) thus I have oxplamed to you the Buies for finding v the true (laces of

the heavenly bodies, the Sun &c.

End of th$nd Chapter of the Stfm-SiDDHANTA.

CHAPTER III.

Called the Tripbas na, which treats of the Rules for resolving the questions on

Time, the position of places, and directions.

To determine the meridian and east and vest lines and the points of the Horizon.

1. On the surfaco of a stone levelled with water or on the levelled floor o

f chunam work, describe a circle with a radius of a certain number of digits.

2 and 3. Place the vertical Gnomon of 12 digits at its centre and mark the

two points where the shadow (of the Gnomon) before and after noon meets the cir

cumference of tho circle: these two points are called the west and the east poin

ts (respectively).

Then, draw a line through, the timi <14> formed between the

<14> To draw a line perpendioular to and bisecting- the line joining two

given points, it is usual to describe two arc* from tho two given points as cen

tres with a common radius, intersecting each other in two points: the line pusin

g thorough the intersecting points is the line .reqnired. In this construction,

the space contained by tho intersecting arcs is called1 tiki a fish," on account

of its form. It is evident that the line drawn through the timi formed between

two giveq, points, must be perpendicular to and bisect the line which joins the

given points* B. D.

(said) east and west points, and it will be the north and,south lino or the Meri

dian Line.

4. And thus, draw a line through the Tim formed between tho north and south

points of the Meridian Jine; this line will betlie east and west lino.

In the samo manner, determine the intermediate directions through the timis form

ed between the points of the determined directions (east, south &c.).

Given the Gnomoni. <15> 6 ,<In 0nler t0 tl,e direCtin

<15> The distance (in digits) of the end of the shadow of the Gnomon (wh

ich is placed at the intersecting point of the Meridian and east and west line)

is colled the Bhuja (of the shadow .north fir south according as the end of the

shadow is north or south of the east and west line: and the distance of the end

of the shadow tyom the Meridian Line is oalled the Kop (of the shadow) east or w

est according as the end of the shadow is esst or west of the Meridian Line. B.

1).

dow and it <16> Bhdja, to find of a given shadow of the Gnomon at a the directio

n of tho shadow. . , .. . . .

<16> The distance (in digits) of the end of the shadow of the Gnomon (wh

ich is placed at the intersecting point of the Meridian and east and west line)

is colled the Bhuja (of the shadow .north fir south according as the end of the

shadow is north or south of the east and west line: and the distance of the end

of the shadow tyom the Meridian Line is oalled the Kop (of the shadow) east or w

est according as the end of the shadow is esst or west of the Meridian Line. B.

1).

given time, describe a circle m tho

plane of the Horizon with a radius whose length is equal to that of tho given sh

adow and at its circumference determine tho points of tho Horizon, tho Meridian

and cast and west lines as mentioned before:) Then describe a squaro about the s

aid circle through tho lines Urawn from tho centre (of the circle to the points

of the Horizon, in such a manner that the square shall touch the circle at tho c

ardinal points) and in this circle (towards the western or eastern part of it ac

cording as the given time is before or after noon), draw a line (as a sine,) equ

al to Bituja <17> (of tho given shadow and perpendicular to the east and west li

ne towards tho north or south according as tho Bhuja is north or south. To tho e

nd of this perpendicular, draw a line from tho centre). This (line) will denote

the direction of the given shadow (at the given time).

<17> The distance (in digits) of the end of the shadow of the Gnomon (wh

ich is placed at the intersecting point of the Meridian and east and west line)

is colled the Bhuja (of the shadow .north fir south according as the end of the

shadow is north or south of the east and west line: and the distance of the end

of the shadow tyom the Meridian Line is oalled the Kop (of the shadow) east or w

est according as the end of the shadow is esst or west of the Meridian Line. B.

1).

6. Tho line representing the Prime Verticul, the six oclock <18> line or the

equinoctial, passes through the east and west points of the Horizon. #

<18> The distance (in digits) of the end of the shadow of the Gnomon (wh

ich is placed at the intersecting point of the Meridian and east and west line)

is colled the Bhuja (of the shadow .north fir south according as the end of the

shadow is north or south of the east and west line: and the distance of the end

of the shadow tyom the Meridian Line is oalled the Kop (of the shadow) east or w

est according as the end of the shadow is esst or west of the Meridian Line. B.

1).

To find the sine of ampli- 7. fjn the said circle) from the

tude reuufced to the1 hypo , r t

thenuse of the given shadow, cast and west line (to its north) at a

distance equal to the equinoctial shadow, draw another line

parallel to the foryicr; the distance between the end of the

* Note on the 7th S ioka.

Let /i,(J N IT be the plane of the Meridian of the given place of north latitude

; and in that plane let G A H be the diameter. of the Horizon, Z the zenith, P

and Q the north and south poles, E A P the diameter of the Equinoctial, FAQ that

ot the six o clock line, Z A N that of cj the Prime vertical, Cal) that of one

of tho diurnal circle in which the Sun is supposed to revolve at the given day a

nd s the projection of tho Suns plaag: and let c, 4 bo the perpendiculars to Z N,

G11 respectively.

Then, A a = Aqua or the sine of the Suns amplitude ;

S 4 = SAnku or tho sino of the Suns altitude;

c or A 5 as JBhuja or the sino of the distanco of the Sun from tho Prime Vertic

al measured on a great circle passing through (lie Sun and at right angles to th

e Prime Vertical.

a 4 a=s S awkutala or the distance of the perpendicular drawn from the Suns place

to the horizontal plane, from the line (called tho Udayasta-8<}tra in Sanskrit)

in which the plane of the Horizon intersects that of the diurnal circle t and i

t is evident from tho figure that - A a = ab A 4:

or A an A = 8 as ku tala Bhuja t

in this the upper or lower sign must evidently bo used according as the Sun is n

orth or south of the Prime Vertical.

Now if these Aani, S ankutala and Bhuja which are in terms of the radius of a gr

eat circle, bo reduced to the hypothenuse of the gnomonic shadow nt the given ti

me, it is clear that the reduced Bhuja wiU bo equal to the distance of the end o

f the shadow from the east and lest line, but the reduced SAhxuiau will equal th

e Equinoctial shadow. It is showed thus:

let B = the radius of a great circle:

A as the hypothenuse of the shadow;

13 Jt

then, A : It 12; 14, .. i 4 ;

h

Now, in the triangle # a 4 v a 6 = the latitude of the given place j a 4 the si

ne of latitude the Equinoctial shadow

J 4 the cos. of latitude 12

given shadow and % latter line is equal to the sino of amplitude (reduced to the

hypothenuso of the given shadow).

Given the shadow to find 8. The square-root of the sufti of its hypotheuuee.

the squares (of tjie lengths) of the

Gnomon and the given shadow is tailed the hypothenuseof the shadow: from tho squ

are of the hypothenuso subtract the square of the Gnomon; tho square-root of tho

remainder will be equal to tho shadow; and the length of tho Gnomon is to bo kn

oYrn (from the shadow) by tho inverse calculation. Tho precession of the 9. Tho

circle of Asterisms librates equinoxes. 600 times in a great Yuga (that is to

say, all the Asterisms, at first, move wostward 27. Then returning from that limi

t they reach their former places. Then from those places they move eastward tho

same number of degreos; and roturning thence como again to their own places. Thu

s they complete one libration or revolution, as it is called. In this way the nu

mber of revolutions in a Yuga is 600 which answers to 600,000 in a Kalpa).

Multiplying tho Ahakgana (or tho number of elapsed days) by the said revolutions

and dividing by the number of terrestrial days in a Kalpa ; the quotient is the

elapsed revolutions, signs, degrees, &c.

10. (Rejecting the revolutions), find tho Bhuja of the rest (i. e. signs, de

grees &c. as mentioned in S loka 30th of the 2nd Chapter). Tho Bhuja (just found

) multiplied by 3 and divided by 10 gives the degrees &c. called the Atana (this

is the same with the amountf of the precession of the equinoxes). 1

h the Equinoctial slpdow

or abX =

12 R 12

h

o 4 X or the reduced S ahkutala = the Equinoctial shadow;

B

The reduced line of amplitude

= the Equiuoctial shadow the reduced Bhuja ; this explains the 7th8 OXA. B. D.

27 90. B.D.

t This is the diitanoe of the Stellar Arks from the vernal equinox. B. D.

Add or subtract the amount of the precession .of the equi-noses (according as th

e asterisms are moving eastward or westward at the given time) toor from tho plac

e of a planet: from the result (which is equivalent to tho longitude of the plan

et) find the declination " the shadow of the Gnomon, the tho ascensional differe

nce &c. t

TJiis motion of the asterisms (or the precession of the equinoxes) will be verif

ied by the actual observation of the Sun when he is at the equinoctial or tho so

lstitial points. ,

11. According as the Suns true place found by computation (as stated in the 2

nd Chapter) is less or greater than that which is found by observation (i. o. th

e longitude of the Sun), the circlo of asterisms is to tho east or west (from it

s original place) as many degrees as these aro in the difference (between the Su

ns true ploco and tho longitude).

Tho equinoctial shadow.

12. At a givon place, when the Sun comes to tho equinoctial, the shadow (of

the Gnomon of 12 digits) cast on tho Moridian Line at noon is called the Palabii

X or tho equinoctial shadow (for that place).

Given the equinoctial shadow, to find tho co-latitude and latitude.

13. Tho Radius multiplied by the Gnomon (or 12) and the equinoctial shadow (

separately) and divided by

tho equinoctial hypothenuso <19> gives the cosine and sino of the latitude (resp

ectively). Tho arcs of these sines aro tho co-latitude and tho latitude which ar

o always southf (at the given place from whose zenith the equinoctial circle is

inclined to the south). ,

<19> The eqninoctial hypothenuso is the hypotfcennse of the equinoctial

shadow found by taking the square-root of the sum of the squares of the equinoct

ial shadow and the Gnomon (or 12). B. D.

t The south latitudes of Sanskrit correspond to the north latitudes of the Euro

peans. B. 1).

Given the Gnomon s sh& 14 anti 15. The Bhuja of the sha-

dow f tke Gnomo 8t noon is the

of the place. same as the shadow itself. Multiply

tlio Radius by that huja and divide the product by the .hypo-thenuse of the Raid

shadow; tbo quotient will, bo the sine of the zenith distance: the zenithdistance

, found from that sine in minutes, is north or south according as /lie Buuja is

south or,north respectively (at a given place). Find the sum of the zenith dista

nco and the Suns declination in minutes when they are both of the samo name, but

when they are of contrary names, find the difference between them. This sum or d

ifference isjhe latitude in minutes (at the given place).

To find the equinoctial 16. Find the sine of the latitude, ahadow from the latit

ude. (just found); take the square of that

sine from that of the Radius; the square root of the remainder is the cosine of

the latitude. The sine of the latitude multiplied by 12 and divided by the cosin

e of the latitude gives the Palabha or tho equinoctial shadow.

Given tho latitude of the 17. Find the difference between the

distance at noon, tofind hia degrees of the latitude (at a given place) declinat

ion and longitude. and those of the Suns zenith distanco

at noon when they are both of tho same name, but when they are of contrary names

find the sum of them; tlio result will be , tho Suns declination: multiply its s

ino by tho Radius.

18. Divide tho product by the sine of tho Suns greatest declination (or 1397)

; find tho arc (in signs &c. whoso sine is equal to the quotient, just found); t

his arc will be tho longitude of the Sun when he is in the first quarter of the

Ecliptic: but when he is in the second or third quarter, subtract or add the sig

ns &c. (contained in tho arc^ from or to 6 signs; (the remainder or the sum will

be the longitude of tho Sun).

19. And when tho Sun is in the fourth quarter of tho Ecliptic subtract the s

igns Ac. (which compose the arc) from 12 signs; the remainder will be the true l

ongitude of the Sun at noon.

(To the longitude, just found, apply the amount of the precession of the equinox

es inversely for the Suns true place.)

To fin d the Sun s mean (In order to finjl the mean place of placp from his Jrue

place, the Sun from his true place above

found,) find the 1st equation from the true place of the Sun and apply it invers

ely tp the place repeatedly, tho result is the mean place of the Sun (that is, a

ssume the true place as his mean plqpc, find the Sun s first equation from it an

d add this equation to the true place if the equation be subtractive, but if it

be additive, subtract it from the true place; the result will bo somewhat nearer

to the exact mean pluce of the Sun at the givqn noon j assuming this result as

the Sun s mean place apply the said mode of calculation, and repeat the process

until you get the exact mean place of tho Sun).

Given the latitude of the 20. Find tho sum of the latitude of

ft u,efl2d1hbZith 8 Siren Place 8nd tlle Suns declination distance at noon.

when they arc of tho same name, but

when they are of contrary names find tho difference between them; the result wil

l bo. the zenith distance of the Sun (at , noon). Find the sino and cosine of th

e (found) zenith distance.

Gim, th. fW. .enilh ^ GUSt fonnd) 8d

distance at noon, to find tho _ Radius multiplied by the length of the shadow an

d its hypothenuse. n . v

Gnomon in digits (or by 12) and divided by the cosino (above found) give the sha

dow of the Gnomon and its hypothenuse (respectively) at noon.

Given the Suns decline- 22. The sine of the Suns declina-tion multiplied by tho eq

uinoctial hy. amplitude reduced. pothenuse and divided by 12 gives the

sine of the Sun s amplitude. This sino multiplied by the hypothenuse of the Gnom

onic shadow at noon, and divided .by the Radius, becomes the sine of amplitude r

educed to the shadows hypothenuse.

Given the equinoctial sha- 23. To this reduced sine of the Sons amplitude add the

equinoctial shadow; the sum will be the north Bbuja (of tho shadow at the given

time) when the Snn is

in the southern hemisphere, but when ho is in the northern hemisphere, take the

reduced sine of amplitude from the equinoctial shadow, and the Remainder will be

the zftrth Bhuja. ,

^4. In the latter case, when tho reduced sine of amplitude is greater than the e

quinoctial shadow, subtract this rfiadow from tho reduced sine; the remainder wi

ll bo the south Bhjjja between east and west line and the end of the shadow at t

ho given tgne. Every day the Biiuja at noon equals tho Gnomon s shadow at that t

ime.

25. Multiply tho cosine of the lati-theX. Mu .tofto fl"d tudo by the Equinoct

ial shadow or the

doV^MlhiTta"the sne ^lQ ktitado ^y 12; tho product Sun rachcs the Prime Verti- (

which is the samo in both cases) cut divided by the sine of the Sun s de-

clination gives tho hypothenuse of the gnomontc shadow at tho time when tho Sun

reaches tho prime vertical.

26. When tho (Sun s) north doclin-

tlOTW ation is less than the latitude, the

hypothenuse of tho shadow at noon multiplied by the equinoctial shadow and divid

ed by the reduced sino of amplitude at noon, gives the (same) hypothenusef (whic

h is found in the preceding S loka).

* This is shown thus,

Let latitude of tho place;

t = tho equinoctial shadow;

d tho sine of the Sun s declination;\

altitude

* = the hypothenuse of the shadow j) Then, sin 2: d = B : p; and B: = xt 12;

4

when the Sun readies the primo vertical.

V

12 sin 2 e cos l

x = a= (because cos 2: sin 2 =s 12: 2 and o. cos 2

d d 12 sin 2).

t This is proved thus.

Let h = the hypothenuse of tly shadow at noon; a = tho sine of amplitude reduced

to that hyp. a B

= the sine of amplitude in terms of tho radius.

27.. .The sineof the declination (of thq San) multiplied by the radiuB and divid

ed by the cosine of the latitude becomes the line of amplitude. Multiply this si

ne by the hypothenuso of the shadow at (a given time and divide the product by t

he radius: .the quantity obtained is the sine of amplituderin digits (reduced to

the hypothenuse of the shadow at the given time).

. ..... 28 and 29. Subtract the square of

Giren the equinoctial shadow and the Sun s ampli- tho Bine of amplitude from thf

l half of

wta<iLSSdinhthoTeS the a! of the radius; multiply

circle of which the azimuth jjie remainder bv 144 ; divide the distance is 45.

J

product by the half of the square of

the gnomon (i. e. 72) increased by the square of the equinoctial shadow. Let tho

namo of the result be tho Karan!. Let tho calculator write down this number (fo

r future reference).

30. Multiply twelve times the equinoctial shadow by the sine of amplitude and di

vide the product by the former divisor (i. e. 72 added to tho square of the equi

noctial shadow). Let the result be called tho Phala. Add the square of tho Karan

f to the Phala and take the square-root of tho sum.

31 and 32. The square-rooty (just found), diminished or increased by the Phala a

ccording as tho Sun is south or north of the equinoctial, bocomcs the Kona-sanku

or tho sine of

JQH

Then : p (the sine of the Sun s altitude when he is at tho prime vertical)

= oos 2: sin l = (equinoctial shadow) : 12j 12 a B

and .. p t R = 12: # (the h^pothenepe of the Sun s shadow when he reaches the pr

ime vertical):

12 B he he

t\ g = 12 B X - ss j supposing the Suns declination to

p 12 a B a undergo no ohange during tho

day.

This is demonstrated thus.

Let e = the equinoctial shadow, a = the sine of amplitude^ k s the Kaba /= the

Phala,

and m the Kova s avkv.

altitude of the Sun ^hen situated at an intermediate Vertical (intersecting the

Horizon at the N. E. and S. W. or N. W. and S. E. points). If the sun \)0 south

of the prime vertical, then the Kona-s anku will be south-eaBt or south-wept, bu

t if ha be north of it, then it will be north-east or north-west. The square-roo

t of $he difference between the square, of the Konas anku and that of the radius

, is called the Driojy^ or the sine of the zenith distance.

33. ^Multiply the (said) sine of the zenith distance and the radius by 12 and di

vide the products by the Kona-s anku (above found); the quotients will be the sh

adow (of the gnomon) and its hypothenuso (respectively, when the Sun will come o

n an intermediate vertical) at tho proper placo and time.

Then, 12: e = x : x = S attkutala (as Bhown in thf note on 7tli S loka) \

12

and since it !b manifest from tbe same note that the S auxtttala applied with th

e sine of amplitude by addition or subtraction according as the Sun is south or

north of the equinoctial, becomes BuUJA (i. e. the sine of tho Sun s distance fr

om the primo vertical), e

xa = Bhuja ;

12

hut when the Sun is N. E., N. W., S. E., or S. W., it is equidistant from tho pr

ime vertical and the meridian. Therefore the hypothenuso of a right-angled trian

gle, of which one side is tho Bhuja and the other equal to it, is the sine of th

e zenith distance.

e s a s

liyp.)8 = 2 ( )s dt + 2 s.

12 72 3

Now, sinee tlio square of (ho sine of tho zenith distance added to the square of

tho sine of the altitude is equal to the square of the radius,

0 a 0

** + i # -f 2 a = B;

72 8 \

or (0 -f 72) 24 a ex = 72 IP 144 a j

24 a 0 72 B 144 a1 144URa

x = = -

0-f-72 0 + 72 0+72

Now, in the foregoing equation it will be observed that the value of the side co

ntaining the known quantities is what has been already spoken of under the name

of Kabakf, and that tho half of the co-efficient of is what has been already spok

en of under the name of Phala,

*> 2/ = ,

which gives x = %/f^+k /. B. D.

v 2

Tt.Utitude of tk. phco Add or ubkract the of and< the Sunk declination the gqconQn

al difference to Or from being given, to find the Suns ,, ... ..

_ . .

altitude, Zenith distance &e. the radiuB according as the Sun is in

at given time from noon. the northern or southern hemisphere. The result is call

ed the AntyX. From the Aimri subtract the versed sine of the time from noon (red

uced to degrees); Multiply, the remainder by the cosine of the declination.

35 and 36. Divide the product, (thus found), by the radius j the quotient i

s called the chheda j the chheda multiplied by the cosine of latitude and divide

d by the radius becomes the S anku or the sine of the Suns altitude (at the given

time). Subtract the square of the S anku from that of the radius; the square ro

ot of the remainder is drjg-jyA or the sine of the zenith distance (at the given

time). (From the s anku and the drjg-jyA) find the shadow and its hypothenuse a

s mentioned before (in S loka 32).

Given the gnomonioal shadow and its hypothenuse, to find the time from noon.

Multiply the radius by the given shadow (of the gnomon) and divide the product b

y the shadows hypothenuse.

This will be manifest thus.

Lot i = latitude of the {dace north of the equator; <2 = the Sou s declination j

a = the ascensional difference, t the time from noon in degrees, and x = the Su

n s altitude.

.Then we havo the equation which is very common: cos A cos /. cos d + R. sin /.s

ind.

tan 2. tan d

(cos t g) cos /. cos d

B

(cos / sin a) cos / cos d

B

(B - sin a vers t) cos cos d

B B

i It is to be observed lien, that when the latitude of the place ia north, the a

m becomes plus or minus according as the declination is nortbor south. B. D.

37. The quotient jls the db}G-jt ; the sqnare-root of the square of the radin

s diminished by that of the drjg-jyX (just found), is the b anku : multiply i! b

y the radius and divide 4ho product by the cosine of latitude (of tho plac).

33 and 39. The result (thus found) is the chheda ; multiply the chheda by the ra

dius; divide the product by the posino of the declination. Subtract the quotient

from the AnttX and take tho remainder. From the versed sines (given in s lokas

2327 the second chapter) find the arc whose versed sine equals the remainder: Tho

minutes contained in the arc are the PrXnas in tho time before or after noon.

Given the latitude of the Multiply the cosine of ktitudo by

piece rad the reduced eine the given reduced sine of amplitude of amplitude, to

find the r

Buns declination and longi- and dmdo the product by the given

tude shadows hypothenuse (at a given

time).

40. The quotient, (thus found), is tho sine of the Suns declination; multiply

it by the radius and divide the product by the sine of the greatest declination

; find tho arc in signs, degrees, &c.; from this arc and that quarter of tho ecl

iptic in which tho Sun is situated at the given time the Suns longitude can be de

termined (as mentioned before in S lokas 18 and 19 of this Chapter).

m , ... ... 41. On any day place a vertical

the Gnomouio shadow end gnomon on an horizontal plane; mark rivolye8, tho end

of the shadow at three dif-

ferent times on the piano, and describe a circle passing through these points. T

hen the end of the shadow of that gnomon will revolve in the circumfcrerfce of t

his circle through that day.f

4 This Buie it the converse of th preceding one. B. D. f This Buie is refuted by

BhXbkabaciiahya. in his Go&ADiirirA, and he is right, because the end of the gn

omonical shadow revolves iu an hyperbola in the places between the afotie and an

tarctic circles. B. D. <

To> find th. rirtt .!. ,42- (In or4er to fid toe right

siona of tho fnt three eigne ascensions of the ends of the three of the Ecliptic

. first feigns of tho ecliptic i. e. Aries,

Taurus and Gemini, find tho declinations of the said ends) then multiply tho sin

es of one, two, and three sines by the cosine oi the greatest declination of the

Sun separately, and divide the products by the cosines of the declinations (abo

ve found), respectively: The quotients will bo the sines of the arcs; find tho a

rcs in minutes. (These arcs will bo the right ascensions of the ends of the thre

o first signs of the ecliptic).

To find tho rising periods 43. The number of minutes con. ofthosesignsatthoEquat

or. tained ^ ^ first right ascension

(abovo found), is the number of PrXnas which Aries takes ir its rising at Lanka

(or the equator); tlion take the first righl ascension from the second and the s

econd from the third; the remainders in rtiinutes will denote tho numbers of PrI

nas ir which Taurus and Gemini rise at the equator.

(The numbers of the Pranas, thus found, contained in the rising periods of Aries

, Taurus and Gemini at the equator are) 1670, 1795 and 1935 (respectively).

To find tlw tiring period <In order to find too rising poriods of thoso signs at

a given of the first three signs of the ccliptit plac0 # at a given place of N.

L., find al

first tho ascensional differences of the ends of the said signs at that place a

nd subtract the first ascensional difference fron tho second and tho second from

the third. Tho first ascen * Bional difference and these remainders are several

ly called tin Charakhanpas of the Bind signs for tho given place). Sub tract the

Charakhanpas (of th& first threo signs) for the given place from their rising p

eriods at the equator: tho remainder! will be the rising periods in PrXnas of th

e said signs at tin

To find the rising periods of the rest.

44. The rising periods of tho firs three signs of the ecliptic at thi Equator su

ccessivoly increased by their Charakhanpas give ii

S urya- Siddhanta. 39

a contrary order the rising periods of tho following three signs (i. e. Cancer

Leo and Vergo) . Tho risihgpeijods of tho first 6 signs, thus found, answer in a

n inverse order to those of ( the latter six Libra, &c. for the givon place.

a 45. From the Suns longitude as-

certained at tho given time, finfl the rising at a given time from BHUKTA and BH

OGYA times in PRANAS,

(in the following manner. Find tho sign in Tillich the Sun is and find tho Bhukt

a degrees or tho degrees which the Sun has passed and the Biioqya degrees or tho

se which ho has to pass). Multiply the numbers of tho Bhukta and Bhogta degrees

(separately) by tho rising period of tho said sign (at the given place) and divi

de the products by 30. (The first quotient is the Bhukta time in Pranas in which

tho Sun has passed the Bhukta degrees, and the latter is the Bhogya time in Pr^

as in which he has to pass the Biiqya degrees.)

4G and 47. From the given time in PrXnas (at the end of whichthe Horoscopo is to

be found) subtract tho Bhogya time in Pranas and tho rising periods of tho next

signs (to that in which tho Sun is, as long as you can, then at last, you will

find the sign, the rising period of which being greater than the remainder you w

ill not be able to subtract, and which is consequently called the as uddha sign

or the sign incapable of being subtracted, and its rising period tho asuddha ris

ing). Multiply the remainder thus found by 30 and divide the product by the asud

dha rising period: add the quotient, in degrees, to the preceding signs (to the

as uddha sign) reckoned. from Aries: (and to the sum apply tlge amount of the pr

ecession of the equinoxes by subtraction or addition according as it will be add

itive or subtractive): the result, (thus found), will be the place of the Horosc

ope at tho eastern horizon.

If the time at the end of which the Horoscope is to be found,

* Thus there are two processes for finding the Horoscope, one when the given tim

e is after sun-rise and the other when it is before sun-riso, and which are cons

equently called Kbaxa or direct and VyiJlkbama or indirect proasos respectively.

B. 1).

be given before sun-rise, then take the Bhukta time (above found) ancl the risi

ng periods of the preceding signs, to that , which is occupied by the Sun)1 in a

contrary order from the given time; multiply the remainder by 30 and divide the

product by the as uddha rising period; subtract the quotient, in degrees, from

the signs (reckoned from Aries to the as ud-dha sign inclusive); the remainder (

inversely applied with tlio amount of the precession of the equinoxes) will bo t

he place of the Horoscope at the eastern horizon.

To And fto oulmMng the in GHAflKAS,

point of the Ecliptic at the from noon, before or after, the Suns siren time from

noon. . , ,

place found at the givon timo, and

the rising periods of the signs ascertained for tho equator, find the arc, in si

gns, degreos, &c. (intercepted between tho Sun and the meridian at the given pla

ce) subtract or add tho signs &c. (just found} from or to the Suns place (accordi

ng as the given time is before or after noon); tho result will be the place of t

he culminating point of tho ecliptic (at the given time).

Giren the piece of the 49. (Of tho given place of the , Horoscope and tlmt of

tho Snn), find

eun-riae. the Bhogta time in PafgAS, of tho

left and the Bhukta time, in Pranas of the greater, add together these times and

tho rising periods of the intermediate signs (between those which are occupied

by the Sun anda tho Horoscope); and you will find the time (from sun-rise at tho

, end of which the given place of the Horoscope is just rising in the eastorn h

orizon). #

50. When the given place of tho Horoscope is less than that of the Sun, the

time (above found) will be before sun-rise, but when itis greater, the time will

bo after sun-rise.

And when the given place of the Horoscope is greater than that of the Sun increa

sed by 6 signb, the time found (as mentioned before) from the place of the Horos

cope and that of the Sun added to 6 signs will be after sun-set.

End of the third Chapter called the Trifrab na.

CHATTER IV.

On the J lclqws of the Afovil.

The diameter of tlio Sun and Muon in yujasab and their rectification.

1. Tlio diamoter of tlio Sims orb

is 6,500 yojanas and that Of tlio

9

Moons is 480 yojanas.

2 and 3. The diameters of tlio Sun and Moon multiplied by tliei^truo diurnal mot

ions and divided by (their) mouti diurnal motions bccomo tlio sphuta or rectifie

d diameters.

.. , Tlio rectified diumetcr of the Sun

To find the Sun s diameter t t

at the Moon and thdr dia- multiplied by his revolutions (in a meter, in minutM.

Kai.pa) and divided by the Moons

revolutions (in that cycle), or multiplied by the periphery of the Moons orbit an

d divided by that of tbo Sun, becomes the diameter of tlio Sun at the Moons orbit

.

The diameter of the Sun at tlio Moons orbit and the Moons rectified diameter divid

ed by 15, give tbo numbers of minutes contained in the diameters (of the discs o

f tlio Sun and the Moon respectively).

To find tlio diameter of tlio Eurths sliuiluw ut tlio Moon.

4 and 5. Multiply the true diurnal motion of the Moon by tho Earths diamete

r (or 1,600) and divide tho product by lior mean diurnal motion; tho quantity ob

tained is called the Stfeuf. Multiply tho difference between tlio Earths diameter

and the rectified diamoter of tbc Sun by the moan diameter of tho Moon (or 480)

and divide tho product by that. of the Sun (or 6,500); subtract tho quotient fr

om the Stfcuf the remainder will be tho diameter (in yojanas) of tho Earths shado

w (at the moon); reduce it to minutes as mentioned before (i, e. by dividing it

by 15).

To find the probable times Tte Earths shadow (ajways)

of the occurrence of eclipse. remains at the distance of 6 signs from

the Sun. When the placo of tho Moons ascending node equals tho place of the shado

w or that of the Sun, there will be ail

eclipse (lunar or solar). Or when that node is beyond or within the .place of th

e shadow or that of tho Sun, 6y some degrees, thesame thing will tuke place:

7. The places of tho Sun and the Moon found at the time of the new moon are

equal (to each other) in signs, (degrees) &c. afyd at the instant of the full m

oon they are at the distance of r6 signs from each other.

To red.ee the place, of 8- (Find the changes of the places of

the Sun, the Moon and her the Sun, the Moon and her apeonding ascending node ae

given at .. . .

mid-night to the instant of node in the instant from midnight to

the ayeygy. the instant of the syzygy as men-

tioned in s loka 67th of 1st Chapter). To the places of the Sun and tho Moon (as

found at the midnight) apply by subtraction or addition their changes according

as the instant of the syzygy is before or after midnight: the results are calle

d the sama-kala places of the Sun and the Moon: But increase the place of the no

de (at midnight) by its change, if the instant of the syzygy be before midnight,

or diminish it if it be after midnight.

What covers the Sun and .9. The Moon being like a cloud in the Moon in their ecl

ipee& alower 8phere ^ Sun (jn a

solar eclipse); but in a lunar ono the Moon moving eastward enters the Earth s s

hadow and (therefore) the shadow obscures her disc.

To find the magnitude of 10. Take the Moon s latitude (at ^P88, the time of syzy

gy) from half tho sura

of the diameter of that which is to be covered and that of the coverer (in a lun

ar or isolar eclipse); the remainder is the greatest quantity of the eclipsed pa

rt of the disc.

To asoertain the occurrence of a total, partial or no

11. If this quantity should be greater than the diameter of the disc which i

s to be eclipsed, the eclipse will be a total one, otherwise it will be partial.

But if thr Moons latitude be greater than half the sum (mentioned in the precedi

ng S loka) there cannot bo an eolipse,

T. lad half deration 12 ^ ^ ,mlvC.a of

of the eelipse ami that of the the sum and difference of the diameter total dark

ness. of that which is to be covered and ,

that which is thq coverer. Subtract the square of the (Moon s) latitude (as foun

d at the time of the syzygy) severally from the squares of the half sum and the

half difference and take the square-roots of the results.

13. These roots multiplied by 60 and divided by the diurnal^notion of the Moon f

rom the Sun give tho Sthityardua the half duration of the Eclipse and mardIudiia

tho half duration of the total darkness in ghatikas (respectively)-

To find the exart Sthitt- 14 and 15. The diurnal motions (of abdiu and hakdabdha

. the Sun, the Moon and her asconding

node) multiplied by the SthAyardha (above found) in oitati-kXs and divided by 60

give their changes in minutes. Then to find the first exact Sthityardua, subtra

ct tho changes of the Sun and tho Moon from their places and add tho node s chan

ge to its place; from these applied places find the Mooil b latitude and tho Sth

ityardha. This Stiiitvardiia will be somewhat nearer the exact one, from this fi

nd the changes and apply tho same mode of calculation (as mentioned before) and

repoat tho process until you get the same Stiiityardha in every repetition. This

Sthityardua will be the exact first Sthityakdha. But to find the latter Sthitya

kdha add tho changes of the Sun and Moon to thoir places and subtract tho node s

change from its place; from these applied places find tho Moousl latitude and th

e Sthityardua again and repeat tho same process until the exact latter Sthitwakd

ha be found. In tho same manner determine the first and second exact makdIrdhas

by repeated calculations.

To find tho timoo of tho 16. At the end of tho true lunar ph of day (i. e. at th

e time of the fall moon)

the middle of the eclipse takes place; this time diminished by the exact first S

thityabdha leaves the time of the beginning/ o 2

44 Translation of the 1

and jn croascd by tlio lattor exact Sthityardha gives the time of the end.

W. In the samo manner, the time of tho middle of a total eclipse diminished, and

increased (separately) Jby the exact first and second mardXkdhas gives the time

s of tho beginning and end of tho total darkness (respectively). ,

To find the Koti or tho 18. Multiply the diurnal motion of tiXl.ro? tl.o Moon fr

om tho. Sou hy tho (firat) eclipse to a given time. Sthityardha diminished by gi

ven onAfiK^s and divide the product by 00, tho quotient is the Ko-pf in minntes

(or tho perpendicular of tho right angled triangle of which tho Moons latitndo is

tho base and tho distance between the centres of that which is the covcror and

that which is to bo covered is tho hypothennsc).

19. In an eclipse of the Sun, the Koti in minutes (above found,) multipli&l by t

ho mean Sthityardha and divided by tho apparent Sthityardha becomes tho Smiuta o

r apparent Koti in minntes.

To And the quantity or the 20. The Moons latitude is tho

sacr rw firA b ( bft9) n^-root

aeliitM. of the sum of tho squares of the Koti

and Bhuja is the hypothenusc (of tho tSanglo as mentioned before in Sloka 18th).

Subtract the liypothenuse from half tho sum of tho diameters (as stated in S lok

a 10th) \ the remainder will be the quantity of tho eclipsed part (of tho disc)

at the time (at which tho Koti and Bhuja aro ascertained).

To find the quantity of the 21. If it be required to know tho KoTi Ac. at a give

n time after the middle" of the eclipse, subtract the Ghatikas (between the give

n time and the end of tho eclipse) from the second Sthityardha ; from the remain

der find tho Koti &o. as mentioned before. Tho obscured part found from the seco

nd Sthityardha is the portion of the disc yet in obscurity.

. The mean and apparent btuityarduas will be explained in the next chapter. B.

D. f

Giron tho quantity of the 22 anil 23. Subtract the minutes eclipsed part, to Ml

its . ,

corresponding time. contained m tho given eckpscd part

from half the snm of tho diameter of that which is coveted and that which isthe c

overor; from tho square of tho remainder "subtract tho square of tho Moons latitu

do at that time. Tho square-root of tl\e remainder is the Koji in minutes (in th

e lunar eclipse). But in tho solar one tho remainder (tlws found) multiplied by

the apparent Stiiityabdha and divided by tho mcaff Sthityardha gives tho Kofi in

minutes. From tho Koti find tho timo in Ghatikas in tho same way that you found

tho Sthityardha (from the square-root as mentioned in Sloka 13). At this timo (

before or after the middle of tho eclipse,) the quantity of the eclipsed part is

equal to the given one.

To find tho Vatanas used 24., Find the zenith distance (in tin) projection ofecl

ip. ^ ^ of ^ body wllit.u

is to be eclipsed), multiply its sine by the sino of the latitudo of tho place,

and divide the product by the radius. Find the arc whose sine is equal to tho qu

otient; tho degrees contained in this are called the degrees of the (A ksua or t

ho latitudinal) valana : they aro north or south according as tho body is in tho

eastern or western hemisphere of the placo.

25. From tho place of the (said) body increased by 3 signs find the declinat

ion, (which is called Ayana or solstitial valana). Find tho sum or difference of

the degrees of this declination and those of the latitudinal valana, wheu those

valanas aro of tho same name or of contrary names: (tho result is called sphu|a

or true valanX). The sino of tho true valanX divided by 70 gives the valana in

digits.f

* The distance of the oirclo of position (passing through the body) from the zen

ith of the placo is called tho zenith distanco in the prime vertical of the body

. Tho rough amount of this can bo easily found by the following simple proportio

n.

As half tho length of the day of the body

:: the time from noon of the body at a given time

: the zenith distance in the prime vertical at the given time. B, D.

t In the projection of eclipses, alter drawing tho disc of tho body to be t ecli

psed, the north end south und the cast and west lines, which lines will of

Tcf find 11)0 akqulab or digits contained in the Afogns latitude, diameter, eclip

sed part, Ac. at a given time during an eclipse.

20. Find tho length of the day (of the body which is to be eclipsed as mentioned

in b lokas 02 and 03 of the second Chapter): to this length add

its half and the unnata time (or the half length diminished by

#

course represent the circlo of position passing through the body (supposed on th

o ecliptic) and the secondary to that circle at the given place, to find the dir

ection of the lino representing tho ooliptio in the disc of tho body on which th

e know ledge of the exact directions of the phases of tho eclipses depends, it i

s necessary to know tho angle formed by the said secondary andlhe ecliptic, This

angle or that arc of a great circle, 90 from tho place of the body which is inte

rcepted bo tween the said secondary or the prime vortical and tho ecliptic is ca

lled the yalaha or variation (of tho ecliptic). And as it is very difficult to f

ind this arc at once, it is divided into twu parts of which the one is that port

ion of tho great circle (90 from the place of the body) which is intercepted betw

een tho Prime vertical and the Equinoctial and the other is that portion of tiio

same circlo which is intercepted between the Equinoctial and tho ocliptio; thes

e two portions are called the Akbha yalaha and tho Ayana-valana respectively. Th

e A ksha yalaha is called the north or Boulh according bb tho Equinoctial circlo

meets the great circle (90 from the place of the body) on tho north or south of

tho prime vertical eastward of tho body; and it is evident from this that on th

o northern latitudes when the body is in the eastern or western hemisphere the A

kbiu yalaha will be the north or south respectively. And the Ayana-yalanau calle

d the north or south accord ing as tho ecliptic meets the suid great circle on t

he north or south of tho Equinoctial to the east of the body, and hence it is ev

ident that when tho declination of llie bodys place increased by 3 signs is nortf

i or Bouth the Ayana-Valaha will be tho north or south respectively. From the su

m of theso Yalahas when thoy are of the same namo or from the difference botween

them when of contrary names tho arc which is intercepted between tho prime vert

ical and the ecliptic found and hence \t will be north or south according as the

ecliptio meets the said great circle on the north or south of the primo vertica

l eastward of the body and it is sometimes callod the sfasuta or rectified YALAH

A.

Let A be the place of the body; B 0- O L the groat circle 90 from it; B A O tho

ecliptic ;D E F tho Equinoctial; E tho Equiuoctial point; G il L tho prime verti

cal; H the intersecting point of the primo vertical and the Equinoctial, and hon

co the east or west point of the llori t son and therefore G 11 equivalent to th

e f senith distanoo in the prime vertical. i Then the are G D tho Asbqa]

YALAHA,

I) B = the Ayaha.YALAHA, and G B = the biABhta or rectified \

YALSNA.

These arcs can be found as follows,

Let L = latitude of the place,

= tho senith distance in the prime vertical,

l = the longitude of the body,

= the obliquity of the ecliptic, d = tho declination of the body,

X = tlie Aisha yalaha,

tlio given time from the midday of tlio body) j and by the quotient divide the M

oons latitude, diameter &c. iii minutes; the results are the digits contained in

the latitude &c.

(End of the fourth Chapter.)P

y the Ayana-yalava, and z tlio rectified valana.

Then in the spherical triangle D HG

sin G DII i sin D IT G ~ sin G H : sin G D: here, Ai G D H = sin B1) IS = cos d,

sin D H G = sin Lj and sin G H = sin ^ cos d: sin L = sin : sin x,

sin L. sin

sin a? or the sine of the Aksha VAUNA = in which the Radius

is used for cos d in the text cos d

This valana is called north or south according as the point D bo north or south

of the point G.

And in the triangle DEB 1

Bin B D E; sin B E D = sin B E; sin D B, or cos d: sin e = cos l: sin y

sin z X cos l

sin y or the sine of the Ayana VALANA - in whicli the

cos d

Badius is used for cos d in the tost.

This valana is called north or south j according as the point B bo north or sout

h of the point D.

And the rectified yalava GB = GD+DB, when the point D lies between the points G

and B, but if the point D be beyond them, the rectified valana will be equal to

the difference between the Aksha and Ayana valanas. This also is called north or

south as the point B bo nortli or south of the point G.

To mark the sino of the bpasuta valana in the projection of the eclipse it is re

duced to the circle whose radius is 4!) digits in the text.

L o, R: sin z = 49: reduced sine of the valana :

49 sin s 49 sin z sin

reduced Bine of the valana = =

R 3138 70

This roduced sine in digits is denominated the yalanA in the text. B. D,

CHATTER V.

On the Eclipses of the Suti.

When (ho jrtt. in h ThoPe n0 Pra,laX in hnP-longitudeand thut in latitude tll(lo

of the Sun when llis place equals

is noilung. the place of tho nonagcsimal. And

when the (north) latitude (of the place) and the north declination of the nonnge

simal aro equal to each other (i. o. when the nonagcsimal coincides with the ze

nith) there will be no parallax in latitude.

2. Now I will explain tho rules for finding tho parallax in latitude which

takes place when tho connection of the placo and timo is different from that whi

ch is mentioned (in tho procoding S loka,) and tho parallax in longitude which a

rises when the Sun is east or west (of tho nonagcsimal).

To find the Bine Sf ampli- s- At the end of tho time of con-tude of the horoBcop

e. junction (from sunrise) in oiiatjkAs find the placo of the horoscope through

tho rising periods at a given place (and apply it with the amount of tho precess

ion of the equinoxes.) Its siue multiplied by tho sino of greatest declination (

or sin 2 Is) and divided by the cosine of latitude gives a quantity called tho u

daya (or the sino of amplitude of the horoscope).

To find the sino of the 4. Then find the place of tho cul-of tta ed minatiug poin

t of the ecliptic through tio the rising periods at the equator os

mentioned before, and find the sum of the declination of tho culminating point a

nd the latitude of the placo when they aro of the same name, otherwise find tho

difference between them.

5. The result (thus found) is tho zenith-distance of tho culminating point

of the ecliptic. Tho sine of this zenith-distance is called tho Maduyajya or the

middle sino.

_ - , . , Multiply tho Madhyajya by the

To find the sine und co- 1 J J

sine of tho senith-distaiioo UDAYA (above found,) divide the proof the nonagoBiu

ial. duct by the radius and square tho

quotient.

6. Subtract tl^o square from the MadhyajyA : the squarc-root of the remaind

er is ( nearly equal to) the drikshkiA or the sine of the zenith-distance of the

lionagesiraal (or tlio Brno of the latitude of the zenith). The square-root of t

he difference between the squares of the drikshepa and the radius is the S anku

or the.sino of the altitude of the nonagesimal, This sine is called the drjgqati

.

7. (Or) the sine and cosine of tho

Otherwise. . ,

zenith-distance (of the culminating

point of the Ecliptic,) aro the rough DB|K8HErA and drjggati

(respectively.)

To find tho Moons pml- DiTidi tLe Sqa8re f tll ain f hx iu longitude from tho one sign

(or 30) by the driggati Sun reduced to quatikas. { . - . . . , .

,

(abov,o found,) tlio quantity obtained

is called the ohiieda or the divisor.

S. The sine of tlio difference between tho place of tho Sun and tho nonages

imal divided by tho chheda gives tho Moons parallax in longitude from tlio Sun re

duced to (s&vana) Giia-Tika s, whether the Sun bo oast or west (of tho nonagosim

al.f)

* For, the square-root of tho remaindor multiplied by the radius and divided by

the cosine of the ecllptical part intoroepted between the nonagesimal and tho cu

lminating point beoomes tlio exact duiksiixi A or the sine of tho latitude of th

e Zeuith. J3. D.

t All Hindu astronomers suppose that every planet daily traverses 12000 TOJANA8

nearly in its orbit and as the part of a planet s orbit intercepted botweou tho

sensible and rational horizon is equal to the earth s soini-diumoter (or 800 voj

avab which s= -fb th of 12000) tlioreforo, the extremo or horizontal parallux nf

u planet is thought to be equal to part of its diurnal motion : thus the Moon s

horizontal parallax is 52 42" nearly and the Sun s 3 .. 50" and liouce tlio ho

rizontal parallax of the Moon from the Sun is (52 .. 42") (3 ..56") = 48 ..46 .

And four Guxyixia in which tho Moon describes 48 ..46" firoui tlio Sun is the h

orizontal parallax in time.

How, let

l = the latitude of a planet (the Bun or Moon), d the difference betweon the pla

ces of the planet and the nonsgosimal, a = the altitude of the nonagesunal, p =s

the horizontal parallax, x the parallax in longitude, y tho parallax in latitud

e..

Then we have the equation,

sin a. sin (d + x)

.... . -( A#)

which is common in astronomy.

H

Tp llnd the accurate paral . Snbtract tt.ej.arel], in time lax, and tho apparent t

ime (just found) from tho end of the true of oonjunction. time of conjunct

ion if the place of the

Sun be beyond that of the nonagesimal; but if it be within, add tho parallax. At

this applied time of conjunction find again tho parallax in time and with, it

apply the end of the true time of conjunction and repeat the same process of cal

culation until you have the same parallax and the applied time of conjunction in

every repetition. (The parallax lastly found is the exact parallax in time and

the time of the conjuuc tion is the middle of the solar eclipse.)

To find the Moon s parol- 10. Multiply the DRIES HE PA (or the lax in latitude f

rom the Sun. gjn0 0f tho zenith-distance of tho

nonagesimal) by tho mean diurnal motion of tho Moon from the Sun, and divide the

product by fifteen times the radiusi the quotient is tho parallax in latitude o

f the Moon from tho Sun.

Otherwise.

11. Dividing the drikshbpa by 70, tho quotient is the same amount of paralla

x (found in the preceding S loka) or multiplying tho DKfKsHEPA by 77 and1 dividi

ng by the radius (i. e. 8488), the quotient is the same.

To find the apparent lati- 12. The amount of the parallax in tude of the Moon.

latitude (just found) is south or north

according as tho nonagesimal is south or north (of the zenith). Add this amount

to the Moon s latitudo if they are of the same

sin a. sin d

rT

In this, if we take for convenience s sake sin d for sin (d x) and R. for is (2

y) on account of the smallness of y and l in au eclipse, then we hare

w p -

Row, it is evident that if p be assumed, the horizontal parallax of the Moon fro

m the Sun in time (or /> = 4 GtHAfiKAS) x will bo the Moon s parallax in longitu

de from the Sun, and thon .

4 sin a sin d sin <2 sin d

R

(R>) chkeda.

B.D.

name, but if of contrary names, subtract it. (Tbc result is the apparent latitud

e of tlie Moon). (

13. (In the solar eclipse) tlfrough tho apparent latitude of the Moon (just,

found) find tho sthityajjdiia mardakdiia magnitude of the eclipse &c. as mention

ed before : the vai,anX, the eclipsed portion a of the disc at any assigned tint

f) Ac. are found by the rulo mentioned in the Chapter on tho lh^ar eclipses.

To find the apparent bthn H 16, 10 and 17. Find tho pa-

TYAKDHA3 and habuabdhas rallaxes in longitude (converted into in solur eolipsos.

time) by repeated calculation at the

beginning of the eclipse found by subtracting tho first nthity-ardha (just fouud

) from tho time of conjunction, and at the end found by adding the second stuity

ardiia. If the Sun ho cast of the nonagcsimal and tho parallax at the beginning

be greater and that at tho end be less than tliS parallax at tho middle, or if t

he Sun bo west, and the parallax at the beginning bo less and that at the cud be

greater than the parallax at the middle, add the difference between tbo paralla

xes at tho beginning and the middle, or at the end and tho middle to the first o

r the second stiiityardtta (above found): otherwise subtract the " difference. I

t is then when tho Sun is east or wost of the nonagcsimal at tho times both of t

he beginning and the middle or of the middle and tho end, otherwise add the sum

of the parallaxes (at the time of the beginning and middle or of the end and the

middle) to the first or the second bthityardha (Thus you have tho apparent sthi

tyarduas and from these the times of the beginning and the end of tho eclipses o

f tho Sun.)

In tho same manner, find th6 apparent mardardiias (and the times of the beginnin

g and end of tho total darkness in the total eclipses of the Sun).

End of the fifth Chapter.

* This STBITYARDHA is called the mean btsityabdba in the solar eclipse. B.D.

CHAPTER VI.

On the Projection of Solar and Lunar Eclipses.

, 1. Sinco tho phases of the lunar

0^ept and solar Eclipses cannot bo exactly

un&erstood without their projection, I therefore explain tho excellent knowledge

of tho projection. r

marked.

To dneribe tho eirola in - Having marked at first a point which tho TaluuS ia to

be on the floor levelled with water, describe, on tho point as centre with 49

digits as radius, a circle in which the valanX (as found in tho fourth Chapter)

is to bo marked.

other two circles concen- 3. (On the same ccntro,) describe tno with the first.

f a geconj cii-clo named tho samAha with

the radius equal to half tho sum of the diameters of that which is to be covered

and that which is the covcror, ami a third circle with tho radius equal to the

semi-diameter of that which is to bo covered.

4. (In these circles determine tho north and south, and tho oast and west lines

as mentioned before (in tho 3rd

The directions of tho bo-winning and end of tho lunar and solar eclipses.

Chapter).

In a lunar eclipso, the obscuration first begins to the east and it ends to the

west, (but) in a solar one tho reverse of this .takes place. (Therefore in the p

rojection of the lunar eclipse, the valanA is to bo marked os sino to tho easter

n or western side of the outer circle above described according as it is found a

t the beginning or end of the eclipso, but in tho projection of the solar eclips

e, tho valanA found at tho beginning or the end of the eclipse is to be marked <

to the western or eastorn side of the circle respectively.)

* It is evident that these lines will represent the circle of position, and the

secondary to it passes through the body which is to be eclipsed. JB. 1).

t

To mark tho vala# in In a ,nnap eclipse mark tho

tlio first circle. valanA (as directed in tln\ preceding

S loka) to the eastern side of thtf outer circle from the east and west line to

its north or south according as the valana is north * or south, when it is found

at tho beginning of the eclipse; but when it is found at the end of the eclipse

, mark it to the Western side of the outer circle from tho cast and wost lino t^

jie south or north according as the valana is north or south. And in a sola ecli

pse mark the valana inversely (i. o. mark it at tlio beginning or end of the ecl

ipse to tho western or eastern side of tho outer circle respectively in the same

manner as mention-ed before).

6. From the end of tho valana (ns found at the ^nilhlg^nd drown before) dra

w a lino to tho centra, ond of the eclipse m tin From this line draw another lin

o (per-

pcndicular to the foriher and) as the sine in the circle called tho SAMASA, equa

l to tho Moon s latituilo found at tho beginning or end of tho eclipse, (to tho

north or south of tho former line according as tho lntitudo is north or south).

7. Again, draw a lino from tho end a

" of tllc latitudo (as drawn boforc) * eclipse m the disc of tho the centre. Then t

ho point, whore tho body which is to bo corned. . , ,

body which is to be covered begins to bo

obscured or quits tho obscuration, is the same where tho line drawn before cuts

tho circle representing the disc of the body which is to be covered.

m v 8 and 9. In tho projection of

To determine the direc- . \ p

tions of tho latitudes of the the solar eclipse, the latitudes of tho Moon in th

o projections. . j . i . i

r J Moon are always designated by their

normal name, but in the projection of tho lunar one they are designated reversel

y. ,

To mark the talanA at And in the lunar projection to tho the middle of the eclip

se. northern or southern side of the outer # circle above described, according a

s the latitude of tho Moon

<

found at tho middle of tlio eclipse is considered north or south, mark the (vala

nX determined at the middle of the eclipse from the north and south line to its c

ast, when the valana and the latitude are of the sumo name; but when they are of

different names, mark tho valana to the west of the north and south line. r And

in the solar projection the reverse of this takes piaffe.

To find tho magnitude of 10. From the end of the valana the eclipse. (just ma

rked) draw a line to tho centre.

On this lino mark tho latitude (found at tho middle of the eclipse) from tho cen

tre towards (the end of) the valana.

11. With the end of tho latitude (just marked) as a centre, and the radius e

qual to tho semi-diameter of the coveror, describe a circle. The part of the thi

rd circle (as described beforo with tho radius equal to the semi-diameter of tha

t which is to be eclipsed) coiitained in the circle nbovo described will bo ecli

psed.

12. In tho projection (of tho lunar or solar eclipse) described on tho floor

or board, reverse the positions of the points of the eastern and western halves

of the horizon.

The limit of the magni- 13. To the 12th port of tllO Moon s

srsdiscthe rtion is ,e

lar or lunar eclipse. on account of the brightness of tho

Moon s disc; and owing to tho dazzling flash of tho Sun s disc its eclipsed part

when not exceeding 3 minutes, is not visible.

To End tho p.th of tl U> 15 and 1G Cal1 th0 Pinta coveror. at the ends of tho latit

ude (found at

the beginning, middle and the end) (as marked before,) tho first, the middle, an

d the last points respectively, describe tho tdiis between the first and middle

points and the middle and the last and draw two lines through these two timis ;

with the intersecting point of these two lines as a centre, describe such an arc

as will pass through the three points. This arc will be the path of the cover

or through which it will move.

t

Sunja-SiJdluhUa.

To project agiwneeiipsed 17 18 9. [When you want

portion. to project the eclipsed portion, tlio

magnitude of which is given af tho time before or after tho middle of the eclips

e] subtract the given portion (in digits) as found before from half the sum of t

he coveror and that which is to be covered. From tho centre (of the three sjrcle

s as described before) draw a line equal to the remainder towards tho direction

of the beginning or end of tho edipso according ns the given time is before or-a

fter the middle, in such a manner that the end of that line may be on the path o

f the covcror: then with the end of that lino as a centre, at tho distanco equal

to the semi-diameter of the covcror, describe a circlo: then that portion of th

e third circle which falls within the circle (above described) frill bo obscured

. t

20 and 21. From the centre of tho three circles, towards \ho direction of tho be

ginning of tho eclipse, draw a lino equal to half tho difference between the dia

meters (of the coveror and that which is to be covered) in such a manner that it

s end fall on the coverors path. About the end of that lino describe a circle wit

h an extent equal to tho semi-diameter of the coveror. Then you will find the di

rection of tho beginning of total darkness where tho third circle touches intern

ally tho circle above described.

To find the direotion of tho beginning of total darkness by tho projection.

To find tho direction of the end of the total dark-

22. In the same way draw tho said line towards the end of the eclipse and de

scribo a circle as above. Then you will find tho direction of the end of total d

arkness just as mentioned before.

The colour of the eclipsed 23. When the eclipsed portion of portion of the Moon.

the Moons disc is less than the half, it

appears of a smoky colour, when it is greater than the half, it appears of a bla

ck colour: and whon the Moons eclipsed portion is greater than Jtlis of the whole

it appears of a dusky, copper hue, and in a total eclipse it appears of a tawny

hue.

This scbmrai ia nry Kent. ( Mayft) 4 SoienCP> Secrct

t even to tho Gods, is not to be given

to Any body, but to tho well-examined pupil who has attended one whole year. f

End of tho sixth Chapter.

CHAPTER VII.

On the conjunction of the viands,

1. The conjunction of tho five mi-

Einds of conjunction. n01. planets is considered their fight

or association with each other (according to their light and position as will ho

explained afterwards): but their conjunction with the Moon, is considered their

association with her and with the Suu is their astamana disappearance.

To And M. the too 2 1ho injunction of two planets, of conjunction is put or both

moving eastward, is past when the place of tho quick moving planet is beyond tha

t of the slow-moving ono, otherwise (i. e. when tho place of tho quick-moving pl

anet is within that of the slow-moving) their conjunction is future. But when bo

th the planets have retrograde motions, tho reverso of this takes place.

3. When, of tho two planots, (only) one is moving east-, ward and its place

is beyond that of the othor (which move to tho west) their conjunction1 is past

: but when tho place of the rotrogrado is beyond that of the other (i. e. tho ca

st-moving) tho conjunction is future.

To find the timo of con- (iV lion you want to know tho exact

junction from a given time. timo 0f conjunction of two planets,

find their true places at any given time near the timo of conjunction :) (tlion)

multiply the difference in minutos between

the places (above found) by the diurnal motions of the planets in minutes (separ

ately), ,

4. And divide the two prodilcts by the difference between tho diurnal motio

ns, when the motions of the^ planets are both direct or both retrograde; but whe

n of tho planets one is retrograde, divide the, two products (above found) by th

e sum of the diurnal motions: (the results are tho changes ofnhe planets.)

5. From tho places of those two planets (found at tho given timo) subtract

their changes when the conjunction is past, but when it is future add the change

s to the places. (This rule applies when the planets move oastward,) but when th

ey retrograde, tho reverse of this takes place. When one of tho two planets is r

etrograde, add or subtract its change to or from its place (according as the con

junction is past or future).

G. Thus tho places of tho planets on tho Ecliptic applied with their changes bec

ome equal (to each other): divido tho difference between the places of tho plane

ts (found at tho given timo) by tho divisor which is taken beforo in finding the

ir changes, the quotient will be the interval in days, GitatikAs &c (between tho

given timo and the timo of conjunction). .

7. Having found tho lengths of tho day and night of the places of the planets (f

ound at tho time of conjunction) and their latitudes in minutes, (determine for

that timo), the time from noon (i. e. from tho time when tho planets place comes

to the meridian) and that from rising or setting of tho place bof each of tho tw

o planets with the horoscope (at that timo r according as the planets place is ca

st or west of the meridian of tho place).

The correction called the 3. Multiply the latitude of the Aksha dbixkabka.

planet by the equinoctial shadow and

divide the product by 12; Jhe quantity obtained being multiplied by the time in

Ghatikas from noon of the planets place

* Tho time can bo found by the Buie mentioned in S loka 49th of the 3rd Chapter.

B. D.

H

and divided by# half the length of the day of etl\e planets place (as found befor

e), gives the correction called the Xksha dbjk-KAfcVA.

9. Subtract the correction from the planets plnco when it is cast of the meridian

, and add when it is west: this holds whep the latitude of the planet is north,

but when it is south nja the correction to the planets place when it is cast of t

he moridian and subtract when it is west.

The correction called the 10. Add 3 signs to the planets Ayaha Brahma placo an

d find tho declination from the

Bum. Then tho number of minutes contained in the planets latitude multiplied by t

he number of degrees contained in the declination (abovo found) gives the correc

tion in seconds (called tho Ayana drjkkarma). Add or subtract this correction (t

o or from the place of tho planet) according as tho declination (above found) hu

d the planots latitude are of the same name or of different names.

The um of the ]inu- . In findinS th timCS of

MA in finding the conjujic- junctions of the stars and planets and

those of rising and setting of tho planets and in finding the phases of the Moon

, this drjkkarma correction must be applied (to the place of the planet) at firs

t.

To find the di.tn.ee of ,2 l"8 aPP 7 tto two PO^Ons

two planets ill the snmo cir- of the pRJKKABMA correction above cle of position.

found, to the equal places of tho two

planets as found in 6th s loka of this Chapter, and from these places applied, f

ind tho apparent time of conjunction by the Buie as mentioned in the s lokas 2nd

to 6th: and repeat tho operation until you get tho time at which the places of

tho two

* DfiJKKABlCA is the correction requisite to be applied to the place of a planet

, for finding the point of the ecliptic on the circle of position which passes t

hrough the planet. This correction is to bo applied to tiie placo of tho planet

by means of its two portions, one called the yana drikkaRMa and the other the Amh

a dkikkauca. The place of a planet with the Ayava db;kkarma applied, gives the p

oint of the ecliptic on the hour circle which passes through the placet: and thi

s corrected place of the planet again, with the Akbha dbik-, karma applied, give

s the point of the ecliptic on the circle of position which passes through the p

lanet. B. D.

planets with the two portions of the dujkkabma applied become equal to each othe

r. This time is the exact apparent time of conjunction of those two planetk.) Fi

nd again the places of , the planets (at the time of their exact apparent time)

and their latitudes from them: then find the difference between the latitudes wh

en they are of the same name and the sum when they are of different names; the r

esult will bo the north and s^tli distance (between those two planets at that ti

me).

Tlio apparent diamoton of 13. Tlio diameters of Mars, Sa-

tho planets m mmutos. turn, Mercury, Jupiter and Venus reduced to the Moons orbit

are 30, 37J, 45, 52} & 60 (yojanas respectively).

14. These diameters multiplied by 2 and tlio radius and divided by the sum o

f the radius and the hypothonuso found in tho fourth operation (as mentioned in

the 2nd Chapter) become their rectified diameters. Divide thesePrectified diamet

ers by 15, the quotients are the minutes contained in tho apparent diametors of

tho planets. a

15. On tlio levelled floor (placo a

Obaervation of the planet.. &) ^ tho shadow (fonnd

at any assigned time from the bottom of the gnomon) to the opposite side of the

planet: then show the planet in the mirror placed at the end of tho shadow (jus

t marked): tho planet will be seen in the direction passing through the end of t

he shadow and tho reflected end of the gnomon.

16. (When, at the time of conjunction of two planots, they will be above the

horizon) erect two styles, five cubits long, one cubit buried in the ground, in

the north and south line, at the distance equal to tliat of tho two planets (as

found in the 12th s loka of this Chapter, (reduced to digits by tho Rule as men

tioned in sloka 26th of the 4th Chapter).

17. Mark the shadows from the bottoms of the styles (as

mentioned in sloxa 15th) and draw lines from the ends of tho shadows to those of

the styles: then the astronomer may show the planets in the lines (above drawn)

.

H 2

18. (Thus) the planets will be seen in Jlic heaven at the ends of the styles

.

rftjo fight and aMociation In the conjunction of any two minor of the planets.

^ planets, there is their fight called the Ullekha (paring) when their discs onl

y touch each other: but when the discs cross each other, the fight is called the

Bhkda (braking).

19. When in the conjunction, the rays of the two planets mix with each other

, it is their fight, called the ans uvi-harda (the mixture of the rays).

When in the conjunction of the two planets, their distance (found in sloka 12th)

is less than one degree, it is their fight callod the apasavya (the contrary) if

one of the two planets bo smaller; (otherwise the fight is not distinct).

20. (In the conjunction) when the distance of the planets is greater thafc o

ne degree, it is their association, if the discs of the planets are both largo a

nd bright; (otherwise the association is indistinct).

In the fight called afasavya that planet is conquered which is obscure,

Whiah planet is conquered in the flglit.

small and gloomy.

21. And that planet is overcome which is rough, discoloured or south (of the

other).

., . , And that is the conqueror of which

Which u the conqneror. . . . _ ,

the disc is the brighter and larger,

whether it be north or south (of the other).

Kind..fight. - K ( toe conjunction) the

planets both be very near to each other and bright, then their fight is called t

he samXgama : If both the planets be small or overpowered, thon the fight is cal

led the Ktfya or vigraha (respectively).

29. (In the fight of Venus with any other minor planet,) Venus is usually the co

nqueror whether she bo north or south (of the other).

Find tlio time of conjunction of the moon with any of the minor plaueta in tho B

ame way as mentioned before.,

24. This (i. e. the association and fight of the planets) is (only) imaginary, i

ntended to forctel the good and evil fortune people, sinco the planets being dis

tant from each other move in their own (separate) orbits.

End of the Seventh Chapter called tho Guaiiayuti orNtlio planetary conjunctions.

CHAPTER VIII.

On the conjunction of the planets with the Stars.

To find th. longitude, of l- 1 dedar0 tll "nmber f the the principal stars of tho

minutes contained in tho I3hogas <20> of

<20> Dividing tho number of minutoa contained in the longitudo of the pr

incipal star of an Asterisra by 800 and dividing the remainder by 10, the quotiu

ut obtained is here called tho Bhooa of tho Astbuism. B. D.

Nop) on Y 2 to 9. For convenience* sake tho longitudes of tho principal stare of

the four Antenatus UttabAshAdhA, Abuijit, S bavaba and Dhanishtiia , only are g

iven and the Bhooas of tho others from which the longitudes of the remaining pri

ncipal Btars can easily be found by the rule mentioned in 1st S ioka, are given.

The longitudes and latitudes of the*stars mentioned here are the apparent ones.

The apparent longitude of a star is the distance from the origin of the Ecliptio

to the intersecting point of this eirele and the circle of declination passing

through the star: and the apparent latitude of a star is tho sum or difference o

f its true declination and the declination of the intersecting point of tho Ecli

ptic and the oirele of latitude passing through the star, according as the suid

declinations are of different ufknes or or the same name.

The following table will exhibit the names of the Asterisms and of their princip

al stars as supposed to be meant, their apparent longitudos as will bo found fro

m their Bhogas, and their apparent latitudes.

Asterisms. (all) the Asterisms (As wiNf, BiiAKANf,

&c. except the Uttarashadha, Adhijit, S k a van a and Dha-nishtha). Multiply the

Bhooa of each Astcrism by 10 and to tlio product add the spaces of the antecede

nt Aslerisms (each of which contuins 800 minutesas mentioned in S loka 04th of t

he second Chapter), tlip sum is the 4ongitudq (of the principal star of the aste

rism).

The Bhogas of the Aato 2. (The number, of minutes in the r,8m/^ BnoaA of the Ast

orisin called A swinI

isf 48, (oPBnARANf) 40, (of KrittikX) Go, (of RoHiNf) 57, (of Mrjoa) 58, (of Ard

ba) 4, (of Punakvasu) 78, (of Pushya) 70, and (of As lesiiX) 14.

Asterum.

Tooa-tatuS orprin- Apparent longi-cipal dart. ludeti

Apparent latitude!

Aa winf,

Bliaraiu,

Krittika,

Koliipf,

Mriga,

ArdrA,

Punarraau,

Pushya,

Aa leslii,

Maglii,

Purrfi-phdlgum

Utthri-phdlgunf,

Hasta,

Ghitra,

SwAti,

VMkliA, AnurAdlid, Jyeahthi,

Miila,

PtirvAshAdhfi,

Uttar&ahadha,

Abhyit,

Efanrapa,

HhaniahtliA,

S atatfrek,

PurvlbhAdrapad,

UttarAbhidrapada,

Berati,

a Arietis, 0 8 0

Mubcb, 0 20 0

* Tauri, Pleiades, 1 7 30

a Tauri, Aldoliaran, 1 19 30

A Orionis, 2 3

aOrionis, 2 7 20

0 Geininorum, 3 3

8 Cancri, 3 16

a 1 and 2 Cancri, 8 19

a Leonia, Begulus, 4 9

8 Leonia, 4 24

0 Leonia, 6 6

7 or 8 Conri, 5 20

a Virginia, Spica, 6 0

oBootis; Arcturus, 6 19

a or x Libra, 7 3

8 Scorpionia, 7 14

a Scorpionia, Antares, 7 19

v Scorpionia, t 8 1

8 Sagittarii, 8 14

r Sagittarii, 8 20

a Lyri, 8 26 40

aAqailn, 9 10

a DelpUini, 9 20

A Aquarii, 19 20

a Pegasi, 10 26

a Andromedo, 11 3

fPiaeium, 11 29 5

10 N.

12 if.

6 N.

6 .#r <

10 s.

9 S.

6 N.

O N.

7 S.

0 if.

12 N.

13 if.

11 S.

2 S.

87 N.

1 30 S.

8 S.

4 S.

9 S.

6 30 S.

5 S.

60 N.

30 If.

86 N.

O 30 S. 24 If.

26 N.

0 0 N.

B. D.

3. (The Bhoga, in minutes, .of Maoha is) 54, (of Ptf rva-phalgun/) Cl, (of UiTAR

A-pirXLauNf) 50, (of Hasta) 00, (of ChitrX) 40, (of SwXti) 74, (of Yjs akha) 78,

(and ofANURA-dha) 04.

4. (The Bitoga, in minutes, of. JYEsnTiiX is) 1t, (of Mm)

G, and (of PtfftvXsuXpHA) 4. The principal star df UmiiX-sh^dha is in the middle

of the space of PuRvisir.ipirA (i. e. the longitude of tho principal star of

UttarasiiX^ha is 8 signs and 20 degrees). The principal star of Abuijit is at th

o end of the space of Ptf RvXsturnHA (i. e. the longitude of the principal star

of A bhi jit is 8 signs, 26 degrees and 40 minute.^) and (the principal star of)

S ravana is situated at the end (of the space) of UttarasUaduX (i. o. the longi

tude of tho principal star of

8 kavana is 0 signs and 10 degrees).

5. The principal star of DhanishttiA is at tho junction of tho third and fo

urth quarters of tho space of S ha van a (i. e. tho longitude of the principal s

tar of Dhanishtha is 0 signs and 20 degrees). (TIio.Bhooa, in miuutes, of S atat

akaka is) 80 (of Purvabhadrapada) 66, (and of Uttaraijha i^rapada) 22.

G to 9. (The Bhoga of Re vat f is) 79.

The latitudes of the principal stars of tho Asterisms As wiNf, &c. from tho ends

of their mean declinations are 10 N., 12 N., 5 N., 5 8., 10 S., 9 S., 6 N., 0., V S.,

0., 12 N., 16 N., 11 S., 2 8., 37 N., li 8., 3 8., i S., 9# 8., t4 8., o 8., 60

0 N., J 8., 24 N., 26 N., and 0 re-spoctively.

Tho lonpriturfea and Inti- 10, 11 and 12. TliO star AoAS l YA (r Canopns) is at t

lm cml of tho sign liiuuaiiiKtD.in. Geruini at a distnneo of 80 south

(from its corresponding point in tho ecliptic, i. o. the longitude of zVoastya

is 90 and its latitude is 80 S.) and the star MsfuA-\ ya dha or the Hunter (which

is evidently Sirius) is situated in the 20th degree of the sign Gemini (i. e. it

s longitude is 2 signs and 20 degrees) and its latitude from tho end of its mean

declination (from its corresponding point in tho ecliptic,) to the south is 40.

The stars called Agni (or P Tauri) and Bkatimaiikidaya (or Capella) are in the 2

2nd degree of tlic sign Taurus (i. o. tho

longitude of both of them is. 1 sign and 22.The latitudes of these two stars aro 8

and 30 N. respectively.

Having framed a spherical instrument examine each of the (said) Apparent latitud

es and longitudes.

Crossing the cart of Bo- 13. That planet .will cross the cart Dr^ (of the

Asterism) Romxf (i. e. tho

place of Kohini which is figured as a cart) which is placed at the 17th degreo o

f tho sign Taurus and of which the south latitude is greater than 2.

To Jliid tho conjunction of 14. (When you want to know tho . planet with . star.

tjmo 0f COnjnnctioii of u planet with a

star) find tho lengths of tho day and night of the star as you found those of a

planet (in the preceding chapter): and apply tho Aksua-drikkarma (only) to the l

ongitude of the star as mentioned before j then proceed just in tho same way as

in finding them in plauetary conjunctions: and find the days (past or futuro fro

m tho given time to that of conjunction of tho planet with tho star) from tho di

urnal motion of the planet (only).

To know whether the timo of conjunction is past or future.

15. (At a given time), when the longitude of the planet (with tho two portio

ns of the Drjkkarma applied) is less than that of the star (with the Aksha-dbjkk

arma applied) the conjunction is future: and when the longitude of tho planet is

greater thaii that of.the star, the conjunction is past:

, (this holds when the planet is direct) (but) when it is retrograde tho conjunc

tion is contrariwise (i. c. when the longitude of the planet is loss or greater

than tfiat of the star tho conjunction is past or future).

Tooa-tXbXs or principal 16. The north star of (each of the ataro of tho Astemma.

Asterisms), PtJRVAPHALGUNI, UTTARA-

PHALGUNI, PtfRVX BHADRAPADA, UtTARA BHADRAPADA PuRVA-shapha, Uttarashadha, Visak

hX, As wini and MRfGA is called its yoga-tXra or the principal star.

Surya-Sullhinta. / 65

17. The star wjiicli is near to and west of llie north-western

star of tlio Asterisra IIasta is its Yoga-tXrA ; and tho western star of the Ast

erism Dhanish-jiu is its Yoga-tara.

18. The middle star of (each of tho Astgrisms) JYEsnjHA, S bavana, AnueAdha,

and Pushya is its Yoga-tarX : and tlio southern star of each of tho Asterisms B

harat?!, K^ittika, MaghX, and Revat! is its Yoga-tara.

19. The eastern star of each of tho Asterisms Ronixf, Pu-narvasu, Mula, and

As t.kshX is its Yoga-tXrX and of tho remaining Asterisms that is tho Yoga-tXrX

which is tho brightest (in each Asterism).

The longitudo and lafci- 20. TllO star PltAJArATI (Aurigto) tude of tho a tar Pb

ajApati. js g degrees to tlio east of tho star

PnRAHMA-iT^iDAYA. Its longitudo is 1 sign and 27 and tho latitude is 38 N.

Of the stare Ap&nwatsa 21. Tlio star ApXm-VATSA (b 1.2. and Apa. 3) js si

tuated in the Asterism CurrnX

five degrees north (of its principal star) (i. o. tho longitudo of ApXmvatsa is

equal to that of tho principal star of CiimtX or 180: and its latitude is 3 N.). (

And in tho same Asterism) tlio star Apa (Virginis), somewhat larger than ApXm-va

tsa, is north of it at a distance of G (i. o. tho longitudo of Apa is 180 and the

latitudo 9 N.)

End of the eighth Chaptor on tho conjunction of tho planets with tho stars.

,

CHAPTER IX.

On the heliacal rising and setting of the planets and stars.

1. I now explain the heliacal rising and sotting of tho bodies (tho moon a

nd other planets and stars) which have little light and (consequently) disappear

on account of tho brilliancy of tho sun (whon he approaches them), i

Tlio planets which set 2. Jupiter, Mari and Saturn set

i!Sljr.ndrll,eU^ ho,i^a,,y tll WCstern 1,orin wllou

in ttie eastern horizon. tllOl rplaces arO beyond that of tllO sun: and they rise

hcliacally in the oastorn horizon when their places are within that of tho sun:

and tlio same thing takes place with respect to Venus and Mercury when they hav

o rgt rogrndo motion.

Tho planets which rise in tho eastern horizon ami set in tho western horizon.

3. Tho moon, whoso motion is quicker than that of tlio sun, and Mercury and Venu

s when they havo quicker motion, set hcliacally in tho eastern horizon when thei

r places are within tho place of tho sun : and riso hcliacally in tho western ho

rizon when their places are beyond it.

To find tho time at whirh 4- OVhen you want to determine Mj-t rises or B$ts hc

lia- the time of the heliacal rising or setting of a planet), find (at any given

day near to that timo) the truo places of the sun ami tlio planet at tlio suns s

etting, when tho planets heliacal rising or setting is in the western horizon; (b

ut) when it is in the eastern horizon, determine tho places at tho rising of tho

sun: then apply the drikkarma correction to tho planets place (as mentioned in t

ho seventh Chapter).

5. (When the planets heliacal rising or setting is in the eastern horizon) find t

ho time in rni^AS^ from tho places (just found) of tho sun and tho planet (by th

o rule mentioned in S loka 49tli Chapter III.): (It will bo tho timo from tho

planets rising to tho rising of tho sun). But when the heliacal rising or setting

of tho planot is in the western horizon, find the time, in pranas, from the pla

ces of the sun and tho planot with 6 signs added: (It will be the time from the

sotting of the planet to that of the sun). The time, in pranas, (thus found) div

ided by 60 gives the KXlans as, the degrees of time (i. e. the time turned into

degreos at the given rising or setting of the sun.)

f>. (Tlio degrees of time at which before the suns rising or after the suns settin

g a heavenly body rises or bets heliacally, aro called tho KXlans as of that bod

y). Thus the Kal.(ns a% of Jupiter are 11, of Saturn 15 and of Mars 17. (i. e. w

hen tho degrees of time found by the rule mentioned in Sloka 5th are 11, 15 or 17

of Jupiter, Saturn or Mura respectively, tho planet will rise or sot heliacally

).

7. Venus sots heliacally in tho western horizon Und rises in tho eastern ho

rizon by its 8 degrees (of time) on account of the greatness of its disc (when i

t has retrograde motion, but when it has direct motion) and hence its disc becom

e# small, it sets heliacally in tho eastern horizon and rises in tho western hor

izon by 10 degrees (of time).

8. Thus Mercury rises or sets heliacally at tho distance of 12 degrees of t

ime from the sun, when it becomes retrograde; but when it is moving quick it ris

es or sets heliacally at tho distance of 14 degrees.

9. When (at a given time) tho KalXns as (found from tho places of tho plane

ts by tho rulo mentioned in 5th S loka) aro greater than tho planets own Kalans a

s (just mentioned), tho planets become visible; (but) when less, tho planets hav

ing their discs involved in tho rays of tho sun, become invisible on tho earth.

10. Find tho difference, in minutes, between tho K A la ns as

(i. c. KalAns as found from tho place of tho planet at the given time, and those

which aro the planets own as mentioned before): and divide it by the difference

between the diurnal motions of the sun and the planet , the quantity obtained is

tlio interval in days, (gliatikas) &o., between the given time and that of tho p

lanet s heliacal rising or sotting. (This holds when tlio planet is direct; but)

when it is retrogrado, take tho sum of the diurnal motions of tho sun and the p

lanet for tho difference of tho diurnal motions.

* Here motions should first bo lumod into time (as directed in S loju 1 lth( to

make tlio dividend and divisor similar. 11.1).

i 2

11. Tho diurnal motions of the buh and tho planet multi-plied by tho numbers

of PrXnas contained in tho rising periods ofitho signs occupied by the Sun and

the planet, and divided by 1,800, become tho motions in time. Fqpm these motions

(turned into time) find the time past or future in days, gha?i-kXs &c., from th

e given time to tho time of heliacal rising or setting of tho planet.

12. The stars Swat/ (Arcturus), Aoastya (Canopus) Mrioa-vyXdha (Sirius), Chi

tka (Spica), JyeshthX (Antarcs), Punab-vasu (p Gcminorum), Abhijit (a Lyrro) and

BbahmahrIdaya (Capella)riso or set hcliacally by 13 degrees of time.

13. Tho stars IIasta (8 Corvi), S ravaxa (a Aquilro) Purva-niXLaDNf (8 Leoni

s), Uttaba-pua lg uni (jSLconis), DuANrsiiTiiA (a Dclphini), UoniNf (a Tauri), M

agiiX (Itcgulus), Vis akiia (a Libne) and As wiNf (a Arietis) rise (or set) heli

acally by 11 degrees of time.

14. Tho stars Krittika (v Tauri, Pleiades), AndradtiX (8 1 Scorpionis), Mtfu

(v Scorpionis), As lesha (a 1 and 2 Cancri),

AbdbX (a Orionis) F<jbvAshadha (8 Sugitturii) and UttarXsiia-t DHA (r Sagellarii

) riso (or set) by 15 degrees of time,

15. The stars BnARANf (Musca), Pushya (8 Cancri) and M^iga (A Orionis), on a

ccount of their smallness, riso or set heliocally by 21 degrees of time: and tho

others [i. e. 8 ata-tarakX (A Aquarii), Puuva-biiAdrapadX (a Pegasi), Uttaba rh

XdraiADA (a Andromeda:), Hevati ( Piscium), Agni (p

. Tauri), PbajXpati (8 Aurigm), ApXmvatsa (b 1. 2. 3.) and Apa (8 Virginia)] ris

e and set by 17 degreos of time.

16. The KXlans as (of a planet and those which are found at a given time fro

m the place pf tho planet) multiplied by 1,800 and divided by the rising period

of the sign which is occupied by the planet, give the degrees of the ecliptic. (

Then in S loka 10th) take the degrees of the ecliptic for their corresponding de

grees of time and from them find the time of

* heliacal rising or setting of tho planet,

* Surya-Siddhanta.

60

17. The said stars rise heliacally in the eastern horizon and sot heliacally

in the western. Apply the Aksiia-drikkarma to their longitudes and (through tho

rn) find tho days puslr or future from the given time to tho timo of .heliacal r

ising, or setting of the stars from tho diurnal motion of tho sun only (by the r

ule mentioned in 10th Sloka).

18. The stars Abhijit (a Lyrco), Brahma-iiridaya (Cnpcilnl, SwXtf (Arcturus)

, S bavana (a Aquilm), Diianjsiitit.( (a Del-pliiui) and UttarX- bhA d ra radX (

a Andromeda^) never disappear owing to tho suns light on account of tlio greatnes

s of tlioir north latitudes (i. o. these stars having great north latitudes neve

r sot heliacally) in tho northern hemisphere.

End of tho ninth Chapter on tho heliacal rising and setting of the planets and s

tars. (

CHAPTER X.

On the phases of the Moon and tho position of the Moons cusps,

1. Find tho timo also at which tho Moon will riso or sot heliacally in tho

same way as mentioned before. She becomes visible intho western horizon and invis

ible in tho eastern horizon by 12 degrees of time.

To find the time of daily 2. Find the truo placos of the Sun setting of the Moo

n. and the Moon (at Sun-set of that day of

the light half of a lunar month at which you want to know the time of daily sett

ing of the Moon) and apply the two portions of the d$ikkabha to the moons place);

from those places, with 6 signs added, find thte time in pranas (just in the sa

me way) as mentioned beforo (in 5th S loka of the preceding Chapter). At these r

uAgAS after tho sun-set, tho Moon will set (on that day).

To find tlia time of duly 8. (But when you want to know

rising of the Moon. the time of tlio Moons daily rising on

a duy of tlio dark half of a lunar month) find the trap places of .the Sun and t

l\c Moon (at sun-set) and add (Tsigns lo TTie Suns piaco (and apply tho two porti

ons of the djukkarma to tho Moons place); from these places ((i. e. from the Suns

place with 0 signs added and from tho Moons place with tho DjjtiKKABMA applied) f

ind the time in pranas (in the same way as mentioned before in 5th S loka of tho

preceding Chapter). At this time in pranas after sun-set the Moon will rise (on

that day).

To find tho phases of tho 4. (When you want to know tho Moon. phase of the moo

n on a day of the first

quarter of a lunar month, find tho true declinations of tho Sun and the Moon at

sun-set or sun-riso of that day) find tho difference of tlifc sines of the decli

nations (just found), when they aro of the same name, otherwise find tho sum: to

this result (tho difference or tho sum) give tho name of tho saino direction so

uth or north at which the Moon is from tho Sun.

5. Multiply tho result by tho hypothenuso of the gnomonio shadow of the Moo

n (at tho same time as can be found by tlio rule mentioned in tho third Chapter)

: find tho difference botwcon the product and twelve times the equinoctial shado

w if tho result be north (but) if it be south find tho sum of them.

6. The amount (thus found) divided by tho sino of co-lati-* tudo of tho pla

ce, gives tho Binu or base (of a right angled

trianglo): this is of the same name of which tho amount is : and tho sino of tho

altitude of the Moon is the Kofi (or perpendicular of the trianglo). Tho square

-root of tho sum of tho squares of tho Baku and Kofi is tho hypothenuso (of tho

triangle).

7. Subtract the Suns piaco from that of tho Moon. The minutes contained in t

he remainder divided by 000 give tho illuminated part of the Moon: This port mul

tiplied by the

Moons disc (in minutes) and divided by 12 becomes the Si iui-TA or rectified illu

minated part.

8. (On a board or levelled flodr) having marked a point representing tho Su

n, draw from that point a lincfequal to tho 11airu (above found) in tho samo dir

ection in which tho JIahu is, and from the end of the Baiiu a lino (perpendicula

r to it) equal to tho Kofi (as abovo found) to tho west, and draw tho hypothomis

o between tho end of tho Ko^i and tho point (denoting tho Sun).

!). About the point where the Kott and tho hypothenuso meet, describe the disc o

f tho Moon (found at tho given time). In this disc suppose tho directions (east,

west Ac.,) through the lino of tho hypothenuso (i. o. in tho disc supposo tho e

ast where the lino of tho hypothenuso cuts the disc, tho west where the samo lin

e produced intersects it, and tho north and south where a line passing through t

ho centre of tho disc and being perpendicular to the lino of the hypothenuso cut

s tho disc).

10. Take a part of tho hypothenuse within tho disc from tho (latter) interse

ction of the disc and tho hypothenuso equal to the (rectified) illuminated part:

and between tho end of that part and tho north and south points of tho disc dcsc

ribo two T1MIS.

11. From the intersecting point of tho two linos, drawn through the timis, d

cscribo the arc which will pass through tho tlirco points (tho ond of tho illumi

nated part and tho north and south points of tho disc). Tho disc thus cut by tho

arc will represent tho form of the Moon os it will be scon on tho1 evening of t

he givon day.

12. Marking the directions in the disc through the Koji (abovo drawn), show

tho horn elevated at the end of the transverse line ; this figure will represent

the phase of the Moon.

13. In the dark half of the lunar month subtract tfio place of the Sun with

G signs added to it, from the Moons place, and from the remainder find the dark p

art of the Moon (in the samo way os yon found the illuminated part in the 7th S

loka) ; (an<l in the diagram) chan go the direction of tlio Biiiu and show the

dark portion of tho Moon in the west.

End of tho tenth Chapter called Snqgonnati which treats of the phases of tho jno

on.

CHAPTER XI.

Called Patadmkara which treats of the Rules for finding the time at which the de

clinations of the Sun ami Moon become equal.

Vaidhh(ta.

1. It is called VAimmfTA when tho Sun and -Moon are in the same Ayana

. (i. e. when they aro both in tho ascending or descending | signs), tho sum of

their longitudes equal to 12 signs (nearly) and their declinations equal.

VlATfriTA,

2. It is called VyATirATA when tho Moon and tho Sun are in different

A tanas, tho sum of tlicir longitudes equal to 6 signs (nearly)

" and their declinations equal.

3. Tho Fire (named Pata) which arises from tho mixture of tho rays of the s

un and the moon in equal quantities, being burnt by tho air called Pravaha produ

ces evil to mankind.

4. Since the (said) Pata frequently destroys people at tho time (when the d

eclinations of tho Sun and Moon become equal) it is called VYATfpATA. It is als

o called VaidhsIta.

5. This PXta is of black colour and hard body, rod eyed and gorbcllied, des

troyer of all pcoplo and horrible: it happens frequently.

m .A. . -I ,i 6. When the sum of tho places of

To find time at which the r ,

true declinations of tho Sun tlio Sun and Moon, applied with the and Moon.become

equal degr0ca 0f the precession of tho cqui-

noxos as found by observation, is 12 or C signs find their declinations.

Surya-SiiWtdhta.

73

7. Now, if the Moons mean declination (i. e. the declination of her correspo

nding point in the ecliptic) with ljcr latitude applied (i. e. her true declinat

ion) be greater than that of jfclio Sun, wlion the Moon is in an odd (1st or 3rd

) quarter of the ecliptic, the PXta (or the instant when the declinations of the

Sun and Moon become equal) is past.

8. And (if the Moons declination bo) loss, (the Pata is future. But when tho

place of tho Moon is in an even i. o. 2nd or 4th) quarter (of the ecliptic) the

reverse of this takes place (i. e. if the Moons truo declination be greater than

that of tho Sun the Pata is future, and if less the Pata is past).

When the Moons (mean) declination is subtracted from her latitude (for her true d

eclination change the name of the Moons quarter.

9. Multiply the sines of the declinations (as found in tho 6th S loka) by t

ho radius and divide the produbts by the sine of tho greatest declination (i. e.

24): take tho arcs whoso sines are equal to the quotients, and add tho differenc

e or half tho diffcronco of tho arcs to the Moons place when tho Pata is future.

(This result which is just applied to tho Moous place is called the moons change).

10. But when the Pata is past, subtract tho Moons chaugo from her place. The

Moons change multiplied by the true daily motion of the Sun and divided by that o

f the Moon gives the Suns change: apply it to tho Suns place as in .the case of tl

ie Moon.

11. Find tho change of the Moons ascending node in the same way (i. e. multip

ly the Moons change by the daily motion of tho node and divide the product by the

Moons true daily motion): apply this change inversely to the nodes place. Find th

e declinations of tho Sun and the Moon again (from their places with their chang

es applied) and apply the same process (mentioned in the preceding S lokas) repe

atedly until you get their declinations equal.

E

To And when . Ml i, ,.2- T1 PTA >? inatant

paster to be^paifc. which the declinations (of the Sun and

tho Moon) become equal. Now, according as the Moons true place found at thp Fata

by applying the Moons change (as mentioned before) is less or greater than that f

ound at midnight (of that day), tho Pata is before or after (the mid-night.)

To find the truo time of 13. The difference, in minutes, the ?iu. between

the Moons truo places found

at the Pata and the mid-night, multiplied by CO and divided by tho true daily mo

tion of tho Moon gives the giiajikas between the Pata and the mid-night. (Then y

ou will get the time of the Pata by adding or subtracting the giiatikas, just fo

und, to or from the mid-night according as the Pata is past or future).

To find half the duration 14. (Find the semi-diameters, in of the Pataxala,

minutes, of tho Sun and the Moon by

tho Ilule mentioned in tho 4th Chapter.) Tho sum of tho semi-diameters of the Su

n and tho Moon multiplied by GO and divided by the Moon s tme daily motion from

tho Sun gives half the duration of the PXta-kIla

To find the beginning, 15. The true time of the Pata middle and eudof the Pata.

(fonmI in t]ie 13th S Jj0KA) is cM

the middle of the PXta : This time diminished by half the duration of the PjCta,

just found, gives the beginning of the PXta and increased by half tho duration

gives the end of tho Pata.

* 1C. The interval between the beginning and end of a PXta is horrible; being in

the form of burning fire, all rites are prohibited duriug its continuance.

Form of the PAta-kAla.

17. As long as the distance of any point of the suns disc (from the equinocti

al) is equal to that of any poiqfc of the Moons disc, the

* Tho Pa ta-xa ia, or duration of the Pa ta, is tho time during which the declin

ation of any point of the Suns disc and that of any point in the Moons are equal.JB

. D-

Surya-Siihllumta.

75

Pa ta-kXla lasts ayd destroys the .(happy results of) all rites (performed durin

g that time). f

18. People get very great religious morits from sfocli (virtuous) acts as ba

thing, alms-giviug, prqyers, funeral core-monies, religious obligations, burnt o

fferings, &c. (performed in the Pata-kXla), Q well as from the knowledge of that

time.

19. When the (mean) declinations of the Sun and tho Moon become equal, near

the equinoctial points, tho P^TAof tho two kinds (i. o. VVATfpXta and VAiDHHfTA)

happens twice : contrariwise (i. e. when the mean declinations become equal nea

r the solstitial points, and the true declination of the Moon is less than that

of tho Sun) no Pata happens.

Third Pata 20% There becomes a third Pata

called (also) Vyat/p^ta when the minutes, contained in the sum of the places of

tho Moon and the Sun, divided by tho Bhamioga (or 800) give a quotient which ter

minates in 17 (i. e. which is more than 1C uud less than 17).

Gasti iiia and Buisandm, 2h Tho last quarters of the Nak%

SiiATKAsf As lesha, Jyksiitha and Revat! are called tho Bhasandhi (or junctions

of Nakshatkas) find tho first quarter of each of their following ones (i. e. Mag

ha, M(5la and As wiNf) is called the gani)Anta.

22. During tho three frightful VYATfpAs, Ganpa ntas and BHAsANDHfs (just men

tioned), all (joyful) acts are prohibited.

23. (0 Maya,) thus far have I told you tho excellent, virtu- ons, useful se

cret and great knowledge of Astrouomy, what more do you want to hear ?

End of the 11th Chapter called Patadiiikara.

End of the First Part of the Surya-siddhXnta.

* This is the Yoga or the period of time in which the sum of the places of the S

an and the Moon increases by 800 . This Yoga is the 17th reckoned from VZ8BKAXBE

A. See 65U> S loka of the second Chapter.B. D.

t These are the periods 9th, 18th and 27th from As wiNf: they are found # from t

he Moons place by the Buie mentioned in ihe 64th S loka of the 2nd Chapter.B. D.

CHAPTER XII.

On Cosmographical Matters.

1. No to, Maya-abura joining the palms of his hands, saluted (liia teacher) the

man who partakes of the Suns nature, and worshipping him with his best respects a

sked this:

Question about the Barth. 2 (Tel1 me- 0 "?> omnipofamt (master,) "What is the magn

itude of the Earth ? what is its form ? what supports it ? how is it divided ? a

nd how aro tho seven PatXla-bhumis or lower regions situated in it ?

Question about tbe suni 3. How does the Sun causo day revolution. and nigh

t ? How does he, enlighten-

ing (all) tho worlds, circumvolve the Earth ?

Other questions 4. are ^10 day a&d night of

of tho (Gods) and Asuras mutually * the reverse of each other (i. e. why is it d

ay to the Gods when it is night to tho Asuras and vice versd) : and how is it th

at the (said) day and night is equal to the time in which the Sun completes one

revolution ?

5. By what reason docs the day and night of the Pit$is consists of a lunar

month and that of man consists of 60 oha^ikXs ?

why are not the day and night of tho same length everywhere?

6. Why are not the rulers of the days, years, months and hours in the same

order? how does the starry sphere with the planets revolve, and what is its supp

ort ?

7. At what distances from the Earth are the orbits of the planets and stars

arranged one above the other ? what are the distances (between the consecutive)

orbits? what are their

dimensions ? and in what order are they situated ?

8. (Why is it JJbat) tho Suns rays are vehement in summer and not so in wint

er: How far do the Suns rays reach ? How many M4nas (i. e. kinds of time as solar

, lunar &c.) are thdlo, and what their use ?

0. 0 you omnipotent, who are acquainted with tho past, (present and future evept

s) remove my doubts (by answering my questions): (as) no one except you is omnis

cient and remover (of doubts).

10. Having heard tho speech thus addressed by Maya with his best respects, t

he roan (who partakes of the Suns nature) related to him the secret Second Part o

f tho work.

11. 0 Maya, hear attentively the secret knowledge called Adffya tman (or mea

ns of apprehension) which shall tell you : I have nothing which is not .to be gi

ven to those who aro exceedingly attached to me.

The weret knowledge call- 12. TllO Supremo feeing is culled

od ADHjfiTMA^. Yasddeva. Tho excellent sonl (IW.

siia) partaking of the nature of VXsudeva is imperceptible, void of all properti

es, calm, tho spirit or life of the universe and imperishable.

13. (This) all-pervading Purusifa called God Sankarstfana entering nature ma

de the water and put his influence in it.

14. This (water with that influence) became a golden egg involved in darknes

s: In this egg the eternal Aniruddha first became manifest.

15. This omnipotent Aniruddha is called IIiranya-garbha in the Vedas (by rea

son of his situation in tho golden egg): He is called Aditya from his first appe

arance and (also) Surya on account of the production (of the universe from him).

16. This Aniruddha named StfRYA and (also) SavitX is excellent light for the

destruction of darkness. This maker of the three states (Utpatti birth or produ

ction, Sthiti life or existence, and SanilCra death or destruction) of animate (

and inanimate) things, illuminating the world (in the golden egg),

17. This self light Aniruddha destroyer of darkness is

denominated Maii^n (intelligence): The R;g-veda is his disc, Sam-veda his rays, a

nd Yajur-veda his body.

(8. This omnipotent Aniruddha consisting of the three Vedas is time itself, caus

e of time, all-powading, universal spirit, omnivagous and supreme bouI and the w

hole universe doponds on him. ,

19. Riding on the car of the universe to which are attached the wlieei of th

e year and the horses of the seven metres, this Aniruddha revolves at all times.

20. Throe-fourths of Aniruddha are hid in the heavens and | one (fourth) is

this manifest universe. That able Aniruddha

generated BrahmX consciousness (AhankXra) for the creation of the universe.

21. Now having bestowed tbe excellent Vedas on BrahmX tho grandfather of all

people and placed him in the middle of the golden egg, Aniruddha himsolf revolv

es and illuminates tho universe.

22. Then BraiimX bearing the form of consciousness thought of creation. Tho

Moon sprung from (his) mind, and the Sun, a treasure of lights, from (his) eyes.

23. From Brahma s mind sprung other, from ether air, (from air) fire, (from

fire) water, (and from water) earth successively. Thus tho five primary elements

were produced by the snperposition of quality.

21. Thj Sun and Moon are respectively of the nature of fire and water, and the f

ive (minor planets) Mars and others (i. e. Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Sa

turn) sprung severally from firo, earth, ether, wator, and air.

25. Again Brahma, of subdued passions, divided a circle, invented by himself, in

to 12 parts, naming it the Ras i-vritta, and the same circlo into 27 pprts nami

ng it the Nakshatra-vritta.

Having produced ether with tho quality of sound, air was formed bj adding to eth

er the quality of touch; fire by adding to air the quality of form, water by add

ing to firo the quality of taste, and earth by adding to water the quality of su

aeli. B. D.

26. Now having created thiugs of different natures by compounding in various

proportions the best, middling, and worst qualities (i. c. principles of truth,

passion, and darkntfss) Bkahm^ made the# universe containing Gods /uid animate

and inanimate tilings.

27 and 28. Having created (Gods and animate and inanimate things) successively a

ccording to their qualities and actions, the able BrahmX arranged the planets, a

sterisms, stars, the earth, worlds, Gods, Demons, men, and Siddhab, regularly at

proper places and times in the way mentioned in tho Vedas.

29. This HbahhANPA (tho golden egg sacred to Bkahm.() is hollow: in this (the wo

rlds) Bhur, Bhuvar&c., are situated. It is like a sampuja (a casket) formed by t

wo kata has (frying vessels joined mouth to moutli) and of a spherical shape.

- , 30 and 31. Tho circumference of

Order of tho orbits or the "

stars and planets situated the middlo of the Braiimani;a is called

one below the other. VyoMAKAKSHjC (the Olbit of heaven),

in it (i. c. BrahmXnpa) all tho stars revolve. Beneath thorn Saturn, Jupiter, Ma

rs, the Sun, Venus, Mercury and the Moon revolve one below the other, beneath th

em the Siddha, tho < Vidyadiiara and clouds are situated.

Answers to tho questions stated in 2nd S loka.

32. The torrcstrial globo, possessing Brahmas most excellent power of steadiness

, remains in space at the centre of the BkaumXnpa (which is) all arouud.

33. The seven PXtala BhtJmis or infernal regions formed 1 by tho concave strata

of the earth are very beautiful, being inhabited by Nagas (serpents) and Asuras

(demons) and having the liquors of tho divino plants (which shine by their own l

ight).

The portion of Mntr. Slden Mud,

containing heaps of various precious

stones, passes through the middle of the terrestrial globe (as an axis projectin

g on both sides at the poles).

The inhabitant^ of the S5 118 Goj8 Wjth lHDA Md th8

ends of the \Ubu l e. of the groat holy sages inhabit the top of the

two poles. Mebi3 (i. o. the north polo) while tho

Abukas are at th$ bottom (i. o. the south pole). They (i. e. tho Gods and Asubas

) hate each other.

Situation of the great 36. The great. Ocean (the Ocean 0ccai1, of salt water) e

ncircles tho Mkku ; it

is like a girdle (or Zone) to tho earth and separates the regions of the Gods a

nd tho Asubas (i. e. it is at the Equator and divides the terrestrial globe into

two hemispheres: tho north is sacred to the Gods and the south to the Asubas).

Tho four cities placed at 37. Around the middle of tho the Equator. Mebu in

the directions of the east &c.

and at equal distances in the ocean arc tho four cities made by the Gods in the

different Dwfi AS.

38. To tho east of tho Mebu (i. e. north pole) at a fourth part of the Earths

circumference iii tho Bhadbab wa varsha (a division of a continent) is tho city

called Yama-ko^i having golden ramparts and arched gateways.

39. So to tho south in the Bharata-varsiia there is tho great city called La

nkX : to tho west in the KetumXla-varsha thcro is the city called Komaka.

40. To the north in the Kubu-vabsha thcro is tho city called SfDDnA-ruBf (or

Siddiia-pura). Liberal and devout men being free from pain inhabit that (city).

41. These (four cities) are situated at a distance equal to the fourth part

of the Earths circumference from each other: (and) the Mebu sacred to the Gods is

north of them at tho same distanco.

There is no equinoctial 42. When the Sun is at the equi-ihadow at the equator. n

octial, lie passes through the zenith of these (cities) and therefore, there is

neither equinoctial shadow, nor elevation of the terrestrial axis at these citie

s.

The position of the polar 43. On both sideB of the Mebu >tan (i. e. the north

and south poles of the

Earth) the two polar stars arc situated in the heaven at their zenith. These two

stars are in the horizon of. the cities situated on the equinoctial regiohs.

44. Since thq polar stars aro in the lungzon of the (said) cities, there is no e

levation of the terrestrial axis (but) tho co-latitude is 90; -so the latitude at

the Meed is 90.

Tho beginning of the day 45. When tho Sun is abovo tho to tho God and Asubab. re

gions of the Gods (i. o. tho northern hemisphere) ho first appears to the Gods a

t tho first point of Aries: but to the Asubas (he first appears) at the first po

int of Libra, when the sun is going above tho regions of tho Asubas (i. o. the s

outhern hemisphere).

Answer to tho quostion in 4b. Owing to this (tho Sun s go-sthS loka. ing nort

hward and southward) tho

Sun s rays aro vehement in summer in tho Gods regions and in winter in tho Asub

as . Conversely they aro vfeak (in summer in tho Asubas regions and in winter i

n tho Gods ).

47. The Gods and Asubas behold the Sun in the horizon at tho oquinoxos. Tho

two periods in which tho Sun is in tho northern and southern hemispheres are mut

ually the day and night to the Gods and Asubas (i. o. when tho Sun is in the no

rthern homisphero it is day to tho Gods and night to tho Asubas, and vico vorsA)

.

48. Tho Sun at the first point of Avies, risen to tho inhabitant of the Mebu

(i. c. to the Gods) and passing tho three following signs (i. e. Aides, Taurus

and Gemini), completes tho first half of the day (of the Gods).

49. So he (the Sun) passing (tho threo signs) Cancer and others completes th

e second half of the day. In tho samo manner (the Sun passing) tho three signs L

ibra, &c. and other three Capricorn, &c. (completes the first and second halves

of tho day of tho Asubas).

. Answer to tho qucUon. 5- Theroforo thoir day and night iu the 4th S aoka.

arc mutually reverse, and the length of

* See llic 36th S loea of this Chapter. 8. D.

L

82 Translation of the

their Nycthcmpron arises from the completion of the Suns (one) revolution.

51. Their mid-Jay and mid-night (happen) at the time of tho solstices revcus

ely (i. o. it is mid-day to the Gods when it is the mid-night to the Asuras, and

vice versft): The Gods and the Asubas consider themselves each abqvo the other.

52. The otherB likewise who are situated diametrically opposed (at tho earths

Burface) as the inhabitants of the Bhad-kaswa and KetumAla (i. c. of YAMAKOTian

d Romaka) and those of Lanka and Siddhatuha consider (themselves) one below tho

other.

53. Thus everywhere on (tho surfaco of) tho terrestrial globe, people suppos

e their own place higher (than that of others): because this globo is pi space w

hero there is no abovo and below.

51. All people around their own place behold tho Earth, though globular, of tho

form of a circular plain, on account of tho smollnoss of their bodies.

, 55. This starry sphero revolves

Panillol and Right spheres. -

horizontally (from right) to loft to tho * Gods and (from left) to right to the

A suras : But at tho equator (it) always (revolves) vertically (from east) to we

st.

50. At the equator, therefore, (tho length of) the day is always of 30 qhati

kAs and tho length of tho night is also tho same: and at tho regions of tho Gods

and those of tho Asuras (i. o. at tho northern and the southern hemisphere) tho

day and night (oxcopt at the equinoxes) always incrcaso and decrease reversel

y (i. o. at tho northern regions tho day increases and tho night decreases, whil

e at tho southern ones the day decreases and the night increases, and vico vorsf

t).

57. When tho Sun is in the (northern) signs Aries &c. tho increase of the length

of the day mid the decrease of tho longth of thg night become more and more (un

til tho Sun arrives at the tropic of Cancer and then they become less and less)

at tho regions of tho Gods: but at those of the Asuras the reYcrso of this takes

placo.

58. (But) when the Sun is in tho (southern) signs Libra &e. tho decrease and inc

rcaso both of tho day and, night are tho reverse. Tho knowledge of this (increas

e or decrease^ at every day from (fho equinoctial shadow ofy tho given place and

the Suns declination is described before (in tho 01st S loka of tho 2nd Chapter)

.

50. Multiply the Earths circumference by tho number of degrees of tho Suns declina

tion (of a given day) and divide tho product by 300 (and tako tho quotient). The

Sun (at that day) passes through tho zenith (of the place, north or south of tho

Equator according as tho declination is north or south) at a distance in yojana

s equal to the quotient (ubovc found) from tho equator.

Determination or the plm 80 and 01. Iii tho same manner

wln-re tlii dny or mplit bo- .find tlio number of yojanas from Ilia cornea of 60

Uhatikas.

Suns greatest declination and subtract tho number from the fourth part of tlio Ea

rths circumference (and take tho remainder). Then (when tho Sun is) at a solstice

, tho day or night becomes of CO uu Alikas once (in a year) at the distanco in y

ojanas equal to tho remainder (above found) from tho equator (i. o. at the polar

circles) in the regions of the Ciods and the Asuras reversely (i. o. when the

Sun is at his greatest distance from tho equinoctial, the day becomes of GO ghat

ikas at tho polar circle in the northern hemisphere, while the night becomes of

tho same length at the polar circle in tho southern ono, and vice versA).

02. (At places) between them (i. e. tho equator and a polar circlo on either

sido of the equator) tho day and night increase and decrease within the 60 gha?

ikAs. Beyond that (i. o. in tho polar regions) the starry sphere revolves in an

opposite manner (us regards tho north pole and the south).

Tlio positions where some 03. Find the YOJANAS (as above) sign, tro alw.;> iimai

ble. from tho declination which arises from the sine of two signs and subtract t

he yojanas from the fourth

* The sine of two signs (i. o. 60) multiplied by tho sine of the greatest deelin-

ation and divided by the Radius gives the sine of declination. B. D.

L 2

part of tho Earths circnmforonco. At the c distance cqnal to the remaining yojana

s from the equator in the regions of the Gods, the Sun, situated at Sagittarius

and Capricornus, is nqver seen. a .

64. But in the regions of the Asuras (at the same distance from the equator)

, (ho is never visible) when situated in Gemini and Cancer. At that quarter of t

he Earths circumference in which the Earths shadow is destroyed (i. e. never falls

) tho Sun will bo seon.

G5 and CG. From the fourth part of tho Earths circumference subtract tho yojanas

found from the declination of one sign (30). At tho distance of the remaining yoj

anas from tho equator, tho Sun never appears in tHb regions of tho Clods when ho

is in Sagittarius, Capricornus, Scorpio and Aquarius: but in tho regions of tho

Asuras (at the same distance from the equator, liofcis never seen whon situated

in tho four signs Taurus, Ac. (i. o. Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, and Leo.).

G7. The Gods at tho Mou behold the Sun constantly as long as ho is in (northern)

six signs Aries, Ac. so tho Asuras as long as ho is in (tlio southern ones) Lib

ra, Ac.

Torrestrial tropic.

G8. At tho distance of tho fifteenth part of tho Earths circumfcreneo (from tho e

quator) in tho regions o tho Gods or the Asuras (i. o. at tho north or south torr

estrial tropic) tlio Suu passes through tho zenith when ho arrives at the north

or south solstitial point (respectively).

Determination of u C9- (At places) between them (i. 0.

direction of tlio gnomouio between tlio equator and the tropics) shadow at noon.

, , _ . ..

tlio guemomc shadow may bo north or

south at noon. Boyond this limit it falls towards the ends of

tlio ATeuu (i. e. tho north and south poles) in tho northom

and southern homisphero (respectively).

Answer to the question in 70. The Sun when arrived at tho the 3rd & ma. zenith o

f" Bhadk^s wa (or Yamakotf)

makes his rising in BhXrata (or Lanka), mid-niglit in Ketu-xala (or Kanaka) and

setting in Kuru (or Siwjapura).

71. In the same manner, (the Sun) revolving from east to west, (when he reac

hes the zenith of BhXrata or LANjtl) makes the mid-day, rising, mid-night arid s

etting in tho varsiias, Bia-kata and others, j. e. Biiarata, Ketumali, tKunu and

Bha-drXs wa respectively).

Oblique ipkero, . 72- To 0,10 who Sing >

end of tho Meru (i. o. to tho north or south pole from the equator) the elevatio

n of tho polar star (north or south) and the inclination of tho starry sphere in

crease (more and inoro as ho approaches tho Mkru :) and to one going towards tho

equator tho reverse is tho caso with inclination and elevation. ^

Answer to the question in tho 2ml half of the 6th S lo-

JiA.

73. Tho starry sphere, bound at its two poles (north and south), being struck wi

tli tho Pravaha winds revolves constantly : (so) do tho orbits pkmets confined

within it in regular order.. ^

Answer to the question in (As) Oil tho hnrtli tho Cods

&tl>S/L0KA and tho Asuieas behold tho Sun con-

stantly abovo tho horizon throughout half tho year, and men throughout their day

, (so) do tho Pitris situated on the upper part of the Moon (behold tho Sun) thr

oughout a fortnight.

75. The orbit of tho upper (of any two planets) is greater than that of the

lower: and tho degrees of tho groatcr orbit (in length) are greater than those o

f the smaller.

76. A planet revolving in a smaller orbit passes tho 12 signs in a shorter t

ime and one going in a greater orbit (passes the 12 signs) in a longer time.

77. Therefore the Moon moving in a smaller orbit makes many revolutions whil

o the Sanaiscijara (slow-moving i. e. Saturn) going in a greater orbit makes a f

ew.

Answer to th question in 7.8 BtoW fourtll f tl,e Plflnot the first half of tho 6th

(in the order of their orbits mentioned

S L0KA in S loka 31) reckoning from Saturn is

tho Bulcr of a day (of the week) in succession (thus, tho

San, who is fourth from Saturn, is tho ruler of tlio 1st day; tlio Moon, who is

fourth from the Sun, is the ruler of the second day; Mars, the fourth from tho M

oon, is the ruler of the third day, and so on). ,

In tho same manner every third of tho planets, reckoning from Saturn (i. e. Mars

, Venus, tho Moon,. Jupiter, &c. successively) is tho ruler of a year (of 3C0 te

rrestrial days).

79. Reckoning from tho Moon, tho planets above her (i. o. Mercury, Vonus, th

e Sun, &c.) are called tho rulers of tho months (of 30 days) successively. And f

rom Saturn (the planets situated) one below tho other (i. o. Jupiter, Mars, tho

Sun, Ac.) are successively the rulers of tho hours. <21>

<21>

* r. 78 and 79. It is to be known hero*that the Buler of a day (from midnight to

mid-niglit at Lanka) is tlio same as that of tho first hour of tho day: and the

Buler of a month or a year is tile samo as that of tho first day of tlio month

or year. . D.

Answer to tho question in 80. The Suns orbit (in YOJANAS to 7th S loka. bo state

d in S loka 8Gth) multiplied by

00 gives (tho length of) tho middle circle of the starry sphere. This circl

e of iho stars of so many yojanas revolves abovo all (tho planets).

81. <22> Multiply the number of tho said revolutions of the Moon in a kalpa by t

ho Moons orbit (to bo declared in S loka 83th): the product is equal to the orbit

of heaven (or tho circumference of tlio middle of tho JJraiimanim) : to this

orbit tho rays of tlio Sun reach.

<22>

* r. 78 and 79. It is to be known hero*that the Buler of a day (from midnight to

mid-niglit at Lanka) is tlio same as that of tho first hour of tho day: and the

Buler of a month or a year is tile samo as that of tho first day of tlio month

or year. . D.

82. Tho very same (the orbit of

Determination of tlio Di- , . . . .

mansions of tho orbits of heaven) being divided by the number

dai 7 of evolutions of a planot in a kai.pa gives tho orbit of that planet; (and

dividing this orbit) by tho number of terrestrial days in a kalpa, tho quotient

is called tho daily motion (in yojanas) of all tho planets to the east.

Of their daily motions in 83. Multiply this number of yoja-minutes or angular mo

tions. NA8 0f tll0 daily niotjon (0f all tlio

plauots) by the ijoons orbit and divide the product by the orbit of tlio planet (

of which the daily motion in minutes is to bo known): the quotiont being flivide

d by 15 gives tho number of minutes of the motion (of that planet) ^

84. Tho orbits (of tho planets) multiplied by the Earths diameter and divided

by tho circumference of tho Earth give the diameters of tho orbits. These (diam

eters) diminished by tho Earths diameter and divided by 2 givo tho distances of t

ho planets (from tho Earths centre).

85. The orbit of the Moon is 324,000 (yojanas) and that of the SiciiiROCHBUA

of Mercury, beyond the Moon is 1,013,209.

80. That of the Sighkochkua of Venus is 2,001,037 beyond that, that of tho S

un, Mercury and Venus is 4,331,500.

87. That of Mars is 8,14G,909 and that of tho Moons apogee is 38,328,481.

88. That of Jupiter is 51,375,701 and that of tho Moons ascending node is 80,

572,801.

89. That of Saturn is 127,G08,255 and that of tho fixed stars is 259,890,012

.

90. Tho circumference of tho sphere of tho Ukathiantjek in which the Suns ray

s spread, is 18712080804000000 yojanas.

End of the twclLh Ciiaiteii.

CHAPTER XIII.

On the construction of the amillary Sphere and other astronomical Instruments.

1 and 2. Now the teacher (of Maya) being in a secret and holy place bathed

, pure and adornod, and having worshipped faithfully the Sun, tho planets, the a

stcrisms and the Cuhyakas (a kind of Demigods) explained clearly the knowledge w

hich he had from his preceptor (tho Sun) through traditional instruction, for th

e satisfaction of his pupil (Maya),

The construction of the 3 and 4. Lot an astronomer make annillury Sphere:

the wonderful construction of the ar.

miliary .Sphere with that of toiio Earth (at its centre).

Having caused a woodou terrestrial globofto ho mode of any desired size with a s

taff represen ting tlio Meru passing through the (globes) centra and projecting o

n both sides. (Let him fix) two circles (on the staff) called the jKdiiaua KAKsn

i or the supporting circle (answering to tlio colures) as also tho equinoctial.

Tlio diurnal circles of tho 5. Let three circles marked with 12 lgn3, the numb

er of degrees in the 12 signs

(or 300) bo prepared (to represout the diurnal circles at tho ends of the 3 sign

s Aries, Taurus and Gemini) with radii answering to the respective diurnal circl

es in proportion to tho Equinoctial.

6, 7, 8 and 8. Let him fix tho three circles for Aries and other signs resp

ectively (on the two supporting circles) marked with the degrees of declinations

north and south, at tho end of respective declination (north of the Equinoctial

) (of tho ends of the said signs). Tho same (circles) answer contrariwiso to tho

(threo signs) Cancer und others (at tho ends of tho respective declinations of

tho beginnings of the signs). In tho same manner, lot him fix (ethor) three circ

les in tho south-era hemisphere, for Libra and others (and) contrariwise for Cap

ricorn and tho rest. Let him also fix circles on both the supporting circles for

the principal stars of tho asterisms in both hemispheres as also for Abiiijit (

aud Lyric) and for the soven great saints (i. e. the seven stars composing tho c

onstellation of Ursa major), Aoastya (Canopus). BbahmI (Auriga)) and othor stars

. In the very middle of all (theso circles) is fixod tho Equinoctial circle.

Drfttmintffam . of Hi. 1 d ll tlw tv> wkticcs places of tho 12 signs iu the marked

above the intersection of sphere,

tho Equinoctial and ono of tlio two supporting circles (i. e. at tho distance of

the Sans grontest

declination from the intersection to the north and south on the supporting circl

e) and tho two equinoxes (at tlie intersection of the equinoctial and tho other

Supporting circle).

Tlion from tho, equinox at the exact degrees of every sign (i. o. at every 30) th

e placos of Aries and other signs should be determined by tho transverse strings

(of tho circle).

. Thero is another circle passing from

The Ecliptic. . . ... .

solstice to solstice.

12 and 13. (This circle) is called the Ecliptic: in this, tho Sun, enlightening

tho worlds, always revolves.

(Hut) the Moon and other (planets) being attracted from tho ecliptic by their no

des situated in the ecliptic are seen at the ends of (their respective) latitude

s.

(The point of tho ecliptic) in tho Tho Horoscope. eastern horizon is colle

d tho Lagna

(the horoscope) and (tho point) just setting is Called tho Asia lacina (or the s

etting lagna) on account of its setting.

__ T 11. Tho point of tho ecliptic in

tho culminating point of tho tho middle of the visible heaven (or in the meridia

n i. e. tho culminating point of tho ecliptic) as determined through tho rising

periods of tho signs ascertained for Lanka (in 48th Sloka of the 3rd Chapter) is

called tho Madhyama (Lagna).

The AhtyX (Suppose a line betwoou tho two

intersections of the moridian of a given place and a given diurnal circle). Tho

string (or the portion of that lino) intercepted between the meridian and the h

orizon (in terms of the radius of a great circle) is called AntyL

The sine of the ascensional difference.

15. And a portion (of the same line) intercepted between (the plane of) the

six oclock line and J>hat of the horizon (in terms of "the radius of a great circ

le) is, it is to be known, equal to the sine of the ascensional difference.

N

The Horizon.

(On the terrestrial globe) consider ing the given place as the highest, snfronnd

the sphere with the horizon in its middle (i. e. 00 distant from the given place

).

Tlio Bolf reTolriiig Spheric Thus having surrounded the

instrument. sphere (the axis of which should be

elevated to the height of the pole) by tho horizon (made as level as water) and

covered (in its lower half) by wax cloth, make it rotate by tho force of tho cur

rent of water for tho knowledge of tlie passage of time.

17. (Or lot an astronomer) make tho sphere (a self-revolving instrument) by mean

s of mercury.

The method (of constructing the revolving instrument) is to be kopfa a secret, a

s by its diffusion hero it will be known to all (and then there will be no surpr

ise in it).

Therefore, from tho instruction of the teacher construct tho oxcellent spheric i

nstrument (so that it may be self-revolving).

(Tho knowledge of) this, tho Sun s mothod is lost at tho end of every Yuua.

19. It arises again by the favour of somo one (great astronomer) when ho pleases

.

So let other solf-revolving instruments be furnished for measuring timo.

gO. To (such) a surprising instrument let (an astronomer) alone apply his contri

vance, (in secret), n^iar inatwimniifci foy Let smart (astronomers) from tho

Buring time. instruction of their teacher know tho

hour (of the day) by the dial instruments gnomon, staff, semicircle and circle i

n various ways.

21. Let also (astronomors) determine the hour exactly by the water-clocks, c

lepsydra &c., and the sand-clocks in the shape of peacock, man or monkey..

22. (For the self-revolution of the said instruments) apply tiie hollow spok

es (half filled) With mercury, water, threads, ropes, mixture of oil and water,

mercury and sand to them

(i. c. tlio instruments). These applications are very difficult of attainment.

Kapala Yantra or Clepsydra.

23. The copper vessel (in the shape of the lower half of a water jar)

which has a small hole in its bottom and being placed upon clean water in a basi

n sinks exactly 60 times in a nyctliorae-ron, is called the KapXla Yantra.

Tho Gnomon.

24. As also that instrument the Gnomon is very useful by day when tho

Sun is clear, and an excellent means of ascertaining time by taking its shadows.

Conclmion. 25, Ha rin kn0WU oxactly tk

science of tho planets and stars and

tho spheric, muti attains (his residence at) tho spheres of the planets (Moon &o

.) and becomes acquainted with tho spiritual knowledge by his regeneration, atta

ins to spiritual knowledge in a subsequent birth.

End of tho thirteenth Chapter called Jyavtisiiopanisiiat.

CHAPTER XIV.

On hinds of time.

Number of kinds of time.

1. There aro nine Mnas (kindb time), the Brahma (that of BrahmX), the Divya

(that of the Gods), the Pitrya, the PrIHpatya, as also that of Jupiter, tho Sola

r, tho Terrestrial, the Lunar and tho Siderial.

The xAvas which are used 2. The four ifiNAS the solar, tho *ere lunar, the sider

eal and the terrestrial

are (always) in use in this world: tho mIna of Jupiter is (used, n 2

hero) for knowing the GO Samvatsaras, an<\ the other manas aro not always (used)

.

Use of the solar mAna.

3, The lengths of the day and night, the Shapasati-hukhas,! tho solstitial

and equinoctial times, and the holy time of San-krAni I (i. e. the time of tho

entrance of the Sun into a sign at which a good action brings good desert to tho

performer) are determined by tho solar mAna.

The Sni^ia iTt Mukha. 4 Every eigUy-rixtl. (solar) <% reckoned from tho timo of

TulAdi (i, o. from tho timo at which the Sun enters the sign Libra) is called SH

ApAs fTi-HUKHA in succession. Thoso four days lie (in the four solar months) whe

n the Sun is in the four signs of two natures (i. o. Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius

and Pisces).

There are four Shadab Iti &. (The first SHApASfTI-MtfKHA hap-Mdxhab in a year.

pens when fl10 gun j8) ^ 20th de-

gree of Sagittarius, (the second) at the 22nd degree of Pisces, (the third) at t

he 18th degree of Gemini and (tho fourth) at 14th degree of Virgo.

6. Then (aftor the fourth SiiApAs fTi-MUKnA) the remaining 16 solar days of th

e solar month at which the Sun is in Virgo, are equal to a sacrifice (i. e. good

actions porformed in tlieso days give groat merit equal to that of a sacrifice)

and in theso days a gift given in honour of deceased ancestors is imperishable

(i. e. tho gift giveB infinite merit).

Four common points of 7. In tho middle of the starry llie sphere, the two

equinoxes are diame-

trically opposed, so are the two solstices (in the ecliptic); those four points

(of the ecliptic) are very common.

other point.. 8- A6ain> between every two con.

seoutive points (of them) two SankbAn-

B.D.

56th S zoka of the first Chapter, fi. D. t>3fiis word will be explained in the f

ollowing S ioxa.

oftheidiptlc d3 iJ)1,ero,ne,n^theti,nein which he Sun mores one degree tis or t

he beginnings of the signs are situated in the ecliptic: (And of the twelve poin

ts of the ecliptic, just mentioned), the points which are next to the (four comm

on) points (i. e. tho beginnings of the four signs Taurus, Leo, Scorpio and Aqua

rius) aro called the VisiiNU-PADf.

Two halves of a tropical, 9. From (the time of) tho Sun s

ycar <23> entrance into Capricorn tho six solar

<23> A solaryoar is divided into six seasons, vis. The S is iha (tho ver

y cold season), tho Yasavta (the Spring), the GitfsiiJfA (tho hot season) tho Vj

bsua (the rainy season), the S abat (the Autumn) and the Uixanta (tho cold reaso

n). JJ. D.

months are the UttarXyana (tho northing of the Sun): in tlio same manner from th

e tune of tbe entrance of tlio Sun into Cancer, the six solar months aro tlio Da

kshixayana (tho southing of tho Sun).

Tho reasons, months and 19. From that time (i. o. tho )car <24> winter solstice)

the periods, in each of

<24> A solaryoar is divided into six seasons, vis. The S is iha (tho ver

y cold season), tho Yasavta (the Spring), the GitfsiiJfA (tho hot season) tho Vj

bsua (the rainy season), the S abat (the Autumn) and the Uixanta (tho cold reaso

n). JJ. D.

which tho San remains iu tho t^wo signs aro tho seasons S jsira (tho very oold s

eason) &c. <25> and tho twelve periods in which the Sun remains in the 12 Bigns

Aries, &c., aro the solar months and a year is equal to tho aggrogato of theso m

onths.

<25> A solaryoar is divided into six seasons, vis. The S is iha (tho ver

y cold season), tho Yasavta (the Spring), the GitfsiiJfA (tho hot season) tho Vj

bsua (the rainy season), the S abat (the Autumn) and the Uixanta (tho cold reaso

n). JJ. D.

Tho holy timo of Sax- H. The number of minutes con-KB <26>8TL tained in the Su

n s disc multiplied by

<26> A solaryoar is divided into six seasons, vis. The S is iha (tho ver

y cold season), tho Yasavta (the Spring), the GitfsiiJfA (tho hot season) tho Vj

bsua (the rainy season), the S abat (the Autumn) and the Uixanta (tho cold reaso

n). JJ. D.

CO and divided by (his) daily motion (givos a certain numbor of ( oha JikXs.) Hal

f these ghatikas, before as well as after tho SankrXnti (or tho time of the Suns

passage from one sign into another) is holy.

12. The time in which the Moon, being separate from the Sun (after a

conjunction), moves doily to the east is tho lunar mXna. Tho time in which the M

oon describes 12 degrees (from tho Sun) is a lunar day.

13. The Tjthi (lunar day), tho Karana (half of a titiii), the time of

marriage, shaving and all other acts, as also (tho times of)

The lunar mAha.

Use of (lie lunar icXna.

religious acts of obligations, fasts and pilgrimages are regulated by the lunar

mXna.

, 14! A lunar month which consists

The mAna of Piteis.

, of 30 lunar days,is, as mentioned before, a day and night of the Pitjiis. The e

nd of a (lunar) month and that of the light half of that month take place in tho

middle of them (tho day aud night of the Piteis) respectively.

Tho sidereal mana.

15. A daily revolution of the starry sphere is called a sidereal day.

Naming

months.

of the lunar

The lunar months are named from tho Nakshatuas (or asterisms) which take place (

or in which tho Moon is) on tho 15th day of theso months.t f

16. On tho 15th day of (each of the lunar months) KIbtika and others, (eithe

r of every) couplo of the Naksiiatras reckoned from K$ittikI takes place success

ively. (But on tho 15th day of each of) tho three months such as tho last (i. c.

AVwina) and that coming beforo the last (i. e. BhXdrapada) and the fifth (i. e.

PiiXlguna) one of three Naksitatras takes place.:[ Toars of Jupitor 1 (As th

e lunar months are named

Kartika &c. from the union of thoir 15th day with tho Nakshatras K^ittikX, &c. s

o) tho years of Jupiter are called Kartika, &c. from tho union of tho 15th day o

f tho dark half of tho months Vais ^kha, &c. (with the Nak-

* Tho Naksiiatbas aro found in the 61th S loka of the 2nd Chapter. B. D. t The f

irst lunar month is named Chaitba from the Nakshatba Chitba, the 2nd Vaib a kua

, from VibVkea the 3rd Jtbshtua, from JrxsETBA, tho 4th Asuapba from PurvaVha i

jha , the 5th S ba vasa, from S bavan a, the 6th Bha -dbafada from P(?bta bua dr

apad v f the 7th As wina from Aa wiNf, tho 8th Ka btixa from Kritmka, tho 9th Ma

^gabTusha from M^fGAs fRSHA, tlio 10th Patjsiia from Pusbya, the lltli Ma gea fr

om Maoha and tho 12th- Pha lguna from PtJnvA-PUAi.QUNi. B. D.

I On the 15th day of the lunar month Ka btixa, the Nakshatba Krittika er RoHiyf

takes place; of Margas Irsha, M^ga or Abdba , of Pause a, Punas-vabu or Pushya ;

of Magha, As lssha or Magha i of Phalguna, Pubyapeal-OUNf or UTTABAFHALGUNf Or

HA8TA J of CHAITBA , CHITBA Or SWA TI ; of Vais akea, Vis a kea or Anuba dua

; of Jtxshtea, Jyibutha or MtiiA; of AsUAOUA, PuBVA/SHApilA or UTTARA;SlfApUA

; of SBAYAgA, SRAYANA Or 1>HA-njshtka j of Bdawrafada, 8 atata ba, Pukya bha dra

pada or Utxaba bka -dhapada | and of As wina, RbyatI As wixf or BhabanI. B. 1).

SHATRA8 KrittikX,^&c., when at the said 15th day) Jupiter rises or sets heliacal

ly.

Terrestrial hXna.

18. The time from one rising of the Sun to tho next ip called a SXvana

or a terrestrial day, from this the numbor of terrestrial days in a Kal?a is det

ermined: By these days the time of sacrifice is calculated.

It s use.

19. Determination of tho SiJtaka (or impurity contracted in consequence

of a death or birth in ones family), the rulers of the day, month and year, and t

ho mean motion of a planet nro reckoned by Si van A (or the terrestrial mXna).

T).. hAm of tho Go. 30- 14 is said bofore tllat tho

and night of tho Gods and the AsurXs

are mutually reverse: This day and night which is found from the completion of t

ho Suns revolution is DivYA (or tho mXna of the Gods).

Pea ja patya haka.

21. The duration of a Manu (which, as mentioned before, is equal to 71

Yuoas) is called PrXjXpatya (or the mXna of PrajXpati who was the father of Manu

s). There is no division of tho day and night in this mXna.

TIk. Bm uha ham. Tho Kaipa is 001,63 tho (r

the MXna of BrafimX).

22. 0 superior Mata, I declared this secret and surprisingly excellent

(knowledge) to you. This (equivalent to) the holy knowledge is exceedingly merit

orious and the destroyer of all sins.

23. Having known this excellent divine knowledge of the stars and tho planet

s which is (just) imported to you, man acquires a perpetual place on tho spheres

of the Sun &c.

24. Having properly imparted this to Maya and said this (the meaning of the

preceding two verses) and being worshipped by him, the man who partakes of the n

ature of tho Sun, ascended to heaven and entered the disc of the Sun.

25. Theu heaving learned the divine knowledge from the Sun himsplf, Maya con

sidered himself as one who had done his duty, and free from sins.

.20. Then having known that Maya had obtained a blessing of the Sun (some) saint

s approached and asked him respect, fully the knowledge.

27. Ho (Maya) being delighted gave the great knowledge of the planets to the

m (the saints) which is very surprising in this world, socrot and equivalent to

the holy knowledge.

End of the 14tli Chapter, of the Second Part, and of the work.

PoSTSCllTPT BY THE TRANSLATOR.

It is Btatcd in the Surya-spdhXnta that a dialogue took placo between a man part

aking of the nature of the Sun and a Demon calloh Maya 2,104,900 years before th

o present time. But nobody knows who has put this dialogue into verse or the dat

o of this versification. People believe that it is tho production of some Muni (

saint), and many arc of opinion that it is the oldest of eighteen ancient astron

omical works. Its style is easy, and tho reading of it, as of the FurXnas, is co

nsidered to be meritorious. Every subject is treated more fully in this than in

any other of the ancient Siddhantas, and the revolutions of the planets are so c

orrectly stated in it that their places can bo determined with great accuracy.

The names of the eighteen ancient SiddhXntas are

1. Sdrya-siddhanta.

2. Bralima-s.

3. Vydsa-s.

4. Vasishtha-s.

5. Atri-s.

C. Par&sara-s.

7. Kasyapo-s.

8. Ndrada-s.

9. Garga-s.

10. Mariehi-s.

11. Manu-s.

12. Angiras-s.

13. Lomas a-s.

14. Pulisa-s. lj). Chyavana-s.

16. Yavana-s.

*17. Bhfigu-s.

18. S aunaka or Soma-s.

Although it is generally snpposed that the S^rya-sidditanta is the oldost, yetso

mo consider the Bbaiima-sIddiiXnta to bo so: and it is stated in the S ambhu-hor

Iprakas a (an astrological work), that tho Soma-siddhXnta is the first, tlio Bii

aii-ma-siddhAnta the second, and the Subya-siddiiXnta the third in the order of

time. But this opinion is not generally received. Of the eighteen ancient Siddha

ntas only four (viz. Surya-s., Brali-ma-s., Soma-s., and Vasishtha-s.) aro now p

rocurable j the others are very rare.

In the translation wherever words aro supplied by way of explanation they aro in

cluded in brackets. In soino placos tho original Sauskrit is so brief and terse,

that it is not only obscure, but unintelligible, without tho insertion of words

to complete tlicsenso: e. g. p. 24, S loka Ct.

. BAPir DEV A.

Sanskrit Colleye, Jknans, 1800.

ET1110 11 S.

Page. Line from top. Error. Correction.

1 C 7 Properties (of all created things). Properties,

1 {) Siva. Siva.

5 13 Re vati. RevatI.

S 4 KrCta vrtiv. Kiirrv YuuA.

12 32 M a mi vAti \ti. MlUiri AUATf.

INDEX.

Armillary sphere, Page ... 87

Aster ism, ... ... ... ... ... G2

(osmograpliical matters, ... 70

Dial; application to find the position of tho Sun, ... ... 20

Eclipses of the Moon, ... ... 41, 52

of the Sun, 48, 52

Heliacal rising and setting, ... 05

Horoscope, ... ... ... 39

Knlpa, ... 4

Latitude of a place, ... 30

Mcru, its ocean, &c., ... ... ... ... 79

Moon, eclipses of, ... ... ... 41, 52

phases and cusps of,... ... G9

Planets, on finding tlicir mean places,... ... 1

true places, ... ... 13

revolutions of, ... 3

cause of their motion, ... 13

,, conjunctions of, ... 50, 01

order of, ... 79

dimensions of, their orbits and daily motions, ... 80

Position, questions on, ... 20

Precession of tho equinoxes, ... 29

Signs of the ecliptic (or zodiac), right ascension of, 38

Sim, longitude, declination, Ac., of, ... 31

., eclipses, ... 48, 52

Sun and Moon, when declinations are equal, 72

Time, kinds of, 4, 91

questions on, ... 20

Yugas, ... ... ... 3

TRANSLATION

OF TUB

SIDDHANTA &R0MANI.

CONTENTS.

Page

Chapter I.In praise of the advantages of the study of the

Spheric, 105

Chapter II.Questions on tho general view of the Sphere, ... 107

Chapter III.Called Bhuvana-kos a or Cosmography, 112

Chapter IV.Called Madhya-gati-vasanfi; on tho principles . of the Buies for findi

ng the mean places of the Planets,... 127 Chapter V.On the principles on which th

e Iiules for finding

the true places of tho Planets are grounded, 125

Chapter VI.Called Golahandlia; on the construction of an

Armillary Sphere, a J51

Chapter VII.Called Tripras na-vfisana; on the principles of the Bulcs resolving t

he questions on time, space, and

directions, ICO

Chapter VIII.Called Grahana-vdsami; in explanation of the

cause of Eclipses of the Sun and Moon, 170

Chapter IX.Called Drikkarama-v&sand; on the principles of the Buies for finding t

he times of the rising and setting

of the heavenly bodies, J96

Chapter X.Called S ringonnati-vasanfi; in explanation of .

the cause of the Phases of the Moon, 200

Chapter XI.Called Yantr&dhy&ya; on the use of astronomical

instruments, 209

Chapter XII.Description of the Seasons, 228

Chapter XIII.Containing useful questions called Pras nfi-

dhyflya, 23 L

TRANSLATION OF THE GOLADHYAtA OF TIIE SIDDHANTA-S IROMANI.

CHAPTER I.

Tn praise of the atlrnntiujes of the stuihj of the Spheric, Salutation to GaxesA

!

Invocation 1 ^aviuf? saluted that God, who

when called upon brings all under-takings to a successful issue, and also that G

tAldess, through whose benign favour the tongues of poets, gifted with a flow of

words over new and with elegance, sweetness and playfulness, sport in their mou

ths as in a place of recreation, as dancing-girls adorned with beauty disport th

emselves in the dance with elegance and with every variety of step, I proceed to

indite this work on the Sphere. It has been freed from all error, and rendered

intelligible to the lowest capacity.

M 2. Inasmuch as no calculator can

Object of the work. . . ,., .,

hope to ocquiro in the assemblage of

the learned a distinguished reputation as an Astronomer, without a clear underst

anding of the principles upon which all the calculations of the mean and other p

laces of the planets are founded, and to remove the doubts which may arise in hi

s own mind, I therefore proceed to treat of the sphere, in such a manner as to m

ake the reasons of all my calculations manifest. On inspecting the Globe they be

come clear and manifest as if submitted to the eye, and are as completely at com

mand, as the wild apple (&iiwl) held in the palm of the hand.

B

3. As a feast with abundance of oMhe sJiWric. ,8norance all things but without c

larified butter,

* and as a kingdom without a king, and

an assemblage without eloquent speakers have little to recommend thorn; so the A

stronomer who has no knowledge of the spheric, commands no consideration.

4. As a foolish impudent disputant, who ignorant of grammar (rudely) enters

into the company of the learned and vainly prates, is brought to ridicule, and

put to shame by the frowns and ironical remarks of even children of any smartnes

s, so he, who is ignorant of the spheric, is exposed in an assemblage of the Ast

ronomers, by the various questions of really accomplished Astronomers.

Object of the Armillary 5. ,Tho Armillary sphere is said, by ipliero the wise

, to be a representation of the

celestial sphere, for the purpose of ascertaining the proofs of the positions of

the Earth, the stars, and the planets: this is a species of figure, and hence i

t is deemed by the wise to be an object of mathematical calculation.

_ , 6. It is said by ancient nstrono-

ln praise of mathematics. J

mers that the purpose of the science is judicial astrology, and this indeed depe

nds upon the influence of tho horoscopo, and this on the true places of the plan

ets : these (true places) can be found only by a perfect knowledge of the spheri

c. A knowledge of the spheric is not to bo attained without mathematical calcula

tion. How then can a man, ignorant of mathematics, comprehend the doctrine of th

e sphere &c. ?

Who is likely to under. 7 Mathematical calculations are take the study with effe

ct. 0f two kinds, Arithmetical and Algebraical : he who has mastered both forms,

is qualified if he have previously acquired (a perfect knowledge of) the Gramma

r (of the Sanskrit Language,) to undertake the study of the various branches of

Astronomy. Otherwise he may acquire tho name (but never tho substantial knowledg

e) of an Astronomer.

8. He who has acquired a perfect

In praise of Grammar. knowledge of Grammar, which has been

termed Vedavadana i. e. the modth of the Vedas and domicile of Saraswat% may acq

uire a knowledge of cveiy other sciencenay of the Vedas themselves. For this reas

on it is that none, but he who has acquired a thorough knowledge of Grammar, is

qualified to undertake the study of other sciences. The opinion of others on 9.

0 learned man; if you intend

oTUX^theitidJ to 8tudytho BPhe> shuly lll Treatise of it. of BuXskara, it is neith

er too concise

nor idly diffuse: it contains every essential principle of tho science, and is o

f easy comprehension; it is moreover written in an eloquent style, is mado inter

esting with questions; it imparts to all who study it that # manner of correct e

xpression in learned assemblages, approved of by accomplished scholars.

End of Chapter I.

CHAPTER II.

Questions on the Geneml view of the Sphere.

Questions regarding the ! This Earth being encircled by Eartll< tho revolving pl

anets, remains sta-

tionary in the heavens, within the orbits of all the revolving : fixed stars; te

ll mo by whom or by what is it supported, that it ^ falls not downwards (in spac

e) ?

2. Tell me also, after a full examination of all the various opinions on th

e subject, its figure and magnitude, how its principal islands mountains and sea

s are situated in it ?

3. Tell me, 0 my father, why tho

Zfl? 2T P^e of a planet found out from well

taining planets true placet calculated Ahargana (or enumeration autt their cause

s. , . . , _

of mean terrestrial days, elapsed from ,

108 Traiwhtion of the [II. 3.

the commencement of the Kalpa) by applying the rule of pro-

* [A Kalra is that portion of time, which intervenes between one conjunction of

gll the planets at the Horizon of LankA (that place at the terrestrial equator,

where the longitude is 76 K., reckoned from Greenwich) at the first point of Ari

es, and a subsequent similar conjunction. A Kalpa jxmsists of 14 HANUg and their

16 sandhis"; each manu lying between 2 sandhis. Each itano

contains 71 tpgas; eacli yuoa is divided into 4 yugAnghris viz., Krita, Testa ,

DwApara and Katj, the length of each of these is as the numben 4, 3, 2 and 1. Th

e beginning and end of each yugVnghbis being each one 12th part of it are respec

tively called its bandhyA and Sandhya nba. The numbei of sidereal years containe

d in each yuoa nghri, Ao. are shewn below;

Kali, 432,000,

Dwa para, 864,000,

Tbeta 1,296,000,

Krita, 1,728,000,

Yuoa, 4,320,000,

71X Yuoa = manu 4,294,080,000,

14 Manu 306,720,000,

15 Manu sandhis each equal to a Krita YuoAnghei, 25,920,000,

Kalpa, . 4320,000,000,

Of the present Kalpa 6 manus with their 7 sandhis, 27 yugas and thcii three yuga

ngiiki i. e. Krita, Theta, and Dwa para, and 3179 sidereal years o the fourth y

uga nguri of the 28th Yuoa of the 7th manu, that is to say 1,972,947,179 siderea

l years have elapsed from the beginning of the preseu i Kalpa to the commencemen

t of the Sa uwa itana ora. Now we can easily find on the numbor of years that ha

ve elapsed iruni tho beginning of the present Kalpj to any time we like.

By astronomical observations tho number of terrestrial and synodic lunar day ill

any given number of years can be ascertained and then, with the result found th

eir number in a Kalpa or Yuoa can bo calculated by the rule of proportion.

By this method anoient Astronomers found out tho number of lunar and ter restriA

l days in a Kalpa as given below.

l|602|999|000t000 (synodic) Innw days ) > w

and 1,677,916,450,000 terrestrial days )1,1 a KALPA

With tho foregoing results and a knowledge of the number of sidereal year contai

ned in a Kalpa as well of those that have passed, wo cn.i find out tli number of

mean terrestrial days from the beginning of a Kalpa to any givci day. This numb

er is oalled Ahargana and the method of finding it is given ii Ga#itj(diiyya by B

jia skaba cha bya.

By the daily mean motions of the planets, ascertained by altronomical observe ti

ons, the nnmbers of their revolutions in a Kalpa are known and are given ii work

s on Astronomy.

To flud the plaee of a planet by the number of its revolutions, the number c * d

ays oontained in a Kalpa and the Ahargana to a given day, the following pro port

ion is used.

As the terrestrial days in a Kalpa,

: the number of revolutions of a planet in a Kalpa

: tbe Ahargana :

: the number of revolutions and signs Ac. of the planet in the Ahargana.

By leaving out the number of revolutions, contained in the result found, th rema

ining signs Ac. indicate the place of the planet.

Now, the inteution of the querist is this, why should not this be the tru place o

f a planet P In the GanitAdhyAya. BhaskakAcha rya has stated tli revolutions in

a Kalpa, but he has here mentioned the revolutions in a YUG on account of his c

onstant study of the S ^hya-dhivriDDHIDa-tantra, a Tm tiso on Astronomy by Lalla

who has stated in it the revolutions in a Yuoa.- B. D.l

portion to the revolutions in the Yoga &c. is not a tme ono ? (i. e. why is jt o

nly.a mean and not the true place) , and why the rules for finding the true plad

es of the different planets aro not of the same kind ? What are the Desant4i<a,

Udayantaba, Bhujantara, andCHABA corrections?-)- What is tlicMAXDoenoHAj: (slow

or 1st Apogee)and S IchrochchaJ (quick or 2nd Apogee)? What is the node ?

4. What is the Kendra || and that which arises frdm it (i. o. the sine, cos

ine, &c. of it) ? What is tho Mandaitiala|| (the first equation) and S fonRAPHALA

f (the 2nd equation) which depend on the sine of tho Krndra ? Why does tho place

of a planet become true, when the Maxuaphala or S /oitkapiiala

* [Tt may be proper to give notes explaining concisely tho technical terms occur

ring in these questions, which have no corresponding terms in English, in order

that tho English Astronomer nitty at once apprehend these questions without wait

ing for the explanation of them which tho Author gives in tho sequel. 11. D.l

s

t [To find the place of a planet at the time of sun-rise at a given place, the s

everal important corrections, i. c. tho iJpAYA yTABA.DjipJA yjABi. Djjg jfoiAm. a

nd CtfAUA are to bo applied to the mean place o! the planet found out from the A

il ABO ana by the fact of the mean place being found from the Akaegapa for tho t

ime when a fictitious body, which is supposed to movo uniformly in the Equinocti

al, and to perform a complete revolution in the same time as the Sun, reaches th

e horizon of Lanka . We now proceed to explain the corrections.

Tho Udaya ntaha and Bhpja ntaba corrections are to be applied to the mean place

of a planet found from the Ahabgana for finding the place of the planet at the t

rue time whon the Sun comes to the horizon of Lanka arising from thoso two port

ions of tho equation of time respectively, one due to the inclination of the ecl

iptic to the equinoctial and the other to the unegui3~motion of the Sun in tho c

eliptio.

Tho TTbVa ntaiia and Citaba corrections are to be applied to the mean place of a

planet applied with tho Udaya ntaba and Biujja ntaha eorrections, for finding t

ho place of the planet at the time of sun rise at a given plaoe.

Tho Dbb a ntaba correction due to the longitude of the piece reckoned from tho m

eridian of Xanka and the Cuaba correction to the ascentional differ-enco. B. 1)

.]

{ [ManduCIICITA is equivalent to the higher Apsis. The Sun s and Moon s Mandochc

haB (higher Apsides) are the same as their Apogees, while the other planets .Ma

ndochcvas aro equivalent to their Aphelions. B. 1).]

[SVanROcnCHAistliat point of the orbit of each of the primary planets (i. e. Xln

rs, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn) which is furthest from the Earth. B..DJ

|| [Kendra is of two hinds, one called Mavda-kendra corresponds with the anomaly

and the other called STghba-kkndra is equivalent to the commutation added to or

subtracted from 180 as the Sigba-kendka is greater or less then 180 B. DJ

% [Manda-pkaia is the same as (lie equation of the centre of a planet and SYghba

-phala is equivalent to the annual parallax of the superior planet j and tlie el

ongation of the inferior planota. B. D.J

Translation of the [II. 5.

no

r

are (at one time) added to and (at another) sybtracted from it ? What is.jbhe tw

ofold correction called Drikkarma which Ictfmcd astronomers have applied (to the

true place of a planet) at the rising and setting of the planet % Answer me all

these questions plainly, if you have a thorough knowledge of the sphere.

Questions regarding the 5. Tell me, 0 you acute. astrono-

length of tW) day ind night. ^ ^ wh(Jn gnn Jg <m th(J

northern hemisphere, is the day long and the night short, and the day short and

the night long when the Sun is on the southern hemisphere ?

6. How is it that tho day and

Qnestion regarding tho .

length of the day and night night oi the bods and their enemies

ani1^TYA8,PlT?I8 Mityas correspond in length with the solar years ? How is it tha

t the night and day of tho Pitris is equal in length to a (synodic) lunar month,

and how is it that tho day and night of Brahma is 2000 YUOAsf in length ?

Questions reding the 7- Wh? 0 Astronomer, is it that periods of risings of the th

e 12 signs of tho Zodiac which aro signs o t io odiae. ap 0f CqUal length, rise

in unequal

times (even at the Equator,) and why are not those periods of rising the same in

all countries ?

Questions as to the places of 8. Shew mo, 0 learned one, the the DtujtA, the Kuj

ya , &c. pla(Jea of the (the radius of

the diurnal circle), the KujyX (tho sine of that part of the arc of the diurnal

circle intercepted between tho horizon and the six oclock line, i. e. of the asce

nsional differenco in terms

[Drikkabma is_thecorrection requisite to be applied ft) the place Qf a planet, f

orfindingtlie point of tTTo"ecliptic on tho horizon when the planet reaches it.

This correction is to be applied to the place of a planet by means of its two po

rtions, one called tbe Avana-Dsikkarma and the other the Aksha-drik karma. The p

laoo of a planet with the Ayana-drikkabxa applied, gives the point of tlie eclip

tic on the six oclock line when the planet arrives at it: and this corrected plac

e of the planet, again with the AxsHADpiKXARXA applied, givm the point of the ecl

iptic on the horizon when the planet cornea to it. B. D. J t The &ita, Tbbta , D

wa para and Kau are usually called Yogas : but the four together form only one Y

oga, according to the Siddha sta system, each of these four being held to be ind

ividually but a Yoga xghbi. L. W.

of a small circle), and show me also the places of the declination, Sama-sXnku,

<27> Agka (the sine of amplitude), latitude and co-latitudo &c. in this Arinillt

uy sphere as these pluces are <28> in the heavens. <29> ,

<27> [Sama-sa nku is the sine of the Sun s altitude when it comes to the

prime vertical. B. ]).]

t [An Eclipse of the Moon is caused by her entering into the Earth s shadow an

d as the place of the Earth s shadow and that of the Moon is the same at the ful

l moon, the conjunction of the Earth s shadow and tho Moon must happen at the sa

me time; and an Eclipse of the Sun is caused by theintcrpuM* tion of the Moon be

tween the Earth and tho Suu, and the conjunction of the Sun and Moon in like man

ner must happen at tho new moon, as then the place of the Sun and Moon is the sa

me. As this is the case with the eclipses of both of them (i. e. both the Sun an

d Moon) the querist asks, " If the middle of a lunar eclipse Ac. It is scarcely n

ecessary to add that the assumption that the middle of a lunar eclipse*takes pia

qe exactly at the lull moon, is only approximately correct. B. D ]

t [The Lambaita is equivalent tojhe Moon s parallax in longitude from the Sun re

duced into time by meant of the Moon s motion from the Sun: and the Nati is the

same as the Moon s parallax in latitude from tho Sun. B. D.]

<28> [Sama-sa nku is the sine of the Sun s altitude when it comes to the

prime vertical. B. ]).]

t [An Eclipse of the Moon is caused by her entering into the Earth s shadow an

d as the place of the Earth s shadow and that of the Moon is the same at the ful

l moon, the conjunction of the Earth s shadow and tho Moon must happen at the sa

me time; and an Eclipse of the Sun is caused by theintcrpuM* tion of the Moon be

tween the Earth and tho Suu, and the conjunction of the Sun and Moon in like man

ner must happen at tho new moon, as then the place of the Sun and Moon is the sa

me. As this is the case with the eclipses of both of them (i. e. both the Sun an

d Moon) the querist asks, " If the middle of a lunar eclipse Ac. It is scarcely n

ecessary to add that the assumption that the middle of a lunar eclipse*takes pia

qe exactly at the lull moon, is only approximately correct. B. D ]

t [The Lambaita is equivalent tojhe Moon s parallax in longitude from the Sun re

duced into time by meant of the Moon s motion from the Sun: and the Nati is the

same as the Moon s parallax in latitude from tho Sun. B. D.]

<29> [Sama-sa nku is the sine of the Sun s altitude when it comes to the

prime vertical. B. ]).]

t [An Eclipse of the Moon is caused by her entering into the Earth s shadow an

d as the place of the Earth s shadow and that of the Moon is the same at the ful

l moon, the conjunction of the Earth s shadow and tho Moon must happen at the sa

me time; and an Eclipse of the Sun is caused by theintcrpuM* tion of the Moon be

tween the Earth and tho Suu, and the conjunction of the Sun and Moon in like man

ner must happen at tho new moon, as then the place of the Sun and Moon is the sa

me. As this is the case with the eclipses of both of them (i. e. both the Sun an

d Moon) the querist asks, " If the middle of a lunar eclipse Ac. It is scarcely n

ecessary to add that the assumption that the middle of a lunar eclipse*takes pia

qe exactly at the lull moon, is only approximately correct. B. D ]

t [The Lambaita is equivalent tojhe Moon s parallax in longitude from the Sun re

duced into time by meant of the Moon s motion from the Sun: and the Nati is the

same as the Moon s parallax in latitude from tho Sun. B. D.]

If the middlo of a lunar Eclipse

middle of the solar Eclipse take place

in like manner at the change ? Why is the Eastern limb of the Moon in a lunar Ec

lipse first involved in obscurity, find the western limb of the Sun first eclips

ed in a solar Eclipse ?t

Questions regarding the 0. What, 0 most intelligent one, parallaxes. jg tli La

mbanaJ: and what is the

Nati? why is the Lam ban a applied to the Trmi and the Nati applied to the latit

ude (of the Moon) ? and why aro these corrections settled by means (of the radiu

s) of tho Earth ?

Questions regarding the 10. Ah ! why, after being full, does phases of the Moon.

the Moon, having lost her pure bright-^

ness, lose her circularity, as it were, by her too close association, caused by

her diurnal revolution with the night: and why again after having arrived in the

same sign as the Sun, does she thenceforth, by successive augmentation of her p

uro brightness, as .from association with tho Surf, attain her circular form V <

30>

<30> This Tone has a doable meaning, all the native writers, however gra

ve the subject, being much addicted to conceits. The second interpretation of th

is verse is as follows:

Ah! why does the most lcamod of Brahmans, though distinguished by his immaculate

conduct, lose his pure honour atfd influence as it were from his misconduct cau

sed by derangement ? It is no wonder that the said Brahman after having met with

a Brahman skilled in thg Vidas, and by having recourse to him, thenoeforth beoo

mes distinguished for his eminent good conduct by gradual augmentation of his il

lustriousness. L. W.

End of the second Chapter.

CHAPTER III.

Called Rhumna-lm a or Cmmoyraphj.

The aedbnc of the L Tho Supreme Boing Para Brah-

ma tho first principle, excels eternally. From the soul (Purusha) and nature (Pr

akriti,) when excited by the first principle, arose the first Great Intelligence

called the Mahattattwa or Buddhitattwa : from it sprung self-consciousness (Aha

nkXra :) from it were produced tho Ether, Air, Firo, Water, and Earth; and by th

o combination of these was mado tho universe BraumXnpa, in the centre of which i

s the Earth: and from BuahmX CiiaturXnana, residing on tho surface of the Earth,

sprung all animate and inanimate things.

_ . . 2. This Globe of the Earth form-

Dosonption of tho Earth. , . .

od of (the five elementary principles)

Earth, Air, Water, the Ether, and Fire, is perfectly round, and encompassed by t

he orbits of the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Hun, Mars, Jupitor, and Saturn, and b

y the constellations. It has no (material) supporter; but stands firmly in the e

xpanse . of hcavon by its own inherent force. On its surface throughout subsist

(in security) all animate and inanimate objects, Danujas and human beings, Gods

and Daityas.

3. It is covcrtd on all sides with multitudes of mountains, groves, towns and sa

cred edifices, as is the bulb of tho NaucWs globular flower with its multitude o

f anthers. <31>

<31> [It is manifest from this that neither can tho Kurth by any means f

all downwards, nor tho men siluuted at* the distances of a fourth part of the ci

rcumference from us or in the opposite hemisphere. B. D.] t [Ho who resides on t

he Kurth,^s not conscious of tho motion of it downwards iu space, as a inau sitt

ing on a moving ship does not perceive its motion, B. D.J

C

Refutation of the .ufooM- 4- If tk vere supported-by

tion that the Kurth lias sue- any material substanco or living ma-cessive support

ers. n .

* f ture, then that would require a second supporter, and for that second a thir

d would bo required. Here wo have tho absurdity of an interminable series. If th

e last of tho senes be supposed to remain firm by its own inherent power, then w

hy may not the same power be supposed to exist in the first, that is in the Kurt

h ? For is not the Earth one of the forms of the eight-fold divinity i. e. of B

iva.

Refutation of tho objec 5- M hcatis ",1 illk, out pvopirty tion, as to how tho Kurt

h of tliq Run and of Fire, as cold of tho lnw its own inherent power. ii ,

Moon, fluidity ot water, and hardness

of stones, and as tho Air is volatile, so the earth is naturally immoveable. For

oh! tho properties existing in things are wonderful.

0. The <32> property of attraction, is inherent in tho Earth. By this property t

he Earth attacts any unsupported heavy thing towards it: Tho thing appears to be

falling [but it is in a stuto of being drawn to the Earth]. Tho etherial expans

e being equally outspread all around, where can tho Earth fall ?

<32> [It is manifest from this that neither can tho Kurth by any means f

all downwards, nor tho men siluuted at* the distances of a fourth part of the ci

rcumference from us or in the opposite hemisphere. B. D.] t [Ho who resides on t

he Kurth,^s not conscious of tho motion of it downwards iu space, as a inau sitt

ing on a moving ship does not perceive its motion, B. D.J

C

Opinion of th. Baud- 7- Observing the revolution of the beas. constellations,

tho Bauudhas thought

that tho Earth had no support, and as no heavy body is seen stationary in the ai

r, they asserted that the earthf goes eternal- ly downwards in space.

8. The Jajnas and others maintain that there are two Suns and two

Opinion of the Jamas.

Moons, and also two acts of constellations,awhich rise in constant alternation.

To them I give this appropriate answer.

ite.ti.rn of tho opinion 9- OWing an you do, 0 Baud-of the Bavdubas. t phA| th

at every hea/.y body projected

into the air, comes back again to, and overtakes the Earth, how then can you idl

y maintain that tho Earth is hilling down in space? [If true, the Earth being th

e heavier body, would, ho imagines <33>perpetually gain on the higher projectile

and never allow its overtaking it.]

<33> [This was Bdaskarab own notion shut even on the more correct principl

e, , (hat all bodies fall with equal rapidity, tho argument holds good. B. J).j

Refutation of tho opinion 19. Hut what shall \ say to thy of the Jainas.

folly, 0 Jaina, who without object or

use supposcst a double set of constellations, two Suns and two Moons ? Dost thou

not see that the visible circumpolar constellations take a wliolo day to comple

te their revolutions ?

Refutation of tho oupposi- 11- -If this blessed Earth were level, tion that tho

Earth & level. ]^0 plJlll0 mirror, then why is not tho

gun, revolving above at a distance from the Earth, visible to men as well as to

tho Gods? (on the Paukanika hypothesis, that it is always revolving ^ibout Merit

, above and horizontally to tho Earth.

12. If tho Golden mountain (Mkru) is the cause of night, then why is it not

visible when it intervenes between us and tbo Suu? And Meku being admitted (by t

he Paitkaxikas) to lie to tho North, how comes it to pass that the Sun rises (fo

r half the year) to the South ?

_ , , 13. As tho onc-humlredth part of

Reason of the false ap- . , ...

* pearance of tho plane form the circumference ot a circle is (scarec-

ot the Earth. |y different from) a plane, and as

the Earth is an excessively large body, and a niau exceedingly small (in compari

son,) the whole visible portion of tho Earth consequently appears to a man on it

s surface to be ported ly

To con firm (he same rir- 15. As it is ascertained by caleula-cumicmice of tlie

Eurtlu ti(m t,hat (.ity of Uj,AYINf is

Proofofllio convotW of U\ Thl,t t,,C < 0mTt M

alh Rfd oircuinfercnco of Ihc till) circumference of the JSartll htlVO

Earlllt boon Slated may ho proved by < the

simple Rule of proportion in this mode : (ascertain the dijler-eneo in Yujanas b

etween two towns in an exact north and south line, and aseertain also the differ

ence of the latitudes of those towns : then say) if the difference of latitude g

ives this distance in Yujanas, wliat will the whole circumference of 300 degrees

give ?

situated at a distance from the equator equal to the one-sixteenth part of the w

hole circumference: this distance, therefore, multiplied by 1(3 will be the meas

ure of tlu; Earths circumference. What reason them is there in attributing (as th

e PaukXnikas do) such an immense magnitude tl) the earth ?

1 (3. For the position of the moons cusps, the conjunction of the planets, eclips

es, the time of the risings and settings of the planets, the lengths of the shad

ows of the gnomon, Ac., arc all consistent with this (estimate of the extent of

the) circumference, and not with any other ; therefore it is declared that the c

orrectness of the aforesaid measurement of the earth is proved both directly and

iudirectly,(directly, by its agreeing with the phenomena;indirectly, by no other

estimate agreeing with the phenomena).

17. LankX is situated in the middle of the Earth: Yama-koh is situated to tl

i6 East of Lanka, and Romakapattana to the west. The city of Siddhapura lies und

erneath LankL Sumeru is situated to the North (under the North Polo,) and YadavX

nala to the South of LankX (under the south Pole) :

18. These six places are situated at a distance of one-fourth part of the Ea

rths circumference each from its adjoining one. So those who have a knowledge of

Geography maintain. At Merc reside the Gods and the Siddhas, whilst at VadavXnai

a are situated all the hells and the Daityas,

19. A man on whatever part of the plobo he may be, thinks the purth to bo un

der his feet, and that he is standing np eight upon it: but two individuals plac

ed at 90 from each othyr, fancy each that the other is standing iu a horizontal l

ine, as it were at right angles to himself.

20. Those who are placed at the distance of half the Earths circumference fro

m each other aro mutually antipodes, as a man oh the bauk of a river und his sha

dow reilected in the water: Hut as well those who are situated at the distance o

f 90 as those who aro situated at that of 180 from you, maintain their positions

without difficulty. They stand with the samo ease os we do here in our position

.

Positions of the Dwipas 21. Most learned astronoinors have *nd stated that JamB

uowffa embraces the

whole northern hemisphere lying to the north of the salt soa: and that the other

six Dwifas and the (seven) Seas viz. those of salt, milk, Ac. aro all situated

in the southern hemisphere.

22. To tho south of tho equator lies the salt sea, and to the south of it th

e sea of milk, whence sprung tho nectar, the Moon and tho Goddess LakshmI, and w

hom tho Omnipresent VXsudkva, to whoso Lotus-feet BkaumI and all the Gods bow in

reverence, holds his favorite residcnco.

23. Beyond the sea of milk lie in succession tho seas of curds, clarified bu

tter, sugar-cane-juice, and wino: and, last of all, tliut of sweet Water, which

surrounds Vadavanat.a. .The Patau Loras or infernal regions, form the concave st

rata of the Earth.

21. In those lower regions dwell the race of serpents (who live) iu the ligh

t shed by the rays issuing from the multitude of tho brilliant jewels of their c

rests, together with the multitude of Asuuas; and them the Si^duas enjoy themsel

ves with tho pleasing persons of beautiful females resembling the finest gold iu

purity.

* 25. The S ara, Salhau, Kavsa, KbIuncha, Gomedaka,and

t

Pi snKARA DwIpas /ire situated [in the intervals of the above mentioned seas] in

regular alternation: each Dwipa lying, it is said, between two of these sc as.

Positions of the M<>iin- 26. To the North of LankX lies tho H>mlaya mountain, nm

l beyond caused by the mountains.. that the IIkMIkC TA mountain and beyond that

again tho Nisiiaimia mountain. These threo Mountains stretch from sea to sea. In

liko manner to tho north of SiDDifAruRA lie in succession the S kinuavIn S ukia

and Nfr.A monntains. To tho valleys lying between these mountains tho wise have

given the name of Vakstias.

27. This valley which we inhabit is called tho Bharata-

VAitsifA} to the North of it lies tho Kinnabavaksua, and beyond it again tho IIa

rivarsiia, and know that the north of KiddhaiUua in liko manuer are situated tho

Kuuu, Hirav-maya and Hamyaka Varhiias.

28. To tho north of Yamakoji lies tho MalyavXn mountain, and to the north of

RomakaiAttana tiro G an oh am a dana mountain. Theso two mountains arc terminat

ed by tho Nila and Nisiiadha mountains, and tho space between theso two is calle

d tho Ilavrita Vaksiia.

29. Tho country lying between the Maly A van mountain and tho sea, is called

tho Buadiias wa-vaksiia by tho learned; and geographers have denominated the co

untry between tho GandiiastXdana ami tho sea, the Ivetiima la-vaksha.

30. Tho I la VJ.ILTA- vaksiia, which is bounded by tho Nishadiia, Nla, Ganbti

amadana and Malyavan mountains, is distinguished by a peculiar splendour. It is

a laud rendered brilliaut by its shining gold, and thickly covered with the bowe

rs of the immortal Gods.

Position of tii mountain 31. In the middle of the Ilivrita Mibu xn Ilavriha.

Vaksiia stands the mountain Mkhu,

which is composed of gold and of precious stones, the abode of the immortal Gods

. Expounders of tho Puranas have further described this Meru to be tho pericarp

of the earth-lotus whence Brahma had his birth.

82. Tlio four mountains Mandara, Sucjandha, Vipula and SupXrs w^ servo as buttre

sses to support this Meru, and upon theso four hills grow severally the Kadamba,

Jamb, Va^a and PiniALA trees which are as banners on tjiose four hills.

88. Prom tho clear juice which flows from the fruit of the Jamb(/ springs tho ja

muu-nadI ; from contact with this juico earth Incomes gold: and it is from this

fact that gold is called jaJihunada : [this juico is of so exquisite a flavour t

hat] tho multitude of tho immortal (lods and Niudttas, turning with distasto fro

m nectar, delight to quaff this delicious beverage.

81. And it is well known that upon those four hills [tho buttresses of Merit

] are four gardens, (Ik/) Oijaitraratha of varied brilliancy [sacred to Kuiieka]

, (2ml) Nandana which is the delight of tho Ai saras, ($nf) the which

gives refreshmbiifc to tho Clods, and (t//<) tho resplendent YaibhrAja.

35. And in those gardens are beautified four reservoirs, viz. tho Aru.va, the Ma

n as a, tho Maiiailrada and the S wjsta-JALA, in duo order: and these are the la

kes in the waters

* of which tlio celestial spirits, when fatigued with their dalliauco with

the fair Goddesses, love to disport themselves.

30. Merit divided itself into three peaks, upon which are situated the three

cities sacred to Vishnu, IIrahmA and S iva [denominated Vaikuntha, Uraumapura,

and KailAsa], and beneath them are the eight cities sacred to Indka, Acini, Yama

,

Nair$ita, Varuna, VXyu, S as f, and jfsa, [i. e. tho regents of the eight Diks o

r directions, viz., tho east sacred to

9 [As the point: where tho equator cuts tho horizon is the east, the sun therefo

re rises duo east at time of tlio equinoxes but on this ground, we oanuot determ

ine the direction at Mj?ru [tho north pole] because there tlio equator coincides

witli the horizon and consequently the sun moves at MfiJUT under the horizon th

o whole day of the equinox Yet the ancient astronomers maintained that the direc

tion in which the tamakoji lies from AIxbu is tho east, because, according to th

eir opinion, the inhabitants of Mjcbu saw the sun rising towards the yimakoti at

the beginning of the kalpa. In the same manner, the direction in which Lanka li

es Irons mount Alauu is south, that * in which Rouajcafattana lies, is west, and

the direction in whieh Siddha-

Indra, the south-east sacred to Aani, the south sacred to Yam A, the south-west

sacred to Natrrita, the west .sacred to Varuna, the north-west sacred to Vayu, t

he north sacred to SWf and the north-cast sacred to IVa.] ,

Some peculiarity. :57- (ianges, springing

from the Foot.of Vishnu, falls upon mount Mkru, and thence separating itself int

o four streams descends through tlio heavens down upon the four Visukam-riias or

buttress hills, and thus falls into the four reservoirs [above described].

118. [Of tho four streams above mentioned], tlio first called SfrA, went to I

1tiai>k.Vk wa-varsua, tlio second, called AlakanandX, to HilCkata-varsua, the th

ird, called Ciiakshu, to Kktumala-varsha, and the fpurth, called JIiiadiiA to Ut

taiia Kukit [or North Kuku]. .

119. And this sacred river has so rare an1 efficacy that if her name be liste

ned to, if slio bo sought to be seen, if seen, touched or bathed in, if her wafe

rs lie tasted, if her name be uttered, or brought to mind, and her virtues be ce

lebrated, slu purifies iu many ways thousands of sinful men [from their sins],

40. And if a man make a pilgrimage to this sacred stream, tho whole line of his

progenitors, bursting the bands [imposed on them by Yana], bound away in liberty

, and dance with joy; nay oven, by a mans approach to its banks they rcpulso the

slaves of Yama [who kept guard over them], and, escaping from Nauaka [the infern

al regions], secure an abode in the happy regions of Heaven.

mu lie from Merit is north. The huUrc^es of Merit, Mandara, Svgandua, Ac. are si

tuated in the cast, south &e. from Menu respectively. H. D.l

Note on\eraes from21 to 43 Uhaskaiu cha kva lias exercised his ingenuity

in giving a locality on tlio earth to the poctieul iniagiiialiona of VVa sa, at

tho same tune that he lias preserved his own principles m regard to the form and

dimensions of the Earth. But lie himself attached no credit to what he has des

cribed in these verses for he concludes his recital iu his commentary with the w

ords. t

w What is stated here rests all on the authority of the Puea> AS."

As much as to say ? oredst Judseus. L. W.

Tt.o 9 .ml 7 HCTe in tW BiMRATA-VABOTA

kulXcdala^ of Uha hata- arc cmbraml the following nine khan-V^MIL4, pas ^por

tions] viz. Aindha, Kas kjw,

Tamraparxa, (taiuustiwat, Kumaktka, Naoaj Saumya, VXbuna, and lastly (JXndkakva.

42. In the KitmCkika alone is found the subdivision of inon into canton} in

the remaining kuaxdas are found all the tribes of Antyajas or outcasto tribes of

men. In this region [Biiaiiata-vahsiia] are also seven ki i (niALAs, viz. the m

ahkn-dra, S ciKTr, Malaya, Kiksuaka, PXimyatka, the Sahya, and Vinuiiya hills.

Arrangement of the seven 43. The conntiy to the south of Lokas worlds. tlio e(|

iialor is called tlio Biiukloka,

that to the north tlio Bhuvalpka mid Munir [the third] is called the Swarloka, n

ext is the Maharloka in the Heavens beyond this is <34> the Janaloka, then the T

apoldka and last of all tlio Satyaloka. These lokas are gradually attained by in

creasing religions merits.

4t. When it is sunrise at Lanka, it is then midday at Yamakoji (00 east of LankX)

, suusot at Biimuafuka and midnight at JIomakapattana.

. . # 45. Assume the point of the

<34> [From the oast and west points, as centres, with a common radius de

scribe i two arcs, intersecting each other in two points, tho place contained by

the arcs is oallcd Matbva 11 a fish aud the iutonoctiug points are the north and

south points. 13. l).j

Points of tho compass _ 1

why Mbbu is duo north of horizon at wliieh the sun rises as

all places. the east point, and that at which ho

sots as tho west point, and then determine the other two points, i. o., the nort

h and south through the matsya <35> effected by tlio east and west points. Tho l

ine connecting tho north and south points will bo a meridian lino and this lino

in whatever place it is drawn will fall upon the north point: hence Mkku lies du

o north of all places.

<35> [From the oast and west points, as centres, with a common radius de

scribe i two arcs, intersecting each other in two points, tho place contained by

the arcs is oallcd Matbva 11 a fish aud the iutonoctiug points are the north and

south points. 13. l).j

A curious fact is rehearsed. 4(. Only YaMAKO|I lies due cast Gogmi>hic.l Anomaly.

from UwA,Yl <36>f, at tho distance of 00

<36> [From the oast and west points, as centres, with a common radius de

scribe i two arcs, intersecting each other in two points, tho place contained by

the arcs is oallcd Matbva 11 a fish aud the iutonoctiug points are the north and

south points. 13. l).j

48. A man situated on tho equator sees both the north and south polos touching [

the north and south points of] tho Hiorizon, and the celestial sphere resting (a

s it were) Upon tho two polos as centres of motion and revolving vertically over

his head in the heavens, as tho Porsian water-wheel.

from it: bat Lank and not Ujjayin lios duo west from ,| Yajiakoti.

: 47. The same is the case everywhere; no place can lio west qf that which is to

its east except on the equator, so that east i and west are strangely related.

V Right sphere.

Oblique sphere.

40. As a man proceeds north from the equator, ho observes the constellations [th

at revolve vertically over his head when seen from tho equator] to revolvo obliq

uely, being deflected from his vortical point: and tho north polo elevated above

his horizon. Tho dogroos between tho polo and tho horizon are tho degrees of la

titudo [at tho place]. These degrees aro caused by tho Yojanas [between tho equa

tor aud the place].

How (ho degrees of inti- 50. The number of Yojanas [in

tharc fany "tow

vice yereft. circle] multiplied by 1500 aud divided

by [tho number in Yojanas iu] tho circumforeuco of tho circlo is tho number of d

egrees [of that arc] in tho earth or in tho planetary orbit in the heavens. The

Yojanas are found from the degrees by reversing the calculation.

51. Tho Gods who livo in tho Parallel sphere. mount Meru observo at their zeni

th

[ As the sun or any heavenly body when it reaches tho Primo Vertical of any place

is called due east or went, no according to the Hindu Astronomical language all

tho places on the Barth which are situated on the circle corresponding to tue P

rime Vertical aro duo east or west from tho place and not those which aro situat

ed on the parallel of latitude of the place, that is, the places which havo tho

onglo of position 90 from any place are due east or west from that place. And thu

s all, directions on the Barth arc shown by means of the onglo of position iu th

e Hindu Astronomical worka. B. D.J

the north polo, while the Daityas in VadavInala the south pole. Bnt whilo tho Go

cU behold tho constellations revolving from loft to right, to the Daityas they

appear to revolve from right to left. But to both Gods and Daityas tho equatoria

l constellations appear to rovolve on and correspond with tho horizon.

Dimensions of tho Earth s 52. Tho circumference of the earth circumference.

hag been pronounced to be 49(17

Yojanas and tho diameter of the same has boon declared to bo 1581 Jr Yojanas in

length: tho superficial area of the Earth, like tho net enclosing tho hand ball,

is 78,53,031 squaro Yojanas, and is found by multiplying tho circumference by t

ho diameter.

Tlio error of MU U or- 53 . Tl, "P& Rrca of tho posoil in regard to the super- Eart

h, like the net unclosing the iloiul area of tho Earth. . - . .. .

. . . , ,

hand ball, is most erroneously stated

by Lalla: the true area not amounting to one hundredth part of that so idly assu

med by him. His dimensions are contrary to what is found by actual inspection: m

y charge of error therefore cannot bo pronounced to be rude and uncalled for. Bu

t if any doubt bo entertained, I beg you, 0 learned mathematicians, to examine w

ell and with the utmost impartiality whether tho amount stated by mo or that sta

ted by him is tho correct ono. [Tho amount stated by Lalla in his

* [The diameter and the circumference of tho Earth hero mentioned are to each ot

her as 1250: 3927 and the demonstration of this ratio is shown by Biiaskaracuary

a in tho following manner.

Take a radius equal to any urge number, suoli as more than 10000, and through th

is detenuino tho sino of a smaller arc than even tho 100th part of the circumfer

ence of tho cirelo by tho aid of the canon of sines (Jyotpatti,) and tho sine th

us determined when multiplied by that number which represents the part which the

are just taken is of the circumference, becomes the length of circumference bec

ause an arc smaller than the 100th part of tho ciroumfercnco of a circle is [sca

rcely different from] a straight line. For this reason, tho cir eumfcrence equal

to tho numbor 62832 is granted by Aryadhatxa and tho otliors, in the diameter e

qual to the number 20,000. Tly>ugh the length of the cireum-ferenco determined b

y extracting the square root of the tenfold sjuare of tho diameter is rough, yet

it is granted for convenience by SriduauAciiabya, Brahmagupta and the others, an

d it is not to be supposed that they were ignorant of this roughness.B. D.]

work entitled Dh^iddiiida-tantra is 285,0)3,38,557 square Yojanas, which he appe

ars to have found by multiplying tho square contents of the circle by the circum

ference.]

Shows the wrongness fof 51. If a pieco of cloth be cut ill the Kule given by Lol

ls. ft cjrcu|ar form witU a diameter equal

to half tho circumference of tho sphere, then half of the sphero will be (entire

ly) covered by that circular cloth and there will still bo some cloth to sparo.

55. As the area of this pieco of cloth is to be found nearly 2J times tho area o

f a great circle of tho sphere: and tho area of the pieco of cloth covering tlio

other half of the sphero is also tho same; <: = v/0

50. Therefore the area of the whole sphere cannot be more than 5 times the area

of tho great circle of the sphere. How then has he multiplied [the area of the g

reat circle of tho sphere] by the circumference [to get tho supci ficinl content

s of tho sphere] ? ,

57. As the area of a great cirdo [of the sphere] multiplied by tho circumference

is without reason, tho rule (therefore of (jALLA for the superficial contents o

f tho sphere) is wrong, and the superficial area of tho Earth (given by him) is

consequently wrong.

Otherwise $8 uPPose length of tho

[equatorial] circumference of the globo equal to 4 times tho number of sines [vi

z. 96, there being 24 sines calculated for every 3|, which number multiplied by 4

= 96] and such oblong sections equal to the number of tho length of the said ci

rcumference and marked with tho vertical linos [running from polo to polo], as t

here arc aeon formed by nature on tho Xnwhi fruit marked off by the linos runnin

g from the top of it to its bottom.

* Lot the diameter of a sphere be 7: the circumference will bo 22 nearly. The ar

ea of a circle whoso diameter is 7 will be about 88}; that of a cirdo whose diam

eter is 11 (} circumference) will bo about 897 little few

than 2} times 88}. L. W.

60. Tf we determine the superficial afea of ono of these

sections by means of its parts, wo have it in this form. Sum of

all the sines diminished by half of the radius and divided-by

the same. ,

#

* The correctness of this form is thus briefly Unstated by Bba skaha cha bya in

his commentary.

Lttgah alg be the section in which ab, be, e dfia, and axiM Vu &c- oro each equ

al to 1 cubit and also aax aw eqiul to 1 mbit: then bb cc dd kt, are proportional t

o tho sines mbtnetodt Ac. and are thus fouud.

mb.

If la or rad: give, aa 1 (= 1) s: mb i bbx

Sad,

M

If Bad : 1 .: nc: .

Sad mod

again Bad: 1 s : ods dd, =

, Sad

&c.

Now oo,, M,, rc Ac. being found, the contents of each of aax bj>, ^ cirt cci dxd%

ha. the part of the npction is found by taking half the sum of aat A bbl hhl k

re,, cr, k ddt ke, and multiplying it by ah (which ia equal to each of be, cd, k

e.) bore ab is assumed as 1 and the wlmlb surfneo each of aa,Mi as a plane, for

an are of 3 ia scarcely diifurvnt from a plane.

Now to find the sum of aa^i, bbxete ke. we havo

-X 1 + -

X1 + .

-Xl + lo.

**1 + ^1 . . W4+ar, eet + dd,

2 2

adding those and leaving out 1 multiplier, wo have

. , i <r? + Ji T + + Ac.

Substituting the values of aav bbu Ac. we iiare mb no od

14- -f + ~ + Ac. so on for the assumed sines S S S

\B _ B 8

but ~ S B S

Bv substitution we get

B

S tab M + + + &o..

BBS

B + wi + ae + al + Ae.. i J2

5 . man i i

R

It is evident from this that the sum of al) the sines diminished by tho half of

the Badiua and divided by tho Radius is equal to the contents of tlie upper half

of the section, therefore by dividing by i Kad we get the whole section instead

of only the upper half of it.

s&m of all the sines |B.

i. e. contents of the whole section = = A.

t

Gl. As tho superficial area of one section thus determined is equal to tho diame

ter of tho globe, tho product found by multiplying the diamotor by the circumfer

ence 1ms thcreforo been asserted to bg the superficial contents of a sphere.

Tho grand deluges or dis- 02. Tho earth is said to swell to tho extent of one Yo

jana equally all around [from the centre] in a day of Braiima by reason of the d

ecay of the natural productions which grow upon it: in the Brahma deluge that in

crease is again lost. In tho grand deluge [in which Bhattma himself as well as a

ll nature fades away then] tho Barth itself is reduced to a state of nonentity.

Arc four-fold.

G3. That extinction which is daily taking place amongst created beings is called

tho Datnandina or daily extinction. Tho Brahma extinction or deluge takos place

at tho end of Brahmas day: for all created beings are then absorbed in BraftnuV

s body.

GA. As on the extinction of .Brahma himself all things are dissolved into nature

, wiso men therefore call that dissolution the PrAKIJITIKA or resolution into na

ture. Things thus in a state of extinction having their destinies severally fixe

d are again produced in soparato forms when nature is excited (by the Creator).

G5. Tho devout men, who have destroyed all their virtues and sins by a knowledge

of tho sonl, having abstracted their minds from worldly acts, concentrate their

thoughts on the

Here, by substituting the values of the 21 sines stated in the Gakita dha xa we

have

A = 80)} the diameter of the globe where tho circumference 96. L. W.

[Here, the demonstration of the rule (multiply tlio superficial area of the sphe

re by the diameter and divide the product by 6) for finding out the solid conten

t of the sphere is shown by Bha skaba ciia kta in the following manner.

Suppose in the sphere the numbor of pyramids, the height of which is equal to th

e radius and whose bases an squares having sides equal to 1, equal to the number

of the superficial area of the sphere, then

The solid contents of every pyramid = i K.

ss diameter

and the number of pyramids in the sphere is equal to the numbor of the superfici

al contents of the cohere.

The folid content of the sphere = } diameter X superficial area.B.D.] a

Supreme Being, and after their death, as they attain tho stato from which there

is no return, the wise men therefore denominate this state the Atyantika <37> di

ssolution. Thus the dissolutions are four-fold. (

<37> Vide rcrscB G7,G8,69, Biu skara ctta iiya does not answer tbo objec

tion which tlieso verses supply to his theory of tho Earth being tho centre of t

ho system. Tho Bun is hero made the principal object of the systemtho centre of t

he Bbahma npatho centre of light whoso boundary is supposed fixed: but if tho Bun

moves then tho lliudoo Braiima npa must bo supposed to bo constantly changing it

s Boundaries. Subbuji iiapu had not failed to use this argument in favour of the

Newtonian system in his S l Romani PrakaVa, vide pages 55, 56. 13nANKARA cUa bt

a however denies that he can father the opinion that this is tho length of the c

ircumference limiting the Bbauka n^a and thus saves himself from a difficulty. L

. W.

[Mr. Wilkinson lias thus shown the objection which SubbiVje Bapfi mude to tho as

sumption of the Suns motion, but I think that the objection is not a judicious on

e. Because had the length of the circumference of the Braiima niia been changed

oil account of the alteration of tho boundary of tho Suns light with him, or ha

d any sort of motion of the stars been assumed, as would have been granted if th

e ourtli is supposed to bo ilxcd, then, the inconvenience would have occurred ;

but this is not the cose. In fuct, as wo cannot fix any boundary of the light wh

ich issued from the sun, tho stated length of the circumference of tho Brahmaniu

is an imaginary one. For this reason, BuIskaracharya does not admit this stated

length of the circumference of the Bbahma wda. He stated in his Qanita diiyaya

in the commentary on the verse G8th of this Chapter that those only, who have a

perfect knowledge of the Bbauaia nda as they have of an a nvala fruit held in

their palm, can aay that this length of the circumference of the Brahjca nqa is

the true onethat is, as it is not in mans power to fix any limit of the Bbahma v?

a, the said limit is unreasonable. Therefore no objection can be possibly mad1)

to the system that tho Sun moves, by assuming such nn imaginary limit of the Bra

hmAkpa which is little lew * impossible than the existence of the heavenly lotus

.B. I).j

60. Tho earth and its mountains,

Theuniverso. _

the Gods and Danavas, men and

others and also the orbits of the constellations and planets

and tho Iokas which, it is said, aro arranged one abovo tho

other, .are all included in wliat has been denominated tho

Bkaiim^npa (universe).

Dimension, of tlm Bhah- - Somo astronomers have assert-cd tho circumference of th

e circle of Heaven to bo 18,712,009,200,000,000 Yojanas in length. Some say that

tliis is the length of tho zone which binds tho two hemispheres of the Bkahmano

a. Somo PaukXnikas say that this is tho <38>length of the circumference of tho L

okaloka Pabvata <39>

<38> Vide rcrscB G7,G8,69, Biu skara ctta iiya does not answer tbo objec

tion which tlieso verses supply to his theory of tho Earth being tho centre of t

ho system. Tho Bun is hero made the principal object of the systemtho centre of t

he Bbahma npatho centre of light whoso boundary is supposed fixed: but if tho Bun

moves then tho lliudoo Braiima npa must bo supposed to bo constantly changing it

s Boundaries. Subbuji iiapu had not failed to use this argument in favour of the

Newtonian system in his S l Romani PrakaVa, vide pages 55, 56. 13nANKARA cUa bt

a however denies that he can father the opinion that this is tho length of the c

ircumference limiting the Bbauka n^a and thus saves himself from a difficulty. L

. W.

[Mr. Wilkinson lias thus shown the objection which SubbiVje Bapfi mude to tho as

sumption of the Suns motion, but I think that the objection is not a judicious on

e. Because had the length of the circumference of the Braiima niia been changed

oil account of the alteration of tho boundary of tho Suns light with him, or ha

d any sort of motion of the stars been assumed, as would have been granted if th

e ourtli is supposed to bo ilxcd, then, the inconvenience would have occurred ;

but this is not the cose. In fuct, as wo cannot fix any boundary of the light wh

ich issued from the sun, tho stated length of the circumference of tho Brahmaniu

is an imaginary one. For this reason, BuIskaracharya does not admit this stated

length of the circumference of the Bbahma wda. He stated in his Qanita diiyaya

in the commentary on the verse G8th of this Chapter that those only, who have a

perfect knowledge of the Bbauaia nda as they have of an a nvala fruit held in

their palm, can aay that this length of the circumference of the Brahjca nqa is

the true onethat is, as it is not in mans power to fix any limit of the Bbahma v?

a, the said limit is unreasonable. Therefore no objection can be possibly mad1)

to the system that tho Sun moves, by assuming such nn imaginary limit of the Bra

hmAkpa which is little lew * impossible than the existence of the heavenly lotus

.B. I).j

<39> Vide rcrscB G7,G8,69, Biu skara ctta iiya does not answer tbo objec

tion which tlieso verses supply to his theory of tho Earth being tho centre of t

ho system. Tho Bun is hero made the principal object of the systemtho centre of t

he Bbahma npatho centre of light whoso boundary is supposed fixed: but if tho Bun

moves then tho lliudoo Braiima npa must bo supposed to bo constantly changing it

s Boundaries. Subbuji iiapu had not failed to use this argument in favour of the

Newtonian system in his S l Romani PrakaVa, vide pages 55, 56. 13nANKARA cUa bt

a however denies that he can father the opinion that this is tho length of the c

ircumference limiting the Bbauka n^a and thus saves himself from a difficulty. L

. W.

[Mr. Wilkinson lias thus shown the objection which SubbiVje Bapfi mude to tho as

sumption of the Suns motion, but I think that the objection is not a judicious on

e. Because had the length of the circumference of the Braiima niia been changed

oil account of the alteration of tho boundary of tho Suns light with him, or ha

d any sort of motion of the stars been assumed, as would have been granted if th

e ourtli is supposed to bo ilxcd, then, the inconvenience would have occurred ;

but this is not the cose. In fuct, as wo cannot fix any boundary of the light wh

ich issued from the sun, tho stated length of the circumference of tho Brahmaniu

is an imaginary one. For this reason, BuIskaracharya does not admit this stated

length of the circumference of the Bbahma wda. He stated in his Qanita diiyaya

in the commentary on the verse G8th of this Chapter that those only, who have a

perfect knowledge of the Bbauaia nda as they have of an a nvala fruit held in

their palm, can aay that this length of the circumference of the Brahjca nqa is

the true onethat is, as it is not in mans power to fix any limit of the Bbahma v?

a, the said limit is unreasonable. Therefore no objection can be possibly mad1)

to the system that tho Sun moves, by assuming such nn imaginary limit of the Bra

hmAkpa which is little lew * impossible than the existence of the heavenly lotus

.B. I).j

08. Those, hojrever, who havo had a most perfect mastery of the clear doctri

ne of tho sphere, havo declared that this is the length of that circumferencebou

nding tho limits, to which tho darkness dispelling rays of tho Sun extend.

G9. But let this be tho length of tho circumfercnco of tho BuahmXxda or not[of t

hat I haVo no suro knowledge] but it is my opinion that each planet traverses a

distaneo corresponding to this numbor of Yojanas in tho course of n?KAuA or a da

y of BkaumA and that it has been called the Khakaksiia by tho ancients.

End of third Chapter called the 13 n u van A-k os a or cosmography.

CHATTER IV.

Called Madiiya-gati-vxsana.

Oa the principles of the lhdea fpr findimj the mean places of the Planets.

Places of the several 1. Tlio seven [grand] winds havo *uld8, thus been numed

: viz.

.1st. Tho Avaha or atmosphere.

2nd. The Pravaha beyond it.

3rd. Tho Udvalia.

4th. The Samvaha. yth. Tho Suvnha.

Gth. Tho Parivoha.

7th. Tho Parfvvalia.

2. The atmosphere extends to tho height of 12 Yojanas from the Earth: withi

n this limit are tho clouds, lightning, &e. Tho Pravaha wind which is above the

atmosphere moves constantly to tho westward with uniform motion.

3. As this sphere of tho universe includes the fixed stars and planets, it

therefore being impelled by the Pravaha wind, is carried round with the stars an

d planets in u constant revolution.

An illustration of the 4. Tho Flanots ^moving eastward motion of tin pbrnoto. k

tho Heavens with a slow motion, appear os if fixed on account of the rapid motio

n of tho sphcic of .tho Heavens to tho west, as insocts moving reversely .on a w

hirling potter s wheel appear to bo stationary [by reason of their comparatively

slow motion].

Sidereal and terrestrial b. If a star and tho Sun rise simulfca-days and thiir l

engths. ncously ^ my ^ fche ^ ^

rise again (on the following morning) in GO sidereal ohatikXs : the Sun, however

, will rise later by tho number of asus (sixths of a sidereal minute), found by

dividing tho product of the Sun s daily motion [in minutes] and the asus which t

ho sign, in which the Sun is, takes in rising, by 1800 [tho number of minutes wh

ich each sign of the ecliptic contains in itself].

G. Tho timo thus found added to tho GO sidereal giiatikas forms a true terrestri

al day or natural day. Tho length of this day is variable, as it depends on tho

Sun s daily motion and on the timo [which different signs of the ecliptic take]

in rising, [in different latitudes: both of which are variable elements] .

9 [Ilad the Sun moving with uniform motion on the equinoctial, the each minute o

f which rises in onuh asp, the number of asus equal to the number of tho minulos

of the Sim s daily motion, being added to .the GO sidcrcnl giiatikas, would hav

e invariably made the exact length of tho true terrestrial day as Lalla and othe

rs Bay. .But this is not the case, bocausc tho Sun moves with unequal motion on

the ecliptic, tho equal portions of which do not rise in equal times on account

of its being oblique to the equinoclioiml. Therefore, to find tho exact length o

f the true terrestrial day, it is necessary to determine the time which the minu

tes of tho Sun s daily motion take in rising and then add this time to 60 side

real Ohatika s. For this reason, the terrestrial day determined by Lalla and oth

ers is not a true but it is a mean.

Tho difference between tho oblique ascension at tho beginning of any given day,

and that at tho end of it fit at the beginning of the noxb day, is the time whic

h the minutes of the Sun s motion^ at the day above alluded to take in rising, b

ut as this oannot bo easily determined, tho ancient Astronomers having deterinin

od tho periods which tho signs of tho ocliptio take iu rising at a given place,

find tho timo which any portion of a given sigii of tho ecliptic takes in rising

, by the following proportion. ,

If 30 or 1800 of a sign: take number of tho asus (which any given sign of tho e

cliptio tukes) in rising at a given plaee :: what time will any portion of the s

ign above alluded to take in rising F The calculation which is shown in the 5th

verso depends on this proportion. 1). D.]

Relation, of th. S<Kin A sidereal day consists invari-

ywr are less than tlie ably of 60 sidereal ohatIkxs : a mean erolutions of stars

by one. , _

. savana day of the Sun or terrestrial

lay oonsists of that time with an addition of the number of isus equal to the nu

mber of the Sun s daify mean motion in minutes]. Thus the number of terrestrial

days in a year s less by ono than tlifc number of revolutions made by tho bed s

tars.

8. Tho length of the (solar) year is Length of solar year. 3(55 days, 15 GHATIK^

S, 30 TALAS, 22J

irirALAS reckoned in Batiaii savana or terrestrial days: The r^th of this is cal

led a saura (solar) month, viz. 30 days, 2(1 uuajikAs, 17 palas, 31 vitalas, 52J

travitalas. Thirty sXvana or terrestrial days make a sjCvana month.

Length of lunar month 9. Tho time in which the Moon

w lunation. [affcor being in conjunction with tho

Sun] completing a revolution with tho difference between tho daily motion and th

at of the Sun, again overtakes the Sun, (which moves at a slower rate) is called

a Lunar month. It is 29 days, 31 GjiatikAs, 50 palas in length, f The reason of

additive 10. An AdhIM&A or additivo month months called Adhima sas. ia lunar

, occurs in the duration

of 321 saura (solar) months found by dividing tho lunar month by tho difference

botwocn this and the saura month. From

* [Here a solar year consists of 365 days, 15 ghajikXs, 30 palas, 22| vipalas, i

. e. 365 d. 6 h. 12 . 9 a. and in Surya-siddha nta the length of tho 1 year is 365

d. 15 g. 31 p. 31. 4 . i. e. 365 d. 6 A 12 m. 36. 56 .-B. Ji.j [t That lunar mon

th wliich ends, when the Sun is in Kesha stellar Aries is cnlled ohaitba and tha

t which terminates when the Bun is in y^ibhabua stellar Taurus, is called Vais a

kha and so on. Thus, the lunar months corresponding to the 12 stellar signs Mish

a (Arias) Y^UHAbua (Taurus) Mitfiuna (Gemini) Kabha (Cancer), Sinha (Leo), Kanya

(Virgo), Tula (Libra), VriS ciiika (Scorpio), Dhahu (Sagittarius), Makaba (Ca

prieomus), Kumbha (Aquarius) v and Mika (Pisces), are Chaitba,YaisVbkha, Jyebhth

a, A sha>iia S ra vana, Bha dkafada, A s wiha, Ka rtika, Ma^qabTusiia, Paubha, M

a giia, and Phaiguxta. If two lunar months terminate when tho Sun is onh in one

stellar sign, the second of these is called Aduiva sa an additive month. The 30

th part of a lunar month ia called Titki (a lunar day).B. D.J

E

130 Translation of thr # [IV. 11,

#

this, the number of the additive months in%a kalpa may also be found by proporti

on.

11. As a mean lunar month is shorter in length than a mean saura month, the luna

r months are therefore more in number than tho saura in a kalpa. The difference

between the number of lunar and saura months in .a kalpa is called by astronomer

s the number of AimiMASAs in that period.

Tho reason of subtracter 12. An avama or subtractive day day called Atama.

which is SAVANA occurs in (34TT tithis

(lunar days) found by dividing 30 by tho difference between the lunar and s^vana

month. From this, the number of avamas in a yuoa may be found by proportion.!

13.J If the Aditim^sas are found from saura days or months, then the result foun

d is in tho lunar mouths, [as for instance in finding the Aiiarvana. If in tho s

aura days of a kalpa : are

4 [After the commencement of n yuoa, a lunar month terminates at tho end of Amat

a bya (nevr moon) andm bauba month at tho mean yuishabha BANKRa nti (i. o. when

tho mean Sun enters the second stellar sign) which takes place with 64 g. 27 p.

31 o. 621 P> after tho new moon. Afterwards a second lunar month ends at the 2n

d now moon after which tho MrrnuNA-BANKRA NTl takes place with twice tho Gliatis

. Ac. above mentioned. Thus tho following San-kka mtis karka Ac. tnke place with

thrice four times Ac. thoso OiiAyis, Ac. In this manner, when the Sankra bti th

us going forward, aguin takes place at new moon, the number of tho passed lunar

montliB exceeds that of the bauba by oue. This one month is called an additive m

onth: and the bauba months which an additive month requires for its happening ca

n be found by tho proportion as follows.

As 51 ghalit, 27 p. Ae. tho (lifTerenoo between a lunar and a saura : One saura

mouth

:: 29, 31, 50 the numbor terrestrial day Ac. in a lunar month : 32, 15, 31, Ac.

the number of saura mouths, clays, Ac.B. D.]

t [At the beginning of a kalpa or a yuoa, the terrestrial Bd lunar days begun sim

ultaneously, but the lunar day being loss than the terrestrial day, terminated b

efore the end of tho terrestrial day, i. e. before the next sun-riso. The interv

al between the end of the lunar day and tho next sunrise, is called Ayama-b jebu

a tho remainder of the subtractive day. This remainder increases every day, ther

efore, when it is 60 Ghatikas (24 hours), this constitutes a Atama day or subtra

ctive day. The lunar days in which a subtractive day occurs, are found by the fo

llowing proportion.

If 0 d. 28 g. 10 p. the difference between the lengths of terrestrial and of a l

uuar month. a

: 1 lunar month or 30 tithis

t: a whole terrestrial day : 64-^titUis nearly.B. D.]

% The objects of these two verses seems not to be more than to assert that the f

ourth term of a proportion ia of the same denomination as the 2nd.L. W.

so many AdiiimA^s :: then in given number of solar days j how many AuhimXsab ?]

If the Adhim&as are found from limr days or months, then the result is in sauba

months, and tlicnMnaindor is of^tlio like denomination.

14. [In like manner] the avamas or subtractive days if found from lunar days

, are in sXvana time: if found from s a van A time they are lunar and the remain

der is so likewise.

A question.

15. Why, 0 Astronomer, in finding the Ahaiuuxa do you add sauua months to th

e lunar months Ciiaitha &c. [which may have (lapsed from tlm commencement of the

current year] : mul tell mo also why tlio [fractional] remainders of Adhima has

and Ayava days arc rejected: fur you know that to give a true result in using th

e rule of proportion, remainders should bo taken into account ?

Reason of .milting to in- - ^ 1,10 ,m,!>r,n0"th llf l

chule tlio Aduimasa b ksiia t-lie cliango of the Moon and tho in finding the Aua

uga^a. .

SUAKA month terminates when tlio nun

enters a stellar sign, the accumulating portion of an A mu mas a always lies aft

er each new Moon and before the Sun enters tho sign.

4 [The meaning of these 4 vorses will bo well understood by a knowledge of tlio

rule for finding the Auaiuuna, we therefore show the rule here.

In order to find the Aiiaroara (elapsed terrestrial days from tho commenee-ment

of the Kalpa to tho required time) astronomers multiply the number of saura year

s expired from the beginning of the Kali?a by 12, and thus they get tlio number

of BAURA months till the last Mebiia Saxkranti (that is, the time. when the Sun

enters the 1st sign of tho Zodiac called Aries.) To these months they add then t

he passed lunar months Ciiaitra Ac., considering them as baura. These baura mon

ths become, up to tlie time when the Sun enters the sign of the Zodiac correspon

ding to the required lunar mouth. They multiply then the number of these months

by 30 and add to this product the number of the passed Tunis (lunar days) of the

reauired month considering them as sauna days. The number of baura days thus fo

und becomes greater than that of those till the end of tho required titiii by th

e adhixaba b btiia. To make these baura days lunar, they determine tho elapsed a

dditive mouths by the proportion in the following maimer

As the number of BAURA days in a Kalpa : the number of additive months in that p

eriod :: the number of 4AURA days just found : the number of additive mouths ela

psed

N 2

>

17. Now the number of titifis (lunar (fcys) elapsed since tho change of tho

Moon and supposed as if saura, is added to tho number of sauea days [found in fi

nding the Ahargan] : but as this number exceeds the proper amount by the qylntit

y of tho Adhimasa-s esha thereforo tho Adhimas-sesha is omit-

ted [to bo added].

18. Jin tho same manner] there is always a portion of a Avama-sesha between

tho time of sun-riBe and tho end of tho [preceding] tithi. By omitting to subtra

ct it, the Aitaroana is found at tho time of sun-rise: if it were not omitted, t

ho Ahargana would represent tho timo of tho end of .tho tithi [which is not requ

ired but that of tho sun-rise].

... .. 19, 20, 21 and 22. As tho true,

called the UdayAhtaba terrestrial day is of variable length, the KAWU Aitaroan

a has been found in mean

terrestrial dayi: tho places of the planets found by this Aitaroana when rectifi

ed by tho amount of the correction called tho UdayIntara whether additivo or sub

tractive will bo found to bo at tho time of sun-rise at LankI. The ancient

If these additive months with their remainder be added to the sauba days above f

ound, the sum will be the number of lunar days to the end of tho sauba days, but

we require it to the end of tho required tithi. And as tho remainder of tho add

itive months lies between the end of the Tirm and that of its corresponding saub

a days, they therefore add the whole number of Adiii-masas just found to that of

tho SAUBA days omitting the remainder to And the lunar days to the ond of tho r

equirod tithi. Moreover, to inako theso lunar days terrestrial, they determine A

vaha subtractive days by the proportion such as follows.

As the number of lunar days in a Kalpa tho number of subtractive days iu that pe

riod :: the number of lunar days just found , : the number of Avaha olapsed wi

th their remainder.

If theso Ayahas be subtracted with their remainder from the lunar days, the diff

erence will be tho number of the Ayaha days olapsed to the ond of the required t

ithi ; but it is required at the time of sun-rise. And as the remainder of the s

ubtraotivo days lies between the end of the tithi and thesun-rise, they therefor

e subtract the Ayahas above found from the number of lunar days omitting their r

emainder i. e. Avaha-b bsha. Thus the Ahaboa^a itself becomes at the sun-rise.B.

D.]

[If the Sun been moving on the equimfctial with an equal motion, tho terrestrial

day would have been of an invariable length and consequently the Sun would have

reached the horison at Lank! at the end of the Ahaboa&ta. which is an enumerati

on of the days of invariable length that is of the mean terrestrial days. But th

e Sun moves on the ecliptio whose equal parts do not

Pidhunta-siromanL

133

Astronomers have got thus rectified the places of the planets by this correction

, as it is of a variable and small amount.

(Die difference between the number of asus of the right ascension of the mean Su

n [found at tho end of the Ah a roan a] and the number of asus equal to the numb

er of minntes of tho mean longitude .of tho Sun [found at tho samo time] is tho

difference between the true and mean aiiarganas. Multiply this difference by tho

daily motion of tho planet and divide the product by the number of asus in a ny

cthemeron.f The result [thus found] in minutes is to be subtracted from tho plac

es of the planets, if the asus [of tho right ascension of the mean Suu] fall sho

rt of the kal.(s or minutes [of tho mean longitude of tho Sun], otherwiso tho re

sult is to bo added to tho places of tho planets. Instead of tho right ascension

, if obliquo ascension bo taken [in this calculation] this Udayantara correction

which is to be "applied to tho places of the planets, includes also the ciiaua

correction or tho correction for the ascensional difference.

Besson of the correction 23. The places of tho planets called tlMltaVaiiiu. wlli

cll are fotm<i being roctifiod by

this Udayantaba correction at tho time of sun-rise at Lanka may bo found, being

applied with tho Desantaka correction, at the timo of suu-riso at a given place

. This Desantaka correction is two-fold, ono is east and west and the other

rise in equal periods. For this reason, the Sun does not come to tho horizon at

t Lanka at the end of the A Daugava. Therefore the places of tho planets deter

mined by the mean Ahabga^a, will not be at the sun-rise at Lanka . Hcnco a corre

ction is necessary to be applied to the places of the planets. This correction c

alled UdayAntaba baa been first invented by BiUsuahacilUya who consequently abus

es them who say lliat the places of tho planets determined by the mean Ahabgava

become at the time of the sun-rise at Lanka.B. D.J * The difference between the m

ean and true AhAbgAnAs is that part of the equation of time which is duo to the

obliquity by the ecliptic.L. W. t [This calculation is nothing else than the foll

owing simple proportioiw .

If the number of Asus in a nyethemeron : daily motion of the plauet

:: tho difference between the true and moan AuaboanaS give.B. D.J #

is north and south. This north and souty correction is called ciiara. <40>

4

<40> This amount of correction is determined in the following manner.

Tho yojanas between the midliuo and the given place, in the parallel of

* latitude at that place, which is denominated Hpasiita-pabidiii ara calle

d,

Des a ntaba yojanas of that place. Then by the proportion.

As the number of yojaNas in the SrASitTA-PAKiDni: 60 ohatikab : : Dkba n-VABA YO

JANAS: the difference between the timo of sun-riso at inidline and that at a giv

en place. This difference called Deb a ntaha ghatika s is the longitude in tiue

east or nest from Lanka . Again

As 60 ohatika s : daily motion of the planet: : Dbbanta ba ghatika s : the amoun

t ot tho correction required.

Or this amount can be found by using the proportion only oucesnch aa follows tho

number of yojanab in the Spabiua-pabidhi : daily motion of tho planet: : Dks An

tauA yojanas: tho same amount of the correction above found.B. D.]

24. The lino which passes from LankjC, Ujjayin/, Kj#a-KBiiETicA and other pl

aces to Meru (or tho North Pole^6f the Earth) lias been denominated tho Madhyare

khI mid-lino of tho Earth, by tho Astronomers. Tho sun rises at any place east o

f this lino before it rises to that line: mid after it has risen on the tiue at

places to its west. On this account, nn amount of the correction which is produc

ed from tho difference between the time of sun-rise at the mid-line and that at

a given place, is subtractive or additive to the places of the planets, as tho g

iven placo be cast or west of the mid-line [in order to find the places of tho p

lanets at the time of sun-rise at tho given place].

25. As tho [small] circle which is described around Meru or North Pole l>f t

ho Earth, at the distance in Yojanas reckoned from Meru to given place and produ

ced from co-latitude of tho place [as mentioned in tho verso 50th, Chapter 1117]

is called roctifiod circumference of the Earth (parallel of latitude) [at that

place] therefore [to find this rectified circumference],

* tho circumference of the Earth is multiplied by the sine of co-latitude [of th

e given place] and divided by the radius.

End of 4th Chapter culled Madhya-Gati Vasana.

CHAPTER V.

ukjhc principles on which the Hu lee fur finding the true 2daces of the Planets

are grounded.

n lf . . 1. The planes of a Sphere are

On tlio canon of Bines. a 1 1

intersected by sines of bjiuja and

koji, as a piece of cloth by upright and transverse threads, lieforc describing

the spheric, I shall first explain tho canon of sines.

2. Tako any radius, and suppose it tho hypothenuso (of a right-angled trian

gle). The sine of biiuja is the base, and the sine of koji is tho square root of

tho difference of the squares of the radius and tho base. Tho sines of degrees

of iniujA and xo-pi subtracted separately from the radius will bo tho versed sin

es of koji and bhuja (respectively).

[ The TJT1UJA of any given are is that are, loss than 90, the sine of which i equa

l to tho sine of that given are, (tho consideration of tho positiveuess ami nega

tion of the sino is hero neglected). For this reason, the nui JA ofthut lire whi

ch terminates in the odd quadrants i. c. tho 1st and 3rd is that part of I ho gi

ven are which fulls in tho quadrant where it term inn I eo, and tho Bhcja of tho

arc which ends in the even quadrants, i. o. in tho 2nd and 4th, is that arc whi

ch is wanted to complete tho quadrant where tho given are is ended.

The koti of any are is tho complement of tho buvja of that arc..

Let tho 4 quadrants of a circle A 11 C D be successively A 11, B C 1) and 1) A,

then tho hul JaS of the ares A P A B P8, A U P, A 1) P4 will b A P C P, C P A P4 and t

ho complements of theso diil Jas are the ares BP,, B P8, U I,, D j?4 respectivel

y. B. D.j

3. The versed sino is like the arrow i^tersocting%the bow and the string, o

r the arc and the sine.

The square root of half the square of the radius is the ane of an arc of 45. The

co-sino of an arc of 45 is of tho/jamo length as the sine of that arc. <41>

<41> sin.* + * = 4 R. *

* These methods are grounded upon the foljowihg principles, written by Bha bkaba

oii abyi, in the commentary Vasaxa -bha shya.

(1) Let the arc A B = 00" and A C = 45

.\AD(4 A B) = sin. 45; and let 0 A or 0 11 = the radius (R) then A B = OA,+OBj=t=2

0A = 211

A B-V

and A D = 1A B = v^-

or tin. 45:

jj

(S) It is evident and stated also in the Lila vati, that the side of a regular h

exagon is equal to the radius of its circumscribing circlo (i. e. ch. 60 = R). li

enee, sin. 30 = 4 R.

(3) Let A B be the half of a given are A F, whose sino F 41 and vorsod sine A M

are given. Then

aFs^/pms+am1 and | A P = A N = sin. A B

lin. A B = l K + liT (4) The proof of the last method by Algebra cos R versed sin

e ,\ cos b R 2 R. e + v subtracting both sides fromR1,

Rcos = 2R.e r or ain. = 2 R. r e adding v to both sides ain. + 2 R. b

and(sin. + BO = R. extracting the square root,

V. 7.] Sidhdntas iromani. 137

4: Half the ipdios is the aine of an arc of 30: The co-sine of an arc of 30 <42>

is the aine of an arc of 60.

<42> [When, 24 sines are to be determined in a quadrant of a circle, tho

3 sines, i. e. 12th, 8th and 16th, can be easily found by tho method here given

for finding the sines of 45, 30, and the complement of 30, i. e. 6(j". Then by mea

ns of these three sines, the rest can bo found by the method for finding the sin

e of half an arc, as follows. Fiom the 8th sine, the 4tli and the co-sine of tho

4th i. e., the 20th sine, can be determined. Again, from tho 4th, tho 2nd and 2

2nd,* and from the 2nd, the 1st and 23rd, can be found. In like manner, tho UJth

14th, 6lh, 19th, 7th, 17th, lltli, and 13th, can also he found from the 8th sin

e. From the 12th again, tho 6lh, 18th, 3rd, 21st, 9th and 15th ran be determined

, and the radius is the 24th sine. Thus all the 24 sines are found. Several othe

r methods for finding the sines will be given in the sequel.-B. J).]

[t Biia bxaba cha bya maintains that the Earth is in tho centre of the Universe,

and the Sun, Moon and the five minor planets, Mars, Mercury, Ac. revolve round

the Earth in circular orbits, the centres of which do not coincide with that of

the Earth, with uniform motion. The circle in which a planet* revolves is called

Pbativ$iita, or exoentrio circle, and a circle of the same sise< which is suppo

sed to have the same centre with that of the Earth, is called Kaksha vritta or c

oncentric circle. In the circle, the planet appears to revolve with unequal moti

on, though it revolves in the exrenlrie with equal motion. The place when the pl

anet revolving in the excentrio appears in the concentric is its true plaoe and

to find this, astronomers apply a correction called mavda-phala (1st equation of

the centre) to the mean place of the planet. A mean planet thus corrected is ca

lled kaxda-spabhta, the circle in which it revolves MANSA-PBATfv^iTTA (1st excen

trio) and its farthest point from the centre gf the concentric, KANDOOHOE (1st h

igher Apsis). As the mean places of the Sun and Moon when corrected by 1st equat

ion become true at the centre of the Earth, this correction alone is sufficient

for them. But the five minor planets, Mars, Mercury, Ac. when corrected by the 1

st equation are not true at the centre of the Earth but at another place. For th

is reason, astronomers having assumed a

^lalf the root of the sum of the squares of the Bine and veratd sine of an arc, i

s the Bine of half that arc.

5. <43> Or, the Bine of half that arc is tho square-root of half the produ

ct of the radius and the versed sine.

<43> [When, 24 sines are to be determined in a quadrant of a circle, tho

3 sines, i. e. 12th, 8th and 16th, can be easily found by tho method here given

for finding the sines of 45, 30, and the complement of 30, i. e. 6(j". Then by mea

ns of these three sines, the rest can bo found by the method for finding the sin

e of half an arc, as follows. Fiom the 8th sine, the 4tli and the co-sine of tho

4th i. e., the 20th sine, can be determined. Again, from tho 4th, tho 2nd and 2

2nd,* and from the 2nd, the 1st and 23rd, can be found. In like manner, tho UJth

14th, 6lh, 19th, 7th, 17th, lltli, and 13th, can also he found from the 8th sin

e. From the 12th again, tho 6lh, 18th, 3rd, 21st, 9th and 15th ran be determined

, and the radius is the 24th sine. Thus all the 24 sines are found. Several othe

r methods for finding the sines will be given in the sequel.-B. J).]

[t Biia bxaba cha bya maintains that the Earth is in tho centre of the Universe,

and the Sun, Moon and the five minor planets, Mars, Mercury, Ac. revolve round

the Earth in circular orbits, the centres of which do not coincide with that of

the Earth, with uniform motion. The circle in which a planet* revolves is called

Pbativ$iita, or exoentrio circle, and a circle of the same sise< which is suppo

sed to have the same centre with that of the Earth, is called Kaksha vritta or c

oncentric circle. In the circle, the planet appears to revolve with unequal moti

on, though it revolves in the exrenlrie with equal motion. The place when the pl

anet revolving in the excentrio appears in the concentric is its true plaoe and

to find this, astronomers apply a correction called mavda-phala (1st equation of

the centre) to the mean place of the planet. A mean planet thus corrected is ca

lled kaxda-spabhta, the circle in which it revolves MANSA-PBATfv^iTTA (1st excen

trio) and its farthest point from the centre gf the concentric, KANDOOHOE (1st h

igher Apsis). As the mean places of the Sun and Moon when corrected by 1st equat

ion become true at the centre of the Earth, this correction alone is sufficient

for them. But the five minor planets, Mars, Mercury, Ac. when corrected by the 1

st equation are not true at the centre of the Earth but at another place. For th

is reason, astronomers having assumed a

The sines and co-sides of the halves of the arcs before found may thus be found

to any extent.

6. Thus a Mathematician may find (in a quadrant of a circle) 3, 6, 12, 21 &

c., sines to any required extent. <44>

<44> [When, 24 sines are to be determined in a quadrant of a circle, tho

3 sines, i. e. 12th, 8th and 16th, can be easily found by tho method here given

for finding the sines of 45, 30, and the complement of 30, i. e. 6(j". Then by mea

ns of these three sines, the rest can bo found by the method for finding the sin

e of half an arc, as follows. Fiom the 8th sine, the 4tli and the co-sine of tho

4th i. e., the 20th sine, can be determined. Again, from tho 4th, tho 2nd and 2

2nd,* and from the 2nd, the 1st and 23rd, can be found. In like manner, tho UJth

14th, 6lh, 19th, 7th, 17th, lltli, and 13th, can also he found from the 8th sin

e. From the 12th again, tho 6lh, 18th, 3rd, 21st, 9th and 15th ran be determined

, and the radius is the 24th sine. Thus all the 24 sines are found. Several othe

r methods for finding the sines will be given in the sequel.-B. J).]

[t Biia bxaba cha bya maintains that the Earth is in tho centre of the Universe,

and the Sun, Moon and the five minor planets, Mars, Mercury, Ac. revolve round

the Earth in circular orbits, the centres of which do not coincide with that of

the Earth, with uniform motion. The circle in which a planet* revolves is called

Pbativ$iita, or exoentrio circle, and a circle of the same sise< which is suppo

sed to have the same centre with that of the Earth, is called Kaksha vritta or c

oncentric circle. In the circle, the planet appears to revolve with unequal moti

on, though it revolves in the exrenlrie with equal motion. The place when the pl

anet revolving in the excentrio appears in the concentric is its true plaoe and

to find this, astronomers apply a correction called mavda-phala (1st equation of

the centre) to the mean place of the planet. A mean planet thus corrected is ca

lled kaxda-spabhta, the circle in which it revolves MANSA-PBATfv^iTTA (1st excen

trio) and its farthest point from the centre gf the concentric, KANDOOHOE (1st h

igher Apsis). As the mean places of the Sun and Moon when corrected by 1st equat

ion become true at the centre of the Earth, this correction alone is sufficient

for them. But the five minor planets, Mars, Mercury, Ac. when corrected by the 1

st equation are not true at the centre of the Earth but at another place. For th

is reason, astronomers having assumed a

Or, in a circle described with a given radius and divided into 3(50, tho required

sines may be found by measuring their lengths in digits.

Reason of correction which T.f As tho Centre of tho circle of

from^tho^mean "place <45> ofUa ,tll constellation of the Zodiac coin-Plunet <46>

cidcs with tho centre of the Earth:

<45> [When, 24 sines are to be determined in a quadrant of a circle, tho

3 sines, i. e. 12th, 8th and 16th, can be easily found by tho method here given

for finding the sines of 45, 30, and the complement of 30, i. e. 6(j". Then by mea

ns of these three sines, the rest can bo found by the method for finding the sin

e of half an arc, as follows. Fiom the 8th sine, the 4tli and the co-sine of tho

4th i. e., the 20th sine, can be determined. Again, from tho 4th, tho 2nd and 2

2nd,* and from the 2nd, the 1st and 23rd, can be found. In like manner, tho UJth

14th, 6lh, 19th, 7th, 17th, lltli, and 13th, can also he found from the 8th sin

e. From the 12th again, tho 6lh, 18th, 3rd, 21st, 9th and 15th ran be determined

, and the radius is the 24th sine. Thus all the 24 sines are found. Several othe

r methods for finding the sines will be given in the sequel.-B. J).]

[t Biia bxaba cha bya maintains that the Earth is in tho centre of the Universe,

and the Sun, Moon and the five minor planets, Mars, Mercury, Ac. revolve round

the Earth in circular orbits, the centres of which do not coincide with that of

the Earth, with uniform motion. The circle in which a planet* revolves is called

Pbativ$iita, or exoentrio circle, and a circle of the same sise< which is suppo

sed to have the same centre with that of the Earth, is called Kaksha vritta or c

oncentric circle. In the circle, the planet appears to revolve with unequal moti

on, though it revolves in the exrenlrie with equal motion. The place when the pl

anet revolving in the excentrio appears in the concentric is its true plaoe and

to find this, astronomers apply a correction called mavda-phala (1st equation of

the centre) to the mean place of the planet. A mean planet thus corrected is ca

lled kaxda-spabhta, the circle in which it revolves MANSA-PBATfv^iTTA (1st excen

trio) and its farthest point from the centre gf the concentric, KANDOOHOE (1st h

igher Apsis). As the mean places of the Sun and Moon when corrected by 1st equat

ion become true at the centre of the Earth, this correction alone is sufficient

for them. But the five minor planets, Mars, Mercury, Ac. when corrected by the 1

st equation are not true at the centre of the Earth but at another place. For th

is reason, astronomers having assumed a

<46> [When, 24 sines are to be determined in a quadrant of a circle, tho

3 sines, i. e. 12th, 8th and 16th, can be easily found by tho method here given

for finding the sines of 45, 30, and the complement of 30, i. e. 6(j". Then by mea

ns of these three sines, the rest can bo found by the method for finding the sin

e of half an arc, as follows. Fiom the 8th sine, the 4tli and the co-sine of tho

4th i. e., the 20th sine, can be determined. Again, from tho 4th, tho 2nd and 2

2nd,* and from the 2nd, the 1st and 23rd, can be found. In like manner, tho UJth

14th, 6lh, 19th, 7th, 17th, lltli, and 13th, can also he found from the 8th sin

e. From the 12th again, tho 6lh, 18th, 3rd, 21st, 9th and 15th ran be determined

, and the radius is the 24th sine. Thus all the 24 sines are found. Several othe

r methods for finding the sines will be given in the sequel.-B. J).]

[t Biia bxaba cha bya maintains that the Earth is in tho centre of the Universe,

and the Sun, Moon and the five minor planets, Mars, Mercury, Ac. revolve round

the Earth in circular orbits, the centres of which do not coincide with that of

the Earth, with uniform motion. The circle in which a planet* revolves is called

Pbativ$iita, or exoentrio circle, and a circle of the same sise< which is suppo

sed to have the same centre with that of the Earth, is called Kaksha vritta or c

oncentric circle. In the circle, the planet appears to revolve with unequal moti

on, though it revolves in the exrenlrie with equal motion. The place when the pl

anet revolving in the excentrio appears in the concentric is its true plaoe and

to find this, astronomers apply a correction called mavda-phala (1st equation of

the centre) to the mean place of the planet. A mean planet thus corrected is ca

lled kaxda-spabhta, the circle in which it revolves MANSA-PBATfv^iTTA (1st excen

trio) and its farthest point from the centre gf the concentric, KANDOOHOE (1st h

igher Apsis). As the mean places of the Sun and Moon when corrected by 1st equat

ion become true at the centre of the Earth, this correction alone is sufficient

for them. But the five minor planets, Mars, Mercury, Ac. when corrected by the 1

st equation are not true at the centre of the Earth but at another place. For th

is reason, astronomers having assumed a

and the centre of the circle in which the planet revolves does not coincido with

the centre of the Earth: the spectator, therefore, on the Earth does dot find t

he planet in its mpfn place in the Zodiac. Hence Astronomers apply the correctio

n called bhuja phala to the mean place of the planet [to get tho true place].

Mode of, illustration of 8. On the northern side of a wall the above M. running

duo east and west, let tho

teacher draw a diagram illustrative of the fact for the satis-faction of his pup

ils.

A verae to encourage those 9. But this science is of divine orHPn sealing facts n

ot cognizable difficulties of the science, by the senses. Springing from the

the concentric circle as Bocond excontrio of those five planets, take another ci

rcle of the same size and of tho samo centre with tho Earth as concentric, and i

n order to find tj}ie place where tho planet revolving in tho 2nd exceutrio appe

ars, in this concentric, they apply a correction called s fGHKA-PiiALA, or 2nd e

quation of tho centre, to the mean place corrected by tho 1st equation. Tho MAND

A-SPASHTA planet, when corrected by tho 2nd equation is called s pasiita, or tru

e planet, the Sndexeentiic, s foifRA-PBATiVRJTTA, and its farthest point from

the centre of tho Earth, s lOHBOcncn the 2nd higher Apsis.

If a man wishes to draw a diagram of the arrangement of tho planets according to

what we have briefly stated here, lie should first describe the exceutrio .circ

le, and through this cxcontriu tho concentric, and then ho may determine tiie pl

aco of the mavda-spasuta planet in the concentrio thus described. Again, having

assumed tho concentrio as 2nd excontrio and described tho concentrio through thi

s 2nd excentric, he may find tho place of the true planet. This is the proper wa

y of drawing the diagram, but astronomers commonly, having first described the c

oncentric, and, through it, the excentric, find tho corrected mean place of the

planet in the concentric. After this, haring described tho 2nd exccntrio through

tho same concentrio, they find the true place in the concentric, through the co

rrected mean place in the same. These two modes of constructing the diagram diff

er from each oilier only in tho respect, that iu the former, the concentric is

drawn through the exoentno circle, and in the latter, , the exccntrio is drawn t

hrough the concentrio, hut this can easily be understood that both of these mode

s are equivalent and produce tho same result.

In order to find the 1st and 2nd equations through a different thcoi7, astronome

rs assume tliat tho centre of a small circle called nfcHOCHCHA-vaiTTA or epioyol

e, revolves in the concentric circle with the mean motion of the planet and the

planet revolves in the epicycle with a reverse motion equal to tho mean motion.

Bba sxaka cha bya, himself will show in the sequel that the motion of the planet

is tho same in both these theories of exoentrics and epicycles.

Jtejr to be observed here that, in the ease pi the planets Mars, Jupiter and Sat

urn, the motion iu the excentric is in fact their proper revolution, in their or

bits, and the revolution of their b iohkoohoha, or quick apogee, corresponds to

a revolution of the Sun. But in the case of the planets Mercury and Venus, the r

evolution in the excontrio is performed in the same time with the Sun, and , the

revolutions of their s iohbochchab are in fact their proper revolutions in thei

r orbits.B. D.]

-^iUt by the preceding method ,

4 y lin.1 + b = the sine of half the given are \

sin. 4 arc =s A R. e.B. D.]

supreme Brahma himself it was brought down to the Earth by Vabishtha and other h

oly Sages in regular succession; though it was deemed of too secret a character

to be divulged to mpn or to tho vulgar. Hence, this is not to bo communi-catedfc

to those who revile its revelations, nor to ungrateful, evil-disposed and bad me

n: nor to men who take up their residence with its professors for but a short ti

me. Those professors of this science who transgress theso (imitations imposed by

holy Sages, will incur a loss of religious merit, and shorten their days on Ear

th.

. 10. In tho first place then, deconstruction of a dia- r 9

gram to illustrate the ox- scribe a circle with tho compass opened

coutnc theory. ^ tho length of the radius (3438).

This is called the kaksitavjutta, or concentric circlo; at tho centre of tho .ci

rcle draw a small sphere of the Earth with a radius equal to ^th of the mean dai

ly motion of tho planet.

11. In this concentric circle, having marked it with 3G0#, find the place of

the higher apsis and that of tho planet, counting from tho 1st point of stellar

Aries; then draw a (perpendicular) diameter passing through tho centre of tho

Earth and tho higher apsis (which is called uchcha-rekhI; tho lino of the apside

s) and draw another transverse diamoter [perpendicular to the first] also passin

g through the centre.

12. On this line which passes to tho highest apsis from tho centre of tho Ea

rth, take a point at & distance from the Earth s centra equal to tho excentricit

y or the sine of the greatest equation of the centre, and with that point as cen

tre and the radius [equal to the radius of tho concentric], describe the prativ&

itta or excentric circle; the ucixcua-rekha answers the like purpose also in thi

s circle, but make tho transverse diameter different in it.

* All the Hindu Astronomers seem to coincide in thinking that the horizontal par

allax pabaxa-lambaka of all the planets amounts to a quantity equal to -jJfth of

their daily motion.L. W.

<

13 and 14. Where the uchcha-eekha ^^perpendicular diameter (when jJroduced) cuts

the excentrio oircle, that is the

c

[ In fig. 1st let E be the centre of the conoentrio circle A B C D, T the place

of the stellar Aries, A that of the higher apsis, and 11 that of the mean planet

in it: then E A will be the uchciia-kexiu (the line of the apsides). Again let

E 0 be the excentricity and HPLO the excentrio which has 0 for its centre | then

H, T P, will be the places of the higher apsis, the stellar Aries and the plane

t respectively in it. Henoe H P will be the kxhdxa j P X the sine of the xxudka;

P I the co-sine of the xxubba.

""" TBBFxexdba which is more than 9 signs and Mess than 8 is called xnioAni fi. e

. that which terminates in the six signs beginning with Gaprioornus) and that wh

ich is above 8 and less than 9 is oalled xabxxasx (i. a. that which ends in the

six signs beginning with Cancer).

Thus (Fig. 1) that which terminates in C H F is HSXGADX XSXDXl, and 4ihat which

ends in F L 0 is Kabxya dIt-B. D.] place of the higher apsis in it also. From th

is mark the first stellar Aries, at the distance in degree of the higher apsis i

n antecedentia: the place of the planet must be then fixed countmg the degree^ f

rom the mark of the lgt Aries in the usual oriler.

The distance between tho higher apsis and tho planet is call eil the kendra. Tho

right line lot fall from the planet oil the rcncuA-REKHA is the sino of bhuja o

f tho kendra. Tho right lino falling from the planet on the transverse diameter

is tho cosine of the kendra, it is upright and the sine of bhuja is a transverse

line.

The prinoiple on which 15. As tho distance between tho diameters of the two circ

les is equal based- to the excenfcricity and tho co-sine

of the kendra is above and below the excentrisity when the kendra is mrioadi and

kabkyAdi (respectively).f

* The word Kendba or oentre is evidently derived from the Greek word Ktrrpov end

means the true centre of tho planet.L. W.

t [In (Fig. 1) P K is the spiivta xoti and P E the kah^a. (tho hypothonuso) whic

h cuts the concentric at T. Hence tho point T will bo the apparent place of the

planot and T M the equation of the centre.

This equation can bo determined as follows.

Draw M ft perpendicular to E T, it will be the sine of the equation and the tria

ngle P M ft will be similar to the triangle PEK.

PE:EK PM:Mft;

P M.E K

hence Ms- = sine of the equation;

PE

EO.EK

,forPM = IK = EO

PE

Now, let i kebdba, a the distance between the centres of the two circles excentr

io and concentric, x = sine of the equation, and A hjpothenuse: then the bjphota

xopz c= cos. k a, according as the Kbvdba is mrigabi or

XABXTADI, and k s= ^ein.1 V~ (cos. k a) hence by substitution

a. sin. k a. sin. k

h

l/sin.1 k + (oos. k a)

16 and 17. Therefore the sum or, difference of the co-sine and exoentricity (res

pectively) is here the sphut^ koti (i. e the upright side of a right-ahglcd tria

ngle from the p

the planet in tfye excentric to the transverse diameter concentric,) the sine of

the bhuja [of the kendra/ is the bhuja (the baso) and the square-root of tho su

m of the squares of tho qpliuxA kott and bhuja is called karna, hypothenuso, Thi

s hypothenuso is the distance between the Earths centre and the planets place in t

ho exccntric circle.

Tho planot will bo observed in that point of the concentric cut by tho hypothenu

se.

The equation of the centre is tho distance between tho mean and apparent places

of tho. planet: when the mean placo is moro advanced than the apparent place the

n the equation thus /ound is subtractive; when it is behind tho true place, the

equation is additivo. <47>

<47> [Thus, the mean planet, corrected by the 1st equation, becomes KAND

A-bpabhja and this process is called the manda process. After this, the MANDA-8F

A6HTA when rectified by the bi ghra Praia, or 2nd equation, is

, .J114.SPABHTA planet, and this 2nd process is termed the s ighka process. Both

of those processes, manda-spabhta and sPArtryA are reckoned in the timan-qala o

r the orbit of the planet as hinted at by Bhaskabacharta in the commentary calle

d Vabana-bhabhya in the sequel. These places are assumed for the ecliptic also w

ithout applying any correction to them, because the correction required is very

imall.T-B. D.]

The reason for assuming 18. The moan planet moves in its ImwnTSg th1nd MANDA-MtAT

IV <48>1TTA (fost excentric) ; equation. the MANDA-sPASHfA planet (i. e.

whoso

<48> [Thus, the mean planet, corrected by the 1st equation, becomes KAND

A-bpabhja and this process is called the manda process. After this, the MANDA-8F

A6HTA when rectified by the bi ghra Praia, or 2nd equation, is

, .J114.SPABHTA planet, and this 2nd process is termed the s ighka process. Both

of those processes, manda-spabhta and sPArtryA are reckoned in the timan-qala o

r the orbit of the planet as hinted at by Bhaskabacharta in the commentary calle

d Vabana-bhabhya in the sequel. These places are assumed for the ecliptic also w

ithout applying any correction to them, because the correction required is very

imall.T-B. D.]

mean place is rectified by tho first equation) moves in its 6 ioIIRA-PRATI VflIT

TA (second OXCOntric). The MANDA-SPASnyA

It also follows from this that, when cos. k is equal to a in the karkyadi KENDRA

, thru h will bo equal to sin. X <49>, otherwise h will always be greater than in

. k and consequently x will be less than a. Hence, when A is equal to Bin A, x w

ill then be greatest and equal to a, i. e. the equation of the centre will be

<49> [Thus, the mean planet, corrected by the 1st equation, becomes KAND

A-bpabhja and this process is called the manda process. After this, the MANDA-8F

A6HTA when rectified by the bi ghra Praia, or 2nd equation, is

, .J114.SPABHTA planet, and this 2nd process is termed the s ighka process. Both

of those processes, manda-spabhta and sPArtryA are reckoned in the timan-qala o

r the orbit of the planet as hinted at by Bhaskabacharta in the commentary calle

d Vabana-bhabhya in the sequel. These places are assumed for the ecliptic also w

ithout applying any correction to them, because the correction required is very

imall.T-B. D.]

* greatest when tho hypothenuse is equal to the sine of tho xkndra, or whe

n the

planet reaches the point in tho cxcentrio cut by the transverse line in the conc

entric. Therefore, tho centre of the excentric is merited at the distance equal

to tho cxcentricity from the centre of the concentric (as stated in the V 12th.)B

. D.]

is therefore here assumed as the mean planet in the second process (i. e. in fin

ding the second equation). <50> ,

<50> [For this reason, having assumed the lCAXSA-SPASUfA planet for the

mean, which manda-spasuta can be determined in the concentric by describing the

cxcentric circle Ac. through the mean planet and mavbocuciia, malu^the place of

the stellar Aries from the manda-svashta place in tlio reverse order of the sign

s ami then determine the place of the siqhbocuciia in the order of the signs. Thr

ough the places of the stellar Aries and s raunocjiCKA describe the 2nd exccntri

c circle &c. in the wav mentioned before, and then fiud the place of the true pl

anet in the concentric.B. I).]

ft- reason for the raven- 19 <51> The place in thq concentric lion oi^he higher

apsis. jn w]uch the revolving planet in its own exhentric id seen by observers i

s its true place. To find tho distance betwoen the true and mean places of tho p

lanet, the higher apsis has been inserted by former Astronomers.

<51> [For this reason, having assumed the lCAXSA-SPASUfA planet for the

mean, which manda-spasuta can be determined in the concentric by describing the

cxcentric circle Ac. through the mean planet and mavbocuciia, malu^the place of

the stellar Aries from the manda-svashta place in tlio reverse order of the sign

s ami then determine the place of the siqhbocuciia in the order of the signs. Thr

ough the places of the stellar Aries and s raunocjiCKA describe the 2nd exccntri

c circle &c. in the wav mentioned before, and then fiud the place of the true pl

anet in the concentric.B. I).]

20. That point of the exccntric which is most disttmt from the Earth has bee

n denominated the higher apsis (or cchceia) : that point is not fixed but moves;

a motion of tho higher apsis has therefore been established by thoso conversant

with tho science.

21. Tho lower apsis is at a distance of six isigns from the higher apsis: wh

en the planet <52> is in cither its higher or lower apsis, then its true place c

oincides with its mean place, becauso the line of the liypothenuse fallS on tho

mean place of the planet in the concentric.

<52> [For this reason, having assumed the lCAXSA-SPASUfA planet for the

mean, which manda-spasuta can be determined in the concentric by describing the

cxcentric circle Ac. through the mean planet and mavbocuciia, malu^the place of

the stellar Aries from the manda-svashta place in tlio reverse order of the sign

s ami then determine the place of the siqhbocuciia in the order of the signs. Thr

ough the places of the stellar Aries and s raunocjiCKA describe the 2nd exccntri

c circle &c. in the wav mentioned before, and then fiud the place of the true pl

anet in the concentric.B. I).]

22. As the planet when in the higher apsis is at its greatest distaneo from

the Earth, and when in tho lower

The cause of variation of aPsis at least distance, therefore its apparent size o

f planet s disc, disc appears small and largo accordingly. In like manner, its d

isc appears small and large accordingly as tho planet is near to and remoto from

the Sun.

23. To prevent tlio student from becoming confused, I have separately explai

ned tho proof of finding the equation by the Phativritta Bhanoi of tlio diagram

of the exeunt ric. I shall now-proceed to explain the same proof in a different

munuor by tho diagram of a nIchociicha-vritta (epicycle).

Oonitraotion .of Di^m 24 .Tttldn m P1 to illustrate the thoory of planet in the con

centric as the centre,

epicycle. with a radius equal to the excentraity

of the planet, draw a circle. This is called NfcHofocHA vbitta or epicycle. Then

draw a line from the centre of the Earth passing through tho mean place of the

planet [to the circumference of the epicycle].

25. That place in the epicycle most distant from the centre of the Earth, cu

t by the line [joining the centre of the Earth and mean place of the planet] is

supposed to be the place of the higher apsis: and the point in the epycicle near

est to the Earths ccntro, the lower apsis. In the opicycle draw a transverse line

passing through the centre of it [and at right-angles to the above-mentioned li

no which is called here uchcha-tiekha].

26. As th6 mean planet revolves with its kendra-gati (the motion from its hi

gher apsis) in tho 1st and 2nd epicycle marked with the- 12 signs and 660 degrees

towards tho reverse signs, and according to tho order of the signs respectively

from its higher apsis.

27. Mark off therefore tho places of the first and secoud KENDRAS or distanc

es from their respective higher apsides in the manner directed in the last verse

: tho planet must bo fixed at those points. [Here also] Tho (perpendicular) line

from tho planet to tho uchcha-rekha is tho sine of the bhuja of the kendra : an

d from tho planet on the transverse line is the cosine [of the kendra] . (See no

te ncH page.)

To flud the hypothenusc 28 and 29. The BHUJA PHALA and and the equation of centr

e. K(,TI PHALA 0f the KENDRA which are

found [in tho Ganitadhyaya] arc sine and cosine in the epicycle. As the kojiJpha

la is above the radius (of the concentric) in vbjgxdi kendra and within the radi

us in karkyadi-kundra, the sum and difference, therefore, of the koji phaia and

the radius is here the sphuta-koti (upright lino), the bhuja phala is the bhuja

(the base) and the karna hypothenuse (to co^lete

V. 27.] Sidhdnta-it iromani.

145

the right-angled triangle) is the line intercepted between the centre of the Ear

th and the planet. The equation of the centre is here the arc [of the concentric

] intercepted betwoon

The sine and oo-sine of the kkndba in the esoentric, reduced to their dimensions

in the epicycle in parts of the radius of the concentric, are named bhuja-fhai

and boti-fhala respectively in the OapitAdetata. That As the radius or 860 of th

e concentric i the sine and cosine of the nxuiA in the ezoentrio :: exoentrici

ty or the periphery of the epicycle : bhwa-fhaia end koti-fhala respectively.

Ttflgfnrn the bhuja-phala and xoti-fhala must be equal to the line and eMura the

obdba in the epicycle.B. D.]

G

the mean place of the planet and the point9 cat by the hypo, thcnuse.. The equat

ion thus found is to be added or subtracted as was before explained. ,

. 30. The plajiefc appears to move forward from mandochcha,

Conitruetioi of Hw mixed 0r lst hiSller aP8Vin the diagrams of the excentrio cir

cle with its KENDRA-GA^I (the nio-

and epicycle. tion from its mandochciia) and in tlio

order of the signs and to the East: From its si ghrochcha, 2nd higher apsis, it

moves in antecedents or reversely, as it is thrown backwards.

31. When the epicycle however is used, the reverse of this takes place, the

planet moving in antecedents from its 1st higher apsis and in the order of the s

igns from its 2nd higher apsis. Now as the actual motion in both casos is the sa

me, while the appearances are thus diametric:illy opposed, it must be admitted t

herefore that theso expedients aro tlio mere inventions of wise astronomers to a

scertain the amount of equation.

In (Fig 2) E is the Sphuta-KOti, F E the hypothenuse, T the apparent place of th

e planet in the concentric and T M the equation of the centre. This equation can

also be found by the theory of the epicycle in the following

Draw T a perpendicular to E M, then T n will bo the sine of the equation; let it

bo denoted by x, the kkjuira in the excentrio by , tho excentricity by a, and th

e liypolheuuso by A: then

B i sin a a : P the bhuja-phala a sin

the BUUJA-PHALA = ,

B

Mow. the triangles E T a and E P are similar to each other .-. E P : P = E T : T

is or A ! P = B xx

. = 1

A

that is, the bhUJA PHaka multiplied by the radius and divided by thfe hypothe-nu

se is equal to the sine of the equation.

a sin

B

. . by substitution

0 sin B a sin

s X - as - - - .

B A A

found before by the theo>7 of the exoentric in the note on the verses 15,16 and

17.B. D.]

But P = }

,the sine of the equation as

32. If the diagrams (of tlio exccntric and epicycle) be drawn unitedly, and

the place of the planet be ifiarked off in tilt manner before explained, then th

e planot will necessarily be in the point of the intersection of the oxcentric b

y the epicyclb.

33. [In illustration of theso opposito motions, examine an oil-mans screw-pre

ss.] As in the oil-mans press, the wooden press (moving in the direction in whi

ch the bullock ^fastened to it goes) moves (also itself) in tho opposito directi

on to that in which the bullock goes, thus tho motion of tho planet, though it m

oves in tho oxcentric circle, appears in antecedents in the epicycle.

34. As the centre of the 1st epicycle is in the eoncontrio,

Explains why the 5 minor let the planet therefore move in the

Kd ^ld equation.to concentric with its mean motion: lu

ilteir true places. the concentric [at tlirft point cut by

the first hypothenuso] is tho centre of the si ghra nichochcha, vrttta or of tho

2nd epicycle: Tn the second or r ighra epicyclo is found tho true place of tho

planet.

35. Tho first procoss, or process of finding tho 1st equa-

tion, is used in tho first place, in order to ascertain tho position of tho cent

re of the sIghra NfcHocucHA v;utta or of tho 2nd epicycle, and tho 2nd process,

or the process of tho 2nd equation, to ascertain the actual place of the planet.

As these two processes are mutually dependent, it on this account becomos neces

sary to have recourse to the repetition of theso. two processes.

36 and 37. Somo say that tho hypothenuso is not used in

_ . . e the 1st process, because tho difference

sion of hypothenuso in the (in the two modes of computation) xakda ppoo M

is inconsiderable, but others maintain

that since in this process the periphery of tho first epicycle being multiplied

by the hypothenuse and divided by tho radius becomes true, and that, if the hypo

thenuso then be used, the result is the same as it was before, therefore the hyp

othenuse is

not employed. No objection is to be made why this is not the case in tho 2nd pro

cess, because the proofs of finding the equation are different here. #

88. As no observer on the surface of tho Earth sees the

Bwion of Nmumti. Pknet movinf t1 excent,1o> ie-fleeted from his zenith, in that pl

ace

of tho concontric, where an observer situated at the centro of the Earth observ

es it in the eastern or western hemisphere, and at noon both observers see it in

the same place, thoreforo the correction called Natakarha is declared (by astro

nomers). The proof of this is tho same as in finding the parallax.f

* [The bhuja-fhala, determined by means of the sine of the first xendba of tho p

lanet (i. e. by multiplying it by the periphery of the 1st epicycle and dividing

it by 860) has been taken for the sine of tho 1st equation of the centre: and wh

at we have shown in the note on the Y. 28 and 29, that the vhuja-PHala, when mul

tiplied by the radius and divided by the hypothenuse, becomes the sine of the eq

uation may be understood only for finding the 2nd equation of the five minor pla

nets and not for determining the 1st equation.

Some say that the omission of tlA hypothenuse in the 1st process has no other gr

ound but the very inconsiderable difference of the result. But bbahxa-GUPTA main

tains that the periphery of the 1st epicycle, varies according to the hypothenus

e j that is, their ratio always the same, and the periphery of the lit epicycle,

mentioned in the gaxitabhyAya, is found at the instant when the , hypothenuse i

a equal to the radius. For this reason, it ia necessary at first to find the tru

e periphery through tho hypothenuse and then determine the 1st equation. But, he

declares that by so doing j also the sine of the equation beoomes equal to the

bhuja-fhala as follows.

Ai B: 1st periphery = the liypothcuuse: the true periphery P X h

the true periphery , and consequently the bsuja-PHAIA in

B

P X h sin it

the true epioyole = .X ;

B 860

PX sin B

. the sine of tho 1st equation s= v x and abridging = B 860 A

P . sin

which is equal to the bhuja-fhala. Hence the hypothenuse ia not 860

used in the 1st process.

Brahmagupta s opinion israuoh approved of by Bha sxaba oha bta.B. D.] f But this

is not the ease, because the xatakabx whioh Bha skara cha bta has stated in the

GavixAdhyata has no connection with tho fact stated in this i loxa and therefore

many say that this i loxa does not belong to the 1 text.B. D.]

V/40.]

Sidhdnta-siromani.

149

39. The meanmotion of a planet is also its true motion

Explain! where the mean when the Pknet reachesthat^ point in tad true motion! of

all the the excentric cut by the transverse planets coma e. diameter which p

asses through the

centre of the concentric: and it is when the planet is at that point that the am

ount of equation is at its maximum. [Lalla has erroneously assertod that the mea

n and true motions coincide at the point where the concentric is cut by its ex-c

entric.]

40. Having made the excentric and other circles of thin

Manner of observing the pieces of bamboo in the manner ex-

retrogression Ac. of Planets. p|ajno^ before, and having changed

the marks of the places of the planet and its b Iqiikochcha 2nd higher apsis wit

h their daily motions, an astronomer may quickly show the retrogressions, &c.f

* The ancient astonomers Laha, S bipati Ac. any that the true motion of a planet

equals to its mean motion when it leacheB the point of intersection of the conc

entric and excentric. But Bha skaba chauya denying this, says, that when the pla

net roaches the point when the transverse axis of the concentrio cuts i the exoe

ntrio and when tho amount of equation is a maximum, the true motion of a planet

becomes equal to its mean motion. For, suppose, pit pa, gI Ac., are the mean plac

es of a planet found on successive days at sunriso when tho planet proceeded fro

m its higher or lower apsis ande sa, es, Ao. are the amounts of equation, then p

, e p a,pa e Ao. will be the true plaoes of tho planet,

Pa-f. PPa (-!.); Ao. will bo the

true motions of the planet on successive days. Now, as the difference between th

o true and mean motions is callod the gatiphala, by cancelling therefore, papt pa

iAo. the parts of the true motions which are equal to the mean motion, the remain

ing parts e8eac, Ao. will evidently be the GATIPHILAS that is the differences betw

een two snooessive amounts of. equation.are the GATIPHILAS. Thus, it is plain t

hat the gatiphala entirely depends upon the amount of equation, but as tho amoun

t of equation increases, so the gatiphala^ is decreased and therefore when it is

a maximum, the gatiphala will indifintely be decreased i. e. will be equal to u

uthing. Now as the amount of equation becomes a maximum in that plaee where the

transverse diameter of the concentric circle euts the excentric^ (see the note o

n versee 15,16 and 17) the GATIPHALA, therefore becomes equal to nothing at the

same place, that is, in that very place, the true motion and mean motions of a p

lanet are equal to each other. Having thus shown a proof of his own assertion, B

haskaba cha bya says that what the ancient astronomers stated, that the true and

mean upturns of a planet are eqnal to each ether when the planet comes in the i

ntersection point of the eoncentrio and excentric eireles, is entirely ungrounde

d.B. D.]

t According to the method above mentioned, if the place of tlie higher apsis and

that of the planet be ohanged, and the planet s place be marked^tne motion of t

he planet will be in a path like the dotted line as shown in the diagram, f se D

iagramfaciag (hit page

41. The word kendra (or kcvt/jov) means the centre of a

The n,0 offt. ,W oirC, : ik on aCC0nnt aPpW

fion of the appellation of to the distance between tho planet arid

K1HDKA. 1 4

higher apsis, for the centre of tho NiCHOCHCHA-vijiTTA or epicycle, is always at

the distance of the planet from the place of the higher apsis.k

42. The circumferenco in yojanas of the planets orbit Sphuta-xaxsha or cor- b

eing multiplied by the s ighra-karna

weted orbit. (or 2nd hypothenuso), and divided by

the radius (3438) is spiiuta-kaksh^ (corrected orbit). Tho planet is (that momen

t) being carried [round the earth] by the pkavaha wind, and moves at a distance

equal to half the diameter of tho spiiuta-kaksha from tho earths centre.

43. When tho suns manda-vhala i. o. the equation of the Benson of Buja xtaba

centre is subtractive, the apparent or

correction. r real ^mo 0f sun_rjse takes placo before

tho time of mean sun-rise: when the equation of the centre is additive, tho real

is after the mean sun-rise, on that account tho amount of that correction arisi

ng from the suns vanda-phala converted into asus of time has been properly declar

ed to bo subtractive or additive.

44. Those who have wits as sharp as the sharp point of the inmost blado of t

he dorbha or darbha grass, find the subject above explained by diagrams, a matte

r of no difficulty whatever: but men of weak and blunt understanding find this s

ubject .as heavy and immovable as tho high mountain) that has been ^shorn of its

wings by the thunderbolt of Indra.

End of Chapter V. on the principles on which tho rules for finding the true plac

es of the planets are grounded.

It is to be observed here that when the planet comes to the places a, a Ac. in t

he dotted line, it is then at its higher apsis, when it comes to the places c, o

and e, it is at its lower, and when it comes to b, b &o. it appear^ stationary:

and Idien it is moving in the upper arc b a% its motion being direct appears qu

icker, aud when in the lower arc b o 4, its retrograde motion is seen.B. j).]

* [These as vs are equivalent to that part of the equation of time, which is due

to the unequal motion of the sun on the ecliptic.B. I).] t Mountains are said by

Hindu theologians to have originally had wings.

CHAPTER VI.

Called Golabanjjha, on the construction of an ArmUanj Sphere.

of tho sphere, construct an armillary sphere with circles made of polished piec

es of straight bamboo; and marked with the number of degrees iu tho circle.

2. In the first place, let him mark a straight and cylindrical dhruva-yasht

i, or polar axis, of any excellent wood ho pleases: then let him placo loosely i

n the middle of it a small sphere to represent tho earth [so that tho axis may i

nuvo freely through it]. Let him then firmly secure tho spheres beyond it of the

Moon , Mercury, Venus, tho Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and the fixed sturs: Rcyo

nd them let him place two sphorcs called khacoia and o^kwola unconnected with ea

ch other, and fastened to the hollow cylinders [in which tho axis is to bo inser

ted] .

[Description in detail of tho fact above alluded to.]

U. Fix vertically the four circles and another circle called

mi , ..... horizon transversely in the middle of

Tlio prime vertical, tlio J

meridian and the xokavuix- them, so that one of thoso vertical

TA8 circles called Samamant>ai.a, prime

vertical, may pass through tho cast and west points of tlio horizon, the other c

alled yXm yottaka-v rItta, meridian #tho

* The sphere of the fixed stars which is mentioned here is called the bragola st

arry sphere. This bkaoola is assumed for all the planets, instead of fixing a se

parate sphere for each planet. This sphere oonsists of the circles ecliptic, equ

inoctial, diurnal circles, Ac. which are moveable. For this reason, this sphero

is to be firmly fixed to tho polar axis, so tlrnt it may move freely by moving t

he axis. Beyond this sphere, the xhagola celestial sphere which consists of the

prime vertical, meridian, horizon, Ac. which remain fixed in a given latitude is

to be attached to the hollow cylinders, llaving thus scflffately fixed these tw

o spheres, astronomers attach, beyond these, a third splieFe in which the circle

s forming both the spheres kraGola and bhaGola are mixed together. For this reas

on the latter is called dkiggola the double sphere. And as the spherical fingers

are well seen by mixing together the two spheres khagola and BHAGOLA, the third

sphere which is the mixture of the two spheres, is separately attached.B. D. J

north and south points, and the remaining two called kona-v$ittas tho N. E. and

S. W. and N. W. and S. B. points.

4. Then .fix a circle passing through the points of tlfo The unmah9ala ,or

sis horizon interaectedby the prime verti-

oclock line. cal, and passing also through the

south and north poles at a distance below and above the horizon qqual to the lat

itude of the place. This is called the UNMAwpAU, or six o clock lino, and is nec

essary to illustrate the increase and decrease in the length of tho days and nig

hts. <53>

<53> The oircle of deolination or the hour circle pining through the eas

t and Vest points of the horison is called UHCaxpala in Sanskrit; but I am not a

cquainted with any corresponding term in English. In the treatise on astnuoiny

ill the Encyclopedia Metropolitan! the prime vertical is named the six o clock l

ine. This term (six o clock line) should, I think, be applied to the VNiCAvpALA,

because it is always six o clock whan the sun arrives at this oircle, the rxxAv

pAU. The prime vertical or the SAKArifiirDALA of the Sanskrit cannot, with propr

iety, be called the six o clock line; because it is only twice a year that it is

six o clock when the sun is at this circle, the prime vertical.-

The equinoctial.

5. The equinoctial (called nXpI-valaya), marked with 60 ghatis, should bo p

laced so as to pass through the east and west

points of the horizon, and also to pass over tho meridian at a distance south fr

om the zenith equal to tho latitude, and at a distance north of the nadir also e

qual to the latitude of the place [for which the sphere is constructed].

6. Let the azimuth or vertical circle be next attached

, . ..... within the other circles, fixed by a

Aumuth or vertical circle. , J

pair of nails at the zenith and nadir,

so as to revolve freely on them: [It should be smaller than tho other circles so

as to revolve within them]. It should be capable of being placed so as to cover

the planet, wherever it may happen to bo.

7. Only ono azimuth circle may be used for all tho planets; or else eight a

zimuth circles may be made, viz. one for each

of tho 7 planets and the 8th for the nonagesimal point. Tho

azimuth circle for tho nonagesimal point is called the d$jk-

SHEPA-VglTTA.

The D?igooA.

VI. u.]

Sidhdnta-s iromani.

153

8. Lot two hollow cylinders project beyond the two poles north and south of

the khagola celestial sphere, and on these cylinders

let the skilful astronomer place the 09100014 double sphere as follows.

9. When the system of the khagola, celestial sphere, is mixed with the ecli

ptic; and all the other circles forming the bhagola (which will be presently sho

wn) it is then called d^iooola, double Bphere. As in this the figures formed by

the circles of the two spheres khagola and bhagola are seen, it is therefore cal

led d^iggola double sphere.

THE BHAGOLA.

10. Let two circles be firmly fixed on the axis of the poles answering to th

e meridian and horizon (of the khaoola) ; they aro called the adhIka-v^ittas, or

circles of support: Lot the equinoctial circle also be fixed on therft marked w

ith 00 ghatis like the prime vertical (of the kiuoola).

11. Make tho ecliptic (of the same size) and mark it with

. 12 signs; in this tho Sun moves: and

The Ecliptic, 0

also in it revolves the Earths shadow

at a distance of 6 signs from tho Sun. Tho kkanti-pXta or vernal equinox, moves

in it contraiy to tho order of the signs: The BPASHTA-piTAS [of the other planet

s] have a like motion: the places of these should be marked in it.f

* See the note on 2 Verse.

t [The Sun revolvos in tho ecliptic, but the planets, Moon, Mars, &o. do not. re

volve in that circle, and tho planes of their orbite are inolinod to that of the

ecliptic. Of the two pointe where the planetary orbit outs the plane of tlie ec

liptic, that in which the planet in ita revolution rises to the north of the ecl

iptic is called its pa ta or. asconding node (it ie usually called the mean pa t

a) and that which is at the distance of six signs from the former is called its

bashadbha pa ta or descending node. The pa ta of the Moon lies in its concentric

, because the plane of its orbit passes through the centre of the concentric, i.

e. through the centre of the Earth1 but the pa tab of the other planets are in

their second oxcentrio, beeause the planes of their orbite pass tlirough the cen

tres of their 2nd exesntrios, which oentres lie in the piano the ecliptic. When

the planet is at any other place than its nodes, the disCanoe between it and the

plane of the eoliptio is called ita north or south latitude as the planet is no

rth or south of the ecliptic. When the planet is at the distance of 3 signs forw

ard or backward from ita pa ta, it is then at the greatest distance north or sou

th from the ecliptic: This distance is its greatest latitude. Thus,

12. Let the ecliptic be fixed on the equinoctial in the point of vernal equi

nox ksXnti-pIta and in a point (autumnal equinox) 6 signs from that: it should b

e so placed that the point of it, distant 3 signs eastward from the vernal equin

ox, shall be 24 north of the equinoctial, and the 3 signs westward shall be at th

o same distance south from the equinoctial.

Planet s orbit.

13. Divide a circle called kshepa-V^itta representing the orbit of a planet

into 12 signs and mark in it the places of the spashta-

pItas, rectified nodes, as has been before prescribed [for the ecliptic]. Then t

his circle should be so placed in connection with the ecliptic as it lias been p

laced in connection with the equinoctial.

14. The ecliptic and tho kshepa-v&itta should bo so placed that tho lattor m

ay intersect tho former at the [rectified] ascending and4 descending nodes, and

pass through points distant 3 signs from the ascending node east and west at a d

istanco from tho ecliptic north and south equal to tho rectified greatest latitu

do of tho planet [for the time].

15. Tho greatest (mean) latitudes of the planets being multiplied by the rad

ius and divided by the siqhra-karna

tlw latitude of the planet begins from its pa ta nnd becomes extreme nt the dist

anco of 3 signs irom it, therefore, in order to find the latitude, it is nm Marv

to know the distance between tho planet and its pa ta. This distance is equal t

o tho sum of the places of the plauet and its pa ta, because all pa tas move in

antecedents from the stellar aries. This sum is called the tiebhbpa-kxhpba or th

e argument of latitude of the planet. As the pa ta of the Moon lies in her . con

centric, and in this circle is her true place, the sum of these two is her YIXBH

U A-kissha, bnt the pa ta of any other planet, Mars, Ac. lies in its 2nd * excen

trio and its xanda-bpabhta place (which is equivalent to its heliocentric place)

is in that circle, therefore ita yikbiixpa-xixdba is found by adding the place

of ita pa ta to its xeaxda-xfabhta place. The bfabhta>pa ta of the planet is tha

t which being added to the true place of tho planet, equals its vueshipa-undba f

or this reason, it is found by reversely applying the 2nd equation to its mean p

a ta. As

.. bfashta pa ta + true place of the planet,

a YIXIH1PA-XSVDBA,

*= place of the xanda bfashta planet -ffjnara pa ta,

bs p, of the m. t. p. 2nd equation f- m. 2ud equation, ss true plane of the plane

t + mean pa ta 2nd equation,

.. bfashta pa ta = mean pa ta f 2nd equation.

The plaoe of this spabhta pa ta is to be reversely marked in the eeliptie from t

he stellar arks. -B. D]

VI. 15.]

Sulhunta-tfiromani.

155

second hypothenule becomes spabhta, rectified. Tlie ksuefa-v^itta, or circles re

presenting the orbits of the six planets, should be made separately. The Moon an

d tho rest rovolve in

their own orbits.

* [As tlie pa ta of the Moon end her true place lie in her concentric, the sum o

f these two, whioh is called her vikskbpa-kbvdka or the araument of latitude, mu

st be measured in the same circle, and her latitude^ therefore found through her

tikbhbpa XUDBA, will be as seen from the oentre of her concentric i. e. from th

e centre of the Earth. But the pa ta of any other planet and its iiamia-SPABiiTA

place (which is its holiocontric plaoe) lie in its 2nd excentrio, therefore its

latitude, determined by means of its viksiiipa-xkbdiu, which is equal to the su

m of its manda-spaseta placo and pa ta and measured in the same oircle, will bo

such as seen from the centre of its 2nd excentrio and is called its menu latitud

e (which is equivalent to the heliocentric latitude of tho planet).

As in Fig. 1, let N E be tho quarter of the ecliptic, N 0 that of the 2nd excent

rio, N tho node and F tho planet.

Suppose 0 E and F p (parts of N great circles) to be drawn from

O aud P perpendicularly to . tho piano of the ecliptic: then 0 E will be tho gre

atest lati tudo and F p the latitude of tho planet at F, by which a sjiectafcor

at the centre of the 2ud cxccntric and not at the centre t>t the Earth, will see

the planet distant from the ecliptic. This latitude, therefore, is called a mea

n latitude whioh can be found as follows,

sin N 0 : sin 0 E : : sin N P : sin F p, or R . sin F p as sin 0 E . sin N p,

consequently, in order to determine Fp, it is necessary to know previously 0 E,

the greatest latitude and N F, the distance of the place .of the planet from the

node, which distance is evidently equal to the viksitbpa-kbxdba that is, to the

sum of the mamm-spasiita place of the planet and the mean place of tlie node. N

ow the lutitnde of the planet as seen from the centre of tlie Earth ia called it

s true latitude. This true latitude can bo found in the following manner,

Lgt E ho the centre of the earth, 0 that of tho 2nd excentrio, F the wanda sfasi

ita place of the planet in it: then E F will be tlie 2nd hypotlieuuso which is s

upposed to cut the coueentric at A : then A will be the true place of the planet

iu the concentric. Again let F q be a circle with the mitre 0, whoso plnne is p

erpendicular to the ecliptic plane and A b another circle with the centre E whos

e place is also perpendicular to tho same plane, then F q will be the mean latit

ude of tlie planet and A b will be the true. Let F p and A a lines be perpendicu

larly drawn to the plane of the ecliptic, these lines will also be at right angl

es to the line E p : then F p will be the aine of the mean latitude F q and A a

that of the true latitude A b. Now by the similar triangles E P p and E A o,

EPiPp: iEA: As;

EA.Fp

.-. Ao=

p

16. The declination ia an arc of a greftt meridian circle:

. cutting the equinoctial at right angles.

Declination and latitude. 1 J

anu iawuae. ^ tiU it touch the

R X sine of the mqfui latitude

or the tine of (lie true latitude

A

sin 0 E . sin N P

It

but, the tine of the mean latitude

by substitution

R sin 0 E . Bin N P

the sine of Hie true latitude X

A R

ain 0 E . sin N P

A

As the latitude of the planet ia of a smolier amount, the arc of a latitude it,

therefore taken in the Siddhantas instead of the sine of the latitude.

0 E . sin N P

Henoe, the true latitude - ,

that is, the sine of the argument of latitude multiplied by the greatest latitnd

e and divided by the 2nd hypothenuse is equal to the true latitude of the planet

.

Now in the Bhagoia, a circle should be so fixed to the ecliptic, that the former

may intersect the latter at the bfabhta-fta and the point six signs from it, and

whose extreme north and south distance from the ecliptic may be such that the d

istance between the circle and the ecliptic at the place of the true planet may

be equal to the true latitude of the planet. This circle ia called the YiHAnpALA

or vi K8HXPA-VRITTA and its extreme north and south distance from the ecliptic

is called the true or rectified extreme latitude of the planet which can be foun

d as follows.

c

let N be the bpashta-fata, N F the VIXanXFA-XBM-9VA, P p the true latitude, E 0

the true extreme latitude s then

sin N 0. sin P p

Bin E 0 z: ;

sinNP

or E 0 =

B.P p Tin N P

EO

R L.sinNP R.L

TinNP A T A

I.ainNP

A

This is the mean extreme latitude stated in the GIavitadutXva multiplied by the

radius and divided bv the And hypothenuse equals the true or notified extreme la

titude.B. D.]

ain N o: sin E 0 :: sin ,N P.iinPp

celestial latitude if in like manner an arc of a. great circle (which passes thr

ough the ecliptic poles) intercepted between tho ecliptic and the kshepa-v&itta.

The corrected declination [of any of the small planets and Moon] is the distance

of the planet from tlio oquinoctial in a circlo of declination.

17. The point of intersection of tho equinoctial and ecliptic circles is tho

kbanti-fXta or intersecting point for declination. Tho

retrograde revolutions of that point in a Kalpa amount to 30,000 according to th

o author of tho Sijrya-sidtwXnta.

18. Tho motion of tho solstitial points spoken of by Mun-jxla and others is

tho samo with this motion of tho equinox: according to theso authors its revolut

ions arc 199,669 in a Kalpa.

19. Tho placo of tho krAnti-p^ta, or the amount of tho precession of the equ

inox determined through tho revolutions of tho krXnti-pXta must bo addod to the

placo of a planet; and tho declination then ascertained. Tho ascensional differe

nce and periods of rising of the signs depend on tho declination: henco the proc

ession must be added to ascertain tho ascensional difference and horoscope.

20. Thus the points of intersection of tho ecliptic and the orbits of the Mo

on and other planets are tho kshepa-fatas, or intersecting points for the kshepa

celestial latitude. The revolutions of the kshepa-pjCtas aro also contrary to t

ho order of tho signs, hence to find thoir latitudes, the places of tho kshepa-p

jtas must be added to tho places of tho planets

21. As the xanda-spashta planet (or the mean planet corrected by the 1st equ

ation) and its ascending node rqjplve in the s iohra-prativ$itta or 2nd excentri

c, hence the amount of the latitude is to be ascertained from (the place of) the

-xanda-spashta planet added to the node found by calculation.

* The motion of the Ktixxi^TA is in a control? direction to that of tho order of

the signs.!. W.#i .

22. Or the amount of the latitude may %e found from the

8PASHTA-planet added to the node which the s ighra-phala 2nd equation is added t

o or subtracted from accordingly as it was subtractive or additivo. <54>

,

<54> [See the nodes on V. 11, and V. 13,14,15. B. D.] t [In all the orig

inal astronomical works, the snm of the pa ta and s lannocH-CHi of Mercury and V

enus, is assumed for their yiksiiepa-ondk a, and through this, their latitude is

determined. But the latitude thus found would bo at tho place of thoir a fOEBOO

HCffA and not nt their own place, because their places are different from those

of thoir s fOHBOcnoHAS. To remove this difficulty, Biu srha cha bya writes. Tho e

xact revolutions Ac. But the difficulty arises in the supposition that, the eBrth

is stationary in the centre of the universo and all the planets revolve round h

er, becanse we are then bound to grant that tho mean places of Mercury and Venus

an equal to Dint of the Sun, and henoo their places will be different from thos

e of their s fauuooHCHAB. But no inconvenience occurs in the supposition that, t

he Sun ia in tho centre of the universe and all the planets together with the ea

rth revolve round him. For, in this caso the places of tho a faHBOCHCHAS of Merc

ury and Venus are their own heliocentric places, and consequently the Burn of th

e places of thoir B foHBOCHCHAS and pa tab will be equal to the sum of their own

places and those of their pa tab, that is to their yxkbhbpakbkdua. For this rea

son, their latitude found through this, will be at their own places. Now, it is

a curious fact that, the revolutions of the, pitas of Mercury and Venus, stated

in the original works, are such as ought to be mentioned when it is supposed tha

t the Sun is in the middle of the universe and the planets revolve round hun,"Sn

d not when the Barth is Supposed ft be stationuy in the centre of the ribivene.

From this fact, we can infer that the original Authors of the Astronomical works

knew that all the planeta together with the Barth revolve round the Sun, and co

nsequently they stated the smaller amounts of the revolutipna of the Fa tas of t

he Mermuy aqft Venus. When this is the case, why is it supposed that all the plan

eta ipvotve round the Earth, because the Spherics oan more easily be understood

by this supposition than by the other. B. D.] i

As the Moon s nodo revolves in the concentric circle, the amount of the latitude

, thereforo, is^ to <55> bo found from the true placo of the Moon added to the m

ean node.

<55> [See the nodes on V. 11, and V. 13,14,15. B. D.] t [In all the orig

inal astronomical works, the snm of the pa ta and s lannocH-CHi of Mercury and V

enus, is assumed for their yiksiiepa-ondk a, and through this, their latitude is

determined. But the latitude thus found would bo at tho place of thoir a fOEBOO

HCffA and not nt their own place, because their places are different from those

of thoir s fOHBOcnoHAS. To remove this difficulty, Biu srha cha bya writes. Tho e

xact revolutions Ac. But the difficulty arises in the supposition that, the eBrth

is stationary in the centre of the universo and all the planets revolve round h

er, becanse we are then bound to grant that tho mean places of Mercury and Venus

an equal to Dint of the Sun, and henoo their places will be different from thos

e of their s fauuooHCHAB. But no inconvenience occurs in the supposition that, t

he Sun ia in tho centre of the universe and all the planets together with the ea

rth revolve round him. For, in this caso the places of tho a faHBOCHCHAS of Merc

ury and Venus are their own heliocentric places, and consequently the Burn of th

e places of thoir B foHBOCHCHAS and pa tab will be equal to the sum of their own

places and those of their pa tab, that is to their yxkbhbpakbkdua. For this rea

son, their latitude found through this, will be at their own places. Now, it is

a curious fact that, the revolutions of the, pitas of Mercury and Venus, stated

in the original works, are such as ought to be mentioned when it is supposed tha

t the Sun is in the middle of the universe and the planets revolve round hun,"Sn

d not when the Barth is Supposed ft be stationuy in the centre of the ribivene.

From this fact, we can infer that the original Authors of the Astronomical works

knew that all the planeta together with the Barth revolve round the Sun, and co

nsequently they stated the smaller amounts of the revolutipna of the Fa tas of t

he Mermuy aqft Venus. When this is the case, why is it supposed that all the plan

eta ipvotve round the Earth, because the Spherics oan more easily be understood

by this supposition than by the other. B. D.] i

23. Tho exact revolutions of tho nodes of Mercury aud Venus will be found by

adding tho revolutions of their s foiniA-xendkas to the revolutions of their no

dos which have been stated [in tho GanitXdhyXya] : if it bo asked why these smal

ler amounts havo been stated, I answer, it is for greater facility of calculatio

n. Hence their nodes which are found from their stated revolutions are to bo add

ed to tho places of their s fonra-kendras [to got tho exact places of tho nodes]

.f

24. To find the kendra [of any of tho planets] tho place of tho planet is su

btracted from tho sTgiirociiciia : then take

VI. 27.] .Sidlianta-siromani. 159

the kgndra with tl)e pata added [to get the exact amount of the fta or node] and

let the placo of the planet be added thereto, [we thus get tho vikbhefa-kendra o

r the argument of the latitude of Mercury or Venus]. Therefore from tho s fGURdt

HCHAS of these two planets with the fatas added, their latitudes ard directed by

the ancient astronomers to be found.

25 and 26. The tatas or nodes of these two planets added to the s ighrochchras f

rom which the true places of tho planets have been subtracted, become sfashta or

rectified. It is the s fashta-fata which is found in the miagola (above describ

ed).

In tho sphere of a planet, take the ecliptic above described as the concentric c

ircle, to this circlo tho second cxccntric circle should bo attached, as was exp

lained before, and a circlo representing the orbit of a planet (and which conseq

uently would represent the real second exccutric) should be also attached to tho

latter circle with tho amount of latitude detailed for it. In this latter circl

o mark off tho moon places of tho nodes of the (superior) planets, and also mark

in it tho mean place of the nodes of Mercury and Venus added to their respectiv

e s fGHRA-KKNDKAS.t

27. Next tho ahoratba-vrittas or diurnal circles, must be

Diurnal circles called do 011 both si(lcs of tho equinoctial aiiob aika-vjuttas.

[and parallel to it] at every or any

degree of declination that may be requiredand they must all bo marked with 60 gh

atis : The radius of tho diurnal circle Ton which the Sun may move on any day] i

s called dyujtI.

[Let, A = s ictHROCHCHA or the placo of 2d higher apeia. k = the t fOHiiA-KIKDBA

. p = the place of the planet.

= pa ta or the place of the ascending node, and If. = the exact pa ta.

t [See the note on Tenet 1

(hen k = hp; and A = t+ #asAp + >1 v nxSBBPA khxdra or argument or latitude of Me

rcury or Venus N. + p . k. - j> + a -Hft - + -. D.J T- i 13/Uttd 15 :-B. D.]

28. From the vernal equinox mark the ^2 signB in direct

order., and then let diurnal circles be attached at the extremity , of each sign

.

29. On either side of the equinoctial, three diurnal circles should be attac

hed in the order of the sigib: these agftin will answer for tho three following

signs.

The bhagola has thus been described. This is to be known also as the khkchara-go

la, the sphere of a planet.

30. Or in tho plane of the ocliptic bind the orbits of Saturn and of the oth

er planets with cross diameters to support them, but these must be bound below (

within) the ecliptic in successive circles one within tho other, like the circle

s woven one within the other by the spider.

81. Having thus secured the bhagola on tho axis or yashti, aftor placing it with

in the hollow cylinders on which the khagola is to be fastened, make tho bhagola

revolvo it will do so freely without reference to the khagola as its motion is

on the solid axis. The khagola and d^iggola remain stationary whilst the bhagola

revolves.

End of Chapter VI. on the construction of an armillary Bpliere.

CHAPTER VII.

Called Trifras na-v^sahX on the Principles of the Rules for resold mj the questi

on on time, space, and directions

The woeiuional difference 1. The time called CHARA-KHPNUA end ite place.

or ascensional difference is found by

that arc of a diurnal circle intercepted between the horizon aud the six o clock

line. The sine of that arc is called the kpjyain the diurnal circle: but, when

reduced to relative

value in a great ^circle, it is called charajya or sine of ascensional differenc

e.

2. The horizon, as seen at the_.e&n^torjor in a right sphere, is denominated in

other places [to the north, or Boutli of the equator] jfctfb unmanpala six o clo

ck line: but as the Sun appears at any place to rise on its own horizon, the dif

ference between thetimes of the Sun s rising [at a given place and the equatoria

l region uuder the same meridian] is | the ascensional difference.

3. When the sun is in thenor-

Determination of the .. . . , .,

question when the OBABA them hemisphere, it rises at any

d P10 (north of the e(luator) before

it does to that on the equator: but it sets after it sets to that on the equator

. Therefore the correction depending on .the ascensional difference is to be sub

tracted at sunrise of a given place from the place of the planet [at sunrise at

tho eqpator] and to be added at sunset to the place of the planet [as found for

the sunset at the equator].

4. When the Sun is in the southern hemisphere the reverse of this takes pla

ce, as the part of tho unmandala in that hemisphere lies below the horizon. The

halves of the sphere north and south of tho equinoctial are called tho northern

and southern hemispheres.

Oitu. of inenu. nd decretw 5- [And it is in conaequence of in leugtli of d.y and

nights. this ascensional difference that] the. days are longer and the nights sh

orter (than they are on the .

* [The times found by the arcs intercepted between the horizon end the six oclook

line, of the three diurnal circles attached at tho end of tho first 3 signs i.

e. Aries, Taurus and Gemini arc called the chaba-ea lab or the ascensional diffe

rences of these sums. and the differences of these OHiRA-KAXAS are called the ob

aba-kmANQA8 of thosethree signs.

As, where the Palabha is 5 digits or the latitude is nearly 221 north, the ascen

sional differences of the 8 first signs are 207,541 and 642 asus, and^he differe

nces of those i. e. 207,244 and 101 are the ohaba-kbshpas of those signs.

These are again the ohaba-xhabpas of the following three signs inversely i. 101,

244 and 207 Asus.

Thus the OHABA-KHAVPAS of the first six signs answer for the follqping six signs

.B. D.]

.equator) when the Sun is in the northernhemisphere: and that the days are short

er and the nights longer when the Sun is in the southern hemisphere. For, the le

ngth of the night is represented by that arc of the dinrnal circle below tho hor

izon, and the length of the day by that arc aboto tho horizon.

6. But at the equator the days and nights are always of the same length, as ther

e is no unmanpala there except tho horizon [on the distanco between which, the v

ariation in tho length of days and nights depends].

A circumstance of peculiar curiosity, howover, occurs in those places having a l

atitude greater than 66 N. viz. than tho complement of the Suns groatest declinat

ion.

Determination of phm nd 7- Wlienever the aorthem declina-time of perpetual day an

d tion of tho Sun exceeds the comple- ment of the latitude, then there will be por

petual day for such time as, that oxccss continued; and when the southern declin

ation of the Sun shall exceed tho complement of the latitude, then there will be

perpetual night during the continuance of that excess. On mkru, therefore, day

and night are each of half a yonrs length.

Place of kxxu.

8. To the Celestial Beings [on meku at the north pole] the equinoctial is horizo

n: so also is to the daittas [at tho south pole]. For, the northern and southern

poles are situated respectively .in their zeniths.

. 6. The Celestial Beings on meru behold the Sun whilst ho

is in tho northern hemisphere, always revolving above the horizon from left to r

ight: but daittas the inhabitants of the southern polar regions behold him whils

t he is in the southern hemisphere revolving above their horizon from the right

to the left.

10. Thus it is day whilst the Sun

Definition of the artificial . . , , . .,

. .

4av and night and the day W yiSlble, and flight whilst he IS lfl-

pnd nigiit of the rirjiB. visible. As the determination of

VII. 15.] Siddhtintas iromani. 165

night and day is jnade in regard to men residing on the sur- , faco of the Earth

, so also is that of the PiTjps or deceased ancestors who dwell on the nppcr par

t of the Moon.

11. As for the doctrine of astro-

JS "STti MtroktfMi loSersthat it wua day with tlio Goda professors or sa nhitiksb

.( at MBUU whilst the Sun was in the ut- tarXyana (or moving from the winter to t

he summer solstice) and night whilst the Sun was in the dakshinXyana (or moving

from the summer to the winter solstice), it can only be said in defence of such

an assertion, that it is day when the Sun is turned towards the day, and it is n

ight when turned towards the night. Their doctrine lias reference merely to judi

cial astrology and the fruits it foretells.

12. By the dogrees by which the Sun proceeds in his northern course to tlio

end of Gemini, he moves back from that sign: entering also the same diurnal circ

les in lfis descent as ho did in his ascent. Is it not therefore that the Sun is

visible in

i

his descent to the Gods in the place where he was first scon by them in his asce

nt ?

13. The rrniis reside on the upper

piTRiaf1 f tllG day f tlie part of the Moon and fancy the fountain of nectar to be

beneath themselves. They behold the Sun on the day of our amXvXsyX or new Moon

in their zenith. That therefore is the time of their midday.

14. They (i. e. the pit^is) cannot see the Sun when lie is opposite the lowe

r part of the Moon: it is therefore, midnight, with the pitris on the day of the

puknimX or full Moon. Tho. Sun rises to them in the middle of the Krishna paksh

a or dark half of the Moon, and sets in the middle of the s ukla paksiia or ligh

t half of the Moon. This is dearly established from tho context.

15. As BrakmX being at flh .im-ofB^SSi0n f 3x3 mense distance from the Barth, a

lways^ sees the Sun till the time of the pra-laya or general deluge, and sleeps

for the same time, therefore

164 Translation of th [VII. 16.

c

the day and night of Brahma are together 2000 kahayugas in length.

16. As the portion of the ecliptic .h^ luiZg which more obU<iae ^the otlier.

riton. rises and sets in a shorter tine and

that which is more upright takes a longer time in rising and settingj hence the

times of rising of the several signs are various [even at the equatorial regions

].

17. The (six) signs from Capricorn to Gemini or ascending signs which are in

clined towards the south with their respective declinations whilst they riso eve

n at the equator are still more inclined towards the south in the northern latit

udes (on account of the obliquity of the starry sphere towards the south); hence

they arise in still shorter times than they do at the equator.

18. At the equator! the [six] signs from Cancor or descending signs incline

whilst they rise to the northerly direction! but they will have upright directi

on in consequence of the northern latitude! hence they rise in longer times [tha

n they do at the equator.] The difference between the period of the rising of a

sign in a given latitude! and at the equator under the same meridian! is equival

ent to the charakiianpa of that sign.

19. Each quarter of the ecliptic rises in 15 ghatis or 6 hours to those on t

he equator: and the 6 signs of the

northern as well the 6 of the southern hemisphere appear to

rise each in 12 hours or 30 ghatis in every or any latitude.

20. The three signs from the commencement of Aries to the end of Gemini! i.

e. the first quarter of the ecliptic! pass the unmanqala in 15 ghatis; but the h

orizon [of a place in north latitude] is below the unkanpalA! they therefore pre

viously pass it in time less than 15 gratis by the chabakhampas.

^ 21. The three signs from the end of Virgo to the end of

Sagittarius, i. e. the 3rd quarter of the ecliptic! pass the unman-PALA in 15 g

hatis; but they pass the horizon of a place

afterwards which i above the unmanpala [in north latitude] in 15 obatts added to

tho charakbanpas.

22. The three signs from tho end of Gemini to tho end of Virgo, i. e. the 2nd qua

rter of the ecliptic or those from the end of Sagittarius td the end of Pisces i

. e. the 4th quarter of the ecliptic, pass the horizon in tho time equal to the

remainder of 30 GHAfis diminished by the tiino which the first or third quarter t

akes to pass tho horizon respectively. For this reason, the times which the sign

s contained in the 1st and 4th quarters of the ecliptic, or ascending signs, and

those contained in the 2nd and 3rd quarters, or descending signs tako to pass t

he horizon at a given place are found by subtracting the ciiarakhandas of the si

gns from and adding them to the times which those signs lake in rising on the eq

uator respectively. 23. Having placed thojst Aries in tho horizon and set tho sp

here in motion, the tutor should show tho above facts to the

* The times taken by the several signs ol the ecliptic in rising at tho equator

ami in northern latitudes will be soou from the following memo, according to the

SlDDH AHTA.

Times of rising at equator in side real time. Ascensional differences

in 22 30 north latitude sidereal time. Times of rising in 22 30 north latitude

sidereal time.

ASUS. i ASUS. ASUS.

Aries, 1670 297 3373 ]

Taurus, 1793 214 1549

Gemini, 1937 101 1836 1

Cancer, 1937 + 101 2038 ;

Leo, 1793 4 344 2037

Virgo, 1670 + 297 1967

Libra, 1670 + 297 1967

Scorpio, ... ............. 1793 + 244 2037

Sagittarius, 1937 + 101 2088

Capricorn, 1937 101 1836

Aquarius, ............... 1793 -244 1649

Sloes, 1670 -297 1373

These 3 and the last 3 signs take less time to rise in north latitude than at th

e equator.

These 6 signs take a longer time to rise, in north latitude than at the equator.

LfW.

pupils, thaiftkoy may understand as well yhat has been explained as any other fa

cts which have not been now mentioned.

. 24. In whatever^ tiino any sign rises above the horizan [in any latitude] the

sign which is the 7th from it, will take exactly the samb timo in setting: as on

e 4ialf of the (ecliptic is always above the horizon [in every latitude].

25. When the complement of latitude is less than 24> (i. e.

than thd extreme amount of tho Sun s declination taken to bo

24 by Hindu astronomers) then neither tho rising periods of the signs, nor the as

censional differences and other particulars will correspond with what has been h

ero explained. Tho facts of those countries (having latitudes greater than 06")

which are different from what lias been explained on account of their totally di

fferent circumstances, are not hero mentioned, as those countries arc not inhabi

ted by men.

20. That paint of tho ecliptic which is (at any timo) on

Etymology of the word the eastern horizon is called the laona U0NA or horos

cope. This is expressed in

* signs, degrees, &c. reckoned from tho first point of stellar Aries. That point

which is on the western horizon is called the asta-lagna or setting horoscope.

rHio point of tho ecliptic on the meridian is called tho madhya-laona or middle

horoscope (culminating point of the ecliptic).

[When the place of tho horoscope is to be determined at. a given time it is nece

ssary at first to ascertain the height and longitude of the nonagesimal point fr

om tho right ascension of mid-heaven, and then by adding 3 signs to the a longit

ude of the nonagesimal point, the place of the horoacopo is found: but as

* this way for finding the place of the horoscope ia very tedious, it has

been

determined otherwise in the Sidmu htas.

As, from tho periods of risings of the 12 signs of the ecliptic which are determ

ined in the Siddhantae, it ia very easy to find tho timo of rising of ony portio

n of the ecliptic and vice versa, we can find a portion of the ecliptic correspo

nding to the given time from snn-rise through the longitude of the Sun then dete

rmined and the given timo. The portion of the ecliptic which ean be thus found i

a evidently that portion of the ecliptic intercepted between the place of the Su

n and the horizon. Therefore by adding this portion to the place Bi the Sun, th

e place of the horoscope if found. Upon this principle, the following common rul

e which is given in the Siddhastas for finding the place of the horoscope ia gro

unded.

Find first the true place of the Sun, and add to it the amount of the procession

of the equinox for the longitude of the Sun. Then, from the longitude of the

Sun, tlie sign of the ecliptic in which the Sun lies and the degrees of that sig

n

, VII. 27.] 27.

Siddhdntas iromani.

1(57

If when yotf want to find the lagna, the given oiiajis . arc savana-ghati

s, then they will be-

Xhe reason for finding the C1

euct place of the 8ua at comG sidereal by finding the Sun

the time of question in order instantaneous place i. e. the place of

to find LAGNA.

tho Sun for the hour given. Tho times

which he has passed, and those which ho has to pass, are known. Thua tho degrees

which the Sun lias passed, and tlioso which ho has to pass, are palled the bbuk

tIns as and bhogyans as respectively. Now the time which tho Sun requires to pas

9 the bhogyans as is called the bhogya time, and is found by the following propo

rtion.

If 30o

: the period of rising of tho sign in which the Sun is : : BHOGyIns aS : BHOGYA

time.

In the same manuer, the bhukta time can also bo found through the bhuktInsas.

Now from tho time at the end of which tho horoscope is to be found, and which is

calloil tho isuta or given time, subtract the buooya tune just found, and from

tho remainder subtract the periods of risings of the next successive signs to th

at in which the Sun is a; long as you can. Then at last you will find the sign,

the rising period of which being greater than tho remainder you will not bo able

to subtract, nud which is consequently called the ab pddha sign, or tho sign in

capable of being subtracted, and its rising period, as uddha rising. From this i

t is evideut that tho as uddha sign is of course on the horizon at tho given ti

me. The degrees of tho as uddha sign wliieli are abovo the horizon aud therefore

called the bhukta or passed degrees, are found as follows.

If tho rising period of tho as uddha sign : 30o

: : tho remainder of (ho given time : file passed degrees of the as uddha sign.

Add to these passed degrees thus found, tho preceding signs reckoned from the 1s

t point of Aries, and from the Sum, subtract the amount of the procession of the

equinox. The remainder thus found will be the place of the horoscopo from the s

tellar Aries.

If the time at the end of which the horoscopo is to be found, bo given beforo su

n-rise, then find the bhukta, or passed time of the sign in which the Sun is, it

i the wdy above shown, and subtract it and tho rising periods of the pro ceding

signs from the given time. After this find the degrees of the as uddha sign corr

esponding to the remainder of the given time which will evidently be the buogya

degrees of the horoscope by proportion as shown above, and subtract tho sum of t

he BnOGYA degrees of tho horoscope, the signs the rising periods of which are su

btracted and the bhukta degrees of tho sign in which the Sun is from the Sun s p

lace and the remainder thus found will be the place of the

Thus we get two processes; one when the given time at the end of which the horos

copo is to be found, is after sun-rise, and tlio other when that timo is given b

eforo sun-riso, and which aro consequently called XftAHA, or diivcfj apd Vyutkba

xa or undirect processes respectively.

It is plain from this that if tho place of the Sun and that of the horoscope be

( known, the given lime from sun-rise at the end of which the horoscopo is tound

can be known by making the sum of the bhogya time of the sign in whjph the Sun

and the bhukta time of tho horoscope and by adding to this sin the rising period

s of intermediate signs.B. D.]

of rising of the signs which are sidereal qaust be subtracted from tkpso ghatis

(of the question) reduced to a like denomination. When the hours of the question

are already sider&l, there is no necessity for linding the sun s real place for

that time. #

* [If it be asked whether the time at the end <rf which the horoscope is to be f

ound is lerrestrial or sidereal time; if it be terrestrial, how it is that you s

ubtract from that the rising periods which are of different denomination on acco

unt of their being sidereal, and why the sun s instantaneous place i. e. the pla

ce determined for the hour given is used to ascertain the bhogta time, the given

time is reckoned from sun-rise and the bhogya degrees of the sign m which the s

un is, rise gradually above the horison after sun-rise. Hence the bhogta degrees

of the sign of tne Suns longitude, determined at the time of sun-rise, should be

taken to find the place of the Horoscope, otherwise the place of the Horoscope

will be greater than the real one. As for example, take the time from sun-rise,

at the end of which the Horoscope is to be found, equal to 60 sidereal ghatis an

d 44 asbb when the Sun is in the vernal equinox at a place where the Palabha is

6 digits or the latitude is 22} nearly, and ascertain the plAoe of the Horoscope

through the instantaucous place of the sun. Then, the place of the Horoscope thu

s found will be greater than the plaoo of the Sun round at the time f next sun-ri

se, but this ought to be equal to it, and you will not be able to make this equa

l to the place of the Sun determined at the time of next sun-rise, unless you de

termine this through the place of tho sun ascertained at sun-rise, and not throu

gh the Subs instantaneous place. Hence it appears wrong to ascertain the place of

the Horosoope through tho Suns instantaneous place. But the answer to this is as

follows.

The ghatis contained in the are of the diurnal circle intercepted between that p

oint of it where the Sun is, at a given time and the Ilorizon are the bAyana or

terrestrial gkatib, but the ghatis contained in tho aro of the diurnal circle in

tercepted between that point of it where the Sun was at the time of sun-rise and

the Horixon are the sidereal, ghatis. Thus it is plnin from this that if the Su

ns place determined at the time of sun-rise bo given, the time between their plac

e and the Horizon reckoned in the diurnal circle m ill evidently bo the sidereal

time mid consequently the place of the Horoscope determined through this will b

e right. But if tho instantaneous place of the Sun be given, the time given must

bo the bavawa time, because let the instantaneous place of the Sun be assumed f

or the Suns place determined at the timo of suu-rise, then the time between this

assumed instantaneous place of tho Sun and tho Horizon, which is sAvana, will ev

idently be the sidereal time. Hence the fact as stated in the verse 27th is righ

t.

Therefore if tho Suns instantaneous place and tho place of the Horoscope be given

, the time found through these will be the bAyana time, but if the place of the

Horosoope and that of the Sun determined at the time of sun-rise be given, the t

ime ascertained through theso will be the sidereal time. And if you wish to fiud

the sAvava time through the place of the Horoscope and that of the Sun determin

ed at the time of the sun-rise assumed tho sidereal time just found as a , rough

sAyaha time and determined through this the instantaneous place of the Bun bj t

he following proportion.

If 60 GHATIS

: Suns daily motion

:: these rough bAyava GHATIS,

; the Sune motion relating to this time; end add then this result to the place of

the Sun found at tha time of sun-rise. The sum thus found will be the instantan

eous plao^ of the Sun nearly. Find the timo again through this

28. In those Gentries having a north latitude of 69 20 the

signs Sagittarius and fcapricornus aro

determination of latitudes .... .

in which different signs are never visible: and tho signs gemnu

IoMonftbTe Ud Wow I10 an( cancer remain always above the horizon.

29. In thoso places having a northern latitude of 78 15 , the four signs Scor

pio, Sagittarius, capricomus, and aquarius are never seen, and the four signs ta

urus, gemini, cancor, aand leo, always appear revolving above tho horizon.

30. On that far-famed hill of gold Mkru which has a latitude of 90 N. the six

signs of the southern hemisphere never appear above the horizon and tho Bix nor

thern signs are always above tho horizon.

An error of Lalla exposed.

, 31. Lalla has doclorod that when the arus of chara-^LifANpA [in any latitude]

are oqual to the time which any sign takes to rise on the equator, then that sig

n will always remain visible above the horizon: but this assertion is without re

ason. Wero it so, then in places having a latitudo of 66, the whole twelve signs

of the ecliptic would always be visible, and would all appear at once on all oc

casions, as tho times of their rising on tho equator are equal to the Afius of t

heir chara-^iianpas : but this is not the fact.

32. Lalla has also stated in his work on tho sphere that where the north latitud

e is 66 30 , w??ther gro era>r of Sagittarius and capricomus aro not 1 visible, an

d also that in north latitudo 75, scorpio and aquarius are never there visible: b

ut this also is an idle assertion. How, my learned friend, has he managed to mak

o so gross and palpable an error of three degrees ?

instantaneous plaoe of the Sun, and through this time ascertain the instantaneou

s place of the Sun. Thus jou will get at last the exact sAyava time fiom sun-ris

e to tha hour given by the repetition of this prooeis. As the 8un is taken here

for an example, you can find the sAva^ta time of any planet or anv planetary tim

e from the planet rising to the hour given by the repetition of the aforesaid p

rooeis.B. D.]

[BHiaXAmiOHAaTA means here that Lalla mentioning the degree of latitudes, lias c

ommitted % grand mistake in omitting 3 degrees, because he has

33. The altitude of the polar star and frs zenith distance aB found by observati

on, give respectively the latitude and the lambansa or complement of the latitud

e. Or the zenith distance and altjtude of the Sun at mid-day when on the equi-no

ctial give the latitude and its complement.

84. The unnata the time found in that arc of the diurnal circle which is int

ercepted between the eastern or western horizon and the planet above itf is sIva

na, This is used in finding the shadow of the planet. The sine of the unnata whi

ch is oblique, like the aksha-karna, by reason of the latitude, is called chheda

ka and not s anku because it is upright.

85. In order to find the shadow of the Moon, the udita (the time elapsed fro

m the rising of a planet) which has been found by some astronomers by means of r

epeated calculation is erroneous, for the udita, (found by repeated calculation)

is not savana. the labour of the astronomer that does not thoroughly understand

mathematics as well the doctrine of the itated in his work that Sagittarius and

oapricornua are always visible in a plaoe bearing a latitude 66 30 , and scorpi

o and aquarius at 73 N., whereas this is not the earn, those signs are always vis

ible in the places bearing the latitudes 69 80 and 78 0 15 respectively as sho

wn in the verses 28 and 2U.B. IX]

[When the Sun is above the Horison, the shadow caused by a gnomon 12 digits, hig

h, is called the Sun s shadow according to the b iddhanta languages, and having

at first determined the sine of tho Sun s altitude and that of it complement thr

ough his UDITA time, astronomers ascertained this by the following proportion.

As the sine of the Sun s altitude : the sire of its complement 11 gnomon of 12 d

igits i the shadow caused by the gnomon.

Thus they determine the shadow of all planets, Moon, &o., and that of the fixed

stars. Though the light of the five small planets, Mars, Ac., and the fixed star

s is not so bmliant, like that of the Sun and Moon, as to make their shadow visi

ble, yet it is neoessary so determine the shadow of any heavenly body in order t

o know the direction in which the body may be. Because, if the length and direct

ion of the shadow of the body be known, the direction in which it is can , be as

certained by spreading a thread from the end of its shadow through that of rite

gromon. For, if you will fix a pipe fo the direction of the thread thus spread,

you will see through that pipe the body whose shadow is used here.

The time given for determination of any planet s shadow must be the siVAITA time

, because it is necessary to determine the degrees of altitude of a planet to kn

ow its shadow, and the degrees can be determined through the rime contained in

that are of the diurnal circle intercepted between the planet and horison. But t

he time contained in this are cannot be other than die sXtaxa time.-B. D.] sphere

, in writing % book of instruction on the science is utterly futile and useless.

* 36. The degrees of altitude are found in the d$inman?ala or vertical circle, b

eing the degrees of tndDfiwxA.011 Ovation in it abovethe horizon; the

degrees of zenith distance are (as their name imports) the decrees in the same c

ircle by which the object is distant from the zenith or mid-heaven of the observ

er:

pbiqjy! is the sine of the zenith distance.

37. When the Sun in his ascent arrives at the prime verti-

cal, the s anku found at the moment is thq aAMA-a ASKU; the b ahkds found at the

moments of his passing the kona-vpiTTA and the meridian are respectively terme

d tho kona-s anku and madiiya-s anku.

38. One-half of the vertical circle in which a planet is

_ . observed should be visible, but only

of parallax to the sine of alti- one-half less the portion opposite tho a

radius of the Earth is visible to observ-

ers on the surface of the Earth. Therefore part of tho daily motion of the plane

t observed is to bo subtracted from the sine of altitude or from the s anku to f

ind the shadow: [inasmuch as that amount is concealed by, or opposite to, the Ea

rth].

39. The aqbX (the sine of amplitude) is the sine of the arc

of the horizon intercepted between tho thJuDiYisTi-wTiu!10 Md P110 vertical and t

he planet s diurnal circle in the east or west i. o. between

[In order to determine the Moons shadow at a given time at full moon, some astron

omers find her rorra time i. e. the time elapsed from her rising to the hoar giv

en b/ the repeated calculation, through her instantaneous place and the place of

the horoscope determined at the given hour. But the/ greatlj err in this, becam

e the time thui found will not be the s avava time and consequent!/ the/ cannot

use this in finding the Moou e shadow. Their wa/ for finding the uoiTi time by t

he repeated calculation would be right, then oul/ if the given place of the Moon

would be such aa found at the time of her rising and not lift instantaneous pla

ce. Because her tfom time found through her instantaneous plaoe becomes i ayava

at once without having a recourse to the repelted celeu- latfam, aaitis shown in

the notoon the verse 87 of this Chapter.B 0.]

.K 2

J 72 Translation of the [VII. 40.

the east or west point of the horizon, and the point of the horizon at which the

planet rises or sets, lie line connecting the points of the extremities of the

east and west age! Is called the udayasta-sutra, the line of rising and setting.

. 40. The b anxu-tala or base of the b anku stretches dur-

ing the day to the south of the udyXsta-suI RA; because the diurnal circle have

during the day a southern inclination (in northern latitude) above the horizon.

But, below the horizon at night, the base lies to tho north of the udayIsta-suta

a as then the diurnal circles incline to the north. Tho s anku-talas place has th

us been rightly defined.

41. Tho s anku-tala lies to the south of tho extreme point of agrA when that

agrX is north and when the AGRA is south, the s anku-tala lies still to the sou

th of it. Tho differenco and sum of the sine of amplitude and s anku-tala has be

en denominated thfa bAhu or bhpja ; it is tjio sine of tho degrees lying between

the prime vertical and the planet on tho plane of tho horizon.

42. [Taking this bAhu as one side of a right-angled triangle.] The sino of t

ho zenith distance being the hypothe-nuse then the third side or tho ko^i being

the square root of the difference of their squares will be found: it is an cost

and west portion of tho diameter of the prime vertical. <56>

<56> Vide accompanying diagram.

a being place of the Sun : d its place of citing in the horuon :

A A the UDAYA axA-atfTHA d f the ioiu : a b the b adxu-tala : then ag ii the ba

ru and the triangle a t g ie the ono here * represent# to.L. W.

I now propose to explain tho triangles which aro created by reason of the Sun s

varying declination: and shall then proceed .to explain briefly also the latitud

inal triangles or those created .by different latitudes. [The former are called

krAnti-kshetras and the lattor aksha-kshetras.]

43. In the 1st tfianglo of decimation.

1st. The sine of declination * the radius of diurnal circlo cor-]

responding with tho declination f above given J

and radius of largecircle 2nd. Or in a right sphere.

The Bine of J, 2 or 3 signs = hypotbonuso:

Tho declination of 1, 2 or 3 signs in six! _ ^ oclock line J

44. Sines of arcs of diurnal circles cor- -i

responding with the declination I = kojis. above given J

Those sines being converted into terms of a largo circle : and their arcs taken,

they will then express the times in asus which each sign of theecliptic takes i

n risingat tho equator i. c. the right ascensions of .those signs or the lankoda

yas, that is tho 2nd will be found when tho 1st is subtracted from two found con

jointly, and the 3rd will bo found when tho Bum of tho 1st and 2nd is subtracted

from three found conjointly.

45. In tho right-angled triangle formed by tho s anku Triangles arise from l

ati- or gnomon when the Sun is on tho

equinoctial.

1st. The s anku of 12 digits = the koti.

The PALADHf or tho shadow of s anku ^ or gnomon

and the aksha-kar^a i ^ KAHA

(.hypothenuso

or 2nd. The sine of latitude = bhuja.

The sine of co-latitudo = koti

and radius

This triangle is found in the plane of the meridian.

= bhuja or

= Kofi or pendicular,

= hypothonuse.

per-

: BHUJAS.

tude.

tho BHUJA

[ The right angle triangles stated in the fire verses from 45 to 49, are clearly

, Men by fastening some diainetrial threads within the anmllaryspliere. As

= KOfl. = BHUJA.

46. Or the sine of declination reckoned^ on theu^MAN^AU from theeast and wes

tline J Kujyj tjie sine of ascensional difference] in the diurnal circle of the g

iven day J

Let Z G N H be the meridian of the given place, G A H the diameter of the lioria

on, Z the Zenith, P and Q the north and south poles, E A F the diameter of the e

quinoctial, P A Q that of the six oclock line, Of D that of one of the diurnal ci

rcle, aud E B,/A the perpendiculars to G fl. Then it is dear from this that

Z E or H P = the latitude,

A B s the sine of it,

E B s= the co-sine of it,

A the declination of a planet revolving in the diurnal circle whose diameter is

0 D, and A g = the aoba or the sine of amplitude, f g the Hunt!,

A c as the saxa-ba xxu or the sine of the planet s altitude when it reaches the

prime vertical. f g the TADonaiTi/

tf the TAODHfLITIKUJYi ,

fh = the vxKAXpiiA b axku or the sine of the planets altitude when it readies the

six oclock line,

A A = the agba oi-xhabpa or the 1st portion of the sine of amplitude,

and hg = the aoba gra-xbavpa or the 2nd portion of the sine , of amplitude;

The sine of amplitude in the horizon = hypothenuse This is a well known triangle

.

47. Or the saiea s anku in the prime ver-1 tical being }=^

The sine of amplitude == bhuja

The TADDH$iTi in the diurnal circle = hypothenuse Or

= bhuja.

= hypotlienuse

= KOTI.

= BHUJA

= hypothenuse }=KOTI

Taking the sine of declination and the sama-s anku Taddh^iti minus kujya 48. The

unman 11 a la s anku being The sine of declination will then be And aoradi khan

da or 1st portion of the sine of amplitude will bo

Therefore, with the exception of the first and lost the other six triangles stat

ed in the verses are these in succession. A E B, A gft A eg, A f, AJk and gfh aud

the first triangle 70a Will gA by dividing the three sides of the E B

triangle A E B by and for the last see the note on the verse 49.

12

It is clear from the above described diagram that all of these triangles arc sim

ilar to each other and consequently they can be known by menus of proportion if

any of them be known.

The siDuniNTis, having thus produced several triangles similar to these original

by fastening the threads within the armillary sphere, find answers of the sever

al questions of the spherical trigonometro. Borne problems of the spherical trig

onometry can be solved with greater facility by this Siddbanta way than the trig

onometrical way. As

Problem. The senitli distances of a star when it has reached the prime vertical

and the meridian at a day in any place are known, find the latitude in the plaoe

.

The way for finding the answer of this problem according to the siddbanta is as

follows.

Draw C c J. A Z, (See the proceeding diagram) then 0 e e will be a latitudinal t

riangle.

Now, let a b C e, the sine of xenith distance,

A = A e, the co-sine of Z c, e = Ae, the baxa-s axku, and a as the latitude.

Tlwo O . = v 1 + (&),

and Oe:Oe : : AE : AB,

or ^a + (Ao): aj : rad: ain a;

o X Bad

a,+ ()<- B.D.]

V. tin a wn-ri -tt.t.

Or

I

Making the unmanjjala sanku = kojt

the agbaoea-khanpa or 2nd portion of fche\

sine of amplitude is

= KOTl = BHUJA = hypothonu.se

tho KujYAthen becomes

40. Tho s anku being and the s anku-tala Then, the chhkdaka or h^iti Thoso who h

ave a clear knowledge of the spherics having # thus immediately formed thousands

of triangles should explain the doctrine of the sphere to their pupils.

End of Chapter VII. on tho principles of the rules for resolving the questions o

n time, space and directions.

Chapter VIII.

Called Grahana Vasana.

7 explanation of the cause of eclipses of the Sun and Moon.

1. Tho Moon, moving like a cloud in a lower sphere,

TIm mom of thfl dim- OT0rtakoS the Snn 0? of ib

, tioni of tlie beginning and quicker motion and obscures its shin-end of tho so

lar eclipse. , , , , , .

. ing disk by its own dark body:] hence

it arises that the western side of the Sun s disk is first obscured, and that th

e eastern side is tho last part relieved from the Moon s dark body: and to some

places the Sun is eclipsed and to others is not eclipsed (although he is above t

he horizon) on acArant of their different orbits.

* This triangle differs from the lit of the 47th tono only in this respect that

the base of the triangle in the 47th Terse if equal to the sine of the whols am

pli-i fads while the base round when the Sun is not in the prime rertioal, will

always be more or less than the sine of amplitude and is therefore generally cal

led uaxurAXiA.L. W.

2. At the change of the Moon it often so happens that an

jjTlio cause of the parallax observer Placed at M of

in longitude d that iu Earth, would find the Sun whon far

a from the zenith, obscured by the

intervening body ot the Moon, whilst another observer on the surface of the Eart

h will not at tho samo time find him to bo so obscured, as tEo Moon will appear

to him .[on tho higher elevation] to bo depressed from tho line Of vision extend

ing from his eye to tho Sun. Henco arises tho necessity for the correction of pa

rallax in celestial longitude and parallax in latitudo in solar cclipsos in cons

equence of tho difference of the distances of the Sun and Moon.

3. When the Sun and Moon are in opposition, the Earth s

Tho rouoti of tho com. shadoW onVoloP8 tU Moon in tion of parallax not being noss.

As the Moon is actually onve-neceasart in lunar eclipses. . , . , ,

v . ..

loped in darkness, its eclipse is equally

seen by every one on tho Earth s surface [above whoso horizon it may be at the t

ime]: and as tho Earth s shadow and tho . Moon which enters it, are at tho same

distance from tho Earth, there is therefore no call for tho correction of the pa

rallax in a lunar eclipse.

4. As tho Moon moving eastward enters tho dark sha-

Th. Mn of tho dlrcc of 4110 Barth; ttaSlKl"

tions of the beginning and sido is first of all involved in obscurity, end of th

o lunar eclipse. .... , " V , ,. -

r and its wostom is the last portion of

its disc which omorgos from darkness as it advances in its course.

5. As the Sun is a body of vast size, and the Earth insignificantly small i

n comparison: tho shadow mado by tho Sun from the Earth is therefore of a conica

l form terminating in a sharp point. It extends to a distance considerably beyou

d that of the Moons orbit.

6. Tho length of the Earth s shadow, and its breadth at the port traversed

by the Moon, may he easily found by proportion.

In tho lunar oclipse tlio Earths shadov/, is northwards or southwards of tho Moon

when its latitude is south or north. Hence the latitude of the Moon is here to

be supposed inverse (i, e. it is to bojmarked reversly in the projection to find

the centre of tho Eafths shadow from the Moon.)

7. As the horns of tho Moon, when it is half obscured form

M very obtuso angles: and the duration

The determination of tho J

coverer in the eclipse of the of a lunar eclipse is also very great,

San and Moon. henco tho coverer of tho Moon is ,

much larger than it.

8. The horns of tho Sun on tho contrary when half of its disc is obscured f

orm very acuto angles: and tho duration of a solar eclipse is short: henco it ma

y bo safely inferred that tho dimensions of the body causing the obscuration in

a solar oclipso are smaller than and different from the body causing on eclipso

of the Moon.

9. Those learned astronomers, who, being too exclusively , devoted to the d

octrine of tho sphere, believe and maintain

that RXnu cannot be tho cause of the obscuration of tho Sun and Moon, founding t

heir assertions on the above mentioned contrarieties, and differences in the par

ts of the body first obscured, in tho place, time, causes of obscuration &c. mus

t be admitted to assert what is at variance with the Saniiita, the Vedas and Fub

Inas.

10. All discrepancy, howover, botween tho assertions abovo 1 referred to and

the sacred scriptures may be reconciled by 1 understanding that it is the dark

Rahu which entering the

Earths shadow obscures the Moon, and which again entering the Moon (in a solar ec

lipso) obscures the Sun by tho powor conferred upon it by the favour of Brahma.

[Iftd the Bun s coverer been the tame eritli that of the Moon, hit home, when he

it half eclipsed, would have formed, like those of the Moon obtuse angles. For

the apparent diameters of the Sun and Moon are nearly equal to eaoli other. Or t

he Moon when it is half eclipsed would have represented its horns, like those of

the Sun, forming aoufe angles, if its ooverer had been tho same wkh that of the

Sun. But as this is not the ease, tho coverer of the Moon is, of course, differ

ent and much larger than that of the Sun.B. D.]

a

11. As the spectator ia elevated above tlie centre of tlie

Vhath the WI ofp.nl- ^ by half its diameter, fee there-

in, and why it ia calculated fore sees the Moon depressed from its from the radi

us of the Earth. . r , . , . .. ,

place [as found by a calculation made

for the centro of th^ Earth]. Konco tbo parallax in longitude

is caloulatod from the radius of the Earth, as is also the parallax

in latitude.

12. Draw upon a smooth wall, tho sphere of the earth

Construction of di.gnm reducod to ftny convenient scale, and to illustrate the c

ause of the orbits of tho Moon and Sun at parallax. proportionate distances:

next draw a

transverso diameter and also a perpendicular diameter to both orbits.

13,14 and 15. Thoso points of tbo orbits cut by this diameter are on the (ratiou

al) horizon. And tho point above

* In Fig. 1, let E bo tlio centre of the earth; A a spectator on her surface; C

1>, F G tho vertical circles passing through the Moon M, and the Snn S; D, G tho

points of the horizon cut by tlio vertical circles C D, F G; and 0, tho zenith

in tho Moon s sphere, and F in that of tho Sun. Now, lot E M S ho a line drawn f

rom tho centre of the Earth to the Sun in which the Moon lies always at tho time

of oonjunction,aiid A S the vision line drawn from the spectator A to the Sun.

The distance at which the Moon appears depressed from the vision lino in the ver

tical circle is her parallax from the Sun.

Fig. 1.

When the Sun reaches the zenith F, it is ovident that tho Moon also will then be

at C and the vision line, and the line drawn from tlie centre of the Earth will

be coincident. Hence there is no parallax in the zenith.

Thus the parallax of the Moon from the Sun in tlie vertical circle is Ipre Shown

by moans of a diagram which becomes equal to the dilferenoe between the paralla

xes of the Sun and Moon separately found in the vertical circle as stated by BHA

uuuuL ciiA BYi. in tho chapter on eclipses in the commentary va smu bha BHYA. a

nd the theories and methods ato also given by him oq the parallaxes of the Sun a

nd Moon. This parallax in tho vertical circle which arises afrom the zenith dist

ance of the planet is called the oommon parallax or the parallax in. altitude.

L 2

cat by the perpendicular diameter will repr&ent the observers zenith: Then placin

g tho Sun and Moon with their respective zenith distances [as found by a proport

ional scale of Bines and arcs,] let the learned astronomer show tho manner in wh

ich

4 Fig.9.

Ai in Fig. 2, let A be a spocta- r tor on the earths surface; % the aenith; and Z

8 the vertical circle passing through the planet 8: Let a circle If m.r be desc

ribed with centre A and radius E 8 which cuts the lines A Z and A 8 produced in

the points Z and rt Let a line a m be drawn pa rnllel to Eft then tho are Z m wi

ll be equal to the arc % 8. Now the planet 8 seen from E lias a sonith distance Z

8 and from A, a zenith distance Z r greater than Z 8 or $5 m by the arc m r, he

nco the apparent place r of the planet is depressed by r in the vertical circle.

This arc m r is therefore the common parallax of the planet, whioh can be found

u follows.

Draw m perpendicular to A r and rotoAZandletP=sESorAr;

A = E A or m 8; p m r the parallax;

d = Z8 or Z lathe

true aenith distance of the planet; and% d f p = Z r the apparent zenith distance

of tho planet.

Then m = sinp ana r o = sin (d + p).

Bow by similar triangles A r o, 8 at n.

Ar : ro = Sta : mn, or |t i ain (d 4 j>) A : sinp;

A X sin (d -| p) amp =

B

Upnce, it is evident from this that when the sin (d + p) B or d + p = PC8, titer,

the parallax will be greatest and if it be denoted by P,

sin P % sin (d + p)

sin P A and amp <

T&oVf the parallax is generally so small that no sensible error is introduced by

nuking sin p = p and sin P = P x

P#ein(d+p)

... f e.

Again,for the reason jpat mentioned sin d fa assumed for sin (d + p) in the IU>dii

A4^

7. sin d

that is, the common parallax of a planet is found by multiplying tho greatest pa

rallax by the line of the zenith distance and dividing the product by the radius

.B. D.] , . the parallax arises. [For this purpose] let him dra

lino passing tho centre of the earth to the Sun s disc: and another which is ca

lled the d^iks^tra or lino of vision, lot him draw from the observer on the Eart

hs surface to tho Suns disc. The minuted contained in the arc, intercepted between

theso two lines give tho Moons parallax from the Sun.

16. (At tho new Moon) tho Sun and Moon wilj always appear by a lino drawn fr

om the centre of tho earth to bo in exactly the same place and to havo tho same

longitude: but when the Moon is observed from the surfaco of tho Earth in the D^

ixstJTRA or lino of vision, it appears to bo depressed, and honce tho namo lamba

na, or depression, for parallax.

17. (Whon the now Moon happens in tho zonith) thon tho

lino drawn from tho Earths centre will coincide with that drawn from its surfaco,

hence a planet has no parallax when in tho zenith.

Now on a wall running duo noi$h and south draw a diagram as above prescribed; [i

. o. draw tho Earth, and also tho orbits of the Sun and Moon at proportionate di

stances from tho Earth, and fdso the diameter transverse and perpendicular, &c.]

18. The orbits now drawn, must bo considorod as nyiKSTiE-rA-VfriTTAB or tho

azimuth circles for tho nonagesimal. Tho sine of the zenith distanco of the nona

gesimal or of tho latitude of the zenith is tho d$ikshepa of both the Sun and Mo

on.

19. Mark tho nonagesimal points on tho d$ikshepa-v$ittas at the distance fro

m the zonith equal to tho latitude of the points. From these two points (supposi

ng them as tho Sun and Moon) find as before tho minutes of parallax in altitude.

These minutes are here Nati-kalIs, i. e. tho minutes of tho parallax in latitud

e of the Moon from the Sun..

20. The difference north and south between the two orbits

i. e. the measure of their mutual inclination, is tho same in every part of

the orbit as it is in the nonagesimal point, hence, this difference called nati

is ascertained through tho d&tkshe-pa or the sine of tho zenith distance of tho

nonagesimal.

[# When the planet is -depressed in the vertical circle, its north and south

21. Tho amount by which the Moon is Oppressed below the Sun deflected Atom t

he zenith [at tho conjunction] wherever it bo, is the east and West difference b

etween the Sun and Moon

distance from its orbit caused by this depression is calif d hati or the paralla

x in latitude. Eig. 3.

As, in Fig. 3, let Z be the zenith; N the nona-,. gosimal j Z N P its vertical c

ircle j N s r tho ecliptic; f its polo j Z s t the vertical circle passing throu

gh the true place 8 and the depressed or apparent place i of the Sun ; P t r a s

econdary to tho ecliptic passing through the apparent place t of the Sun j then

s r is tho BPABHTi lambaha or tbo poittllax in longitude and t r the NATI or the

parallax in latitude which oan be found in the following manner according tO th

e SIBDUANTAS.

Let Z N be the zenith distanco of the nona-geaimal and Z S that of tho Sun j the

n by the triangles Z N 8, t s r

siu Z S : siu Z If = sin 11 sin r ,

i siu 91 X sin Z N

sin r < = ;

sin Z S

Now, $ t is taken for sin t> and r V for sin r f, ou account of their being ver

y small 91 )C sin Z IT

..$ = - ... |

sinZS

but according to the biddiiAntaa P. sin Z S

= - (see the preceding no to).. (1)

P.sinZN

that if, the It ATI is found by multiplying the sine of the latitude of the nona

-gesimal by the greatest parallax and dividing the product by the radius.

It is clear from this that the north and south distance frem tho Sun depressed i

n the vertical circle to tiie ecliptic wherever he may be in it, becomes equal t

o tho eommon parallax at the nonagesimal, and hence the xtati is to be determine

d from tho zenith distance of the nonagesimal.

For this reason, by subtracting the hati of the Sun from that of the Moon, whioh

are separately found in the way above mentioned, the parallax in latitude of th

e Moon from the Sun ia found : and this becomes equal to the difference between

the mean parallaxes of the Sun and Moon at the nonagesimal. The same fret is sho

wn by BhLbeabIohI&ya through the diagrams stated in the verses 12th &c.

At the time of the eclipse as the latitude of the Moon revolving in its orbits i

s very small, the Moon, tlierefore, is not ftr from the ecliptie; and hence the

parallax in longitude and that in latitude of the Moon is here determined from h

er * corresponding plaoe in the ecliptic, on ..account of the difference being v

ery small.B. D.j

* [According to the technicality of the Siddhantas, the distance token in any ci

rcle from any point in it, is called tho east and west distance of the point, an

il

22. For this raison, the differenco is two-fold, lieing partly cast and west

, and partly north and south. And tliq ecliptic is here east and west, and tho c

ircle secondary to. it is north and south. (It follows from this, that the east

and west differenco lies in tho ecliptic, and tho north and south difference in

the secondary to it.)

23. The differenco feast and west has been denominated lamrana or parallax i

n longitude, whilst that running north and south is parallax in latitudo.

2 k The parallax in minutes as observed in a vertical circlo, forms tho hy

pothenuso of a right angle triangle, of which tho nati-kalX or the minutes of th

o parallax in latitude form one of tho sides adjoining tho right angle then the

third sido found by taking the square-root of the differenco of the squares of t

ho two preceding sides will bo spnPTA-LAMBANA-um or tho minutes of tho parallax

m longitude.

25. Tho amounts in minutes of parallax in a vertical circlo may bo found by

multiplying tho sine of tho Suns zenith distance of tho minutes of tho extreme or

horizontal parallax and dividing tho product by tho radius. Tims tho nati will

be found from tho DflixsnErA or tho sine of the nonagcsimal zenith distance.f

26. The extreme or horizontal parallax of tho Moon from the Sun amounts to T

lT part of the differenco of tho Suns and Moons daily motion. For part of the yoja

nas, the distanco of which any planet traverses per diem (according to tho sin-d

hantas) is equal to the Earths radius.

27. The minutes of tho parallax in longitude of the Moon from the Sun divide

d by the difference in degrees of tho daily

the distance taken in the secondary to that circle from tho same point, is calle

d the north and south distance of that point.B. D.]

* [See Fig. 8, in which by assuming the triangle r it as a plane right-angled tr

iangle, rt base, it = hypothenuso and i r perpendicular, and therefore *r = y/M

t r B. D.]

f [This is clear from tlie equations (1) and (2) shown in the preceding largo no

te.B. D.]

motions of tlio Sun and Moon will be concerted into ghatis [i. e. thq timo betwe

en the true and apparent conjunction] .

If tho Mo,on be to tho cast [of thenonagesimal], it is thrown forward from the S

un, if to the west it is thrown backward (by tho parallax).

28. And if the Moon be advanced from tho Sun, then it must be, inferred that

tho conjunction has already taken place by reason of tho Moon s quicker motion;

if depressed behind tho Sun, then it may be inferred that the conjunction is to

, como by tho samo reason.

Hence tho parallax in time, if tho Moon bo to the oast [of the nonagosimal] is t

o be subtracted from the end of tho titut or tho hour of ecliptic conjunction, a

nd to bo added when tho Moon is to tho west [of the nonagosimal].

29. The latitudo of tho Moon is north and south distance botweon tho Sun and

Moon, and tho nati also is north and south, lienee tho sxra or. latitudo npplie

d with the nati or tho parallax in latitudo, becomes tho apparent latitudo (of t

ho Moon from tho Sun).

Valana or variation (of the ecliptic).

[Tho deviation of the ecliptic from tho eastern point (in reference to the obser

ver s place) of a planet s disc, situated in tho ecliptic is called tho Valana o

r variation (of the ecliptic).

It is evident from this, that tho variation is equivalent to the arc which is th

o measure of tho angle formed by the ecliptic and the secondary to tho circlo of

position at tho planet s placo in the ecliptic. It is equal to that arc also,

which is tli^

* It is dear from the following proportion.

If difference in minutes of daily motions of Sun and Moon.

: 60 GHATIS what will

: : given Lambanaka lab or minutes of the parallax give \ r

60 X given minutes of the parallax

or

diff. in minutes of Sun s and Moon s motions given minutes of the parallax

sa - .. = acceleration or delay of con

di$ in degrees of Suns and Moon s motions

junction arising from parallax.L. W.

measure of the angife at the place of the planet in the el liptic formed by the

circle of position and the circle df latitude. It in Very difficult to find it a

t once. For this reason, it is divided into two parts culled the a khua-vai.aha

(latitudinal variabioit) and the ^yana-valana (solstitial variation). The aksha-

valana is tho arc which is the measure of tlio angle funned by the circle of pbs

ition, and tho circle of declination at the placo of the planet in the ecliptic,

aud tho yanavai<ana is the arc which is the measure of the angle formed by tho ci

rcle of declination and the circle of latitude. This angle is equivalent to tho

angle of position. From the sum or difference of those two arcs, tho arc which i

s the measure of tho angle formed by tho cirelo of position and tho circle of la

titude is ascertained, and hence it is sometimes called tho s casiita-VALANA or

rectified variation.

Now, according to the phraseology of the SiimihXntah, the point at a distance of

90 forward from any placo in uuy circle is the cast point of that placo, and tho

point at an equal distance backwards from it is the west point. And, tho right

hand point, 90 <57> distant from that place, in tho secondary to the former circ

le, is the south point, and tho left hand point, is the north point. According t

o this language, tho deviation of the east point of the place of tho planet in t

ho ocliptic, from the east point in tho secondary to the circle of position at t

lio planet s placo, is tho vaj.ana. ihit tho secondary to tho circlo of position

will intersect tho prime vertical at a distanco of V f forward from tho placo o

f tho planet, and henco the deviation of the east point in the ecliptic from tho

east point in tho prime vertical is the valava or variation, and this results e

qually in all directions. When the cast point in tho ecliptic is to tho north of

tho cast point in the prime vertical, the variation is north, if it bo to the s

outh, tho variation is south.

<57> Let B P C be the ecliptic, Pr the place of the planet in it, A h B

the equinoctial, V the vernal equinox, D h F the prime vertical, h the point of

intersection of the prime vertical and

The use of tho valana is this tliat, in drawing tlio projee- tions of the eclips

es, after the disc of the body which is o be eclipsed is drawn, and the north and

south and the cast and * M <58>

<58> Let B P C be the ecliptic, Pr the place of the planet in it, A h B

the equinoctial, V the vernal equinox, D h F the prime vertical, h the point of

intersection of the prime vertical and

west lines are also marked in it, which lirfes will, of coarse, represent the ci

rcle of position and its secondary, the direction of the line aepresenting the

ecliptic in the disc of the body can easily be found through the valana. This di

rection being known, the exadt directions of the beginning, middle and the end o

f the eclipse can be determined: But as the Moon revolves in its orbit, the dire

ction of its orbit, therefore, is to be found. But the method for finding this i

s very difficult, and consequently instead of doing this, Astronomers determined

the direction of the ecliptic, by means of the Moons corresponding place in it a

nd then ascertain the direction of the Moon s orbit.

The valana will exactly be understood by seeing the following diagram <59>

<59> Let B P C be the ecliptic, Pr the place of the planet in it, A h B

the equinoctial, V the vernal equinox, D h F the prime vertical, h the point of

intersection of the prime vertical and

the equinoctial, heqje h the east or west point of the horizon and D h equivalen

t to the nata which is found <60> in the V. 36. Again, let e P c, a P b and dV /

bo the circles of latitude, declination and position respectively passing throu

gh the place of the planet in the ecliptic.

<60> Let B P C be the ecliptic, Pr the place of the planet in it, A h B

the equinoctial, V the vernal equinox, D h F the prime vertical, h the point of

intersection of the prime vertical and

* Then, <61>

<61> Let B P C be the ecliptic, Pr the place of the planet in it, A h B

the equinoctial, V the vernal equinox, D h F the prime vertical, h the point of

intersection of the prime vertical and

the arc f b which is the measure of h P / = the <62>Xksha-valana :

<62> Let B P C be the ecliptic, Pr the place of the planet in it, A h B

the equinoctial, V the vernal equinox, D h F the prime vertical, h the point of

intersection of the prime vertical and

the arc h e t P b = the Xyana-

VALANA :

and the arc/r ^ r P/= the SPASiifA-

YALANA.

Or according to the phraseology of the SmnniNTAS E the east point of P in the ec

liptic;

A the equinoctial; ,

D the prime vortical;

hence, <63>

the distance from O to A or arc D A or/ft = <64> the Xksha-yalana :

<63> Let B P C be the ecliptic, Pr the place of the planet in it, A h B

the equinoctial, V the vernal equinox, D h F the prime vertical, h the point of

intersection of the prime vertical and

<64> Let B P C be the ecliptic, Pr the place of the planet in it, A h B

the equinoctial, V the vernal equinox, D h F the prime vertical, h the point of

intersection of the prime vertical and

A to E or arc A E or b c = tho Xyana-valana :

and Dto E or arc D E or f r. = the spashta-valana

or rectified variation.

These arcs can be found as follows Let, l = longitude of the planet, p> = obliqu

ity of tho ecliptic, d = declination of the planet,

L == latitude of the place,

h = NATA,

x = Xyana-yalana,

y = AESHA-VALANA,

and Z = rectified valana.

Then, in the spherical triangle AYE,

or

Bin E A V : sin A V E = sin E V : sin A E, cos d : sin e = cos Z : sin a,

sin>a? or alno of tho Xyana-valana =

COS ll *

(A)

Sco V. 32, 33,34.

This vaiana called north or south asftho point E be north or south to tho point

A.

And,# in tho triangle A h D.

. sin D A h : sin A h D = sin D h : sin D A; hore, sin D A h = sin E A V = cos d

s sin A h D = sin L, and sin D h = sin n,

cos d : sin L = sin n : sin y,

sin y or sine of the aksua-valana =

sin L. sin n

cos d

(B)

Seo V. 37. .

The Xksha-valana is called north or south as tho point A be north or Bouth to th

e poiht D.

And the rectified valana D B = 1) A + A B, when tho point A lies betweefi the po

ints D and E, but if the point A be beyond them, tho rectified valana will bo eq

ual to the difference between the Xkbha and Xyava-valana. This also is called no

rth or south as tho point E be north or south to the point D.

The ancient astronomers Lalla, S nfpATi Ac. used tho co-versed sin l instead of

cos l and the radius for the cos d in (A) and the versed sin n in the place of B

in n and radius for the cos d in (B) and hence, the valanas, found by then? are

wrong. Bitskaraciiarya therefore, in order to convinco the people of tho said mis

take made by Lalla, S nfpATi, &c. in finding tho valanas refuted them in several

ways in thq subsequent ports of this chapter.-pB. D.]

30. In either the 1st Libra or the 1st Aries in tho oqui-

Atava-vaxava

noctiol point of intersection of the equinoctial and ecliptic, the north and

south lines of the two circles i. o. their secondaries are different

and aro at a distance of the extreme declination (of the Sim i. o. 24) from each

other. 0 ,

31. Hence, the Ayana-valana will then bo. equal to the sine of 24:The north an

d south lines of Jthese two circles however are coincident at the solstitial poi

nft.

32, 33 and 34. And the north and south lines being there coincident, it foll

ows as a matter of courso that the east of those two circles will bo the same. H

ence at the solstitial points there is no (Ayana) valana.

When the planet is in any point of the ecliptic bet ween tin equinoctial and sol

stitial poiuts, Ayana-valana is then found by proportion, or by multiplying the

eo-sino of the longitude of the planet by the sine of 24, and dividing the produ

ct by the dyujya or the co-sine of the declination of the plnnot. This Ayana-val

ana is called north or south as tlio planet bo in the ascending or descending si

gns respectively.

Thus in like manner at the point of intersection of tho prime

vertical and equinoctial, the six o clock

Jksha-vaxava.

lino is the north and south lino of tho

equinoctial, whilst the horizon (of the given place) is tho north

and south lino of the prime vertical. The distance of those

north and south linos is equal to the latitudo (of the placo).

35. Hence at (the cast or west point of) the horizon, tho aksiia-valana is e

qual to tho sino of the latitudo. At midday the north and south line of tho equi

noctial and prime vertical is the same. Hence at midday there is no aksiia-valan

a.

36. For any intervening Bpot., tho Aksha-vauna is to bO found from the sino

of tho nata| by proportion.

First, the degrees of nata are (nearly) to be found by multiplying the time from

noon by 90 and dividing tho product by the half length of day. ^

* [By the distance of any two great circles is here meant an ere intercepted bet

ween them, of a great circle through tho poles of which they pass.B.

t [Here the kata ia the arc of fclse prime vortical intercepted between the zeni

th and the secondary circle to it passing through the place of th planet., B.D.]

37. Then tlio sino of tho nata degrees Multiplied by the

nine of latitude, rfml divided by the co-sine of the declination of the plunct.w

ill be the a ksha-valana. If the nata be to the, east, the Xks\u-valana is calle

d north. If west, then it is called south (in"the north terrestrial latitude).

The sum and difference of the ayana and aksha-vaeanas

. must bo taken f6r the spashta-valana,

bpashta-valasa. ... . _

* viz. their sum when the ayana and

XksttA-vatanas arc both of the same denomination, and their

difference when of different denominations i. e. one north and

the other south.

38. When tlio planet is at either tlio points of the intersection of the ecl

iptic and prime vertical, tho spashta-yalana found by adding or subtracting tlio

ayana and aksiia-valanas (ns they happen to bo of tho same or different denomin

ations) is for that time al its maximum.

39. But at a point of the ecliptic distant from tho point of intersection th

roe signs cither forward or backward, thcro is no SPASHTA-VATiANA: for, at those

points tho north and the south lines of tho two 110108 arc coincident.

40. However, were you to attempt to shew by tho uso of tho versed sino, that

there was then no spasuta-valana at thoso points, you could not succeed. Tho ca

lculation must bo worked by the right sine. I repeat this to impress tho rulo mo

re strongly on your mind.

*41. As all the circles of declination meet at tho poles; it Another wny of refu

tation therefore evident that the north of uaing the versed sine. and south line

perpendicular to the

cast and west line in tho plane of the equinoctial, will fall in the poles.

42. But all the circlos of celestial latitude meet in the pole of the eclipt

ic-called the kadahba, 24 distant from the equinoctial polo. And it is this ecli

ptic pole which causes and makes manifest the valana.

43. In the ecliptic poles always lies the north and south

VIII 49.] Suldltanta-rfimnoni. 191

$

line which is perpendicular to the oast and west line in the plane of the eclipt

ic.

To illustrate this, a circle should be attached to tho sphere, taking the equino

ctial pole for a centre, and 21 for radius. This circle is called the kadamba-bui

t ama-v$tta or tho circle in which the kadamba revolves (round the pole).

The sines in this circle correspond with tho sines of tho declination.

All the secondary circles to tho prime vertical meet in tho point of intersectio

n of the mcridiun and horizon, ami this point of intersection is called sama i.

c. north or south point of horizon.

Now from the planet draw circles on the sphere so as to meet in the sama, in the

equinoctial polo and also in tho ecliptic pole.

Tho three different kinds of valana will now clearly appear between these circle

s: viz.-the ^khha valana is tho distance between tho two circles just described

passing through tho sama and equinoctial pole.

2. Tho ayana-valana is tho distanco between the circles passing through tho

ecliptic and equinoctial polos.

3. Tho si ASIITA-valana is tho distanco between tho circles passing through

the sama and kadamra.

These throe valanas are at tho distanco of a quadrant from the planet and are th

e same in all directions.

48 and 49. Or (to illustrate the subject further) making

Second mode of illastrat- the Planet as pole of a sphere/ ing the Spabuta-taiava

. draw a circle at 90# from it: then in

that circle you will observe the aksha valanawhich, in it, is the distance of the

point intersected by the equinoctial from the point cut by the prime vertical.

The distance of the point cut by tho equinoctial from that cut by the ecliptic i

s the Iyanaand the distance between tjie points cut by the ecliptic and prime ver

tical the iAsirfA-

VALANA.

50. In this case the plane of the ecliptic % always east and

westcelestial latitude forming its north and south lino. Those therefore who (lik

e H fifrATi or Laljla) would add the s aua celestial latitude Jo hud the valana,

labour under a grievous delusion. #

51. The 1st of Capricorn and tho ecliptic polo reach tliu meridian .at the s

ame time (in any latitude): so also with regard totho 1st Cancer. Hence at the s

olstitial points tlicro is no AYANA-VALANA.

52. As tho 1st Capricorn revolves in tho sphere, so tho ecliptic polo revolv

es in its own small circle (called tho ka-DAMDA-131 IRAMA-VfilTTA rOUIld tllO po

le).

53 and 5 k When tho 1st of Aquarius or tho 1st of Pisces comes to the meridian,

the distance in tho form of a sine in tho K a da mb a- d n rama- vkitta, between

the ecliptic pole and tho meridian is the Xyana-valana. This valana corresponds

with the kbAntijy! or tho sine of declination found from the degrees correspond

ing to the time elapsed from the 1st Capri-cornus leaving the meridian.

55. As the versed sine is like tho sagitta and the sine is tho half chord (there

fore the versed sine of the distance of the ecliptic pole from the meridian will

not express tho proper quantity of valana as has been asserted by Lalla, Ac. :

but the right sine of that distance does so precisely). The ayana-valana will be

found from the declination of the longitude of tho Sup. added with threo signs

or 90.

* 56. Those poople who have directed that the versed sinct of the declination of

that point three signs in advance of the Sun should bo used, have thereby vitia

tod tho whole calculation. aksha-valana may be in like manner ascertained and il

lustrated: but it is found by tho ri"ht sine, (and not by the versed sine).

. 57. He who prescribes rules at variance with former texts and does not show th

e error of their authors is much to be blamed. Ucnco 1 am acquitted of blame hav

ing thus Hourly exposed the errors of my predecessors.

VIII. 64.] Siihlhuntii-s1 il omoni. 193

Another way of refutation, illustrated as follows. Make Jiho eclip

of using the versed sine. tie pole the centre and draw the circle called the jin

a-v&itta with a radius equal to 24.

59. Then makoa movoablo secondary circle to the ecliptic to revolve on the tw

o ecliptic poles. This circle will pass over tho equinoctial poles, when it come

s to the end of the sign of Gemini.

00. By whatever number of degrees this secondary circlo is advanced beyond t

ho end of Gemini, by precisely the same number of degrees, it is advanced beyond

tho equinoctial pole, in this small jina-vqitta. Tho sine of those degrees will

bo there found to correspond exactly with and increaso as does tho sine of tho

declination.

01. And this sino is tho Xyan a-valana : This valana is the valana at tho en

d of the dynjya. For the distance between the equinoctial pole and planet is, al

ways equal to the arc of which the dynjya is tho sino i. 0. the cosine of the de

clination.

02. But as tho valuo of tho result found is required in terms of tho radius,

it is consequently to be converted into thoso terms.

As tho jina-v^itta was drawn from the ecliptic pole as centre, with a radius equ

al to tho greatost declination, so now, making tho sama centre draw a circle rou

nd it with a radius equal to the degrees of the places latitude. (This circle is

called aksha-v$ itta.)

.63 and 64. To the two sauas or north and south points of the horizon os poles,

attach a moveable secondary circlo to the prime vertical. Now, if this moveable

circlo be brought over the planet, then its distance counted in the aksha-v$itta

or small circle from the equinoctial pole will bo exactly oqual to that of the

planet from the zenith in the prime vertical! The Bine of the planets zenith dist

ance in tho prime vertical, willv when reduced to the valuo of the radius of aks

ha-vj^ftta represent tho Xksua-valana.

n..

65. As in tho Xyana-valana so also in this Xksha-valana,

the result at thtf end of the dynjy! is found; this therefore must be converted

into terms of the radius. From this illustration it is evident thaf it may bo ac

curately ascertained from the zenith distance ill the prime vertical.

66. I will show now how tlio Xksua-vatjIna may be also ascertained from the

time from tho planets being on the meridianin its diurnal circle. [Tho rule is

as follows.] Add or subtract the s ankutala [of a given time] to and from the

_ sine of amplitude according as thcv

See verse 41, Chap. VII. . r & J

are of the same or of different denominations (for tho bXhu or bhuja).

67. The sine of the latitudo of the given place multiplied by the sine of th

e asus of tho time from the planet s being on the meridian, and divided by the s

quare-root of tho differonco between the squares of tho bhuja (above found) and

of the radius, will be exactly the Iksiia-valana.

r This rule and tho means by which it has been established by BhabxabI(ii-bya req

uire elucidation.

BHisxiBA onA BYA first directs that the ba hu or miuja be found for the time of

the middle of the eclipse and that a circle parallel to the prime vertical, bo d

rawn having for its centre a point on the axis of tho prime vertical distant fro

m the oentre of the prime vertical, by the amount of the ba hv. From this

as oentre and the sop equal to radSa bF as radius draw a circle paral-

lel to the prime vertical. This circle called an ttpavritta will cut the diurnal

oirole for tne time on 2 points equally distant from the meridian. Connect thos

e points by a chord. The half of this chord is the vataohati jvA as well in the

diurnal oirole as in the UPAVBXTTA, but as these 2 circles differ in the magnitu

de, , these sines will he the sines of a different number of dogroes in each cir

cle. Now the hataohati jyX is known, but it is in terms of a large circle. Seduc

e them to r their value in the diurnal circle.

1. If tbijyA : natajyA : : DYVJYA: sine of diurnal circle.

This sine in diurnal circle is also sine in vpat^ittA.

2. If VPA-VfUTTA-iBUYA : this sine :: tbijya equal to akssajya.

8. mm! : this result t: tbuya : sine of akbha-valaha

now cancel

and there will remain the rule above stated

XATAJYA X AKBUAJYA

, = sine of aX8HA.yalaba.

upavbitta-tbuya

Hera our author makes use of the diurnal circle end upavrttta in term of the e

quator and prime vertipal, whose portions determine tho vaiaha. The bircles bein

g parallel to the larger, the object sought is equally attained. L. W.

68. Or the Ak^ha-valana may be thus roughly found.

Multiply the time from the planet s being bn the. meridian

and divide the product by the half length of day, tho result are the nata degree

s. The Bine of tliesp nata degreos multiplied by thd sine of the latitude and

dividod by the dynjyA or tho cosine of the declination, will give the rough

AKSHA-VAIANA.

Further illustration.

69. Place tho disc of tho Sun at tho point at which tho diurnal circle inter

sects the ecliptic. The arc of the disc intercepted bo-

tween these two circles represents tho Ayana-valana in terms of radius of tho di

sc.

70. This valana is equal to the difference between the sino of declination o

f the centre of the Sun and of the point of intersection of tho disc and eclipti

c; and it is thus found \ multiply the radius of disc by the buogya-khanpa of th

o bhuja of the Sun s longitude ancUdivido by 225.

71. Then multiply this result by sino of 24 and divide by # the radius : tho

quotiont is the difference of the two Bino of declination. This again multiplied

by the radius and divided by the radius of Sun s disc will givo the value in te

rms of tho radius (of a great circle).

72. Now in these proportions the radius of tho Sun s disc and also radius ar

e in one case multipliers (being in third places), and in the other divisors (be

ing the first terms of the proportion) therefore cancel both. There will thon re

main

n ale, multiply the Sun s bhogya khanpa by sino of 24 and divide by 225.

73. And this quantity is equal to the declination of a point of ecliptic 90 i

n advance of Sun s place. Thus you obsorve that the valana is found by the sino

of declination as above alleged, (and not by tho versed sine). Abandon therefore

,

0 foolish men, your erroneous rules on this subject. #

74. Tho disc appears declined from the zenith ljke an umbrella; bat the decl

ination is direct to the equinoctial pole:

2

the proportion of the dynjyA or complement, of declination is therefore;requircd

to reduco tlie valana found to its proper value in torms of tho radius.

End of Chapter VIII. In explanation of the cause of eclipses of tho Sdn and Moon

.

* CHAPTER IX.

Called dqikkar/ma-vasanX on the principles of the Rules fur fniling the times of

the rising and setting of the heavenly bodies.

.1. A planet is not found on the horizon at tho timo at Object of the correction

which its corresponding point in tho ecliptio (or that point of tho ecliptic

plied to the place of the having tho sflrne longitude) reachos

planet, for finding the point af

of the ecliptio on the horizon the horizon, inasmuch as it is elevated

t wten tho pl#nefc rcachea it# above or depressed below the horizon, by the oper

ation of its latitudo. A correction called drik-kabXha to find the exact time of

rising and sotting of a planet, is therefore necessary.

2. When the planets corresponding point in the ecliptic reaches tho horizon,

tho latitude then does not coincide with tho horizon, but with the circle of la

titude. Tho elevation of the latitude abovo and depression of it below the horiz

on, is of

* two sorts, [ono of which is caused by the obliquity of the

* ecliptic and the other by tho latitudo of the place.] HencS the d^ikkab/

ma is two-fold, i. e. the Ayana and tho akshaja or Xksha. The detail and mode of

performing these two sorts of the correction are now clearly unfoldod.

3. When the two valanas arp north and the planets

Diuxiabma. corresponding point in the ecliptic is

. in the eastern horizon, the planet is

thereby depressed below the horizon by sonth latitude, and elevated when the pla

nets latitude is north.

IX. 9.] Siddkdnta^iromoni. 197

* reverse of this takes plane ; the reverse of this also takes placo when

the planets corresponding point is in the western horizon.

[And the difference in the times of rising of the planet and its corresponding p

oint is called the resultant time of the d?ikkarma and is found by the following

proportions.].

If radius: Xyana-valana :: what will celestial latitude give?

5. And

if cosine of the latitude of the given > : Xksha-valana . placo )

:: what will srAsn^A s ara givo ?

Multiply the two results thus found by these two proportions, by the radius and

divide the products by tho dydjyX or cosine of declination.

6 and 7. Take tho arcs of these two results (which are sines) and by tho a

sus-found from the sum of or tho difference between these two arcs, the planet i

s depressed below or elevated above tho horizon. The laqna or horoscope found by

tho direct process (as shown in tho note on tho vorso 20, Chapter VII.) when th

o planet is depressed and by tho indirect process (as shown in tho same note) wh

en it is elevated, by means of the asus above found, is its udaya laqna rising h

oroscope or tho point of tho ecliptic which comes to tho eastern horizon at the

same time with the v planet.

When tho planets corresponding point is in tho western horizon, tho laqna horosco

pe found then by the rule converse of that abovo given, by means of the place of

the planet added with 6 signs, is its asta laqna setting horoscope or the point

of tho ecliptic which is on the eastern horizon when the plahet comes to the we

stern horizon:

8 and 9. For the fixed stars whose latitudes ar? very considerable the resulted

time of the d$ikkabma is found in a

different way. Find tho ascensional difference from the mean declination of tho

star, i. e. from tho declination of its corre- spending point in tho ecliptic,

and also from that applied with the latitude, i. 9. from the true declination.

The asus found from the sum of or tho difference between tho ascensional differe

nces just found, as tho mean and true Seclinationsr are of tho different or of t

ho samo denominations respectively, are tlio asus of depression or elovation dep

ending on tho aksha d$ikkarma. (Find also tho time depending on tlio Xyana-d$ikk

akma) : and from the snm of or the difference between them, as they may be of th

o samo or different denominations, the udaya lagna or asta lagna may bo ascertai

ned as above found (in tho Gth and 7th versos).

* Lot A D B C be the meridian ; CED the horizon, A tho zenith; E tlio oast point

of the lyirizon; F K O the equinoctial; K the north polo j L tlio south ; F tho

planet; p its corresponding point1 in the ecliptic; II P p J tho secondary to t

ho ecliptic passing through the panet F, and lienee p P tho latitude. Lot f ? g t

he diurnal circle passing through tho planet P and hence p R the notified latitu

de.

* Now, when the corresponding place of tho planet is in tho horizon, it is then

evident from the accompanying figure, that tho planet is elevated above or depns

sed below the horizon by its latitude p P and as it is very difficult to find th

e elevation or depression at onee, it is therefore ascertained by means of its t

wo parts, the one of which is from the horizon to tho circle of declination, i.

e. Q to R. This partial elovation or depression takes place by tho planets rectif

ied latitude p R. And the other part of the elevation or depression is from tho

eirole of declination to the circle of latitude; i. e. from R to P and this occu

rs by the planet s mean latitude p P. From the sum or differenceof these two par

ts, the exact elevation of tho planet above the horizon or the depression below

it, ean be determined. When the terrestrial latitude, of tho given place is nort

h and the planets corresponding place in the ecliptic is in the eastern horizon,

the a ks&ayaava is then north and tho circle of declination is

elevated above the horizon to the north. For this reason, when the a ksha-VALA

VA is north, tho planet will be elevated above the eastern horizon if its latitu

de be north, and if it be south, the planet will be depressed below flier horizo

n. But the reverse of this takes place whon tho aksha-talana is south whioh occur

s on account of the sonth latitude of the given place, i. 0. when the akshA-Yalav

a is south, the circle of declination is depressed below (lie horizon to the nor

th and hence the planet is depressed below it, if its latitude be north, and if

it be south, the planot is elevfted above the horizon.

Again, when tho planets longitude terminates in the six ascending signs, it is ev

ident that the Ayayayaiana becomes then north, and the north pole of the eclipti

c is elevated above the circle of deolination passing through the planot. Henoe,

when the a yana-yalava is north, the planet is elevated above or depressed belo

w the circle of declination by its mean latitude as it is north or south. But th

e reverse of this takes plaoe, when the a iava-yalava is south, i. e. the planet

is depressed below or elevated above the circle of deolination, as its latitude

is north or south. Because when the a yava-yaiava is south

A/

the north polo of the ecliptic lies below the circle of declination and the sout

h above it.

Again, when the planet is in the western horizon, the circle of declination pass

ing through the place of the planet in the ecliptic lies to the north above the

horizon, but the axbiia-yalana, becomes south and hence the reverse takes }.Mce

of what is said about the elevation or depression when the planet is in the east

ern horizon. But as to the Ayana-valaxa, it becomes north when the longitude of

the planet terminates in the ascending six signs and the north pole of the eclip

tic lies below the circle of deolination. Hence the depression of the planet tak

esplace when its latitude is north and the elevation when the latitude is south.

But when the longitude of the planet terminates in the diacending six signs, th

e Ayava-talana becomes then south and the north pole of the ecliptic lies above

the circle of declination. For this reason, the elevation of the planet takes pl

ace when its latitude it north, and the depression when it it south. Thus in the

western horizon the elevations and depressions of the planet are opposite to th

ose when the planet is in the eastern horizon.

Now, the time elapsed from the plahet i rising wlien it is elevated above the ho

rizon and the time whieh the planet will take to rise when it is depressed below

the horizon, are found in the following manner.

10. The [Astabhta] S aba or true latitude [of tbe planet] To flnat)M nli of

w andfipKad by the Dtojm or coaino . lestial latitude Jn tern of a 0f declination

of the point of the ecllD-

dpr it fit to be added to or subtracted from declination.

circleof declination, to ren- . r r

* " tic, three signs in advance of the

planet s corresponding point fend di-

See the figure above described in which the apgle QEBor the equinoctial arc Q j

f denotes the time of elevation of the planet from Q to B, and tho time of eleva

tion of the planet from B to P is denoted either by the angle PKH or by the equi

noetial arc P/p . Out of these two times Q p and F p, we show at first how to f

ind P p\

In the triangle Pp B, P p as the latitude of the planet, Z.Pp B = the a yaxa-VAL

AHA and < P B p = -J, and B : sin Pp B = sin Pp : sin B P ; or if radius

: sin Of a yana-YALAKA = the sine of latitude : sin B P.

Again, by the similar triangles E P B and E P p sin E P : sin R P = sin E F :

sin P p\ here, sin E P cosine of declination and E F = B,

* B sin B P

.\sinP p =

cos of declination

Bow, the time p Q is found as follows.

In the triangle p B Q, p K = the sfashta>b asa which can be found by tho rule gi

ven in the V. 10 of this chapter, /I B p Q aksoa-yalajta and B Qp = co-latitude

of place nearly and sin p Q B: sin B p.Q:: sin p B s sin B Q or, if cosine of la

titude,

: sine of AJCSHA-YALAlfA,

= spashta-s aba : sin B Q i

again, by the triangles E Q B, E Q p , sin E Q s sin Q B = sin K Q : sin p Q ; h

ere, sin K Q = oosine of declination aud sine E Q = B,

B X linQB .. sin p O =

cos of declination.

If both of these times thus found, be of the elevation or both of the depnacrc. i

on, the planet will be elevated above or depressed below the horizon in the time

equal to their sum, and if one of these hie that which the planet takes for its

elevation and the other for ita depression, the planet will be elevated above o

r depressed below the horizon in the time equal to their diffAenoe as the remain

der is of the time of elevation or of that of the depression. Tho sum or dilfcre

noe of the two times just found is oalled the resulted time of the 99nc- XAUCA

in the S iddhahtab. ,

f

That point of the ecliptic which is on the eestern barium when the planet reache

s it, ia oalled the upaya laqya rising horoscope of the planet. As it is neoesaei

y to know this toaya laoya for finding the time of the planets rising, we are now

going to show how to find the rising horoscope. If the planet k depreseed by th

e resulted time shove mentioned, it is evident that when the planet will come to

the eestern horison, its corresponding place in the

vided by the radial becomes [nearly] the spashta or rectified latitude, [i. e. t

he arc of the circle of declination intercepted between the planots corresponding

point in the,ecliptic and the diurnal circle passing through the planet]. This

rectified latitude is used whdn it is to be applied to tho mean declination and

also in the Iksha d$ikkarma.

11. The celestial latitude is not reduced by Brahmagupta

ecliptic will be elevated above it by the resulted time. For this reason, having

assumed the corresponding place of the planet for the Sun, And the horoscope by

the direot process through the resulted time and tliia will be the rising horos

cope. But if the plnnet ho elevated above the horizon by the resulted time, its

corresponding place will then be depressed below it by the same time when the pl

anet will come to it. Therefore, tho horoscope found by the indirect process thr

ough the resulted time ; will be the rising horoscope of the planet.

That point of the ecliptic which is on the eastern horizon when the planet comes

to the western horizon, is called the asta lagna or setting horoscope of the pl

anet. As it u requisite to know the setting horoscope for finding the time of se

tting of the planet, we therefore now show the way for finding the setting horos

cope. It the pianot be depressed below the western horizon by the resulted time,

it is plane that when the planet will reaches it, its corresponding place will

be elevated above it by the resulted time and consequently the corresponding pla

ce of tho planet added wfth six signs will be depressed below the eastern horizo

n by tho .same time. Therefore, assume the corresponding place of the planet add

ed with six signs fqr the Sun and find tho horoscope by the indirect process, t

hrough tho resulted time and this will bo the asta laoha setting horoscope. But

if the planet be depressed below the western horizon, its corresponding place ad

ded with six signs will then bo elevated above the uastem horizon by the resulte

d time and hence the horoscope found by the direct process will then be the asta

lag A setting horoscope.

Now the time p Q which is determined above through the triangle p R Q, is not

the exact one, because, in that triangle the angle p Q R is assumed equal to the

co-latitude of the given place, but it cannot be exactly equal to that, and con

sequently the time pf Q thus determined cannot be the exact time. But no consid

erable error is caused in the time p Q thus found, if tho latitude be of a pla

net, as it is always small. As to the star wIiobc latitude is considerable, tho

time p Q thus found cannot be the exact time. The exact time can be found , as

follows.

t See the preceding figure and in that take R for a star and p the intersecting

point of the ecliptic, and the circle of declination passing through the star R

then pp is called the mean declination of the star, Rp, the rectified latitude

and Rp the rectified declination.

Now, find the ascensional difference B p through the mean declination p p and t

he ascensional difference E Q through the rectified declination R p or Q Q . F

ind the difference between these two ascensional differences and this difference

will be equal to p Q i. e. E Q E p = p Q . But it occurs then whenp and R an

in the same side of the equinoctial F G and when yfi in(ono aide and R in the ot

her of the equinoctial, it is evident that p Q iu this ease will be equal to t

he sum of the two ascensional differences.B. D.]

* This rule is admitted by BhAskabAokAbya to be incorrect; but the error being s

mall, is neglected. Instead of using the bypjiA, the YASupt should have been ado

pted.

At q.

Ominion of the last . -

mentioned correction or re- in decimation: ana the reason of this duction of Cel

estial latitude . i , .

to its value in declination, 0missl0I1> seems 0 have been its

othersBlU1,MACPI and smallness of amount. And also it is tli<3 unconnected latitude

which is used in finding the lmlf duration of the eclipses and in their project

ions &c.

12. As the constellations are fixed , their latitudes as given in the books of t

hese curly astronomers are the srAsiTAj-b aras, i. o. the reduced values of the

latitudes so as to render them fit to he added to or subtracted from the declina

tion; and tho dhruvas or longitude of these constellations are given, after bein

g correctedYy tho Ayana drtkkakma so as to suit those corrected latitudes that i

s, the star will appear to rise at the equator at tho same time with longitude f

ound by the correction.

Let a d be equinoctial and P the equinoctial pole,

13. Those astronomers, whoihavo mentioned that celostial latitude is an arc

of a circjo of declination, are stupid. \Yero the ce-

Bha skara charya exposes the incorrect theory of certain ot his predecessors, by

quoting their own practice whi$h is irrecoucillble with their own theory.

lestinl latitude nothing more tlmu an

arc of a circle of declination, then why should they or others havo evor had rec

ourse to the ayana dqikkakma tit all? (The planets or stars would appear on tho

six oclock line at tlio time, that the corresponding degree of the ecliptic appea

red there.)

14. How moreover liave these samo astronomers in delineating an eclipso mark

ed off the Moons latitude in the middlo of tho eclipso on sPAsirrA-VAhANA-stJTBA

or on tho lino denoting the secondary circle to the ecliptic ? and how also have

they drawn perpendicularly on the valana-sutka or tho lino representing tho ecl

iptic, the latitudes of the Moon at tho commencement and termination of tho ecli

pse.

15. llow moreover, have they made the latitudo KOfi, i. o. perpendicular to

the ecliptic and thus found tho half duration Df the eclipse ? If tho latitudo W

ero of this nature, it woulif never t>e ascertained by tho proportion (which is

usod in finding it).

ners who erroneously used ;he versed sine in the DRIX karma and valana.

16. A certain astronomer has (first) erroneously stated tho Censure of the a

strono- D^IKKAttMA and VAUNA by the versed

sine. This course has been followed by others who followed him like blind men fo

llowing each other in succession: [without seeing keir way].

17. Bhahmaouptas rule, however, is wholly unexceptionable,

but it has beon misinterpreted by his

f raise of Brahmagupta. f0p0W0ra> observations cannot bo

mid to be presumptuous, but if they are alleged to bo so,

[ have only to reqnest able mathematicians to weigh them irith candour. #

18. The DtyiKKARMA and Alana found by tho former astronomers through the ver

sed sine are erroneous: And I shall now give an ipstancft in proof of their erro

r.

19 and 20, In any place having latitude less than 24 ]J.

An instance in proof of multiply the sine of the latitude of the the error.

piac0 by the radihs and divide the

product by the sine of 24 or the sine of the obliquity of the ecliptic qnd tako t

he arc in degrees of the result found. And find the <65> point of the ecliptic,

the degrees just found in advance of the 1st Arios. Now, if from this point the

planets corresponding point on the ecliptic three signs backwards or forwards, bo

on the western or eastern horizon respectively, then the ecliptic will coincido

with the vortical circle, and the horizon will consequently be secondary to the

ecliptic. Hence the planet will not quit the horizon, though it be at a distanc

e, of extreme latitude from its corresponding point in the ecliptic [which is on

the horizon], as the celestial latitude is perpendicular to the ecliptic. <66>

<65> [It is evident Hint the longitude of this point ii equal to the are

through which it is found, and ai the point of the ecliptic S signs backwards o

r forward! from this point is assumed on the horiaon, this point therefore will

at that tine , be the nonagesimal, and as the longitude of that point or nonage

simal is let* than 9C the declination of this point will be north. This declinati

on squall to the latitude in question. For

B X sin latitude

v The sine of the latitude of the point = .... (by the is*

sin 24*

sumption)

sin 24 X sin longitude of the point

sin (latitude = , but this sin do*

Badins

. elination.

V. The declination of that point or nonaeesimal equal to the latitude of the pla

ce. Apd hence, if the latitude be north the nonagesimal will be in the ( senith.

For this reason the soliptic will eoindde with the rertioal circle.B. D.]

<66> [It is evident Hint the longitude of this point ii equal to the are

through which it is found, and ai the point of the ecliptic S signs backwards o

r forward! from this point is assumed on the horiaon, this point therefore will

at that tine , be the nonagesimal, and as the longitude of that point or nonage

simal is let* than 9C the declination of this point will be north. This declinati

on squall to the latitude in question. For

B X sin latitude

v The sine of the latitude of the point = .... (by the is*

sin 24*

sumption)

sin 24 X sin longitude of the point

sin (latitude = , but this sin do*

Badins

. elination.

V. The declination of that point or nonaeesimal equal to the latitude of the pla

ce. Apd hence, if the latitude be north the nonagesimal will be in the ( senith.

For this reason the soliptic will eoindde with the rertioal circle.B. D.]

21. In this case the resulted times of the d^ikkarma being of exactly the sa

mo amount but one being ylm and the other minus, neutralize each other [and henc

e there is no correction] . Now this result would not be obtained by using the v

ersed sinehence let the right sine (as prescribed) be always used for the d^ikkab

ma. <67>

<67> [It is evident Hint the longitude of this point ii equal to the are

through which it is found, and ai the point of the ecliptic S signs backwards o

r forward! from this point is assumed on the horiaon, this point therefore will

at that tine , be the nonagesimal, and as the longitude of that point or nonage

simal is let* than 9C the declination of this point will be north. This declinati

on squall to the latitude in question. For

B X sin latitude

v The sine of the latitude of the point = .... (by the is*

sin 24*

sumption)

sin 24 X sin longitude of the point

sin (latitude = , but this sin do*

Badins

. elination.

V. The declination of that point or nonaeesimal equal to the latitude of the pla

ce. Apd hence, if the latitude be north the nonagesimal will be in the ( senith.

For this reason the soliptic will eoindde with the rertioal circle.B. D.]

IX. 26.J Siddh&nta-s iromoni. 205

22. Again heTq, in like manner, it is from the two valanas having different

denominations, bnt equal values, that they mutually destroy each.othor. By using

the versed sine, they would not have equal amounts, hence the valanas must bo f

ound tiy the right sine.

[In illustration of the fact that tlio valana does not correspond with the verse

d shio, but the right sine Bha skarXchXrya gives as an example.]

23. When the Sun comes to the zenith [of the place whero the latitude is les

s than 24], and consequently the ecliptic coincides with the vertical circle, the

sfasiita valana then evidently appears to be equal to the siuo of tho amplitude

of the ecliptic point 90 in advance of the Sun s place in the horizon. If you, m

y friend, expert in spherics, can make tho spashta valana equal to the sine of a

mplitude by means of tho vorsed sine, then I will hold tho valana found in tho D

nfvfid-dhida tantra by Lalla and in tho other works to bo correct.

[To this BhIskarachIrya adds a further most important and curious illustration:]

24. In tho place where the latitude is 66 N. when tho Sun at tho time of his

rising is in 1st Aries, Ut Taurus, 1st Pisces, or in 1st Aquarius, he will then

be eclipsed in his southern limb, because tho ecliptic then coincides with tho h

orizon. Therefore, tell mo how the spashta valana will be equal to the radius by

means of tho versed sine 1

[In the same manner the d^ikkahma calculation as it depends on the valana, must

be made by tho right sine and not by the versed sine and for the same reasons.]

25. Even clever men are frequently led astray by conceit of error in t.itt

in their own quick intelligence, by

and others, stated. their too hasty zeal and anxiety for

distinction, by their confidence in others and by their oWn negligence or inadve

rtence, when it is thus with tiro wise, what need I say of fool ? others, howeve

r, have said: ,

26. Those given to the service of courtezans and bad poets,

Translation of the [X. 1.

20G

the world, by their broach of the rules of time and metres, and their destructi

on of their substance and of thoir subject, being beguiled by the vain delight t

hey feel towards the object of their taste.

End of Chapter IX. called Drikkakma-vxsana.

CHAPTER X.

Called S rtugonnati-vXsana in explanation of the cause of the Phases of the Moon

.

1. This ball of nectar the Moon being in contact with rays of the Sun, is a

lways illuminated by her shinings on that sido turned towards tho Sun. The side

opposite to the Sun dark as the raven black locks of a young damsel, is obscured

by being in its own shadow, just as that half of a water-pot which is turned fr

om the Sun, is obscured by its own shadow.

2. At the conjunction, the Moon is between us and tho Sun: and its lower ha

lf which is then visible to the inhabitants of the earth, being turned from the

Sun is obscured in darkness.

That half again of the Moon when it has moved to the distance of six signs from

the Sun, appears to as at the peibod of full Moon brilliant with light.

3. Draw a line from the earth to the Suns orbit at a distance of 90 from the

Moon, and find also a point in the^ Suns prbit (in the direction whejre the Moon

is) at a distance equal to that of the Moon from tho earth. When the Sun reaches

Jbhe point just found, he comes in the line per-pendieular at the Moon to that d

rawn from the earth to the

Moon. Then the Sun illumines half of the visible side of the

.. f

X. 5.] Siddhdnta-s imiioni. 2( 7

9

Moon. That is When the Moon is 85. . 45 <68> from the Sun east or west, it will a

ppear half full to hk. <69> .

<68> This is thus illustrated. Let a represent the linrtli, b e d the or

bit of the Sun, e/= do. of the Moon. Then it is obvious that half of the aide of

the Moon visible to ns sill be illuminated when the Sun is at cand not at rf, w

hen the Sun is at d it sill illumine more thun half of the Moon s dice; b e is

less than a quadrant b) the urre dt the sine of which a e or eg in terms of the

radius of the Sun s orbit, equals to the Moon s distance from the earth. L W.

[The arc b c can he found as follows: la the triangle on right angled at e, ae 51

560 yojanah, a c cj 660377 J4 Yojasas according to the Hiduha sias.

a e 51566

Then, cos e tt e *= =p 0748 ass cos 83 .. 43

ae 689377

ucie=s 85* .. 45 nearly. B. D.]

<69> This is thus illustrated. Let a represent the linrtli, b e d the or

bit of the Sun, e/= do. of the Moon. Then it is obvious that half of the aide of

the Moon visible to ns sill be illuminated when the Sun is at cand not at rf, w

hen the Sun is at d it sill illumine more thun half of the Moon s dice; b e is

less than a quadrant b) the urre dt the sine of which a e or eg in terms of the

radius of the Sun s orbit, equals to the Moon s distance from the earth. L W.

[The arc b c can he found as follows: la the triangle on right angled at e, ae 51

560 yojanah, a c cj 660377 J4 Yojasas according to the Hiduha sias.

a e 51566

Then, cos e tt e *= =p 0748 ass cos 83 .. 43

ae 689377

ucie=s 85* .. 45 nearly. B. D.]

* 4. The illuminated portion of the Moon gradually increases as it recedes from

the Sun: and the dark portjon increases as it appife&ches.thc Sim. As this sea-b

orn globe of water (tho Moon) is a- sphere,, its horns assume a pointed or cuspe

d appearance (varying in acuteness according to its .distance from the Sun).

5. (To illustrate tho subject, a diagram should bo drawn Diagram for illust

rating as follows). Let the distanco north and the subject. south between th

e Sun and Moon re-

present the BHUJA, the upright distanco between them tho koti and the line joini

ng tlicir centres tho hypothenusc. Tho Sun is in tho origin of the tihuja which

stretches in tho direction where tho Moon is, tiro line perpendicular at tho end

of the bhuja is Kofi at theextremity of which is tho Moon and the lino stretchin

g (from tho.Moim) in tho direction of tho Sun is the hypothenuse. The Sun gives

light (to tho Moon) through ^ the direction of tho hypothenuse. <70>

<70> This is thus illustrated. Let a represent the linrtli, b e d the or

bit of the Sun, e/= do. of the Moon. Then it is obvious that half of the aide of

the Moon visible to ns sill be illuminated when the Sun is at cand not at rf, w

hen the Sun is at d it sill illumine more thun half of the Moon s dice; b e is

less than a quadrant b) the urre dt the sine of which a e or eg in terms of the

radius of the Sun s orbit, equals to the Moon s distance from the earth. L W.

[The arc b c can he found as follows: la the triangle on right angled at e, ae 51

560 yojanah, a c cj 660377 J4 Yojasas according to the Hiduha sias.

a e 51566

Then, cos e tt e *= =p 0748 ass cos 83 .. 43

ae 689377

ucie=s 85* .. 45 nearly. B. D.]

[For instance

Let S be the Sun and m the Moon, then a S = bhuja, a m = koji, m S = hypothenuse

. Then f.g a lino drawn at right angles to extremity of hypotenuse will represen

t lino of direction of the enlightened horns andtbo angle h in d opposite to b

huja will be equal to g m c = the amount of angle by which the northern cusp is

elevated and southern depressed, were the Moon at Jr, there would be no elevation

of either cusp either way. For the hypothenuse will also bisect the white part

of the Moon. If the Sun is north of the Moon, tliq north cusp of the Moon is ele

vated: if south the southern cusp. L. W.] [Mr. Wilkinson has extracted the follo

wing two verses from the GanitadhyXya.

I. When the latitudo is 66 N. and the Sun is rising in sb Aries, thon the ecliptic

will coincide with the horizon; now suppose the Moon to bo in 1st Capricorn, th

en it will appear to be bisected by the meridian and the eastern half will be

Butaccording to Brahmagupta (his would not occur, for he Juts declared that the k

oti will be equal to radius in this case whereas it is obviously nil, and it is th

e bhuja which is equal to radius when there is no north and south difference

XI. 2.] SiJdh&nta-sirQpioni. 209

0

between the Sun qnd Moon then tho koji would be equal to

* the hypothenuse or radius and the bhuja woulJ bo nil.

II. And the MoonJs horns are of equal altitude when tlicro is no bhuja, whilst t

hey become perpendicular when there .is no koju That tho KO|i and bhuja shall at

one and tho samo tiino be equal to radius is an obvious incompatibility. But wh

at business have I with dwelling on the exposure of these errors? Brahmagupta ha

s hero shown wisdom indeed, and I offer him my reverent submission!]

6. I have thus only briefly treated of the principles of tho subjects menti

oned in the Chapters on Madhyaqati Ac. fearing to lengthen my work; but tho tale

nted astronomer should understand tho principles of all the subjects in completi

on, because this is the result to be obtained by a complete knowledge of tho sph

eric.

Bud of Chapter X. called S hingonnati-vasan^.

CHAPTKR XI.

Called Yantraduyaya, on the use of astronomical instrument.

1. As minute portions of time elapsed from sun-rise cannot

bo ascertained without instruments, t Object of the Chapter. therefore briefl

y detail a few.

instruments which are of established use for this purpose.

2. The Armillary sphere, nadI-valaya (the equinoctial), the YA8Hfi or staff

, the gnomon, the ohati or clepsydra, tho circle, the semi-circle, the quadrant,

and tho piialaka : but of all instruments, it is ingenuity which is the best.

is evidently his favorite, but truth seemed to require this condemnation. He at

the same here does justice to Aeya-biiatta and tho author of tlfe bJkta SIDDHa n

ta. They both justly concur in saying there is no koti in this case.~Ii. W.

P

3 and 1. (This instrument is to be mode as before de-

* , scribed, placing tie Buaoola starry U> of Armillary Sphere. ,. . . .

/

. sphere, which consists of tjho ecliptic,

di.urnal circles, (he Moons path, and the circles of declination

Ac. within the kIiagola celestial sphere, which consist^ of tho

horizon, meridian, prime vortical, six oclock line, and other

circles yhich remain fixed in a given latitude). Bring tho

place of the Sun on the ecliptic to the eastern horizon : and

mark tho point of the equinoctial (in tho cuauola) intersected #

by tho horizon, viz. cast point. Having made tho horizon as

level as water, turn the biiagola westward till the Sun throws

its shadow on the centre of tho Earth. The distance between

the mark made oh tho equinoctial and tho now eastern point

of the horizon will represent tho time from sun-rise.

5 and 0. The laona or horoscopo will then bo found in

that point of the ecliptic which is cut by the horizon.

Take a wooden circle and divide its outer rim into (10 gha-

TllO Nl si YALIYA,

TiKXs: Then placo tho twelve signs

of tho ecliptic on both sides, but

instead of making each sign of equal extent, they must bo

mado each with such variablo arcs as shall correspond with

their periods of rising in tho placo of observation (tho twelve

periods are to be thus marked on cithor side, which are to bo

again each subdivided into two horxs (or hours), three drksk-

kanas, into navans as or ninths of 3. . 20 each, twelfths

of28. . 10 and into trtns ans Xs or thirtieths. These are

called tho SHApvARGA or six classes). These signs, howover,

must bo inscribed in tho inverse order of the signs, that is

1st Aries, then Taurus to the west or right of Aries and so on.

Then placo this circlo on tho polar axis of the khaoola at tho

centro of tho Earth (the polar axis should be elevated to tho

, Now find tho Suns longitude in signs, degrees, Ac. for tho sun-ri^o of tho give

n day (by calculation) and find the same degreo in the circlo. Mark thoro tho Su

ns place, turn tho

circle round the aria, so that the shadow of the axis will fall on the mark of t

he S tin s place at sun-rise and then fix tho circle. Now as tho Sun rises, tho

shadow of the axis will advance from the mark made for tho point of sun-rise to

tho nadir and will indicate tho hour fsom sun-rise, and also tlic laona (horosco

pe) ; tho number of hours will be seen between the point of sun-riso and the sli

adpw: and tho laoxa will be found on tho shadow itself. [While the Sun goes from

east to west tho

shadow travels from west to east and henco tho signs witli their periods of risi

ng must bo reversed in ordertho aro from W to Laona represents tho hour arc: and

the Laona is at tho word Laona in tho accompanying figure.L. W/|

7. Or, if this circle marked as above, be placed on any axis elevated to th

o altitude of tho pole, then tho distance from the shadow of tho axis to the low

est part of tho circle will represent tho time to or from midday.

8. A ghati made of copper like the lower half of a water-

pot, should have a largo hole bored in

The ghati or clcpijdra. ^otfcom> ^ee how often it is filled

and falls to the bottom of the pail of water on which it Ts placed. Divide 60 oh

atis of day and night by the Quotient

and it will give tho measure of the clepsydra. (If it is filled 60 times, then t

he ohati will ho of one OfiAfiKA; if 24 times it will be of one hour or 2 ohattka

s.)

Gnomon.

0. For a gnomon take a cylindrical piece of ivory, and let it bo turned on

at lathe, taking care that tho circumference bo equal abovo and below. From its

shadow may be r ascertained the points of the compass, the place of observer, in

cluding latitudo &c. and times (as has been elsewhore explained).

The CHAIKA ur circle.

10. The circle should be marked with 360 on its outer circumference, and should b

e suspended by a string or chain movcablo on the circumference. The horizon or E

arth is supposed to be at tho distance of three signs or 90s from the point at w

hich it is suspended: the point opposite to that point being the zenith.

11. Through its centre put a thin axis: and placing tho circle in a vertical

plane, so as to catch the shadow of tho Sun: the degrees passed over by the axi

s from tlio place denominated the Earth, will bo altitude:

12. And the arc to tho point denominated the zenith, will be that of the zen

ith distance.

Some former astronomers have given the following rule for making a rough calcula

tion# of the time, viz. multiply the half length of day by the obtained altitude

and divide the product .by the meridian altitude, the quotient will be tho time

sought.

. 13. First let the circle be so held or fixed that any t^o

To find the longitudes of of tte following fixed stars appear to planets by the

circle. touch the circumference, viz. Ma-

ohA (a Loonis, Regulus), Pdshta (8 Cancri), RevatI ( Piscium) and S atatXrakX (or

A Aquarii). [These stare are on the ecliptic und having no latitude, are to be

preferred.] Or, that any star (ont of the ChitrA or a Virginia Spica &c.) havin

g very inconsiderable latitude, and the planet whose longitude is 1 required and

which is at a considerable distance from the star, appear to touch the circumfe

rence.

H and 15. Than look from tho bottom of tho circle along its plane, so that tfie

planet appear opposite the axis; and still holding it on tho plane of the eclipt

ic, observe also any of tho above mentioned stars. The observod distance between

tho planet and the star,.if added to the star s longitude, when tho star is. we

st, and subtracted when cast of tho plnuety will givo tho planet s longitude.

The half of a circle is called a chata

Scmi-cirdo and quadrant, ... rm

or semicircle. The half of a semicircle is called turIya or a quadrant.

PnALAKA-TAXTBA.

1(5. As others have not ascertained happily tho apparent time by observations of

altitudes in a vertical circle, I have therefore laboured myself in devising an

instrument called hialaka yantra, tho uses of which 1 now proceed to explain pe

rspicuously. It contains in itself the essence of all our calculations which are

founded on tho true principles of the Doctrine of the Sphere.

Addresses to the Sun.

17. I Bhaskara now proceed, to describe this excellent instrument, which is calc

ulated to remove always tho darkness of ignorance, which is moreover tho delight

of clever astronomers and is founded on the shadow of its axis: it is also emin

ently serviceable in ascertaining tho time, and in illustrating truths of astron

omy, and therefore valued by the professors of that science. It is distinguished

by having a circle in its centre., 1 proceed to describe this instrument after

invoking that bright God of day, the Sun, which is distinguished by tho epithets

1 have above given to the instrument viz. ho is eternal and removes obscurity a

nd cold: bo makes tho lotus to flower and is ever shining: ho easily points out

tho timo of the day and season and year, and makes tho planets and stars to shin

e. He is worthy of worship from tho virtuous and resides in the centre of his or

b

This verse ia mother instance of the double entendre, in which even the

18. Let a clever astronomer rrmko a mAlAka or board of a piano rectangular a

nd quadrilateral form, tlfe height being 00 , digits, and tho breadth 180 digits

. Let him halve its breadfh and at tho point thus found, attach a moveablo chain

by which to hold it: from, that point of suspension lot him draw a per-pcndicul

ar which is called tho IjAmba-rekgX.

19. Let him divide this perpcndicujar into 90 equal parts which will bo also

digits, and through them draw lines parallel to tho top and bottom to tho edges

: these are called sines.

20. At that point of tho perpendicular intersected by the 30th sino at tho 3

0th digit, a small hole is to be bored, and in it is to bo placed a pin of any l

ength which is to be considered as tho axis.

21. From this hole as centre draw a circle (with a radius of 30 digits: tho

circlo will then cut tho OOtli sine), 00 digits forming tho diameter. Now mark t

he circumference of this circle with 00 ohatis and 300 degrees, each degree bein

g subdivided into 10 palah.

# 22. Lot a thin pattika or index arm with a holo at one end bo mado of tho leng

th of GO digits and let it bo so marked. [Tho breadth of tho end whore tho hole

is bored should bo of ono digit whilst the breadth of tho whole vxjpai be of hal

f digit. Lot tho patjikA bo so suspended by tho( pin above mentioned, that ono s

ido may coincide with tho lamua-rkkhL Tho accompanying ligure . will represent t

ho form of the pahika.

, Tho rough ascensional difference in palas determined by flio KHANpAKAB or part

s, being divided by 19, will hero become tho sino of the ascensional difference

(adapted to this instrument.)

best autliers occasionally indulge. All the tpithets siren to the instrument app

ly in tlio original also to tho Sun. This kind of double meaning of course doe

s not admit of translation.L. W.

The Bines or ascensional difference foe each sign of the ecliptic vere found (

hy the following proportions.

XL 26.] Sidilhdata-ximnoni. 215

.

23. The numbers 4,11,17,18,13, 5 multiplied severally

by the aksiia-karna and divided by 12, will bo the kiian^akas or portions at the

given place; each of these being for each 15 degrees (of bhuja of the Sun s lon

gitude) respectively.

2 L !Now find the Sun s truo longitude Uy applying tho precession of the equinox

es to tho Sun s place, and adding together as many portions as correspond to tho

hhuj4 of tho Kim s longitude above found, divide by 60 and add tho quotient to

aksiia-kakna. Now multiply tho result by 10 and divide by 4 (or multiply by 24).

Tho quotient is here called tho YASirpi in digits and the number of digits thus

found is to be marked off on tho arm of the rA fjiKA counting from its hole pen

etrated by the axis.

25. Now hold tho instrument so that tho rays of tho Sun shall illuminate bot

h of its sides (to secure its being in a vertical circle): tlie place in the cir

cumference marked out by the shadow of the axis is assumed to be the Sun s place

.

26. Now placo the.index arm on tho axis and putting itB over the Sun s place

, from tho poiftt at tho end of the YAsirn set off carefully above or below (par

allel to tho lamda-kkkiia) on the instrument, tho sine of tho ascensional differ

ence abovo found, setting it off above if the Sun bo in tho northern

: s

\ >l

) : XI

what will Bine of declination of 1 sign or 2 or 3 signs, give.

KUJYA of 1, 2 or 3 signs, what will radius : sine of ascen-

1. If rosino of latitude : sine of lat,

or os 12 : Palabua

2. If cosine of declination : this result sional difference in xalAs.

The are of this will give ascensional difference. This is the plain rule: but Ui

ia skaua ciia hya had recourse to another short rule by which the ascensional di

fferences for 1, 2 and 3 signs, for tlitf place in whioh the faladiia was 1 dig

it, were 10,8,3 palaS. These three multiplied by palabua would giro tho ascension

al differences with tolerable accuracy for a place of any latitude not having a

greator palabua than 8 digits. Now tuke these three palXtuakaB , 10,8,3} and mu

ltiplied by six, then the palas of time will be reduced to asds. These are found

with a radius of 3438: to reduce them to the value of a radius of 30 digits say

,

60X30

As 3438 110 % 6 = 60:: 30 digits : = quantity of CUABA for 1 3438

sign In this instrument, but instead of diultiplying the 10 by 6 X 30 or 180 and

dividing by 3438, the author taking 180 = ^ part of 3438 divided at ouce

by ltf.L. W.

hemisphere, and below if it be in the southern hemisphere. The distance from the

point where the sine which meeting the end of tho sino of the ascensional diffe

rence thus set off, cuts tho circlo, to thp lowest part of the circle will repre

sent tho OHAfis to or after midday.

d = declination,

A = ascensional difference, l = north latitude of the place, p = degrees in time

to or after midday.

Thou, we hare the equation which ia common in the astronomical works, r B. sin a

7 R . sin l. sin d

<Hf i

cos l. cos d

B . sin a tan l. tan d

cos l. cos d B

here, when tho latitude is north, the second term becomes minus or plus as the d

eclinati<m is north or south respectively. tan f. tan <i

But = sin A or sine of ascensional difference.

R

B. sin a

cos l. cos d

S. cm p~ sin. A,

27. Set off tlie time from midday on the instrument To find the place of the

counting from tho LAMliA-UEKH^ ; from shadow of axis from time. the end

of tho sino of tljis time, set

off tho sino of ascensional, difference in a line parallel to tho

Now,, COB l: R =S ie : A i. e. akshakabna (Sec Chapter VII. v. 45.)

R A

cos l 12

A It. sin a

.\ cos p = . q: sin A

12 cos d

sin a A R

= y. q: sin A, when y = . , which is called R 12 cos d

yasiiti and can be found as follows.

A R R A 12 R

12 cos d 12 12 cos d

R A 12 versed

= . (12 +

12 12 V cos d

When the BiirJA of the Sun s longitude is 15, 30,45, GO, 75,90, tho value of 12

verM d d ,

is 4,15, 32, GO, 63, G8 sixtieths respectively. The differences of cos d #

these values are 4,11,17,18,13, 5 which ,aro written in tho text. Multiply these

differences by A or the akbiiakabna, divide the products by 12 and tho quotient

s thus found are called the kiiakiias for the given plow. By assuming the imuJA o

f the Sun s longitude as uu argument, And the result through the kuan has and ta

ko r for this result.

r A

Then = 1

. 60 12 R

and hence, y

12

But in this instrument R = 30

10 / r \

y = f A + 1 which exactly coincide with the rule given iu the

4 V 60 /

text for determining the yasiiti.

Tho value of the yashti will certainly he more than 30, because the valuo of the

aksuakabna or A is more than 12.

Now, (see the diagram) suppose m is the end of the yasiiti in the patt|K or inde

x o m which touches the circle in S, then, in the triangle o inn R j o m

sin o n : in j

or R s y = sin a : m n; y X sin a

and hence, cos p = m a + sin A,

lamba-REKH^ bnt below and above according as it was to bo sot off above or below

in finding the time from the shadow, (this operation being the reverse of the f

ormer). The sirto met by tho sine of ascensional difference, thus set off, is th

e now sino across which tho pattikx or index is now to bo placed till tho yasitt

i-chinha or point of Yashti falls .on it. This position will assuredly exhibit t

ho placo of tho shadow of tho a?is.

The Yashti or Staff.

28, 29 and 30. Having drawn a circle (as tho horizon) with a radius equal to

radius of a great circle, mark cast and west points (and the lino joining these

points is called tho pracftyai aijA or cast and west line) and mark off (from t

hem) the amplitude at the east and west. Draw a circle from tho same ccntro with

a radius equal to cosine of declination i. e. with a radius of diurnal circle,

ahd mark this circle with 00 giiatis. Now take tho yasiiti, equal to tho radius

(of the great circle) and hold it with its point to tho Sun, so that no shadow b

e reflected from it; the other point should rest in the centre. Now measure the

distanco from the end of tho amplitude to the point of tho yashti when thus held

opposite to tho Sun. This distanco applied as a chord within tho interior circl

e will cut off, if it bo beforo midday, an arc of tho number of ohatikas from su

nrise, and if after midday an arc of tho timo to sun-set.

that in, tho sino of the aseonsional diffeefnee is subtracted from or added to a

t tho distance between the ond of tho yasiiti and the middle sine, as the Sun0be

ill the north or the south to tho equinoctial.

Again, by taking m r equal to sin A we have, cos p = m T sin A = m qp ?n r,

= n r or tt\

= cos r f, p --- r -B. D.J

**[Itialplain from this, that the distance from the point of tho staff to the en

d of the amplitude is the chord of the arc of the diurnal circle passing through

the Sun, intercepted between the horison and the Sun. For this reason, tho an s

ubtended by the distance in question in this interior circle described with a ra

dius of tho diurnal circle which is equal to the cosine of the dcclinutiun, will

denote the time after sun-rise or to sun-sot.B. 1).]

31. The perpendicular let fall from tho point of the yasiiti

To find the palabha with w tho sanku or si no of altitmlo: tho tlfe tasuti.

place between the s anku and contro is

equivalent to driaya or sine of zenith distance. Tho sino of amplitude is tho li

nd between tho point of hbrizon at which the Sun rises or sets, on which the poin

t of tho yasiiti will rest at sun-riso and sum-sot, and tho cast and west lino t

ho

PUXCHYAl ARff.

32 and 33. Tho distance <71> between the s anKir and tho (TDAYASTA-stfTRA, multi

plied by 12 and divided by tho s ankit, will be tho PALAHIlA.

<71> Q-2

Take two altitudes of tho Sun with the yasiiti : observe the s ankuk of tho two

times and the buujas.

Add the two buujas, if ono bo north and tho other south, or subtvact if they bo

both of tho same denomination : multiply tho above quantity (whether sum or diff

erence) hy 12 and divide by the difference of the twy h ankus, tho result will b

o tho palabha. <72> Tho difference between the cast and west lino ^ and tho root

of s anku is called miAja.

<72> Q-2

[Lot O be tho cast or west point of the horizon 0 a, Z the zenith, as S (he

diurnal circle on which S and $ are the Sun a two places at different times aift

l 8 m and * n the S AZIKUS or the sino* of altitudes of the Sun, then O *, n a wi

ll he the bhitjas, m or 9 p the difference between the buujas aud 6 the differen

ce between tho b avkus.

IF the s an K u be observed three different times by the

To find valabha , dorlin- yabuji, then tho time, declination &c.

be fomd (by oWmS

of throe b ankus. ^ the Sun). .

31. First of Ml find three s ankus : drfiw a line frfim tho top of the first

to tho top of the last; from the top of tho second b anku, flraw a line to the

eastom pointnd a line to the western point of the horizon, so as to touch the fir

st lino drawn.

35. A line drawn so us to connect those two points in tho horizontal circumfcrcu

co will bo tho udayAsta htka. Tho distance between it and tho centre will give th

e sine of amplitude. The line drawn through tho centre parallel to the i:i>y-ast

a-sutra at tlio distanco of tho sine of amplitude is tho cast and west line.

30. Find the rALAonX as beforo (and also the aksha-karna). Now the sine of a

mplitude multiplied by 12 and divided by akshA-kauna will Jbe the sino of declin

ation. This t again multiplied by tho radius and divided by the sino of 21 or tho

sino of the Suns greatest declination, will give the sino of tho buuja of the Su

ns longitude.

37 and 38. Which converted into degrees is Suns longitude, if tho observatio

n shall havo been made in the 1st quarter of tho year. If in tho second quarter,

tlio longitude will bo found by subtracting the degrees found from (i signs: if

Now m the triangle? tan and S a m aro the latitudinal triangles, the * tii nigh

8 p is also tho latitudinal ^

8 p i up = 12 : palaiuia

l isp

.\ Paiahua = .

S p

It ia when S, two places of tho Sun are both north or both south to tho prime v

ertical, but when one place is north and other is south, the sum of tho BHUJ48 i

s taken.B. D.]

* [As it is plain that the tops of the throe s avkus are in the plane of the diu

rnal cjrcle, tho line therefore drawn from tho top of the first s ankit to that

of tho last, will also be in the same piano and hence the two lines touching thi

s line, drawn from the top of the middle b akku one to eastern and the other to

vostern point of the horiron, lie in this plane. Therefore, the line joining the

se two points of the horizon is the intersecting line of the plane of the diurna

l eircle and that of the horizon, and consequently it ia the udaya sza sum. Pr D.

]

in the 3rd quarter, 6 signs must bo added: if in the fourth quarter of the year,

then tho degrees found must be subtracted from 12 signs for the longitude.

,

Tho quarters of the year will be known from tho seasons, tho peculiarities of <7

3> each of which I shall sftbscqucntly describe#

<73> The existence of such gross error in the principles of a calculatio

n as ai% here referred to as existing in the works of Bda skara s predecessors w

ould seem to indicate that the science of astronoinj was not of more recent cul

tivation than Mr. Bentley and others hare maintained,L. W,

It is declared (by some former astronomers) that the shadow of the gnomon revolv

es on tho circle passing through tho ends of the three shadows made by the same

gnomon (placed in the centre of the horizon), but this is wrong, and consequentl

y the east and west and north and south lines, tho latitudes &c. found by the ai

d of the circle just mentioned aro also wrong. <74>

<74> The existence of such gross error in the principles of a calculatio

n as ai% here referred to as existing in the works of Bda skara s predecessors w

ould seem to indicate that the science of astronoinj was not of more recent cul

tivation than Mr. Bentley and others hare maintained,L. W,

1)9. Whether the place of the Sun bo found from tho shadow or from the sine of t

he amplitude, it will bo found corrected for procession. If the amount of <75> p

recession bo subtracted, the Sun s true phico will bo found. If the true place o

f tho Sun be subtracted, tho amount of precession will bo ascertained. <76>

<75> The existence of such gross error in the principles of a calculatio

n as ai% here referred to as existing in the works of Bda skara s predecessors w

ould seem to indicate that the science of astronoinj was not of more recent cul

tivation than Mr. Bentley and others hare maintained,L. W,

<76> The existence of such gross error in the principles of a calculatio

n as ai% here referred to as existing in the works of Bda skara s predecessors w

ould seem to indicate that the science of astronoinj was not of more recent cul

tivation than Mr. Bentley and others hare maintained,L. W,

40. But what does a man of genius want with instruments

_ . . about which numerous works havo

Tho prawe of instrument

(tilled dhIvaniha or gcuius treated V Let him only tako a stall <77> in instrumen

t. ^ hi <78> hand, and look at any object along

<77> The existence of such gross error in the principles of a calculatio

n as ai% here referred to as existing in the works of Bda skara s predecessors w

ould seem to indicate that the science of astronoinj was not of more recent cul

tivation than Mr. Bentley and others hare maintained,L. W,

<78> The existence of such gross error in the principles of a calculatio

n as ai% here referred to as existing in the works of Bda skara s predecessors w

ould seem to indicate that the science of astronoinj was not of more recent cul

tivation than Mr. Bentley and others hare maintained,L. W,

it, casting his eyo from its end to tho to]), there is nothing of which ho will

not then tell its altitude, dimensions, &c. if it bo visible, whether in the hea

vens, on the ground or in tho water on tho earth. <79>

<79> The existence of such gross error in the principles of a calculatio

n as ai% here referred to as existing in the works of Bda skara s predecessors w

ould seem to indicate that the science of astronoinj was not of more recent cul

tivation than Mr. Bentley and others hare maintained,L. W,

Now I proceed to explain it.

41. Ho who can know merely with tho staff in his hand, the height and distan

ce of a bamboo, of which he has observed the root and top, knows the use of that

instrument of instrumentsgenius(the miIyantba) and tell me what is tlifcrc that

ho cannot find out. [Here tho ground is supposed to bo perfectly level J

To find palabhX/

42. Direct tho staff lengthways to tho north polar star; let drop-line/? fal

l from both ends of stuff, when thus directed to tlio star.

Now the spaco between the two drops is the Bhuja or base of a right qngled trian

gle, when tho difference between tho lines thus dropped is the KOfi or perpendic

ular.

43. Tho koti multiplied by 12 and divided by tho bhuja gives tho PALABHA .

Having in tho same way observed tho root of tho bamboo; [and in so doing found t

he bhuja and koti], multiply the imuja by tho height of the man s eye.

41 and 45. And divide tho product by tho koti, the result

To find tlie distance and you know tho distanco to the root lirightof abw of tho b

amboo;

Having thus observed the top of tho bamboo (with the .staff, and ascertained the

bhuja and khtOj multiply tho distance to tho root of tho bafhboo by tho koti, a

nd divide the product by tho bhuja, the rosulb is the height of the bamboo abovo

tho observers eye: this height added with tho eyes height will give tho height of

tho wholo bamboo, f

For instauce, suppose tho staff 115 digits long, Alio height of observers eye G8

digits; that in making tho lower observation the 1 bhuja = 111 digits = f) cubit

s, and koti = 17 digits; that in making tho observation of the top of the bamboo

, tho buuja=

If this vpVJA : gives tho koti

12 digits of gnomon: gives the palabha .

t Tho observer first directs a & bis staff to d, the root of the tree: Tho staff

i

116 digits and Kcrft = 87 digits. Then tell me the height of bamboo and tho dfet

anco of it. As,

68 X 144

17

570 x 87

= 576 digits or 24 cubits distanco fo bamboo;

&

and

116

= 432 height of tree above observers cyo,

68 add tho eyes height,

500 height of tree.

Let a man, standing up, first of all observe the top of an object: then (with a

staff, whether it bo equal to the former or not in length), let him observe agai

n tho top of the sumo object whilst sitting.

N. S

furnished at either end with drop lines ah,bk : 6 ka A = 6 e == sin .of Aar. Then

say

As Ac: ac s : Ae:<?r=/A. #

He then observes thj top of object aid finds g /, which is easy, as / A has been

found.L. W.

* Bii&k Afii font da this rule on the following algebraic process.

46. Then divide the two kotis by their respective iutujas : take the difference

of thesfc quotients, and bj it dividu tho difference of tho heights of observers

eyethis will give the distanco to tho bamboo : from thw distance the height of t

he bamboo may bo found as before.

224 Translation of the [XI. 47. ,

,

47. There is a high famous bamboo, the lower part of

Question which being concealed by houses Ac.

was invisible: the ground, however, was perfectly level: If you, my friend, rema

ining on this samo spot by observing the top (first standing and thgn sitting),

will tell me the distance and its height, I ackndwlcdgo you shall < have the tit

le of being tlio most skilful of observers and expert in the use of tho best of

instruments dhiyantka.

Example.

Tho observer, first standing, observes the top of tho bamboo m and finds the bhu

ja, with the first staff, to be 4 cnbits or 96 digits: he then sits down and fin

ds with another staff tho biiuja to be 90 digits. In both cases tho Kofi was one

digit. Tell mo, 0 you expert in observation, the distance of observer from the

bamboo and tho bamboos height.

48. So also tho altitude may bo Observed in tho surface

^ . . of smooth water: but in this case the

Observation in wator. ,

height of observer s eye is to bo subtracted to find tho true height of tho obje

ct:Or tho staff may bo altogether dispensed with: In which last caso two heights

of tho observers eye (viz. when ho stands and sits) will bo two Kofis: and the tw

o distances from tho observer to tho

Lot x = base, distance to bamboo. Then say x x

if 96 :1:: x: : then 1- 72 = height of bamboo.

96 96

x x

By second observation 9011:: x: , then + 24 = height of Ijfcm-

90 90

boo.

x x r x 6 x

Then 72 + = 24 + ; = 48, or = 48

96 90 90 96 8640

.. x = 69,120 digits

= 2880 cubits.

i x x

That is = 72-24

90 96

72-24

or

that is difference of observer s heightdifference of taro lojifl divided by their r

ective biiuja s.L. W.

XI. 49.] ShWtdnta-giromanL 225

, #

places in tlio water where the top of the objoct is reflected,

the biiujab.

* 49. Having scon only the top of a bamboo Reflected in . water, whether t

he bamboo be near or

at a distance, visible or invisiblo, if you,

Example.

remaining on this same spot, will toll mo the distance and height of bamboo, I w

ill hold you, though appearing on tiarth as a plain mortal, to have attributes o

f superhuman knowledge. An observer standing up first observes (with his staff)

tko reflected top of a bamboo in water. The koti 8 digits and biiija = 4 digits.

Then sitting down ho makos a second observation and finds the jwuja = 11 digits

and Kofi = 8 digits. His eye s height standing = ft cubits or 72 digits, and sit

ting = 1 cubit or 21 digits. Tell me height of bamboo and its distance.

then by first observation

220 Translation of the [XI. 4J.

i #

A man standing np sees the shadow of a bamboo in tho waterthe point of Iho water

at which Example. the shadow appears is 96 digits off:

then sitting down on tho sanio spojb ho again observes tho shadow and finds the

distance in the watcrat wlpcli it Appears to be 03 digits: tell mo the height of

the bamboo and his distance from the bamboo.

4y

4:3::x:yor3x = 4yorx =

3

by 2nd observation 11 s 8:: x : $ 48 digits 11 y 528

or 8 x = 11 y 528 or

8

4y 11 y- 528

thus.? = and x =

3 8

4 y 11 y 33 y1584 .

3 8 or4^ g

or 32 y = 33 y 1584, or y = 1584 1584 72 = 1512 digits = 63 cubits = height of b

amboo. 2ud part. To find width of wateilor x 4y 1581 X 4

Let e e = 96 digits p tl = 33 ae = 72 4 0 = 24

let x = distance from observer to bamboo.

Now ecse = j h:j a

72 x 3s

or 96 : 72= x x y = =

96 4

3 x

Then - 3 = height of bamboo Again cd :4c: sjkijb

24 x

or 38 : 24 :: x s y 48 =

, 83

8 x

~~ 11 8 x

then - 1 = height of bamboo

9

A

\Z

//

ZjL-^-Z

? = = = 212 digits = 88 cubits.L. W.

50 and 51. Mako a wheel of light wood and in its circum-. . . ference

put hollow spokes all having

#A self revolTinif mstru- 1 1 "

incut or bwayavyaka yan- bores of the same diumatcr, and let

TBAi . tjiom bo placed at .equal distances

from cfcch other; tfnd let them also be all pfaccd at on angle somewhat verging

from the perpendicular: then half fill these hollow spokes with mercury: tho whe

el thus filled will, when placed on an axis supported by two posts, revolve of i

tself.

Or scoop out a canal in the tiro of tho wheel and then plastering leaves of the

tala tree over this canal with wax, fill one half of this canal with water and o

tlior half with mercury, till tho water begins to coino out, and then cork up th

o orilico left open for filling the wheel. Tho wheel will then revolve of itself

, drawn round by the water.

Mako up a tube of copper or other metal, and bend it into

a tho form of an an kits A or elephant Description of a syphon. . C11

... , . .

hook, ml it with water and stop up

both ends.

51. And then putting one end into a reservoir of water,

let the other end remain suspended outside. Now uncork

both ends. The water of the reservoir will be wholly sucked

up and full outside.

55. Nciw attach to tho rim of tho before described self-revolving wheel a number

of water-pots, and place tho wheel and those pots like tho water-wheel so that

tho water from the lower end of tho tubo flowing into them on ono side shall se

t tho wheel in motion, impelled by tho additional weight of tho pots thus filled

. The water discharged from tho pots as they roach the bottom of tho rovolving w

heel, should be drawn

8x 3 at 3 x Sx

_is 3 or 2 =

11 4 4 11

.*. r = ii X 2 = 88

at

3 X 88

= 3 x 22 = 66, height of bamboo.

3 x

Xbcn jf =

228 Translation of the [XI. 56.

1 off into the reservoir beforo alluded to by means of a watercourse of pipe.

56. The self-revolving machine (mentioned by Laua &p.) which has a tube with

its lower end open is a vulgar machine on account of its being dependant, becaus

e that- which manifests an ingenious and not a rustic contrivance is said to bo

a machine#

57. And moroover many self-revolving machines are to ho met with, but their

motion is procured by a trick. They arc not connected with the subject under dis

cussion. I have been induced to mention the construction of these, merely becaus

e they liavo been mentioned by former astronomers.

End of Chapter XI. called YantrIdhyaya.

. UHAlTEH XII.

Description of the seasons.

1. (Tins is tho season in which) the kokilas (Indian black

^ birds) amidst young climbing plants,

thickly covered with gentry swaying and brilliantly verdant sprouts of the mango

(branches) raising their sweet but shrill voices say, Oh travellers! how ore you

heart-whole (without your sweethearts, whilst all nature appears revelling) in

tho jubilee of spring chaitra, and the black bees wander intoxicated by tho deli

cious fragrance of tho blooming flowers of the sweet jasmine !

2. Tho spring-bom maltjka (Jasminum Zambac, swollen by tlio pride she feels

in her own full blown beautiful flowers) derides (with disdain her poor) unador

ned (sister) mIlati (Jasminum grnndiflorum) which appears all black soiled and w

ithout leaf or flower (at this season), and appears to beckon her forlorn sister

to leave the grove and garden with her

. XII <80> 7.] SuWtdntasiromani. 220

<80> This is ono of thosa verses in which a double or triplo meaning is

attempted to be supported: to effect this, several letters however arc to be rea

d differently. -L. W.

,

tender budding arms, agitated by the sweet breezes from tko

fragrant groves of <81>the hill of Malaya.

<81> This is ono of thosa verses in which a double or triplo meaning is

attempted to be supported: to effect this, several letters however arc to be rea

d differently. -L. W.

*3. In the summer (which follows), the lovers #of pleasure

The GRfsHMA or mid-sum- and their sweethearts (putting their mcr seise <82>. ^

stone built houses, betake themselves

<82> This is ono of thosa verses in which a double or triplo meaning is

attempted to be supported: to effect this, several letters however arc to be rea

d differently. -L. W.

to thc <83>solitude of well wetted cottages of the kuh akIs a grass, salute each

other with showers of rose-water and amuse themselves. ,

<83> This is ono of thosa verses in which a double or triplo meaning is

attempted to be supported: to effect this, several letters however arc to be rea

d differently. -L. W.

4. Now fatigued by their dalliance with the fair, they proceed to tho grove

, where Kama-deva has erected the (flowering) mango as his standard, to rest (th

umsclvcs) from tho glare of tho fierce heat, and to disport themselves in the (w

ell shaded) waters of its uowkis (or largo wells with steps).

Rainy season.

5. (Tho rainy season lias arrived, when tho deserted fair ono thus callsjip

on her absent lover:) Why, my cruel dear one, why do you

not shed tho light of your bcauiipg eye upon youi <84> love-sick admirer? Tho fr

agranco of tho blooming mXlat( and tho turbid state of every passing torrent pro

claims the season of tho rains and of all-powerful love to liavo arrived. Why, t

herefore, do you not have compassion on my miserable lot? <85>

<84> This is ono of thosa verses in which a double or triplo meaning is

attempted to be supported: to effect this, several letters however arc to be rea

d differently. -L. W.

<85> This is ono of thosa verses in which a double or triplo meaning is

attempted to be supported: to effect this, several letters however arc to be rea

d differently. -L. W.

0. (Alas, cries tho deserted wife, alas!) tho peacocks (delighted by the thunder

ing clouds) scream aloud, and tho breeze laden with the honied fragrance of the

kadamua comes softly, still my sweet one comes not. Has lie lost all delight for

tho sweet scented grove, has he lost his ears, has he no pityhas ho no heart ?

7. Such are tho plaintive accusations of tho wife in the season of the rain

s, when the jet black clouds overspread tho skyangered by the prolonged absence

of him who reigns over her heart, slio charges him, but still smilingly and swee

tly, with being cruelly heedless of her devoted love. -

e

8. The mountain burning with remorse at tho guilt of Tlio gajutk v#LA or se

ason haying received tbc forbidden cm-

of earl/ autumn. braces of his own pushpavatI daughter,

forest appears in early autumn through its bubbling springs and streams sparklin

g at night with tho rays qjf tho Moon, to bo shedding u flood of mournful tears

of penitence.

9. In tho hemanta season, cultivators seeing tho earth

. smiling with tho wide spread harvest,

Hemanta or early winter.

and the grassy fields all bedecked with m tho pearl-liko dew, and teeming with j

oyous herds of plump kino, rejoice (at tho giuteful sight).

10. When tho B rs uiA season sets in what unspeakablo 8 ig iBA or closo of w

in- beauty ami what sweet and endless

tor variety of red and purple does not

the f kaciin^u grovo unceasingly present, when its leaf is in full bloom, andits

bright glories are all expanded.

11. Tho rays of tho Sun t fall midday oil the earth, hence in this s is ika

season, they avail not utterly to drive away the cold:

*

Bwoels of poetry.

12. Hero, under tho prctcnco of writing a descriptive account of the six sea

sons, I have taken tho opportunity of indulging

my vein for poetry, ondeavouring to write something calculated to plcaso tho fan

cy of men of literary taste.

13. Whore is tho mau, whoso heart is not captivated by tho ever sweet notes

of accomplished poets, whilst ilicy discourse on overy subject with refinement a

nd tasto ? or whose heart is not cnclianted by tho blooming budding beauties of

tho handsome willing fair ono, whilst she prattles sweetly on^ overy passing top

ic:or whose substance will she not secure by her deceptive diseourso ?

14. What man has not lost his heart by listening to the pure, correct, nigh

tingale-liko dotes of tho genuine poets ? or who, whilst ho listens to the soft

notes of the wutcr-swuns on ^

the shores of largoand overflowing lakes well filled with lotus flowers, is not

thereby excited ?

*15. As holy pilgrims delight themselves, in tho midst of the streams of the sac

red flanges, in applying {lie mild and tho sparkliilg sands of ite banks, and th

us experience more than heavens joys: so tmo poets lost in tho How of a fine poet

ic frenzy, sport themselves in well rounded periods abounding in displays of a p

layful taste.

Eml of Chapter XII.

CHAPTER, XIII.

Containing awful quest inn tailed IRAs^nadhyaYA.

#

1. Inasmuch as a mathematician generally fails to acquire Object of tho Cha

pter and distinction in an assemblage of learned

its praise. men, unless well practised in answer-

ing questions, I shall therefore propose n few for the entertainment of men of i

ngenuity, who delight in solving all descriptions of problems. At tho bare propo

sition of tho questions, he, who fancies in his idle conceit, tlmt he has attain

ed tho pinnacle of perfection, is often utterly disconcerted and appalled, and f

inds his smiling cheeks deserted of their colour.

2. Those questions have been already put and have been duly answered and ex

plained either by arithmetical or algebraic processes, by the pulverizer and the

affected square, i. o. methods for the solutions of indeterminate problems^ of

tho first and of tho second degree, or by means of tho armillary sphere,or other

astronomical instruments. To impress ami make them still more familiar and cosy

I shall have to repeat a

# few.

3. All arithmetic is nothing but the rulo of proportion

Pnue -of ingenious per- and Algebra is but another name for

*n8, t ingenuity of invention. To the clever

and ingenious then what is not knojvn! I, however, write for men and youtlis of

slow comprehension. , r

4. With the exception of tho involution and evolution of the square and cu

be roots, all branches of calculation may bo wholly rtjsolved into the rulo of p

roportion. It indeed assumes many shapes, but it is universally prevalent. All t

his nrith- metical calculation denominated IXyf oanita, which has been composed i

n many ways by tho wisest of former mathematicians, is only for the enlightenmen

t of simplo men like myself.

5. Algebra does not consist in tho letters (assumed to represent the unknow

n quantities): neither are the different processes any part of its essential pro

perties. But Algebra is wholly and simply a talent rfhd facility of invention, b

ecause

tho faculties of inventive genius are infinite.

C. Why, 0 astronomer, in finding tho aharuana, do you ^ ^ add saiika month

s to tho lunar months

chattra Ac. (which may have elapsed from tho commencement of tho current year):

and tell mo also why tho (fractional) remainders of adihmasas and avamas are rej

ected : for yon know that to give a true result in using , tho rulo of proportio

n, the remainders should bo tuken into account.

If you have a porfect acquaintance with tho mis ka or allegation calculations, t

hen answer this question. Let the place of tho Moon bo multiplied by oue, that o

f tho Sun by 12 and that of Mars hf 6, let tho sum of these three products bo su

btracted from three times the Jupiters place, then 1 ask what are tho revolutions

of the planet whdse place when added to or subtracted from the remainder will g

ive the place of Saturn ?

7.

Question 2nd.

XIII. 9.] SidJMnta-ai roman i. 233

i

, 8 and 9. In order to work this proposition in tho first # place proceed with t

he whole numbers of revolutions of the several planets in the kalpa, adding, sub

tracting and multiplying them in tho mannermentioned in the question: then subtr

act the result from tiie revolutions of tho planet given: or subtract tho revolu

tions of the given planet from the result, according as the place of the unknown

planet happen to be directed to bo added or subtracted in the question. This rem

ainder will represent the number of revolutions of the unknown planet in the kal

pa. If the remainder is larger than tho number from which it is to be subtracted

, then add the number of terrestrial days in a kalpa, or if tho remainder exceed

the number of terrestrial days in the kalpa, then reduce it into tho remainder

by dividing it by the number of days in the kalpa. #

Bba skaba cha rta himself has given the following example in hii conn mentary va

sana -bha siiva

Suppose Moon to have 4 revolutions in a kalpa of GO days

Sun, 3

Mors, 5 ..

Jupiter, .... 7

Saturn, .... 9

Then 4 X 1 + 3 X 12 + 5 X G ss 70 and 7 X 3 = 21.

As 70 cannot bo subtracted from 31 add GO to it = 81,

Subtract 70,

remainder 11:

let p = revolutions of the unknown planet, then by the question 11 p 9 or 11 9 =

2 = ft

bufll + p = 9 or p = 9 11 = 60 + 9 11 = 68:

It thus appears that the unknown planet baa 2 or 58 revolutions in tlie KAL-1.

Now let ns see if this holds true on tho 23rd dsy of this kalpa revolutions sign

s a

for Moon, if 60 : 4 : : 23 : G ..

12 this X 1 = 6.. 12,

Sun, 60 : 3 :: 23: 1 .. 24 this X 12 = 9

.. 18,

Mars, 00 : 5 :: 23:11 .. OthisxOssG. 0

signs 10 .. 0 subtracted

Saturn, 60 : 9 : : 23 : 6 ..

12

Jupiter, 60 : 7 : : 23 : 8

.. 6 this X 8=0.. 18 from

for j, 60 : 2 : : 23 : 9 ..

0 this sub. from 2 .. 18 remainder

* 9.. G

corresponding with Saturn, 5 .. 12

10. The algobraicul learned, who knowing tho sum of tha

^ ^ ^ additive months, subtractive days

Question 3rd. olapsod and their remainders, shall

tell the number, of days elapsed froyn the commencement of tho kalpa, deserves t

o triumph over the stoidontwho iS puffed up with a conceit of his knowledge of -

the exact pulverizer called sam susiita united, as the lion triumphs over tho po

or trembling deer ho tears to piccos in play.

11. For the solution of this question, you must multiply (

tho given number of additive months, subtractive days and their remainders, by 8

63374491081 and divide by one less than the number of lunar days in a kalpa i. o

. by 1002998990999, tho remainder will be the number of lunar days elapsed from

tho beginning of tho kalpa. From those lunar days the terrestrial days may be re

adily found.

i

or if, GO : 58 : ; 23 : 2 : 21 Then 2 . 24added < to 2 . 18

still gives Saturns place 5 .. 12

Whon p = 9 11, thon ns 11 cannot bo subtracted from 9 the sum of GO is addod to t

he 9. The reason for adding 60 is tliut this number is always bo denominator of

the fractional remainder in ilnding the place of the planets; for the propositio

n.

If days of KALPA : revolutions : : givon days give : here the days oe kalpa are

assumed to be 60 henoe GO is addedL. W.

* [When the additive months and subtractive days and tboir remainders are given

to find tho auauoa^a.

Let l = 1602999000000 the number of lunar days in a kalpa.

e = 159300000 the number of addilivo months in a kalpa. d = 25082550000 the numb

or of subtractive days in a kalpa. m A = additive months elapsed.

A = their remainder.

1) = subtractive days elapsed.

B = their remainder.

a = the given sum of the elapsed additive months, subtractive days and their rem

ainders.

and x == lunar days elapsed; ^

then say As l s e : : : A + ;

. I

B

As J : d : : X s B + l

]2. Given tho lum of the elapsed additive months, sub-

tractive days and their remainders, equal (according to Brahmagupta s

system) to 648426000171 \ to find tho aitaroana. IIo who shall answer my questio

n shall bo dubbed a bkarma-sid-iuXNTA-viT^.i. e. SliaJl bo held to havo a thoroug

h knowledge of tho brahma-siddhXnta.

A + B# A# + B As 2 : e + d : : x : A + B + - or y +

and y = A+B;

by addition, (e d) x (l 1) y = A f 11 + A + B ,

by substitution, 26675850000 x 1G02998999999 y = a : now let, 26675850000 x 1

G02998999999 y =1,

a? = 863374491684.

Again, let = e + d and n=zl 1, then mar y =| (1) and mx n g = 1;

am a! a d y = , and mnt mnt = 0 \

... m (a a 0 n (a y m <) = a : which is similar to (1) ; x a s n l

= 863374491684 a(l 1)1.

Hence the rule in tlie text.B. I).]

then wo shall have by the process of indeterminate problems

* Solution. Tlio givon sum = 618426000171 and t he lunar days in a kalpa = 16029

99C00000:

= 349241992336

and 10300 remainder:

648426000171 863374491684

1602998999999

From 10300 Lunar days subtract 161 Subtractive days

/. 10300 theso arc lunar days elapsed.

To reduce them to their equivalent in terrestrial days says

der amounting 267426000000.

If , days and remain-

dan tnAlltiiinor

remainder 10189 Terrestrial days or ahabgaba.

Now to find additive months elapsed. .

If lunar days 1 additive months 1 . , lunar daya 1 .10 additive minths ai

in a xalpa j s of ealfa j 10300 J remn. 381000000000.

10 additive months = 300 lunar days.

10300 300= 100,00 sauba djys elapsed.

Hence 27 years 9 months and 10 days elapsed from the commencement xalpa.-L. W.

s

18 and 14. Given the sum of the remainders of the revo.

Question 4th.

lutions, of the signs, degrees, minutes and seconds of the Moon, Sun, Maft, Jupi

ter, the s /ohbochchab of Mercury and Venus and of Saturn according to the DHfvR

iDDMDA, including the remainder of subtractive days in finding the aharga^a, a

braded (reduced into remainder by division) by the number of terrestrial days (i

n a yfga) . He who, well-skilled in the management of spHCfA kuttaka (exact pulv

erizer), shall tell me the places of the planets and the aharga^a from the abrad

ed sum just mentioned, shall be held to be like the lion which longs to make its

seat on the heads of those elephant astronomers, who are filled with pride by t

heir own superior skill in breaking down and unravolling the thick mazes and wil

dernesses which occur in mathematical calculations.

Bulk.

15. If the given sum abraded by the number of terrestrial days in a yuga, on

being divided by 4, leaves a remainder, then the question is not to bo solved.

It is then called a khila or an impossible" question. If, on dividing by 4, no r

emainder remain, then multiply the quotient by 293027203, and divide the product

by 394479375. The number remaining wilj^ give the aiiargana. If the day. of the

week doeB not corr^spon^ with that of the question, then add this ahargana to t

he divisor (394479375) until the desired day of the week be found. <86>

- = 112909821 3 remainder =

16. Tell me, mjr friend, what is the aharqana when on a

Thursday, Monday or Tuesday, tho 35 remainders of the # revolutions,

signs, degrees, minutes and seconds of tho places of tho planets,1 (the Sun, tho

Moon, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn and tho s foHKOCHCHAS of Mercury and Yonus) toget

her with tho remainder of the subtractive days according to tho dhIvkid-diiida,

give, when abraded by tho number of torrestrial days in a yuqa, a remainder of 1

191227500.

17. The place of the Moon is of such an amount,

Question 5th. that

Them;nuto8+10=tllo8ecoll(]s

2

the minutes seconds f !i= degrees tho degrees

f = signs. ^

ar = 893627203 t

Now let a = 64850243, b = 39ltf9375and e = 372806875 j we hare the equations (A)

and (B) in the forma ax by c % and btfxsi,

x = c x bt (see the preceding note)

= 293627203 e 894479375 t: as stated in the text.B. D.]

t Solution. The given sum of the 30 remainders in a rtJGA = 1491227500 according

IWtlie du(ykiddhida tavtba.

( 8 1491227500 -p 4 = 372806875:

372808875 x 293627203

394479375

and = 277495471 and remainder 10000 i. e.

AHABGApA.

10000

= 14284 remainder, i. e. 10000=ah abg Ay a on a Tuesday, for 7

the TVGA commenced on Friday.

This would be the ahabgava on a Tuesday.

terrestrial days 7 ^0000 + 394479376 X2

To find the ababoapa on Monday, it would bo necessary to add the reduced rrastri

al days in a vuga to this 10000, till Use remainder when divided by

788968760

1183448125

Monday:

10000 + 394479375 X 3 and " " s

7

Thursday.L. W.

= 169064017 6 remainder or=

And tho signs, degrees, minutes and Seconds together equal to 130. On tho suppos

ition that the sum of these four quantities is of this amount on a Monday then t

ell me, if yon are export in rules of Arithmetic and Algebra, when it will be of

tho same amount on a Friday.

Bulk.

18. Boduco tho signs, degroes and minutes, to seconds, adding tho seepnds,

then reducing tho terrestrial days and the planets revolutions in a KAI.PA to th

eir lowest terms, multiply the seconds of the planet (such as tho Moon) by the t

errestrial days (roduced) and divide by tho number of seconds in 12 signs: then

omitting tho remainder, take tho quotient and add 1 to it, tho Bum will bo tho r

emainder of tho bhacanas revolutions.f

Let = minutoB *+29

then = seconds 2

* + 20

* + 3 = degrees. 2

. + 3

* + 20

= signs

2

* + 20

* + 3 i

* + 20 + 20 2

and + + + 3 + = 130

2 2 2 .. = 58 minutes.

- = 39 seconds.

58+22

58 39 + 8 = 22 degrees. 22

= 11 signs.

Henco the Moons piece = 11s. ..22o ..58 ..39". t The meen place of tho Moon = Hi

. ..22o ,.68# ..39" = 1270719"

, The number of seconds in 12 signs = 1296000.

Terrestrial days in a xa&fa = 15779164500001 These drndod bj f956313 V1650000

become dbi- <

Berolutions of Moon =57763300000 J dha or reduced. 136002.

19. Tho reminder before omitted subtracted from the divisor will give the re

mainder of seconds: if tli&t remainder. df the seconds is greater than the terre

strial days in a kalpa, then the question is an impossible one (incapable of solu

tion and tho planets place cannot bo found at any sunrise) u but if less it may b

o solved. Then from the remainder of tho seconds the aiia^oana may bo found (by

tho kutjaka pulverizer as given in the lIlavAti and ufjA-oANiTA) (}r,

20. That number is tho number of ahakoana by which tho

reduced number of revolutions multiplied, diminished by tho remainder of tho rev

olutions and divided by tho reduced number of terrestrial days in the kalpa, wil

l bear no remainder. The reduced number of terrestrial days in a kalpa should bo

added to tho ahaboana such a number of times as may make the day of the week co

rrespond with tho day required by the question. . %

Now when the mean place of tho Moon,wns sought, the rulo was

As tho Terrestrial 1 Revolutions in a 1 Given days or 1 days in a kalpa. / :

kalpa. ahaboaVa. J ions. ,

If any remainder existed, it, when multiplied by tho number of seconds in 12 sig

ns and divided by kalpa, terrestrial days gave the Moon s mean place in seconds.

We now wish to find tho miAOAtfA-s jtSHA or tho remainder of revolutions, from

the Moons given place in seconds: we must therefore reverse tho operation

Moonvplacc in seconds X kalpa terrestrial days

or = BHAOAJU-S ESIIA.

1 seconds in 12 signs

Tho terrestrial days, however, to bo used, must to bo reduced to tho lowej terms

to which it, in conjunction with the kalpa-bii aoa$ab or revolutions in a kalpa

can bo reduced: the lowest terms as nbovo stated were of the terrestrial days =

956313, of tlie Moon s kalpa-bhaoanas = 35002.

1270719 X 656313 1215205099047

= . . = 937658 quotient remainder

1296000 1296000

331017.

937658 quotient 1 adding one

gives 937659 for the bha0a$a-b e8HA.

Tho reason for adding one is, that we have got a remainder of 333047, which wo n

ever could have had, if the original remainder had been exactly 937668, it must

lwve been 1 more. Thie is therefore added: but the remainder of seconds may now

be found-for it will be 12903000 331047 = 961953.

This remainder 964953 being greater than the terrestrial days reduced to lowest

terms, via. 956313, the question does not admit of being solvedL. W.

^ 21. If tlio Moon s bhaqana-s esha or tlie remainder after, finding the complet

e revolutions admits of being divided by 1650000, without leaving any remainder

, the question may theh be solved: the reduced bhagana-sesha on being multiplied

by 886834 and divided by 951363, then the remainder will give tho aiiaboana. Th

e divisor should be added tJb this remainder till the day of tho week found corr

esponds with that of the.

22. The mean place of the Moon will never be at any sun-rise, equal to 0 sig

ns, 5 degrees, mposBib e question. ^ minutes and 19 seconds.

Question 6th.

>13. When will tho square of the adhimjCsa-b esha remainder of tho additive mont

hs, multiplied by 10 and the product increased by one, be a square : or when wil

l the square of the adhimIsa-s esha decreased by one and the remainder divided

by 10 be a square ? The man who shall tell me, at what period of the xalpa this

B

find the ahabga&i from the Moon s bhaoasta-s esha.

R = BHAGAHA-S WHA,

T = 1677916460000 terrestrial days in a xalpa,

M = 57768800000 the Moons revolutions in a xalpa,

X = ABABGABA.

R R

Then, as T: M :: i revolutions + or y + : T T

M<r Ty = R:

In this equation is Af and T are divisible by 1650000, R must be divisible by .t

he ssme number, otherwise the question will be xaiLior impossible," as stated in

the text.

Dividing both sides of the equation by the number 1650000, we have 36002 x - 956

313 y = R or M x - T y = R :

Row let MV TV = 1 : or 35002 - 956313y = 1 s henoewehavo = 686834;

and = R v T t (see the note on the verse 11th)

= 886834 R 9563131. Hence the rule in the text.

And, as the reduced bbaga^as hba=937659 (see tlie preoeding note) hence 937659 X

686884 = 831547881606:

Tills divided by 956318 will give as quotient -869555 (i. e> 0 leaving a remaind

er of 257151 which should be the ababgaxa, but as the bhagavas isiia i. e. 93765

9 does not admit of being divided by 1650000 (the numbers by which the terrestri

al days were reduced) it ought to hare been kbila or insoluble question i but Ba

ieXABicnAuTA hen still stated this uuiuber to be the true AUABQAHA.B. D.]

XIII. 24.] Sidillidnta-ftiromam. 241

, v

will take place\$ill be humbly saluted even by the wise, who generally speaking,

gazo about in utter amazchient and confusion at such questions, like the bco tha

t wanders in the boundless expanse of heaven without place of rest.

24. (In working questions of kutjaka pulverizer, tho ang-

Rermrk on tho preceding ment must bo reduced by the same question. ( number

by which the miAJVA^dividend

and hara divisor are reduced to their lowest terms, ajid when the augment is not

reducible by the samo number as the bhajya and hara, the question is always ins

oluble.) But hero, in working questions of kuttaka, those acquainted with tho su

bjoct should know that tho givon augment is not to bo reduced, i. e. it belongs

to the reduced bhajya and haha, otherwise in some places tho desired answer will

not bo obtained, or in others the .question will bo impossible.

[The questions in tho 23rd verso are the questions of the VAitai-pitAitJUTr or t

ho atfectoil square, i. e. questions of indeterminate problems of the second deg

ree.

1st question. Lot a = tho adhjjiIsa-sVsiia: then by question 10 x + 1 = y.

In such quest inns thu coeltleient of .r it called PTUKRITI, tho valuo of a KA MS

HTns, that of the augment ksiirpa and that of y jtbsiitiia.

Now assume y = m x + 1,

then 10 x + 1 = (w + 1),

= w xs + 2 m x +J,

2 m

10

Heifce tho rule given by buaskauaciiarya in his Algobra Ch. VI., verso VI., for

finding tho kanishtiia where the kshepa is 1, is Multiply any assumed number by

2 and divide by the difference between tho square of tho number and the phakuiti

, tho quotient will bo tho KAJUSHtiia where Lho xsiikpa is 1. 2m 2X3

Now assume m = 3, then x = = = 6 :

10 - m 10 0

and ^=^10 + 1 = \/3<l 19 !

.. ADHIMAIA-s bsIIA = 6.

From two sots, whether identical or otherwise, of kaxibhtha, jyfshtiu and K8UEPA

belonging to tho same PKAXrITI, all others eau be derived such as

follows.

Let a = pbaxriti, xi 9 } {

wo have

and

the two sets of kaxisbiua, joshtha and ksiiepa, then

25. Tell me, 0 you competent in the spheric, considering it frequently in

your mind for awhile,

^ut8t,oii what is the latitude of the city (A1)

which is situated at a distance of 90 from ujjayjnI, and bears

and ft, X ft = (y? - a ) (y a x\

+ + =9 9i + a f ? f!:

, adding 2 a ar, xu y, jrj to both aides ,

a lj5iJ5Ja+flSrf + Ma=J?J!a aaf jpay.y + !f-f-

or a (jp, ya a?a y,) a + ft, Aa = (y, ya thus wo get a now set oi kanietha, jyes

iitha ami kbuxpa : i. o. now KANiHiiTiiA = a?, y xa y,;

HOW JYKSHTOA = V, y xi 9 and new kshkpa == A, fta :

IJfuoo the Hide called dhavavA given by buaskabAchabya in his Algebra Ch VrL ver

ses III. & IY.

Now in tho present question

xt = 6, yt =: 19 and ft, = 1, and also xa = G, ya = 19 and fta = 1 :

new KAKiSnrnA = 6 X 721 + 228 X 19 = 4320 + 4333 = M58 ; now JYRSHTHA = 721 19

+ 10 6 X 228 = 13G9U + 13G80 = 17379 ; and now kshkpa = .1 X 1 = 1.

Tims x = 8058 Ac., according to the Bhavana tssuracd.

The second question is

a -1 i

10 ~9

or 8 = 10 y1 + 1 .

Here then wo have an equation similar to the former one, but x2 is now be in the

pluoe of y and y in the place of j?, x will bo = 19, or = 721 &o.

Now given APimtASA-SESHA aa found by tho first case = 6. Tho proportion by which

this remainder was got, was

if KALPA sauba days : kalpa-aduimasas :: or elapsed bauba days \

.

KALPA SAUBA du}8

kalpa-adhiMasas %x = KAira sauba days X y + 6

* KALPA-ADllIAtABAS X X 6

or jf =

KALPA SAUBA days

From this we get a new question: What are tho integer values of x and y in this

equation ? which question is one of the questions of KrrrAXA and in which the ooe

llicient of the unknown quantity in the numerator is called bhajya or dividend,

the denominator haha or divisor ami the augment kshkpa.

It is clear that in this equation, if tho augment be not divisible by the same n

umber as tho dividend and divisor, the values of x and y will not be integers, a

nd honor the question will be insoluble, llut here in order that no question sho

uld be insoluble, the author has stated that the dividend and divisor should alw

ays be tukon, reduced to their lowest terms, otherwise thoquestion wYll be insol

uble. f

As in the present question, if the dividend KALPA-ADHllfASiS and the divisor xal

pa sauba days be taken not reduced to their lowest terms, L e. not divided by

, due east from ttfat city (iujayi nI) ? What is the latitude of the place (II)

disthnt also 90 from the city (A) and bearing due west from it ? Wlint also is the

latitude of a place (t1) also 90 from .(B) and bearing N. J3. from (II) : and of

the place (D) whjeh is situated at a distance of dun from (C) and bears S. W. f

ront (C) ? tlio number 300000, the question will be an impossible one, because f

lip augment 6 ia not divisible by the sum. number. For tliis remon the dividend

uml divisor must bo taken here reduced to tlieir lowest term.

1503300000

Honeo, dividend = reduced kalpaai)UTMA3as = 5311 5 ami

300000

1555200000000

divisor = reduced kalpa saura days = = 5181000 .

300000

5311 x - G

By substitution, y = ,

5181000

which gives x 820710 the elapsed saura days or 2276 years 0 mouths and 0 days.B.

D.J * Let a = the azimuth degrees,

d =r the distance in degrees between the two cities, p = palaiwa at the given c

ity,

k = AKBllA-KARMA, and x = the latitude of the other city?

(sin d X cos a cos d X p\ 12

Rad 12 J k

Now in tho 1st question, a = 90, d = 90, p = 5 digits, (he I AI-AHHa ut ujj AYiNf

, and k = v/T2+~5 = 13;

/3V38X0 OX5x 12

.. sin x = I 1 X ;

V 3138 12 / 13

= (0 + o) x ! if= u:

... x = 0 = latitude of (A) or of yam tram.

3138 X 0 0X0\ 12

smx = | 1 X ; V 3138 12 / 12

= (00HS = 0: x = 0 Latitudo ot city (B) or LAURA.

^2). In thu second question, a = 90, d = JO4, p=z 0 digits at YAUAkorr, and .. k =

12:

(3). In the 3rd question, a = 45, d = 90, p = 0 at lank a ami k =?12:

1 /3438 X 2431 OxOv 12

.. sin =1 ,+ I X 5

V 3i38 12 / 12

= (2131 + 0) X 1 = 2431 s

;r 2

26 and 27. Convert the distance of yoj/nas (between the, two cities, one is give

n and the other is that of which tho latitude is to b& found,) into degrees (of

a large circle), and then multiply the sine and cosine of these dogrees by the c

osine of the azimuth of tho other city and palabhjC at the given city, and divid

e tho products by radius and 12 respectively., Take then tho differ- # enco betw

een these two quotients, if the other city be south of cast of tho given city; a

nd if it be north of that, the sum of the quotients is to bo taken. But the reve

rse of this takes place, if tho distance between the cities be more than a quart

er of tho earth s circumferenco. Tho difference or sum of tho quotients multipli

ed by 12 and divided by akshakarna will givo the sine of the latitude sought.

x = 4B latitude of city (C).

(4). In the 4th question, a 45, d = 90, ju = 12 at C and k =

(3438 Xtf" k/% 0 X 12\

1 a. ):

3438 1 12 /

(3438 J \ 1 3

s3438 % y 0 X 12\ 12

3438 12 /12\/2

3138

x = 30 Latitude of D.L. W.

* Ot Z be tho Zenith of the given city bearing a north latitude,

Z H N G the Meridian, G A II tho ITnrizon, P tho north pole, S the Zenith of tho

other oity, the latitude of which is to bo found and Z S N the azimuth circle p

assing through S. Then (ho arc Z 9 (which is equal to the distance in degrees be

tween tho two cities) willQ be the Zenith distanco of S; the aro H G, tho arc co

ntaining the giren azimuth degrees, and S h which is eqnal to tho declination of

tho point S, tho latitude of the ot!nr.city which can be found as follows.

Let a = II g the given azimuth degrees,

d = Z S the distance in degrees between the two cities, p =-palabua, ft = AKSUA-

XAUVi

. ^ of a place (A) which is distant i of the

Question. ;, . n

earth s circuinfcruuco from tlio city of

diiXrX and bears. 90? due east from it ? What also is the lutitmlo of a plafco d

istant 6Off from dhXrX, but bearing 45 N. E. from it? What also is the.latitude o

f a place distant GO1 from rntXuX find bears S. E. from.it? What also aro the lat

itudes of three places 120 from piiXrX and bearing respectively duo #east, N. E.,

and S. E. from it ?

and = S h the declination of the point S i. e. the latitude of the other city.

Then say, As sine Zg: sine Ag :: sine Z S: the nitUJi i. e. the sino of

diHtnmo from S to the Friiuo Vertical.

or B: cos a : : Bin d : bhuja

cos a sin d

BHUJA = .

B .

And by similar latitudinal triangles, 12 : p\: cos <2: b aKRUTABA, p X cos d s a

xkutala == .

* 12 t

Now when the other city is north of cast of the given city, it is evident that t

he bhuja will bo north and consequently

the sino of amplitude = biiuja + s ANKifrALA :

but when the other city is south, the BHUJA also will be south and then, the sin

e of amplitude = bhuja b ahkutala,

cob a X in d p oos d

or the sino of amplitude = .

B 12

And by latitudinal triangles

dr: 12 :! sine of amplitude : sine of declination i. o. sin x

(cos a % sin d p X cos d\

I

B 12 /

sin x = =

,

h k

hence the rule in the text.

It the distance in degrees between the two cities be more than 90, the point S wi

ll then lie below the Horizon, and consequently the direction of the biiuja will

be changed. Tlierefore the reverse of the signs will take place in that case.B D

.]

(sinrfxcoao cosdXj\ 12

4 1 x .

B 12 / k

/2977 X 0 1719 X 5\ 12

( +- IX-}

V 3438 12 / 13

1719 X 5 12 8593 9

X = = 662

1?S ,.13 13 13

(1.) In the first question, a = 90, d = GO0, p = 6 digits the p^IABHA of diiara a

nd fc = 13.

29. Tell me, my friend, quickly, without being angry witlj, me, if y

ou have a thorough knowledge

of the spheric, what will be the palau if.( of the city where the Sun being in t

he middle of the ardr( naksiiatka (i. o. having the longitude 2 signs 13 20;) lis

es in the north-east point.

x = 11.. 15 .. 1" latitude of city due eart from diiaba. . ,

(2). In the 2nd equation, a = 45, <2 = 60, p = 5 & .. Ar = 13:

(2977 X 2131 1719 X 5\ 12

X lX ;

3138 12 / 13

19399109 1913

-=2601 -

7449 7 W9

, x = 49 . 18 .. 21" Latitude of city bearing 45 N. E. from diiaba.

(3). In tlio 3rd question, a = 45, d = 60, p = 5 and k = 13.

(2977 X 2131 1719 X 5x 12

o- IX ;

, 3138 12 / 13

9549239 7070

7419 7419

r = 21 . 51/.. 31" Latitude of city bearing the S. E. from diiaba.

(4). To And latitude of place f20 from diiaba and duo cast. Ilerc, sin (2 = sin 1

20 = sin 6ii = 2977, cos d = cos l20 = sin 30 = 1719 cos a = 0, p = 5 and k 13 :

(2977 X 0 1719 Bv 12

1 X

3438 12 / 13

9

.. x or latitude = 11 . 15 .. 1".

The latitudes of the places 120 bearing N. E. & S. E., will be the same ns the la

titudes of those places distant 60 and hearing S. E & N. E. lienee the latitudes

are 21 54 .. 31" aud 49 18 21".L. W.

Anr. Suns amplitude = sine of 45 = 2431 , the sine of longitude of middle of abdba

= sine of 2 signs 13 20 = siif 73

20 = 3292 .. 6" 40 "

and the Bine of the Suns greatest declination = siu 24 = 1397 .

Then say : As Rad: sin 24 : : sin (73 20 ) : sine of declination, and as siue of a

mplitude : sine of declination : : Rad : cos of latitude, sine of amplitude : si

n 24 : : sin (73 20 ) : cos of latitude.

sin 24 x sin (73.. 20 ) 1397 X (3292 . 6" . 40 ")

cos qf latitude = --nr =

sine of amplitude 2431

= 1891 50 48" = sine of 33 23 37 : whence latitude will be 56 36 23 sine o

f latitude = 2870 13".

Then say : As cos of latitude: sine of latitude: : Onouion: equinoctial shadow

1891 .. 61" : 2870 13" i: 12

12 X (2870 .. 13") 13 .

equinoctial shadow = - - = 18 digits.L. W.

. 1891 61" W

30. Tell me tlifr several latitudes in which the Sun remains

Question.

abovo the horizon for one, two, three, four, live and six months before ho

pets again.

31. If you, 0 intelligent, tire acquaintcd/with the rcsolu-

Question.

tion of affected quadratic equations, tthen find the Sun s longitude, observing

that the sum of tho cosine of declination, the sine ,of declination, and the sin

e of the Sun s longitude: equal to 5000 is

(tho radius is assumed equal to 3138.)

Bulk.

32. Multiply tho sum of the cosiuo of declination, the sino of declination,

and the sine of Sun s longitude by 1, and divide tho product

by 15, the quotient found will bo what has been denominated tho Xdya. Next squar

e the sum and double tho square mu! divide by 337, the quotient is to be substra

ctfcd from 910078. Take tho square-root of tho remainder. That root must then bo

subtracted from the ahya above found : the remainder will bo the declination, w

hen the radius is equal to 3138. From the declination the Sun s longitude may be

found.t

* Ansr. When tlio Sun lias northern declination ho remains abovo the horizon for

one month in 07 N. L. tvo mouth hi f)Ua throe months 73 t four months 78 five mont

hs Hl>

six months 1)0

These are roughly wrought: for BiTAflKA.il acitaTIYas rule for finding these Lati

tudes see the tuipuah nadhyatas of tho ooladijyaya and also the oakita-W1YAYA.L.

\V.

f LLet a = the given sura,

p = the sine of tho Sun s extreme declination x = the sine of the Suns declinatio

n.

Then the cosine of declination will bo Ka and the sine of the Suns R x

longitude = :

P R

\ by question + + = :

V P

or p + (It + p) x = a p%

and p = a p (R + p) x ;

R,p-.r = aV-2<j>(R + p)+ (R + 2 R p +/) x j , .. (R + 2Rp + 2 a/> (R+p) = (a

248 Translation of the [XIII. 33.

2ap (R + p)

( Ra) pa

Ra + 2Rp + 2pa R3 + 2Rp + 2pa

2ap(R + p) p (& + )

completing tlio square, a?1 x + -

Ra + 2 R p q- 2 pa

V(B+p)

(Ra + 2 R p + 2 p)

(q-RJf8

"(Ra+2Rp + 2pa)a R + 2 R p -f 2pa R4pa + 2 Rpa + 2 RV - >p

i

(Ra + 2Rp + 2pa)a Ra p

op

33. Given the sum of the sines of the declination and of the altitude of the

Sun1 when in the prime vertical; the taddhriti, the kujv! aifd sine of amplitud

e equal to 9500, at a place whore the paladha

E + 2 R p + 2 pa (Ra + 2 R p + 2 pa)a

p(R + p) j R V a p

R8 + 2Rp + 2pa Ra + 2Rp-f2pa (Ra + 2Rp + 2pa)

p(R + p) j V

or jf J _ t

, R + 2Rp + 2pa ^ R> q. 2 Rp + 2p (Ra +2 Rp +2pa) a Now hero R = 8438 and p = 139

7,

ap vK + P) ap(K+p) <1X1397 X 4835 6734495a

Ra + 2 Rp + 2p ~ (R + p) + p ~ (4835) + (1397)a _ 25328834 4

a nearly = Adya ;

15

a p 3808777688881 a 2a

= = nearly; 1

(Ra + 2 R p + 2 pa)a 611549831799356 337

Rapa 23067713928996

and = 910729, in place of this the Au-

Ra + 2 Rp + 2 pa 25328831

thor has taken the number 910678.

t = adya ^910678 a:

but of these, the positivo value is excluded by the nature of the case, becauso

the sine Qf declination is always less thau 1397. llenco the Rule in tho text.

Solution. The given sum = 5000,

5000 X 1

Adya/= 1333 20 and aa = 148367 67" 9.w

15

sine of declination = 1333 20 ^910678 118367 67 9 * = 1833 20" - 87

3 & 13"

, 460 13" 47 : from which we have the longitude of

he Sun 0.. 19V. 11 36 or 5 10. .45 24 or 6 19 IV. 36# or 11\.10\ 45 ..24V-R. D

.J

#or equinoctial shadow is 5 digits, tell mo then, my clover friend, if quick ill

working questions of latitudinal triangles and capable of abstracting your atte

ntion, what are, tho separato amounts of each quantity ?

31. First pssuroe the sine of declination <87> to bo equal to 12 times the sha

dow palabuX : and

<87> Solution. Hero fat.atsiiX = 5 digits

.*. Supports the nine of dcoliiMtion = 5 X 12 = 60: and then say. If palabha : a

ksiiakauxa : : sine of decln.: BAM A r ahku

13*60

.or 5 : 13 : : GO: SAMA B aHKU = = 15G,

G

150 X 13

Gnomos: aksbakaQna :: SAMA s anxu : taddtikiti=: = ICO,

* 13

GO X 6

. 12 : PALAMIA !: sino of ducln.: KUJYA = = 25,

12

GO X13

and 12 : akbiiakakxa :: sino of decln.: sino of amplitude = =63.

12

If tlu> rum : riuo of decln. supposed : : given sum : sine of decln. required, o

r -175 : GO : : SSOO : 12o0.

If 475 : 166 :: J5U0 : 3120 bama b anmi required,

and so on 33S0 tauuiuitj

GOO KUJYA

1300 sino of amplitude.

Ansr. L.AV.

t Solution. IToro also paiabita = 5,

tlidn suppose sino of deelination as boforc = 60, and.*. sino of amplitud

e = 65,

and kujya = 25,

(bo sum = 13U,

BrLI.

. then find the amounts of tho# remaining quantities upon this supposition. Then

these on <88> the supposition mode, multiplied severally by the given sum and d

ivided by their sum on tho supposition made, will respectively make manifest tho

actual amounts of those quantities tho sum of which is given. <89>

<88> Solution. Hero fat.atsiiX = 5 digits

.*. Supports the nine of dcoliiMtion = 5 X 12 = 60: and then say. If palabha : a

ksiiakauxa : : sine of decln.: BAM A r ahku

13*60

.or 5 : 13 : : GO: SAMA B aHKU = = 15G,

G

150 X 13

Gnomos: aksbakaQna :: SAMA s anxu : taddtikiti=: = ICO,

* 13

GO X 6

. 12 : PALAMIA !: sino of ducln.: KUJYA = = 25,

12

GO X13

and 12 : akbiiakakxa :: sino of decln.: sino of amplitude = =63.

12

If tlu> rum : riuo of decln. supposed : : given sum : sine of decln. required, o

r -175 : GO : : SSOO : 12o0.

If 475 : 166 :: J5U0 : 3120 bama b anmi required,

and so on 33S0 tauuiuitj

GOO KUJYA

1300 sino of amplitude.

Ansr. L.AV.

t Solution. IToro also paiabita = 5,

tlidn suppose sino of deelination as boforc = 60, and.*. sino of amplitud

e = 65,

and kujya = 25,

(bo sum = 13U,

<89> Solution. Hero fat.atsiiX = 5 digits

.*. Supports the nine of dcoliiMtion = 5 X 12 = 60: and then say. If palabha : a

ksiiakauxa : : sine of decln.: BAM A r ahku

13*60

.or 5 : 13 : : GO: SAMA B aHKU = = 15G,

G

150 X 13

Gnomos: aksbakaQna :: SAMA s anxu : taddtikiti=: = ICO,

* 13

GO X 6

. 12 : PALAMIA !: sino of ducln.: KUJYA = = 25,

12

GO X13

and 12 : akbiiakakxa :: sino of decln.: sino of amplitude = =63.

12

If tlu> rum : riuo of decln. supposed : : given sum : sine of decln. required, o

r -175 : GO : : SSOO : 12o0.

If 475 : 166 :: J5U0 : 3120 bama b anmi required,

and so on 33S0 tauuiuitj

GOO KUJYA

1300 sino of amplitude.

Ansr. L.AV.

t Solution. IToro also paiabita = 5,

tlidn suppose sino of deelination as boforc = 60, and.*. sino of amplitud

e = 65,

and kujya = 25,

(bo sum = 13U,

35. If you liavo a knowledge of mathematical questions involving tho doctrino of

the sphere, tell me wlmt will bo the several amounts of sines of amplitude, decl

ination and tho kujya (where tho FALAiniA is 5 digits) when their s\pn is 2000.+

36. But dropping for a moment those questions of the. siddhXntas involving a

knowledge of the doctrine of tho sphere, tell me, ray

Questions.

learned friend, why in finding tho pqint of the ecliptic rising above tho horizb

n at any given time, (tliatis.the lagna or horoscope of that time,) you first ca

lculate the Sun s apparent or true place for that time, i. o. the Sun s instanta

neous place and further tell mo, when the Sun s savana day, i. e. terrestrial da

y, consists of GO sidereal GirAfiK^s and 10 pai<as, the lagna t calculated for a

whole terrestrial day should be in advance of tho Sun s instantaneous place, an

d the lagna calculated for the time equal to tho terrestrial day minus 10 palas

should bo equal to tho Sun s instantaneous place.

37. Aro tho ghatika s used in finding the lagna, ghatikIs of sidereal or com

mon sXvana time? If they aro sXvana ghatikas, then tell me why ore tho hours tak

en by the several Bigns of tho ecliptic in rising, i< o. tho rXs yudaya which ar

o vsideroal, subtracted from them, being of a different denomination ? If on tho

other harfd you say they aro sidereal, then I ask why, in calculating the lagna

for a period equal to a wholo s^vana day i. o. 60 sidereal ghatikas and 10 pala

s, tho lagna does not correspond with, but is somewhat in advanco of, tho Sun s

instantaneous place; and then why the /Sun s instantaneous place is used in find

ing the lagna or horoscope.

.Question,

38. Given the length of the shadow of gnomon at 10 gatIs aftor sun-rise equa

l to 9 digits at a pluce where tho falabiiX in 5 digits;

tell mo what is tho longitude of the Sun, if you aro an fait in solving question

s involving a knowledge of the sphere.f

Then say as before

as 160 : 60 :: 2000 : 800 sine of declination,

as 160 i 65 :: 2000 : 866}sine of amplitude,

as 160 : 26 :: 2000 : 333} KUJY1.-L. W.

* [For answers to these questions see the note on the 27tli Terse di the 7th

cL-b. d.]

t [For solving this question, it is necessary to define aomo lines drawn in tho

Annulary sphere and show some of their relations.

XIII 39.] Siihlhdiitasiromnni 251

39. Toll mo, d Astronomor, wliat is tho palabh! at that Question. placo

whero the gnomohs shallow full-

* ing due west is equal to tl\o gnomons

Let B C D E bo meridian or the given place, CAE the diameter of 11 to Uorizci, B

the Zeuith, V and Q tne north and south pole, B A D the diameter of the Prime V

ertical, FAG that of tho Equinocliul, P A Q that of (ha six o clock line, H/L th

at of one of tho diurnal circles, the Sun s projected placo in it and/A, w, H p

erpendiculars to C E. Then 11 F or E P = tho latitude of the place,

A /= the sine of the Sun s declination,

A ft = aoba or the sine of amplitude,

fg = kujya . (It is called ciiahajya or aino of the ascensional difference when

reduced to the radius of a great circle )

J t = kala . (It is called s(;tba when reduced to the radius of a great circle )

ig = isirpA hriti. (It is called tajddbbitx uhen t is at e, hriti when s is at

U and kujya when t is at/.)

The isiita UfiTi reduced to the radius of a great circle is called igiiyA antta

, but coincides with H, it is called avtya only.

It is evident from the ligure above described that

(1) XS1ITA HJITI = KALA# KUJYAff

(2) I8HJTA ANTYA = BUTRA + CIIARAJYA ,

(3) hriti = dycjya or cosine of declination db XUJYa ,

Si) Antya = radius chabajya .

ere the positive or negative sign is to be taken according as the Sun is in the

northern or southern hemisphere.

- . u.2 height when the Sun is in the middle of fho sign Leo, i. o.a when

his longitude is 4 signs and 15 degreed.

Now at a gi/cn hour of tho day, tho isiita hriti and otlien can be found as foll

ows.

Half tlio length df tho day diminished by tho timo from noon (or^ho nata Ka la p

roperly bo culled) is tho unnata kala (or derided time). Subtract from or add to

tho UNNata. ka la tho ascensional difference according as the Sun is in the nor

thern or southern hemisphere: reduce the remainder to degrees : tho sine of tho

degrees is stfTRA. Tho b(jtra multiplied by the cosine of declination and ilivid

ect by the radius gives tho kala . Then from the above formula) wo can easily fi

nd tho isiita hkiti and others.

Now to find thu answer to tho present question.

Square the length of tho Gnomonic shadow and add it to the square of tho Gnomon

or 144: and square-root of the sum ii called tho liypotbcnuse of the shadow. Fro

m this hypothenuse find the MahaVanku or the sine of the Suns altitude by tho fol

lowing proportion.

As tho hypothenuse of the uliadow : Gnomon or 12 :; Radius

: Tho MAiiAfl ANiru or the sine of the San s altitude.

Then by similar latitudinal triangles,

as the Gnomon ot 12 digits

: AK8RA kabna fpuud from given paladha

:: MAIIAS ANKU .

: isiita nmn (see verses from 45 to 49 of tho 7th Chapter).

Reduce the given unnata ka la toydegroos and assumo tho sine of tho degrees as i

BuyAftXYA (for this will alwnys bo very near to tho isii fA NTYA). Then corino o

f declination = isuta nimi

Rarliits isuta ntya

From this the cosino of declination will nearly bo found, and thence tho declina

tion and ascensional dillercneo can also bo found. From the ascensional differenc

e, just found, find the isuta ntya of two kinds, one when the Nun is supposed t

o be in tho northern hemisphere and the other when tho Nun is supposed to be in

the southern hemisphere. Of these two ishtantya s that is nearly true whioli is

noarer to the rough isuta ntya first utsumed (i. e. the sine of the unnata ka l

a). From this new isuta ntya find again.the declination and repeat the process u

ntil the roughness of declination vanishes. Frdm tho deelimilion, last found, th

e longitude of the Sun can be found.11. J).]

* The hypothenuse of tho shadow is first to be found. Then say As hypothenuse of

the shadow : Gnomon

x: Rud

: the maha sANKir or the sine of the Sun s altitude.

Here we shall find sine of 45. This is the SAM a b anku.

It is 24 31 signs

Sine of declination of the Sun when in 4 .. 15 = 987 48

213? 987 .. 48v ") 1 = (taddheiti kujya )

or 5909761 975749 9 = 4931011 6L

taddusiti kujya = ^4931011 .. 51 = 2221 .. 15"

Here wt havo 3 sides of the latitudinal triangle consisting sama B anku, declina

tion and taddhuiti kujya . Hence wo may find the latitude.

Then by similar latitudinal triangles e

TADD1IRITI KUJYA 2221 . 15 (

: sine of declination 987 .. 48"

:: Gnomon 12 s palabha 5i digits.L. W.

Whon th< Sun entors the prime vertical of a person

XIII. 40.]: 40.

at CJJAYixf either at 5 gratis after

Question,

sun-rise or 5 a ratio before or after midday, what are his declinations ? If yo

u will answer mo this I will hold you to he the sharp axkus a (goad)for the guid

ance of the intoxicated elephants, the proud astronomers.

From 0 N, to find 0 B the siflo of declination sny

* First of all assume ITN tins tad-DiiRiTl = sine of tiio givn elevated time tha

t is = sin 30". From this find the b avku or the sine of ullitmlq by similar tri

angles.

Tl aksiu kiuva or hypothenusasof equinoctial shadow.

: Gnomon 12

:: TADmiKlTl

12XTADDnnm

: SAMA s ankd= =

13

ON

pai.abiia % 0 N

as AKfliiA kaiina : faladiia :: ON: 0 B = = sine of do-

. 13

elination.

From 0 B we may now- find the longitudo of the Sun and 0 0 the ascensional diifo

renco: Now deduct this usc>Anaional diilcreucu from tlio sine <ff elevated time

converted into degrees. Hence

0 D 0 1) = C 0.

Now reduce 0 0 to terms of a small circle on the supposition that the Sun lias t

he duelination now found.

As Knd : 0 O : : cosine of declination : N B.

Now find also U A by the sumo proportion.

Then N 13 +. R A = N H n new value of taddiirttt.

Iffil N : gave Uli:: UN : OB corroctcd value of 0 B.

Hence a corrected longitudo of the Sun.

The operation tt be repeated till rightness is found.

2nd.To find the declination from the bat a ka la or time from noon ss ain 30.

.

Let a = the tine of kata ka la : R8 o = b^tka,

.nd x = the sine of declination : R8 a;8 = c>ak of declination.

The sutha reduced to value of diurnal circlu will give KALi

The proportion is. As R : 6</TBA :: cos of declination : kala , but 1 do not kno

w what cos of declination is but only its square.

1 must therefore mako this proportion in squares

(R8 ) (R> as8)

As R : stint a8:: cos8 of declination s xala | =

K8

Now by similar latitudinal triangles

As ijj 1 : : kala] 1 : wne1 of declination

STaI 25 (R->) (R8-8)

A sine of decliuation = X kala | 1 7 7

* 1 i Ur

41. In a place of which the latitude is Unknown and on 1 a day which is unkn

own, the Sun was

Question.

observed, on entering tho prime vertical, to givo a shadow of 16 digits from a g

nomon (12 digits long) at 8 giiatWs after sun-rise. If yon will tell ifie tho de

clination of the Sun, and the palabhX I .wiH hold you to be expert without an eq

ual in the great expanse of the questions, on directipns space and time.

Question.

42. 0 Astronomer, tell me, if you have a thorough knowledge of the latitudin

al figures, tho palabhX and the longitude of tho Sun

Now R -as: 8864883

25 (R - a) = 26 x 8864883 = 221622075 and 144 R = 144 (3418) = 1702057536 221622

075 (R a)

=

1702057536

1702057536

B - = = 7$ Nearly

221622075

8B

20 = 3 R: == = 1363828

26

and = ^/f363828 = 116? = flin of 19 61

Hence the Suns place may be found.L. W.

To find the sine of altitude or maha s abxV

(16) + (12) = (20)" ... hypothenuse of the shadow = 20.

Thou say

As 20 : 12 :: 3438 : 2062.. 48" = the MAHA b awxit.

Now suppose the sine of tokata xa ia or 8 guatika b to be the taddh^iti = 2655.

Then by similar triangles

2655 X 12

2062 .. 48": 2655 :: 12: A KB BA XAX?A

2062|

From this find the paiabba .

To find declination says

As aibba XABVA : palabha :: BOSS .. 48": sine of declination.

From this (find the cosine of declination, the hum, the ascensional difference,

Ac. The UBNATA BALA diminished by the ascensional difference gives the time from

6 oclock : the sine of this time will be the b5tba and hence the aia : thente (KW

Ia being added) the tadohbiti : and thence the akbiu kabna and dcolination. The

operation to be repeated till the error of the original assnxnp-(turn Yauiilria

.L. W.

XIII. 43.] Siddhdnta-sfiromani, 255

.at that place, where (at a certain time) the kujy is equal to 245.and the TADDf

rfm is equal to 3125.

* 43. Given the sum of the 3 following quantity, vis. of the

A Bines of declination, and of the alti-

Queitipn.

, tude of the Sun (when in the prime

vertical) and of the taddhrtti decreased by the amount of tho kujyA equal to 672

0, and givon also tho sum of tho kujya, the Bines of amplitude and declination (

at tho same time) equal to 1960. I will hold him, who can tell mo the longitude

of tho Sun and also palabhI from the given sums, to bo a bright instructor of as

tronomers, enlightening them ns tho Sun makos tho buds of tho lotus to expandby

his genial hcat.f

. Ansr. Let ? = the palabha

then say. As x : 12 :: 245 : eirie of declination =

Now find the taddhiti minut xujya .

2910

2 1

* 2910 . 35280

A x: 12:: : taddheiti xujya = .

x x

But TADDHMTI XUJYA 3125 215 = 2880.

35280 35280 49

2880 = and x9 = =

x9 2880 4

,\ = J = 31 PALABHA.

To find declination Buy As 31 : 12 :: 245 ( 840 sino of declination, llense the

lodgitudo of the Bun may bo discovered as before.!. W. t This question admits of

a ready solution in consequence of its peculiarities. The aine of declination )

axas ayxu> =6720

and TADDHRITI KUJYA )

re all three respectively perpendiculars in the three latitudinal trianglos.

And the kujya

the sine of amplitude and the tadduaiti kujya are bases in the same 3 triangles.

Hence we may take tho sum of the 3 perpendiculars and also the sum of the three

bases and use them to find tho palabha.

As the sum of the ) Bum of the 3 bases Gnomon palabha 3 perpendiculars) in the s

ame triangles

1960X12 a

6720 s 1960 :: 12 : = 31.

. 6720

Now the kujya, sine of amplitudetand sino of declination are the threo tides of

a latitudinal triangle. Tliese three 1 may compare with the throp Gnomon, palabh

a and aksua kab^a to find the value of any one.

44. Giron tho sum of tlio sine of declination, sine of tboa

Sun a altitude in prime vertical and

Question. M . .

the taddh$iti minus kujya equal to

1440 , and given also tho sum of the sine of amplitude, tho

sine of tho SunValtitudc in prime vertical and tho taAdhriti

equal to 1800 . I will hold him, who having observed tho

given sums. , a

Question.

45. Given the equinoctial shadow equal to 9. Wliat longitude must the Sun ha

ve in that latitude to givo an ascensional difference

Question.

of threo gtiatis ? I will hold yon to be the best of astronomers if yon will ans

wer mo this question, f

40. Hitherto it has been usual to find tho length of tho Sun s midday shadow

, of the shadow of tho Suu when in tho primo verti-

e

But tho akbha kabna roust be first found to complete the sum of thoso three.

/ H25 25 ,

AKSHA xauna = y (12; + \h) = v == 2

Gnomon = 12

fatjAiiua = 3$ > = 2$ sum of tho 3 sides of a latitudinal triangle.

akkiia kauna = 12i)

How if 28 : 12 : : 1900 : 840 the sine of declination, llmce the plnce of the Su

n as before.L. W.

* This question is similar to tho preceding.

In the first sum wo have the sum of three perpendiculars -in threo different lat

itudinal Triangles. In the second we have tho sum of tho threo hypothc liuses of

those same three Triangles. Houce wo may say. ,

Bum 3 per. sum of 3 corresponding hy. .Gnomon aksdakabha is 1UI> : 1800

:: 12 j 15

How from AK8IIA kauna to find PALABITA , paladiiX = = ym = 9.

How sine of amplitude, sine of the Sun s altitude in tho Primo Vertioul, and * t

he TADDHurri are the three sides of a latitudinal.L. W.

t Let sc = sine of the Suns declination, then 12 : 9 sj_ tjkujyA = $ a\

Again = cosine of declination.

Then as R s cos of doclinntion : : sine of ascensional differce.: kvjya Sine of

asceusl. diflVe. or ciiabajya = sino of 3 GUiyis = sin lb = 10G2 . eosin of dccl

n. X chaiiajva

A S= XUJTA t

R

X 10G2

(hr = ^ ,

2

llenco may bo fouud the sine of tho Suns decln. and tlience his lougi tude.-L. W.

#eal, and when in in iutermodiato circle (i. o. when ho has an azimuth of 45 <90

>) by three different modes of Calculation: now Bo who will by a single calculat

ion toll me the length of tlicso tlireo shadows and of the shadows at any interm

ediate points, at the Arish of the querist] shall bo held to bo a very Sun on th

e (forth to expand the lotus-intcllects of learned astronomers. <91>

<90> tX

<91> tX

- <92> [tTere the problem it this.-Given the Sun s declination or, amplitude, t

he Equinoctial slmdow of tlio placo and the Sun s azimuth, to find the Sun s sha

dow. <93>

<92> tX

<93> tX

For solving this problem BhAskahAchAkya lias stated two different Rules in the G

anitadhyAya. Of them, wo now shew hero tlio second.

"Multiply the square of the Radius by the square of the equinoctial shadow, and

the square of tlie cosine of the azimuth by 141. The sum of tlio products divide

d by the difference between tlio squares of tho cosine of the uziiimtli and the

sine of the amplitude, is called the pkatiuma (first) and the continued product

of the Radius, equinoctial shadow and tlio sine of the amplitude divided by the

(same) difference is oalled the anya (second). Take tho square-root of the squar

e of the ANYA added to tho PUATiizWA: this root decreased r increased by the ANYA

according as the Sun is in the northern or soul horn hemisphere gives tho hypot

hcimse of tho shadow (of the Nun) when tho Sun is in any given direction of the

compass." i

"But when the cosine of the azimuth is loss than tho sine of tho amplitude, take

the square-root of tlio square of tlio ANYA diminished by the puayiiami : the A

NYA aocreascd and increased {sepayifrlj) by the square-root (just found) gives t

ho two values of tlio hjpothunutio (of the Sun s shallow) when the Sun is in the

northern hemisphere."

This rule is proved algebraically thus. <94>

<94> tX

Let a =? the sine of amplitude,

A = the sine of azimuth, e = tho Equinoctial shadow,

and x the hypothcimse ol the shadow when tho Sun is in any given direction of th

e compass.

Then suy

aA ; 12 :: R : tho MAUA s anktt or tho sine of the Sun s altitude =

12 It

x

and tlio sine of tho Sun s zenith distance -==J R8 ^^ = ~ \/

12 R

IIow, as 12 s e ss : s ankutala = .

X X

BAhu or tho sine of an am of a circle of position contained between the e U

Sun and the Prime Vertical = a qp : (see Ch. VH. V. 41) here the signal

or -f is used according as the Sun is in tho northern or southern Hemisphere. Th

en aay

R R

as <95>/j <96>144 : a s: R s A s

<95> tX

<96> tX

i x

R A / R\

<97>. 144 = l + 1 R i

<97> tX

47. Ho who, knowing both the azimuth and tlio longitude, ^ of the Sun. obse

rves buo shadow of the

Question.

gnomon at any time, or he who knowing tlio azimuth observes two shadows and can,

find the pala-bha, I aluill conceive him to be a very Gaiiu^a in destroying con

ceited snak^ of astronomers. . 1

[On this UhAskakachakya has given qii example in the-GA^N, tXdhyXv\ as follows.

Given the hypothenuse of tho shadow (at any hour of tlio

day) equal to 30 digits and the south

Example. , .

BHirjA equal to 3 digits: given also

or A 4 114 = ur + Ri

Afexa-144A> = aa x 2 R e a x + e Ka;

(A8-a8) <r8 2 R e a x = e It8 + 114 A ;

Rea e8 K8 + 141 A

*2 x = i

Aa8 A8a8

Or a + 2 ANYA X = PliATlIAMA (1)

X 2 ANYA X + ANYA = PRAT1IAMA + ANYA8 and .. iT = ^PKAT1IAMA + ANTA8 ANYA.

1

But when A a and the Sun is in the northern hemisphere, tlio equation

(1) will be Jf82 ANYA = Pit ATI! ASIA ,

and then x = anya ^/anxa8first:

i. e. the value of the hypothenuse of tho shadow will be of two kinds here.

llouco the Buie.

Bhaskauachahya was the first llindu who has given a general rule for finding the

Sun s shadow vhatever be the uziniuth; uud ho was the first who lias shewn that

in certain cases tho solution gives two diilcreut results,13. 1).]

[On a levelled plane draw east and west and south mid north, lines and on theiri

ntorseoting point, place Gnomon of 12 digits: thedUtunco betweel. tho end of the

shadow of that Gnomon and the east and west line is culled tlio BUVJA.

It is to he known here that tho vnluo of the great bhuja (us stated in 41st yers

e of the 7th Ch.) being reduced to the hypotliciiusc of thu shadow becomes equal

to the bhuja (above found).

Or as tho Radius

: the great bhuja :: the hj potlienuse of the shadow

: the reduced BUVJA or the distance of the end of the shadow from tho oast and w

est line.

This reduced bhuja is called north or south accotding as tho aid of tho shadow f

alls north or south of the east and went line.

It is very clear from this that the reduced biu JA will be the cosiuo of tho axi

muth i a small circle described by the radius equul to the shadow.

Or as the shadow

: the reduced bhuja

. i: radius of a great circle : the cosine of the azimuth.

, This is tiie method by which all Hindus roughly determine tho ozimuih of the S

uu from the BUTJA of his gnoicouie shadow.B. D.]

Jlic hypothenuse equal to 15 dibits, and the north iihija equal . to 1 digit, to

fiiftl tho PAUnni. Or, given the declination cfyual to 81(5 and only one hypothe

nuse and its corresponding WIUJA at tho time, to find tho i,A[iAuirX.,,J

48. first of all juultiply one hhiija of tho shadow by tiio

* . hypotlicnuso of tho other, and tho se- ,cond nnuja by tho hypot

henuse of tho

first: then tako the difference of these two uiiujas thqs multiplied, if they ar

o botli north or if both south, and their sum if of different denominations, and

divide tho difference or tho sum by the difference of the two hypothenusos j it

will bo the I ALAIWX.

49. How should he who, like a man just drawn up from tho

bottom of a well, is utterly ignorant of Question. palaiwX, tho place of th

o Sun, tho

points of tho compass, the number of the years elapsed from

* The role mentioned hero for finding the pilhuia when tiio two shadows and the

ir resjiectivoBtiUJAfl rc given, is proved linn,

Let A, = tho first hypothenuse of the shadow, ft, = its corresponding mi UJA, ha

= the second hypothenu&e, and ft2 = its corresponding biiuja,

Then

12 R

As ft. s 12 : : R : = the first mau s aKm }

. h

4 121ft

and iu the same manner = the second uaha s aitku j

K

bt R

and also as A. : ft. : : R : ss the first great bufja ,

Aj, R

mu] ... ~ =; the second great uiir ja ,

ft, R A R ft, kg

Then the rALABiu (> Ch. XI. V. 32)

12 R 12 R

2(50 Translation of the [XIII. 50.

tho commencement of the ycua, the month, the tithi or lunar, (lay and-the day of

week, being asked by others to tell quickly the points of the compass, the plac

e of the Snn, &c., givca correct answer ? lie, however, who can do so,, has my h

umblo reverence, and what astronomers will not acknowledge him worthy of admirat

ion ?

50. He, who can know merely with tho staff in his1 hand,

. . tho height and distance of a bamboo

Question.

of which ho has observed the root and

4

top, knows tho use of that instrument of instrumentsGenius (the dhItantra) : and

tell mo what is there that he cannot find out!

Question.

51. There is a high famous bamboo, the lower part of which, being concealed

by houses, &. was invisible: the ground, howovor, was

perfectly level. It you, my friend, remaining on this same spot, by observing th

e top, will te]l mo the distance and its height, 1 acknowledge you shall havo th

e titlo of being tho most skilful of observers, and export in tho use of the bes

t of instruments, DIlfY ANTRA.

52. Having seen only tho top of a bamboo reflected iu

water, whether tho bamboo bo near or Question. , ,

at a distance, visible or invisible, if

you, remaining on this same spot, will tell mo the distance and

height of the bamboo, I will hold you, though appearing on tho

.Earth as a plain mortal, to have attributes of superhuman

. knowledge.!

53. Given the placos of the Sun and tho Moon increased by the amount of the

precession of the equinox, i. e. their longitudes, oqual to four and two signs (

respectively) and tho place of the Moon decreased by tho place of the ascending

node equal to 8 signs, tell me whether the Sun and the Moon have the same declin

ation (either both south or one> north

* Tlii. refers to the 84th verse of the Ch. XT.L. W. t [Answers to these question

s will be found in the 11th Ch. B. D.]

, and one south), it you have a perfect acquaintance with the IMvriddhida TaVtra

.

* 54. If the place of the Moon with the nmouijt of tho precession of the equinox

bo equal to 100 degrees, and the place of the Sun increased by tho same amount

to 80 degrees, and the place of the Moon diminished by that of tho ascending .no

de T)qual to 200 degrees, tell me whether the Sim and the Moon have the same dec

lination, if you have a perfect acquaintance with the DhIveiddhida Tantra.

55. If you understand tho subject of the pata i. e. tho equality of the decl

inations (of the Sun and the Moon), tell me tho reason why there is in reality a

n impossibility of tho pIta when thcro is its possibility (in the opinion of Lam

,a), and why there is a possibility when there is an impossibility of it (accord

ing to tho same author).

56. If tho places o the Sun and tho Mooft with tho amount of tho precession o

f tho equinox bo equal to 8 signs phi and minus 1 degree (i. .0. 2. 29 and 3. 1 r

espectively) and the place of tho Moon decreased by that of tho ascending nodo e

qual to 11s. 28% tell me whether the Sun and tho Moon have the same declination,

if you perfectly know the subject.

57. (In the PnivKiDDHiDA Tantra), it is stated that the pIta is to rmnetin s

ome places when it has already taken place (in reality), and also it has happene

d whore it is to come. It is a strange thing in this work when tho possibility a

nd impos-ibility of tho pIta are also reversely mentioned. Tell mo# O you best o

f astronomers, all this after considering it well. .

58. I (BhIskara), bom in tho year of 103G of tho Sam-

Date of the Author1, birth viHAHA era, have composed this Sid-

and his work. dhInta-s iromani, when I was 36 years old.

Auth or B apology.

59. He who has a penetrating genius like the sharp point of a largo darbha s

traw, is qnulifiod to compose a good work in mafhe-

* [Answer to lliese questions will be found in the last Chapter of die Gahita-da

yaya.B. D.]

Cl. The learned Maiies waua, the head of all astronomers, the most good humoured

man, the store of all sciences, skilful in tho discussion of acts connected wit

h law and roligion, and a buaii-mana descended from S antmlya (a muni), flourish

ed in a city, thickly inhabited by learned and dull persons, virtuous men of all

sorts, and ldbu competent in the three Vedas, and situated near tho mountain Sa

uya. , t

262 Translation of the Sillhanta-s iromoni. [XIII. CO.

matics: excuse, therefore, my impudence, <5 learned astrono- B mere, (incoraposi

ug this work for which I anf not qualified).

CO. I, haying lifted my folded hands to my forehead, beg the. old and young astr

onomers (who live at. this time) to excuse mo for having refuted the (erroneous)

rules prescribed by my predecessors; because, those who fix their belief in the

rales of the predecessors will not know what is tho truth, 9 unless I refute the

rules when I am going to state astronomical truths.

Authors birth-place, Ac.

G2. His son, the poet and intelligent Biiaskara, mado this dear composition of t

he SiddiiXnta by the favour of tho lotus-like feet of his father; this SiwwXnta

is the guidance for ignorant persons, propagator of delight to tho learned astro

nomers, full of easy and elegant style and good proofs, easily comprohensible by

the learned, and remover of mistaken ideas.

63. I hnvo repeated hero some questions, which I fiavo stated before, for porson

s who wish to study only this Pkas na-PIiyXya.

Cl. The genius of tho person who studies these questions becomes unentonglcd, an

d flourishes like a creeping plant watered at its root by the cousideration of t

he questions and answers, by getting hundreds of leaves of clear proofs, shootin

g from the Spheric as from a bulbous root.

n

End of tho 13th and last Chapter of tho CIolImiyaya of the Sid dhanta-s iuoma^i.

.APPENDIX,

ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF TIIE CANON OF SINES.

-1. As the Astronomer can acquire the rank of an A citarya in tlio science only

by a thorough knowledge of tlio inodo of constructing the canon of sines, Huaska

ka tliereforo now proceeds totreat upon this (ifitcrosting and manifold) subject

in the hope of giving pleasure to accomplished astronomers.

2 and 3. l)raw a circle with a radius equal to any number of digits: mark

on it the lour points of tho compass and 300". Now by dividing 90 by the number o

f sines (you wish to draw in a quadrant), you will get tho arc of the first sine

. ^ This arc,#when tnultiplied by 2, 3 Ac., will successively bo tlio arcs of ot

her sines. Now set off the first arc on tho circumfcrenco oil both sides of ono

of tho points of tho compass and join tlio extremities of those arcs by a trausv

erso straight lino, tlio half of which should be known tho sine of tho first arc

: All tho other sines are thus to be known.

4. Or, now, I proceed to stato tliosc very sines by mathematical precision

with exactness. The square-root of tho difference between the squares of the rad

ius and tho sino is cosino.

5. Deduct the sine of an arc from tho radius tho remainder will bh the vers

ed sino of the complement of that arc, and Jthc cosine of un 010 deducted from t

he radius will give the versed sino of that 010. Tlio versed sine has been compa

red to the arrow between the bow and the bow-string: but here it has , receive

d tho nanio of versed-sine.

6. Tho half of tho radius is the sine of 30: the cosino of

00. will then bo tho sine of 60. Tho square-root of half square of radius Will be

the sine of 45. t

7. Deduct tho square-root of five times tho fourth power of radius, from fi

ve times the square, of radius and divide. the remainder by 8 : the square-root

of the quotient will bo tho sine of 3f>0.

Or = 8ino Hfc,

v 8

8. Or tho radius multiplied by 5878 and divided by 10000 will give tho sino

of 30, (whoro tho radius 3138.) Thp cosino of this is tho sino of 51.t

9. Deduct tho radius from tho squarO-root of tho product of

[This is proved thus.

Let a = sine 18; and B a = carers IS0 or vers 72. Then = sine V: (see tho 10th v

erse.)

or \ZM1zL32 a- sine 36 j */B K A

but a = ~ (see tlio 9th Torse)

2

K X 5878

t The Rule in 8tli torse vie., seems to be the same as above ami

... lino 8ff> = = ,

V 2 8 J

li X 587C 10000

to be deducod from it t

, fb R - y/b K4 _ !h - y/b

fuv#=v

^6 = l74Uc.

and1.. 5 = 2.702589 which divided by 8 = .315323

R X 5878

10000

sine 4g = R ^/.aiwaa = K X .5i>78 = .L. W.

the square of radius and five and divide the remainder by 1:

, the quotient thus, found will give the exact sin of 18. <98>

<98> 4

* 10. Half tho root of the sum of the squared of the sino and versed sino of any

arc, is tho sino of half tlmt arc. Or <99> the sine of half that arc Is the squ

are-root ok <100> half the product of the radius and ilio versed sine.

<99> 4

<100> 4

11.. From the sino of any arc thus found, tho sine of half the arc may bo found

(and so on with tho half of {his last). In like manner from tho complement of an

y arc may be asccr-* tained the sine of half tho complement (and from that again

. tho sino of half of the last arc).

Thus tho former Astronomers prescribed a modo for determining the other sines (f

rom a given one), but I proceed now to give u mode different from that stated by

them.

* 12. Deduct and add the product of radius and sine of biiuja from and to the sq

uare of radius and extract the square-roots of {he halves of the results (thus f

ound), tlicso roots will respectively givo tho sines of flic half of 00 decreased

and increased by tho biiuja. ,

In liko manner, tlic sines of half of 00 decreased and increased by the ko|1 can

bo found from assuming the cosine for the sino of bhuja.

13. Take the sines of biii jas of two arcs and find their difference, then f

ind also the difference of their cosines, square

[This is proved tlun.

Let 0 be centra of tho circle ABE ami C = 3G, then AB = 2 sin 18, and s (CAB, CBA)

each of them = 2 0.

Draw AD bisecting the Z. CAB, then AB, AD, CD will be equal to each other.

. . .

Now let x as sin 18, then by similar triangles CB:AB = AB : BD or K : 2 <101> :=

2 sr: B 2 jr;

<101> 4

4 == Ra 2 B> a? which gires

-B. D.]

these differences, add these squares, extract their square-root and halve it. Th

is half will be the sine of half the difference , of the sines. Thus sines can b

o determined by several ways?

14. The square-root of half tho square of- the difference of the sino and the <c

osine of the bhuja of an. arc is cqualto tho sine of half the difference of the

bhuja and its complement, f I will now givo somo rules for constructing sines wi

thout^ having recourso to tho oxtraclion of roots.

15. Divide tho square of tho sine of the bhuja by the half radius. Tho diffe

rence between the quotient thus found and tho radius is equal to the sine of th

e difference between tho .

t Let be s= sine of any aro and bg = its

Draw the sine ad= eosino bg, then ah its

sine will be equal to be and afzz fb:

?f +/ = but as a/ =/b . ab af ah J J

afzzc and = :

2 8 4

VH-

L. W.]

, degrees of bHuja and its complement. In this way several sines may bo foufid h

ero.

[As those several rules suflico for finding only tho sines of arcs differing by

3 degrees from each other and not the sines 8f tho intermediate arcs, tho author

therefore now proceeds to detail tho mode of finding tho iutcrniodiato sines, .

that is the sine of evqry degree of tho quadrant. This mode, therefore, is calle

d Pratibhagajyaka-vidiii.]

16. Deduct from the sino of bhuja its part and divido

Bul.i for folding ill, .in. tho ton-fold sine of 573

of every degree from 1 to 17. Tho sum of these two results 90.

will give tho following sino (i. c., the sine of bhuja one degreo moro than orig

inal biiuja and tho difference botween tho samo results will givo tho preceding

sine, i. c., tho sino of bhuja ono degreo loss than original bhuja). Hero the fi

rst sine, i. e., tho sino of 1, will bo 00 and the sines of the remaining {i-rcs

may bo successively found.

18. The rule, lio.wovcr, supposes that tho radius = 3138. Thus the sines of 90 of

tho quadrant may bo found.

Multiply the cosino by 100 and divido tho product by 1529.

Buln for Ending th. 2i 19 Am1 SuWrnct 0,0 lmrt Bines vf| of 3i, 1% ll0}, the sino fr

om it. Tho sum of thoso will

15 9 bo tho following sino (i. c., tho sino

of hre of 3} degrees more than original arc): and tho difler-

* let ab be any are, and at = aft, then ad = its complement, ed = tlioir differe

nce, and be = 2 aft.

Now /? sin or sin aft,

V 2 2

R % vers 6c

or = sin aft,

2

or veraftc = -

R

tin aft

then R ven 6c or sin erf = R .L. W.

2 sin aft

cnco of them will bo preceding Bine (i. e., the sine of arc 3f 0 degrees less tha

n original arc).

20. Bat the first sino (or the sine of 30J) is hore equal to 22 1# (and not

to^ 225 as it is usually stated to.be). By this rule 2 i sines may bo successive

ly found. r 21 and 22. If the sines of any two arcs of a quadrant bo Bale for (h

o tipliod by thoir cosines rcciprically of sum and difference of any (that is the

sino of tho first arc by the cosine of the 2d and the sine of ( tho 2d by tlio c

osine of tho first arc) and the two products divided by radius, then tho quotien

ts will, when added to-gethor, be tho sino of tlio sum of tho two arcs, and the

difference of those quotients will bo the sino of their diffcrcnco.t This excell

ent rulo called jya-bhXvanX has been prescribed fo, ascertaining tho other sines.

23. This rulo is of two sorts, tho first of which is called samXsa-bitXvanX

(i. e., tho rule for finding tho sine- of snm of two arcs) and tho second antau

a-biiXvanX (i. c., the rulo to find tho sino of difference of arcs).

[If it bo desired to reduco tho sines to the value of any other radius than that

above given of 31-38.] Find the first sine by the aid of the above-mentioned ru

lo pkatibhXoajyakX-vidiii.

24 and 25. And then reduce it to the value of any now radius by applying tho pro

portion. After that apply the jyX-bhXvanX rulo through tho aid of the first sine

and tho cosine 4hus found, for as many sines as are required. The sines ^11 thu

s be successively eliminated to the value of any new radius.

The rulo given in my Pat! or LIlXvatI is not sufficiently accurate (for nice cal

culations) I lmvo not therefore repeated hero that rough rule.

* [These niles given in the verses from 16 to 20 aro easily deduced from tlio ru

les given in the torses 21 and 22.B. D.] t BuabkabAchAbya has given these rules i

n his work without any demonstration.B. D.]

INDEX,

Age, birth, &o. of tho Author, page 2G1. Arinillary Sphere 151, 210. Astronomica

l Instruments, 209. Atmosphere, 127.

Celestial latitude, 200.

Clopsydra, 211.

Chukra, 212.

Canon of Sines, 263.

J)ay of Brahma, 163.

Day of the Pitris, 163.

Days and nights, 161.

Pdngos, 125.

Drikkarnyi, 110.

Driyantra, or genius instrument, 21.

Earth, 112.

Earth s diameter, 122.

Eclipses, 176.

Epicycles, 114.

Equation of the centre, 141,141. Errors of Lalla, Ac. 169,165, 205.

Gnomon, 212.

Horoscope, 166, 211.

Kalpa, 108.

Kendra, 109.

Lagna, 166,211.

Ldngitudes, 212.

Mandaphala, 109.

Mundochcha, 109.

Month, 129.

Moon, Eclipses of, 176.

Phalaka-Yantra, 213.

Phases of the Moon, 206.

Planets, 128,135.

Questions, 231.

Rising and setting of tlio heavenly bodies, 196.

signs, 161.

Season , 228.

#Sovin Winds. 127. w

Sighroclicha,109.

Signs, rising of the, 161.

Sphere, 107.

Sun, Eclipses of, 176.

Svrajrauvaha Ynnlra, or self-revolving instrument, 227.

Syphon, 227.

lime, 160.

Winds, 127.

Year, 129.

Yugas, 110.

GENERAL INDEX,

Page

Additive months, ... ... ... ... ... G

Airs, Different kinds of, ... ... ... 127

Amplitude, The sine of, and the udayasta-sutra, ... ... 171

Apogee,... ... ... ... ... 6

Apology, The Authors, ... ... ... ... 2G1

Apsis, The reason for the invention of the higher, 143

Arc of sines, How to find the, ... ... ... ... 17

Armillary sphere, On the construction of the, 87,8$ 106,151,209,

- Uses of the, ... ... 210

Ascensional difference and its place ... ... ... 160

.... . of the sun, .... ... 161

- - , The sine of the,. ... ... ... 89

Astcrisms, The Bliogas of the, ... ... 62

Astcrism, Rohini, crossing the cart of a planet, ... ... 64

Asterisms or principal stars of the Yoga-Tdrds,... ib.

Astjjonomic&l Instruments, On the constuction of the, ... 87

Astronomy, Origin of, ... ... ... 1

. The science of, ... ... ... ... ib.

Originally, taught by the sun, ... 2

Atmosphere, Extension of, ... ... ... ... 127

Aurigac, The longitude and latitude of the star Projdpati, ... 65

Authors birth-place, Ac., ... ... ... ... 262

Autumn, The sdratkdla or season of early, ... 230

Avaha or atmosphere, The, ... ... ... ... . 127

Azimuth or vertical circle, ... ... ... ... ... 152

Bh&tyra, ... ... ... ... ... ... 107

Brahmd, Length of a day and night of, ... 4

, Period of his life, ... ... ... ... ib.

i

Brahmagupta, Praise of, ... ... ... 203

To find the Jongitude of planets by the,... a. #16,

Page

... 126 ... 209 200, 212

Brahm&nda, Dimensions of the,... Canon of sines, The construction of the, .Circl

e,

Centre of, ... ... ... 150

Circles, diurnal, ... ... ... ... 150

of the 12 signs, ... ... ... ... 8?

Clepsydra, Kapala Yantra or, ... ... ... 91, 200

Compass, the points of, ... ... ... ... 120

Day, Determination of the place whero the, becomes of 60 Gh&ti-

kfo, 83

Terrestrial, ... ... ... ... (2) 6, 132

Subtractive, ... ... ... ib.

of the week begins, To find the instant when, ... ... 12

To find the lunar, at a given time, ... 25

n" Period of, ... ... ... ... ... 2

of the gods,... ... .... ... 3

To find the Ruler of the present, ... ... ... 9

- Subtractive, called Avama^the reason of,... 130

of the pitris, Longth of.the, ... ... ... 163

of Brahma, The explanation of the, ... ib.

and night, Definition of the artificial, and the day and

night of the pitris, ... ... ... ... 162

- and night, Determination of place and time of perpetual,... , ib. Days and nigh

ts, Cause of increase and decrease in the length of, 161

from the time the planetary motions commenced to the

present midnight, ... ... ... 8

* Sidereal and terrestrial, their lengths, ... ... 128

Dunar, ... ... ... ... ... ... 132

Degree, measure of, ... ... ... ... ... 5

Degrees of latitude are produced from the distance in Yojanas

and vice versft, ... ... ... ... ... 121

Deluges o dissolutions, ... ... ... 125

- Fourfold, ... ... ... ... ... ib.

Demons, The day of the, ... .... ... 3

- The night of the, ... ... ... ... ib.

The year of the, ... ... ... (

ib.

. . p9

Earth, Descriptiorf of the, ... ... ... ... L12

*- Refutation of the supposition that the earth has successive dtip^orters, ...

... ... JJ&

Refutation of (tho objection as to how the/earth has its

own inherent j)owcr, ... ... ... ... ib.

-Attraction of the, ... ... ib.

* Bauddhas, opinion of the,... ... ... ... ib,

Jainas, opinion of the, ... ... ib.

. - Refutation of the opinion of the Bauddhas, regarding the, J 14

Refutation of the opinion of the Jainas, regarding the,... ib.

* - Refutation of the supposition that it is level,... ... ib.

Reason of the false appearance of plane form of the, ... ib.

Proof of the correctness of alleged circumference of the, 115

- Confirmation of tho alleged circumference of the, ... ib.

Questions regarding tho, ... ... ... 70, Jo7

Superficial area of the, ... ... ... ... J22

- Middle line of the, .... ... ... 11

circumference of the, ... ... ... ... 122

its diameter and circumference, ... ll

, diameter of the shadow of, at tlje moon, ... ... 41

Eclipse, Given the quantity of the eclipsed part to find its corresponding time,

... ... ... 45

- - To find the Valanas used in the projection of an, ... ib.

To find the Angulas or digits contained in the moons

latitude,diameter,eclipsed part, &c., at a given time during an, 40 of the sun,

... ... ... 48, 111, J70

of the moon, ... ... ... ... 41, ib

i the science of, very secret, ... ... 50

To find the magnitude of an, ... ... ... 42

To ascertain the occurrence of a total, partial or no, ... ib.

To find the half duration of the, and that of tho total

darkness, ... ... ... ... ... . 43

- To find the time of the phases of an, ... ... ... ib.

- To find the quantity of the eclipsed part at a given time

, during the first half of an, ... ... ... 41

- To find the quantity of the eclipsed part at a given time

during the latter half of an, . ... ib.

Page,

Eclipse, To mark the latitudes found at the beginning and end of an, it. ...

... in in 8^

jt To find the magnitude of an, ... 54s

The limit dff the magnitude of the feclipsed portion which

is invisible in the solar or lunar, ... .... ... ib.

To find the path of the coverer in an, ... / ib.

To find the direction of the beginning of total darkness

by the projection of an, ... .. ... ... 55

- To find the direction of the end of the total darkness,... ib

- The cause of the directions of the beginning and end of

.aolar, 176

The cause of the directions of the beginning and end of

the lunar, ... ... ... ... ... 177

The determination of the coverer in the, of the sun and m

moon, ... ... ... ... ... ... 178

Eclipses, What covers the sun and the moon in them, ... 42

Projection of solar, .., ... ... , ... 62

The directions of the beginning and end of the lunar

1 and solar, ... ... ... ... ib.

- - To find the probably times of the occurrences of, ... 41

Ecliptic, the,.. ... ... ... ... 38,89, 153

Variation of the, ... ... ... 184

To find the sine of the zenith distance of the culminating poin

t of the, ... ... ... ... ... 4 48

- Four common points of the,.. ... 92

To find the Horoscope or the point of the, just rising

at a given time from sunrise, ... ... ... 39

* The Madhya Lagna or the culminating point of the,... o89 Epicycle, Construction

of diagram to illustrate the theory of,... 144

Construction of the mixed diagrams of the excentric

and, ... ... ... ... 146

Epicycles of the sun and moon, ... ... ... ... 17

Equation, The reason for assuming the fiianda-spashfa planet as a mean in finding

the 2 ends, ... ... 142

- of centre, The principle on. which the rule for finding

, the amount of - is based, ... ... ... 141

Equator, The four cities placed at the, ... ( 80

Page

Equator, There is nt> equjpoctial shadow at the, .. . 80

* To find the rising periods of the signs of the ecliptie

at the, ... 38.

Equinoxes, the precession of the,... ... . 29, 157

Equinoctial, the .. ... 152, 209

- - how to make an) ... ... 210

- shadow, from the latitude to find the, ... # ... 31

shadow to find the co-latitude and latitude, " ... 30

Ganges, Source of the, 119

Geographical, Anomaly, as curious fact rehearsed, .. 120

Golddhydya, 105

Globe, equatorial, circumference of the, . 123

Gnomon, the, ... ... ... ... 91, 209, 212

j vertical, . 26

Gnomonic shadow, 27

Gods, the Mdna of tho, ... ... .. . ... 95

the day of the, ... , 3

the night of the, ... ... ib.

the year of tho, ... ... to

Grammar, in praise of,... ... . ... ... . 107

Heavenly bodies, Rules for finding tho times of the rising and setting of the,

Himalaya mountain, The,

Hori/on, the ...

Horoscope, the, ... ... ... ...

Hypothenuse, Given the shadow to find its, ... ...

-- to find the, and the equation of the centre,

explanation of the reason of omission of, in the

manda process,

Instrument, the self-revolving Spheric, ...

. for measuring time,...

a self-revolving or Swayanvaha yantra,

the praise of Dhiyantra or genius,

Instruments, astronomical,...

Jvnbudvipa, position of Mountains in the, .,

Juga, The number of days in a,

Jupiter, years of,

19G

117

90

89 29

144

147

90

ib.

227

*221

209

?J7

6

94

C Pam

Jupiter, The nodt of, m 7 .

revolutions of,... ... .5 ,

Jupiters apogee, .. iM 7

Kalpa, The length of,... ... ... f.. 4

Krita yuga, solar years elapsed from the time when the planeta-

ry motions commenced to the end of the last, ... V 7

Lagna, etymology of the word, ... ... ... ig5

Lalla, the error of, ... ... 122

The wrongness of the liule given by, ... . 123

an error of, exposed, ... ... 1G9

- another gross error of, ... ... ib.m

cause of error in, and others stated, ... 205

Latitude of a place, to iind from the gnomons shadow, ... 30

rectified, ... 2yi

* celestial, ... ... 201, 203

Latitudes, determination of, in which different signs arc always

above and below the horizon, ... 169

Lokas, arrangement of the seven, 120

Longitude of the sun, how to find, ... ... 31

... 11

Lunar Mona, the, ... 03

M&na, use of the, ... ... ... ib.

Mathematics, in praise of, ... ... 106

Mathematical calculations, two kinds of, ... ... ... < ib.

Matters, Cosmographical, ... ... ... ... 7<i

Mars, 2nd equation of,... ... 19

epicycles of, ... ... 18

- nodes of, ... ... ... ... 7

- revolution of, ... 5

Mars apogee, ... ... 7

Mauu, the length of, ... 3

Mercury, node of, ... ... ... ... ... 7

... revolution of, ... ... 5

Mercurys apogee, ... 7

Meridian, The, how to determino, .... ... PG

... 27

Meru, why due north of all places, ... v , 120

rage

Hero, place of, ... ... ... 70, 1G2

in Ilavrita, position of the mountain, 117

Minute, measure of,. ... ... ... ... ...

Month, S&vana, ... ... ... ... , 2

wm~"solar, , ... ... .#. ... ih.

lunar, ... 2, G, 131

2period of, ... 2

. -intercalary, ... ... 8

to find the ruler of the present terrestrial, ... ... 9

length of lunar or lunation, ... 129

the reason of additive called Adhimasas, ... ih.

Months, seasons and year, ... 93

Moon, node of the, ... ... 7

- eclipse of the, . 41

on the phases of tlio, and the position of the moons cusps, 09

diameter of the, . ... ... ... " 41

- thctcolour of the eclipsed portion of the, ... 65

rules for finding the time at which the declination of the

sun become equal to that of the,,.. n

- to find the true places of the, ... 19

to find tlio time of daily setting of the, U9

to find the time of daily rising of the, ... 70

to find the phases of the, ... ... ib.

j cause bf the phases of the,... Ill, 206

to find the true diurnal motions of the,...

21

revolution of the, ... ... ... ... 5

epicycles of the, ... 17

Moons parallax, .. 49

Moons apogee, ... 6

Motion of planets, ... ... ... 80

heliocentric, 21

different kinds of, ... ... ... 14

decreasing retrograde, ... i ... ih.

- increasing retrograde, ... ib.

j direct, ... ... . ... Sb.

mean, ... ... ... ... ib.

, stationary, ... ... ... ib.

tance of the,... Ml ... 48

Ocean, situation of the great, ... 80

Orbits of Planets,... ... ... 153

Parallax in longitude and that in latitude, ... 48, 177

not being necessary in lunar eclipses, ibm

what is the cause of, and why it is calculated from the radius of the earth, ...

... ... 179

Parallel sphere, ... 121

- and Right spheres,... 82

Pardvaha, ... ... 127

Parivaha, ... ... ... t.

Persons, praise of, Ingenious, ... ... ... ... 232

Pitris, day and night of, ... ... 162

Planet, to find the conjunction of a, with a star, ... 64

* 1 rectified mean placo of afc ... ... 20

- to find the motion of a minor, ... ... ... 21

18

Ghatiktfs, ... ... ... ... ... 8

rNodo, ... ... ... ... ... G

Nonagesimal, to 3nd the sine and cosine of the zenith di?-

and star, to know whether the timo of conjunction is

past or future, ... ... ... ... ... 64

to find the mean placo of a, at a given time, : 12

to find the dimensions of the rectified periphery of the

epicycles, ... ... ... 18

to find the time at which a, rises or sets heliacally, ... 66

Reason of correction which is required to find the true, ,

from the mean place of a, ... ... ... ... 137

Planets, to fiud the mean places of, ... ... ... 10, 12

to find apogees and nodes of, ... ... ... 12

... an easy method for finding the mean places of, ib. "

determination of the dimensiohs of the orbits of the,

and their daily motion in Yojanas, ... ... .. 86

of their daily motions in migrates or angular motions, jb.

. to find the radius of the diurnal circle of, ... ... 23

.to find the ascensional difference of, ... ib. .

1 Page

Planets, cause of the motions of, ... v. ... 13

s apsis of, ... ... ... ib.

- observation of,.. ... ... ... ... 59

the fight and association of, ... ... # .CO

which i^conquered in the fight, ... ... ... ib.

r which is the conqueror, ... ... ib.

rules for finding the true places of, ... t ... 13

- deflection of, ... ... ... 14

attraction of, ... ... ... ... ... 14

* on the conjunction of the, with the stars, CO

% order of the orbits of the stars and, ... ... 71)

and stars, on the heliacal rising and setting of the, ... 05

to find the length of a day of the, ... ... 23

number of risings of, ... ... C

- rules for finding the mean places of, ... ... 1

- motion eastward of, ... ... # 4

to find the longitudc of,... ... ... ... 212

an illustration of the motions of, ... 12H

- the minor 5, Why they require both the 1st and 2nd

equations to their true places, 1 ... \.. ... 147

how the 1st and 2nd equations arc to be applied, ... 20

to find the true place of, ... ... 19

which set hcliacally in the western horizon and rise

heliacally in the eastern horizon, ... ... ... CO

why their mean and true motions coincide, 149

manner of observing the retrogression, Ac. of, ... 719

on the principles of the 11 ulus for fiuding the mean

places of, ... ... ... ... ... 127

on the principles on which the Rules for fiuding the true places of the, are gro

unded,... ... 135

- the cause of variation of apparent size of, the discs of,... 143

their conjunction with the sun, ... 56

on the conjunction of, ... ... ... ... . ib,

kinds of conjunction of, ... ... ... ... ib.

. ....to find whether the time of conjunction is past or future, ib.

to find the time of conjunction from a given time, ... ib.

- conjunction the correction called the aksha-drik-karTna, 57

Page

Planets, to find the distance of two, in the same circle of posi- #

tion, ... ... 58

- the apparent diameters of the, in minutes, 39

Poetry, sweets of, ... ... ... .v ... 230

Points of the compass, ... ... .v ... .. 120

Pole, North, of the Barth, ... ... . ../ . 134

Poles, the inhabitants of tho two, 1 80

Projectionof Eclipses, ... 52

Quadrant, .. 209, 213

Questions, Pras nddhy&ya containing useful, ... 23l<

Miscellaneous,... ... 260

Radius of the diurnal circle, ... no#

Rainy season,.. 229

Retrogression of planets, ... 22

Samv&ha, 1$7

Sandhi, height of, 3

Saturn, revolutions of, ... ... 1 ... ... 5, G

Saturns apogee, ... ... .... 7

node, ... ... ... ... ib>

Seas and Dvipas, positions of the, lie

Seasons, months and year, , ... ... ... ... 93

description of the, ... ... ... 228

Seconds, measure of, ... 5

Semi-circles, .. 209, 213

Shadow, dotormination at noon, of the direction of the gnoinonic, , 84

Sphero, oblique, ... ... ... 85

Sidereal month, 2

-- Jay and night, ... ... ib.

> " revolution, ... . 5

M6na, the, 94

Signs, positions where same are always invisible, ... ... 83

Sine of amplitude, 28

Rules for finding the, of every degree from 1 to 90, J5, 267

way of refutation, of using the tersed, ... 190, 193

Sines, versed, ... ... ... ... ... ... IS

Rules for finding the 24, viz. 3 }, 7 }, 11 h 15, &c.... 2$7 . Ru^es for finding the,

of sum and difference of any two arcs, 268

, Sines, on the canon of, ... ... ...

Page 136. 92 121 . ik. 105 228

Solar Mfina, use of the,

Sphere, oblique, ... ... ... ,

parallel,...

Spherib, in praiso o the advantages of, ...

Spring, ..!. . ...

Star, the longitudes and latitudes of the Agastya, Mrigavyddha,

Agni and Brahmahridaya, ... ... ... ... 03

Stars, thetyosition of the polar, ... ... ... 80

h to find longitudes of the principal of the Astcrisnis or,... 01

Summer season, the Grishma or, ... ... 229

Sun, revolutions of the, ... ... ... 5

rules for finding the time at which the declination of the

sun and moon become equal, ... ... ... 72

- to find the true places of the, ... ... 19

to find the true diurnal motion of the, ... 21

epicycles of the, ... ... . 17

duration of the eclipse o{ the, ... ... ... 51

Eclipse of, vide Eclipse.

. Buies for finding the time at jvhich the declination of the moon become equal,

with that of the,.. ... ... 72

. and Moon, to find the time of their true declination, ... ib.

question about the revolution of tho, ... ... 7G

diameters of tho Moon and the,... ... 41

Apogee of tho, ... ... ... 7

Revolutions of thein a year are less than the revolutions of stars by one,

... . ... ... 129

the reason for finding the exact place of the, in order to

find Lagna, ... ... ... ... ... 167

declination and longitude of, how to find, ... ... 37

the prime vertical of the, ... ... 171

mean place of tho, to find, ... ... ... ... 82

zenith distance of the, at noon, ... ... ib.

shadow of the, and its hypothenuse, ... ... , .... 83

amplitude and the sine of amplitude of the, reduced, ... ib.

j altitude, ... ( ... 34

altitude, zenith distance, Ac. at given time from noon, ... 86

, Page

.Sundial, a new, < ... ... ... ... ... 213

how to use a, ... ... ... 217

i

Supreme Builig,the excellence of the, ... ... ... 11?

STivaha, ... ... ... 127

i ,

Syphon, description &f a, ... ... ... ... 227

Syxygy, to reduce the places of the sun, the mofiu and her

ascending node as given at midnight to the instant of the, 42 #

Terrestrial lyiuna, its use, ... ... ... ... 05

Terrestrial and Lunar days in a yuga, ... ... ... 6

shadow equinoctial, ... ... ... ... 30 <

Time, rules for resolving the questions on, ... 20

, kinds of, ... ... ... ... ... 2

, measurable (Murta), ... ... ... ib

, immeasurable (Amurta), ... ... ... ... ib.

, number of kinds of, ... ... 01

Triangles arising from latitude, ... ... ... ... 173

Tropic, Terrestrial, ... ... ... 81

Udvaha, ... 127

Universe, the, ... ... , ... ... 126

Unmandala or six oclock line;... ... ... ... 152

Venus, resolution of, ... ... ... ... 5, 6

node of, ... ... ... ... 7

, Apogee of, ... ... ... ... ... ib.

Virginia, of the stars Apamvatsa and Apa or, ... ... ^ ... 65

Water, Observations in, ... ... ... ... 2PA

Winter, hemanta or early, ... ... ... 230

Winter Sisira or close of, ... ... ... ... ib.

Year, to find the ruler of the present terrestrial, 9

, solar, ... ... .... ... ... ... 3

, the season and months of the, ... ... 93

, two halves of a tropical, ... ... ... ... ib.

, Length of the solar, ... ... ... 129

iTuga, length of the great, ... ... ... ... 3

tfugas, length of the four small, ... ... t6.

f uga, number of months and days in a subtractive and additive, 6, . 37

INDEX OF SANSKRIT! TERMS,

Abhijit, ... Gl, 88, l$3, Xchdrya,, ... Adhara-Kaksha,

^ Adhara-Vrittas,

Adhimdsa, 6, 130, 8, 131,

120,

Adhim&sa-aoaha, 131, 132, 240, 241, ...

Xditya,

Adhydtma, ...

Agastya, ... 33,08,

Agoi, 63,68,119,

Agra, 172, 111, 174, 251,

171

Agrddi,

Agr&di-Khanda, 17 4,

Agrigra-Klianda, 174, Abargaua, 8,131,237,239, 232, 100, 236, 8, 234, 235, 236,

20, 20, 130, 133, 240, 108,

Abordfcra, ... 2,

Ahor&tra-Vtittas,

Aiiftlra,

Aksha, 188, 201, 100, 58, 67,101, 46,

Aksha-Drikkarma, . 110, 501,60, ...

Aksbaja,

Akshajyft, ... Aksha-Karna, 252, 258, 254, 255, 256, 243, 244, 217, 249, 256, 21

5, 220, 178,

Aksha-Kshetras, Aksha-Valana, 199, 198, 104: 46, 103, 195, 200, *192, 188, 107,

47, 190, 180,187,194, 185, 189, Aksha-Vritta,

Alakananda,... ...

242

77

77

88

118

28

175

175

176

107

3

159

120

198

61

196

194

170

172

190

193

119

Am&vasyd, ... 130, 163

Angulas, * ... 46

Amurta, ... 2

Aniruddha, ... 77, 78

Ankusa, 227, 253

Ansuvi-Marda, 00

Antara-bhavana, 268

Antyajaa, 120

Antyd, 251,36, 37, 89

Anuradha, ... 68, 94, 65

Auvala, ... 123, 126

Anya, -f.. 257, 258

Apa, 65, 68

Apdm-vatsa,... 65, 68

Page.

09

263

88

153

Page

60

Apasavya,

A^aslitasdras,

Apsuras,

Ardra, ... 216,68,

Aruna,

Aryabhatfa, ... 122,

XshdcV ... 8,94,

AslushA, ... 75, 65,94, Aspasbta, ... 202,

Atfpat.lita<&ara,

Asta, 198,197,201,

Astalagna, 20i, 198, 197, 89,

Astamdna, ...

Abu, ...

Asuddlia, ... 167,39,

As uras, 84, 82, 79, 85, 81, 116, 81, 95, 80, 83, ...

Asus, 197, 198, 194, 168, 215, 161, 173,133, 129, Xswina, 129, 8, 91, 68, 64, 75

,

5;i

94

118

209

129

68

200

202

m

56 128 40

76

128

Atisigbra,

Afcivakra,

Atyantika,

Ansa,

Avama,

15,

130,131,

15 14 126

5

132

Bh&drapada,... 8, 64, 94, 129 Bhadr&swa, ... 82, 84

Bhadrfiswa-Varsha, 80,117, 119 Bbdgola, 153, 156, 159,

160, ... ... 210 5, 238

239, 240 241, 242 , ... 143 65,94, 68,

85, 84

119

75

194

242

60

195

167

Pagt

259

18

109

167

... 8 Bhumi, ... 129, 79

... 25 Bhur, ... 79

... 97 Bhurloka, ... 120

113, 114 Bhuvaloka, ... ... 120

.. 25 Bhuvanakos a, 127

24, 25, 75 Bhuvar, ... 79 -

194 Bhujantara,.

150/20,

119

229

Page

Xyana, 190, 101, .29, 106,

203, ... ... 79

Xyana-Drikkamaa,110,202, 58 Xyana-Valana, 198, 200,

202,197, 199,185, 187,

47, 195, 46, 191, 189,

188,192,193,

Bahu, 257,172,19 Bais&kha, - ...

Balva,

Bfipudeva, ...

Bauddha, ...

Bava,

Bhft-Bhoga, ...

Bhfidra,

Bhaganas, ...

Bhagana-sesha,

Bhajya,

Bhanji,

Eharagi, ...

Bharata,

Bhkrata-varsha, 120, 80,

117,120, ...

Bhfa&ndhi, ...

Bh&kar, 263, 223, 114,

221, 213, ...

Bhaskarfehdrya, 138, 186,

126, 124.149,142,125,

148,119,122, 108, 87,

*182, 179,240,169, 168,

241, 258, 242, 247, 268,

233, 257, 209, 215, 205,

203,201,188,

Bhavana, ...

Bheda,

Bhoga, ... 24,25, 62, 61

Bbogya, 167,39,168, 40

Bhogya-khanda,

Bhogy&Uas,...

Bhaja, 135,16, 30,18,31,

27, 44,28,29,27,85,17,

22, 176, 173, 194, 172,

245, 2G6,267, 265, 258,

222,225,217, 174, 224, 258,259,219, 209, 215, 220, 208,195,194, 207, 175, 225,21

9,224, 223, 219

BhnjMhab, 148, U6, lt\ 14S,

Bowfis,

Brahmd, 4,79,78,112,127, 139, 117, 95, 125, 118, 91, 110, 116, 88, 178, 164,

Brfihmaga, ... Brahma-Mdna,

Brahm&nda,... 112,126,

Branmandee,

Brahmagupta, 203, 201, 148,122, 202, 209, ...

Brahma-hridaya, 69, 68, 65,

Brahma-siddhftnta, 235, Brahma-siddh&nta-vit, ... Briechika, ... Buddhitattwa, ,

... Chaitra, 131, 129, 228, 8, 232,94, ... Chaitraratha,

Chakra,

Chakahu,

Chftpa,

Chara, 109, 215, 134,133, Charajya, ... 256, 161, Chara-kdlas,... Chara-khanda,

169, 161,

168

262

95

70

87

208

97

235

8

112

6

9

118

212

119

248

109

251

161

170

65

125

264,165,160, Chatughpida, Chaturdnana, Chaturyuga,... Chheda, Chhedaka, ... Chit

ra, ... Dainandina/,.,

1, 88 25 112 3

87,49, 176, 04, 68,

Page

Daityas, 110,115 162,122, 112 s Dakshindyana, 93, 163

Darbha, ... 261, 150

Danavas, ... . ... 126

Danuiag,. ..: .t. 112

Des6ntara,ll, 134,109,133, 12

Dhanishfhi, 68, .65, 69,

94, ... ..: 63

"Dhanu, ... 129, 8

Dh&rft, ... 245, 246

Dbivriddttida, ... 236

Dbivriddhida, tantra, 123,

287, 205, 236, ... 261

Dbriti, ... ... 118

Dhiyantra, ... 221,260, 224

Dhruvas, ... ... 202

Dhruva-yaahti, ... 151

Digvalanaja,... ... 202

Digvalanaja, tryasra, ... 202 Diks, ... 118

Di^ya, ... ,91, 95

Dreshdnas, ... ... 210

Dridha,1 ... ... <238,

Driggati, ... ... 49

Driggola, ... 153, 160

Drigjyd, 35,171,37, 36

Drigyd, ... ... 219

Drikkarma, 66,. 58, 190,

110, 204, 205, 203, 197,

200, ... ... 203

Drikkarama-vasana, 196, 206 . Dpkshepa, 50,49,183, 181 Drikshepa-vritta, 152, 18

1 Driksutra, ... ... 181

Drinmandala, ... 171

Dwdpdra, ... 110,108

Djvipas, ... 116,80, 117

Dyujya, 110,159, 189,197,

200, 251, 201, 24, ... 196

Dynjyd, ... 194, 123, 195

Gabhastimat, ... 120

Gamya, ... 25, 17

Gand&nta, ... ... 75

Gandhamfidana, ... 117

Gandharva, ... ... 120

Ganes a, ... ... 105

nJanitddhyftya, 208, 258, a 257,144, 261, 247, 145,

Garaja,

Garuga,

Gata,

Gatiphala, ...

Gatis, ...

Ghati, 211, 209, 164, 167, 211, 256, 216, 214, 130, 159,168,218, 168,184,

256

Ghatika, 2, 128, 25|, 25, 11,134, 24, 49, 93, 250, 254, 210,48, 57, 43,49, 68,76

,25,218,130,128, 83,1,40,129,44,12,45, 49,74, ...

Golabaudha,...

Goladhydya, 105,! Gomedaka, ...

Grahana, ...

Grahayuti, ...

Grishina, ...

Guhyakas, ...

Hara, ...

Harivanha, ...

Hasta,

Hemanta, ...

Hemakuta, ...

Himalaya, ...

Hiraqtnaya, ... Hirarjya-garbha,

Hpti, ... 2i Ildvpta,

Ilavpta-varsha,

Indra, ... I to,

Istya,

Ishta-hfiti, ...

Isbtantya, ...

Jaina,

Jambu,

Jambddwipa,

Jambunadi,...

Janaloka,

Jina-vptta, ... Jyft-bhavana, Jyautishopanisbat, Jyeahfhd, 241, 242, 129, 8, 75,

68,65,

Kaehnlr, ...

Page ... 25-

... 258 25, 17

... 149 251)

... 82

151

5, 37, 247

116

... 176

61

229, 93

... 87

242, 241

117

l, 05, 63

93, 230

... 117

... 117

117

77

252, 176

117

117

lid, 118

... 119

167

25 i, 252.

251, 252

114, 113

118

lie 117

... 118

120

... 193

... 268

,8, ### 9L

W

t 230

, 125,148,158,126,156, 108

4

- INDEX ON SANSKRITA TERMS.

.Kadamba, 229,100,118, Kadamba-bhrama-vritta, 192,

Kahshavritta, 137,

Kdl 264, 252, 25?, 251, 133

Kalaksas, 66,67,

Kali, ... 110,3,

Kalpa, 235,238. 242, 240, J30, 233, 234, 238, 4, 157,29,95,7,4,86,118, 131, 132,

130,127,108, Kalpa-adhimdtjaa Kalpa-bhaganas, Kalpa-saura,...

Kama-deva, ...

Kanyd,

Kanistyhd, ... Kdpaia-yantra,

Karma,

Karana,

Kama,

Karaoi, ... 34,

Karka, ... 8,

Karkyddi, ... 142,141, Karkyddi-kcndra, 142,

Kartika, 9, 4, 129, 8, Kaseru,

Katabas,

Kaulava,

Kausa,

Kendra, 21,144, 159,146, 158, 18, 19, 150, 142, 148, 16, 145, 141, 109, 140,20,1

09,16, Kcndra-gati,... 146,

Ketnmdla, ... 84,

Ketumdlavarsba, 80,119, Khagola, 151,152,153,160, Khakakslm, ...

Khanka,

Khan^as,

Khan^akas, ... Xhscbsruolr^

Khila,

Kinnfrayaraha,

Kinstughna,... yokilaa, ...

Koua-aafiku,...

239,

213,

8,

241,

132, 93, 26,

175,

117,217,

215,

191

19L

139

215

68

108

242

234

242

229

129

242

91

1G7

25

142

35

129

140

144

94

120

79

25

161

144

82

117

210

127

195

120

214

160

240, 236 ... 117 ... 25

228 35

m,s

Kona-vfittas,

Kotf, 135,16,142,70,135, 141, 27, 265, 222, 223, 267, 208, 209, 144, 207, 202, 2

03, 18,1-75, 174,

44, 172, 173, 194, 224,

45, 225,176,44/17,71,

Fog 152, 1J7

223 19,145,.; 18

Koti-phala,

Krama,

Krdnti-pdta, 157,154,153, Krantijyd, ... 1 ...

Krauncha, ...

Krishna,

Krishga-palisha,

Krita, ... 108,3,

Krita-yuga, ... 4, 8, 1, 10, Knttikd, ... 65,68,

Kshepa, ... 241, 167,

Kshepa-vj-itta, 157, 155, Kshepa-pdtas,

Kujyd, 110, 23,174, 175,

176,160, 215, 255, 254, f 256, 252, 249,25J, 248, Kuldchalas, ... ...

Kumariku, ...

Kumbha, , .

Kuru,

Kurukshetra,

Kuru-varsha,

Kusakasa, .

Kuta,

Kuftaka, .,

Lagna, 250,167, 200, 210,

89, 197, 166, 211, 20J,

167,

Lakshmf,

Lalla, 108, 128, 149, 205,

188,169, 205,

Lambana, 111, 183, 182,

181,

Lambana-kalas,

Lamba-rekhd, 217,218, Lankd, 89,109,80,115,9, 134,10,133,132,82,11,

20, 243, 134, 118,120,(

117,108,8, ... 38

Lahkodayas,.. ... 177

Lildvati, ... 136, 268

Loka, ... 116,126,120

8,

84,117, 134,

242, 236,

172 192 116 4 163 163 1J0 7

94

242

154

157

250

120

126

129

119

11

8i>

229

60

%L1

198

116

170

1SI

214

126

89

209

127

216

166

89

131

171

94

78

118

120

259

112

164

120

262

8

229

228

.229

117 77

118

19

109

19

337

142

51

119

Milya-Asura,..

Meru, 119, 79, 162, 121, 117,120, 119, 81, 134, 118,88,103,84, 169,85,

20

15

4

8

8

8

120

96

IK

8

129

232

129

130 94

144

94

68

Mina,

Misra,

Mithuna,

Mithuna-sankrdnti,

131,129, 8,

Lokdloka, ...

Madhya, ... 12,

Madhya-gati, 134,1,

Madhya-gati-vasapa, Madhfajyd; 48,49,

Msdtiysi^lii^niL 9m9

Madhyama, ... Madhyarekha, <M&dhyasanku, ...

Magha, 94, 129, 8,68, 65,

212, ...

. Mahan,

Mahdhrada, ...

Maharloka. ...

Mahdsafiku, 257, 252, 254, Mahattattwa,

Mahdyugas, ...

Mahendm, ...

Mahcswara, ...

Makara, ... 129,

Miilati, ... 228,

Malliki, ...

M&lay&f ... 120,

all a.1 vu.vn.ri

Mana, 94,90,95,93,91, 92, Mdnasa,

Manda, 17, 142, 147, 21, 15,20,14,154, Mandakendra,

Mandaphala, 109,19,150,

137, #

Manda-prativritta, 142, Mandspashta,

Marddrdha, 44,43, Manddra, ... 118,

Manda-sposhta, 157, 138, J54, 155, 21, 137, 142, 143,

Mandatara, ... 14,

Mandochchd, 13,14,10,16, 109, 146, 143, 137, 16, 109,

Manu, ... 108,7, 3,

Manus, ... 7,

Manwantara,

MArjjasinha,... 129,94,

Matspi, ;;;

Mdya, ... 77,112,

f ,

117,114, 80, Mesha,

8,

Mriga, ... dS, 64, Mrigddi, ... 140,141,

Mpgasirsha,... Mpgavyddha, 63,

Muld, ... 94,65,

Muni,

Munjala,

Mupta, ... 2,

Nadana, ...

NddL-valaya, .. 209,

Ndga, ... 25,120,

Nairrita, ... 118,

Nakshatra, 24G, 75, 24, Nakshatra Aliordtra, Nakshatra mdsa, Nakshatra-vritta,

Naraka,

Nata, 187, 195, 189, 190, Nataghatfjya,

Natajyd,

Natakarnia, ...

Nati, 111, 182,183,181,... Nati-kdla, ... 183,

Navdnsas, ...

Nichochcha,... Nichochcha-vptta, 143,

138,

Nila,

Nishadha, ...

Paksha,

Pala,

Palas, 129, 214, 215, 250, PaUbha, 251,249,248,245, 244, 243, 250,256, 246; 254,

262, 253,258,220, 222,255, 259, 219,215 161,80,173,31, Paldtmakas, ...

96

157

3

118

210

79

119

94

78 119 253 194 194 148 18 4 181 210 147

l&a

117

117

r

Para, ... ...

Pjajapatya, ... Prdidi

Page Page

120 Pushya, ...212,68,05, 91

139 Bahu, 178, 13.

126 Ruoysks^ m ... Ilf

Bdsi, .... 5

71 Rdaig, t ... 5

72 Rdsi-vfitta, .. 78

71 Bdsyudaya, ...# . 250

11 Bevati, 212, 5, 3, G5, 75,.

79 91, . ... * 68

76 Rjg-veda, 78

282 Rikshaka, ... . * ... 120

2J7 Rohinf, ... 68,61, 65,

115 Romaka, ... 80

91 Bomakapattana, 118, 117,

112 115, ... 120

216 Bujya, ... 110

213 Sahya, 120, 262

8 S aka, ... 116

118 S akuni, ... 25

S alivdhana, ... 108, 261

163 Sdlmala, . ... ... 11G

91 Sdma, 193,252,255,11,15, 191

219 t Sdnus, V.. 193

, 68 * Samasa, 53, 52

91 Samasa-bhavana, ... 268

95 r Samagama, ... ... 60

126 Samasanka, 111, 171,253,

125 175,171,219, ... 175

241 Sambhli-Horaprakdsa, ... 67

163 Sampufa, ... 79

2 Sama-kdla, ... ... 12

i Samvatsaraa,... 92,

69 Sdrua-veda, ... ... 78

262 Samgliahta, ... ... 231

, 258 Sanhitikas, ... ... 163

, 268 Sanhitd, ... ... 178

, 113 SanauichftrEL *6

, 85 Sandhis, ... 3,108, 7, 1

, 129 Sandhyd, 108, 8

, 65 Sandhydnsa,... 108, 8

, U9 Sdndilya, ... 262

, 163 Sankranbi, 130. 93, 8, 92, 131

. 77 Sankrdntis-karka, ... 130

. 61 Saiikarsbaga, ... 77

Sallku, 86,37, 28,171,19, 172,178,170, 175,176,

274, 262,220, 219, 255, 253 Safikutala, 29, 191, 176,

215,257,172,28,172,35, 176

Pariyatra, ... (

Parama-lambana,

Parvata,

1dta, 159, 261) 151, 158, 155,13,153, 75, 72, 73, IMtadliikiira,... 7S, Pdta-kd

la, 75,

Patas, ... 159, 158, Patala, , ... 116,

Patdla-bhumis,

Pati, ... 268,

Pattika, 215, 211, 218, Paurdnika, ... Ill, 126, Pausha, ... 8,129,

Fhala, 31, 35,138,1H, Phalaka, ... 211,209,

Phalaka-yantra, 216, Ph&lguna, .. 91,129,

Pippola, ... ...

Pitfis, 110,1G3,70,110,85, 91,162, ... , ...

Pitrya,

Prdehyapara,..,

Prajapati, ftR

Prdjdpatya-m&na,

Prakdsa,

Prdkrifcika, ...

Prakfiti, ...

Fralaya,

Prana,

Prdaa, 23,10,37,39,68, 66, 2, 70, 38, 21, Prasnfidhydya,

Prathama, ...

jPrativfitta, ...

Pravaha, 11,72,13,160, Pravipalaa, ...

Punarvasu, ... (

Purdoas, ... 9(

Purflirad,

Purusha,

Purvis e... Purva-Bhddrapada, 91, 61, 68

Purva-phflguni, 68,61, 91

PurvUddhd, 68,91,03, 01

sa^nshkara,, ... ... 117

Ivoshpavat!, ... ... 230

. "

Sanmya, ... ... 320

Sara, 107, 200,192, 202, 184

carat, ... ... 98

Saratkdla, - ... 230

Sarasriktf, ... ,A 107

Saura, 129,183, 182, 243,

2Q5,232,242,V 130

SAvaiia, 2, 370, 250, 130,

131,129, 95, 0,170,169,

171, ... ... 168

S&vana>gnatis, ... 167

* Savita, ... ... 77

Swhadbha, ... ... 153

Sasf, ... ... 118

Satat&r6, ... ... 94

SatatAraka, ... 212, 08

Satyaloka, ... ... 120

Sesha, ... ... 131

Betha, ... ... 131

Sha^aaiti-muklias, ... 92

Shadvarga, ... . ... 210

Siddha,, ... ... 79

Siddhapura, 115,120,118, ,

82 117

Siddha-puri,... ... 80

Siddhas, ... 79,- 318, 116

SiddhAnta, 262, 175, 165,

105, 370, llo; i56, 387/

96, 185, 182, 100, 250,

207,180, ... ... 200

Siddhauti^ ... ... 175

Sildhanta-Siromani, 262, 261 Sighra, 147,142,18,19,15, 20

Sighrochcha, 138,158, 146,

230, 169, 5, 6, 22, 13,

10, 109, 87,14, J6,149,

443, ... ... 109

Sighrochchas, 23, 168,138, 159 Sighra-karga, 154, 19

Sighra-kendra, 150, 159,

109, ... ... 158

Sighra-phala, 109, 19, 19,

158, ... ... 138

Sighra-prativfitta, 138,157, 142 Siehvatara or Atisighra, ... 14

^Sihgra-dhivriddhida, ... 108 **Smba, ... 129, 8

Siromagf, ... 126, 105

/Siaira, ,. 93, 230

SitA, .a ... 119

Siva, ... 113, 118

Slokas, 8, 13, 81, 61, 29, 92,97,75,79,92,28,86, .

42, 81, 57, 94, 19, 85,

148, ... ... 84

Soma-SiddhAuta, ... 97

Soxnamandala, ... 152

Spashta, 142,138, 47,155,

46, 159, 158, 154,182,

205,197, ... ... 201

Spashta-paridhi, ... 134

Spashta-pdtas, 154, 153,

156, ... ... 159

Spasliia-B&ra,... 197, 200 Spaahta-valana, 191, 185,

190, ... ... 387

Spasl lia-valana-sutra, ... 2o3 Sphuta, 71, 13, 236, 143, 142,41, ... ...

18

Sphuta-gatf,... ... 13

Sphuia-kakeha, ... 150

1 Sphuta-koti,... 146, 144

Sphuto-lambana-lipta, ... 183 , cravana, 8, 63, 61, 63, 65, >

129,94, ... ... 69

SfidharfichArya, ... 322

Sringavan, ... ... 117

Sriugonnati-vasana, 209, 206 Sripati, ... 188, 140

Sthityardha,... ... 51

Suchi, ... ... 41

Sugandha, ... 119, 111

Sukla, ... 1,7, 163

Sukla-paksha, ... 163

Sukti, ... ... lfcO

Sumeru, ... ... 115

Suparswa, ... ... 118

S urya, ... ... 77

S urya-siddhAnta, 209, 357,

96, 21, 26, 97, 75, 12,... 129 Sutra, 254,252,220,251, 253 Sutaka, ... 95

Swarloka, ... ... 120

Swati, ... 68,69, 94

SwayanvAha,.. ..a 227

SwayanvAha-yantra,

Swetajala, ... ... 1

Taddhriti, 250, 249,. 255,

174

174

25 227 120 205 120

12

64

181

6

110

10

194

210

26 247 ICO

8

202

129

n

213

2

13

140

220

171

109

242

60

176

94

63

Vasanta, ... ... 93

r Vasishtha, ... ... 139

Vaskara, 1 ... ... 107

Vasudeva, ... 77, 116

Vata, ... ... 118

V4y 119

Veda, 1

Vedas, 178, 107, 77, 79, 78,202, ...

Vedavadana,...

Vidyfidhara, ...

Vigraha,

Vijaya,

Vikala,

Page

248,254, 253, 255, 252,

256,175, ...

Taddhriti-Kujya,

X&itila,

Tala, ... ^ ...

Tamraparpa,...

Tantra, 237,261, 108,236, Tapoloka, ...

Tatkfilika, ...

Timi, ... 26, 71,27, Tithis, 131, 132, 25, 24, 03,260,25,24,184, ... Tithi-kshaya

,

TrotA, ... 108,

Trofcayuga, ...

Trijya,

Trinsanoas, ...

Triprasna, ... 40,

Triprasn&dhyAyaa, Triprasna-vaaana,

Trita, ... ...

Trysra, ... ...

Tula, ... 8,

Tul&di,

Thriya,

Ttirti, ... ...

Ucheha,

Uchcha-rekhd, 139, 144,

141,145, ... ... -

TJdaya, 48,198,200, 197 XJilaya-lagna,.. 198, 200

Uday&ta, ...

Uday&ita-sutra, 172, 219, 172,220, ...

Ujayontara, 133,132, ...

Udite, ... 171, 170

Ujjayinf, 134, 243,11, 253,

115, ...

Ullekha, ...

Unmandala, 175,152,161,

166,162,164,174, ...

Unnafca, 252,254,46, 170 Upavritta, ... ... 194

Upavritta-trifya, ... 194

Uttara, .. 04, 119

Uttarti-Bhddrapada, 94,64,

**68, ... 00

cptara-ph&lguni, 04,68, Uttariisbddha, 68,61,61,04

Page

Uttara-ydna,... 03, 163

Vadavanala, ... 116,122, 1 If

Vaibhrdja ... 118

Vaidhrita, ... , . ... 72

Vaia dkha, ... 94f 129

Vaivaswata, ?.. 4, 7

Vayu,. ;.. ....118

Vakra, ... 15/ 14

Valana, 206,203,194,197,

195, 46, 203, 196, 192,

193,187,190, 191, 189,

184, 46, 47, 58, 61, 54, 1

188,45,185,186,46,47,

52, ... ... 63

Valanas, 205,.45, 196,188, 191

Valana sutra, ... 203

Vanija, ... ... 26

Varga-prakfiti, ... 241

Varahas, ... 85, 71,93, 117

Vanuja, ... H8,120,1J9%

Vasana, ... 176, 934

Vasana-Bhdshya, 142,179,

< 233, ... ... 186

... xra

... 107 ... 79

... 60 ... 10 ... 24

Vikala,

Viksliepa, ... 14,

Vikshepa-kendra, 166,165,

154, 158, ... Vikshepa-vritta,

Vunaftdala, ... 15^

Vindbya,

Vipalas,

Vipjila, ...

Visdkh i, ... 68,94,

159

159

156

142

120

120

118

64

75

Vishpu-padi,

Vishkambhas, 119,

!!!

1 Vyomakakaha, Vyulkrama, ... Yajanas^ ... . Yajuiweda, M

\

INDEX OV SANSKRIT! TERMS.

It 0

Poyo

ViahQU, ... 118, 119

4Truchika, .... ... 129

Vriihabha/\.. . 8, 129

Vrutabhasankr&nti, v. 180

Vtftta, v. - 147

. ... 119

72, 75

... 79

167, 89

... 150

... 78

Yama, ... 118, 119

Yama-kotf, 120, 248, 80,

118,117, ... ... 116

Yamy ottara-vfitta, ... 152

Yantra, ... 216,927, 91

Page. ,

YantridhyAya, 228, 209 Yaahti; 217, 215, 201,202,

160,209, 220,219, ... 2J8. Yashti Chioba, 218

Yoga, ... 25,75,24, 90 ,

Yoga-tta, ... 65,62, 64

Yojanas, 244, 183, 83, 11,

126,87, 86,49,125, 84,

184, 122,207, 127, 86,

121, ... ... 41

Yuga, 260, 286, 108, 7,

286, 6, 5,9, 8,29, 180, 109,110,287,8,2,110,4, 108 Yupfdngbri, ... 110,

108

Ymanas, ... ... 115

- 3Transféré parbrainhub100
- MODUL SET ATransféré parZuraihan Yusof
- Lesson 1 Universe and the Solar SystemTransféré parhuehuehue
- DLL ELS WEEK 2Transféré parNerissa Dadores
- The Feng Shui CompassTransféré parmarchesedicaraba
- Ray Douglas Astrology and the Inner SelfTransféré partratak
- Murkhill SubsectorTransféré parJohn Hitchens
- Mercury Retrograde in Cancer Jun 15 - July 9 2007 - Roberto OhottoTransféré parapi-26796007
- NASA Changing Space-Time With Vortex Energy BlastsTransféré parjecan
- 6 Min New Stars DiscoveredTransféré parGál Ilona
- Lecture 32-rocket theoryTransféré par06me395
- MnTransféré parmarius_ilie
- Indian HoroscopeTransféré parJathakamService
- AstroTransféré parjhonind
- Halloween 2012 - Planetary Positions Report SheetTransféré parAcademic_Zodiac
- Schiller Institute manual_book_1 A manual on the rudiments of tining and registration.pdfTransféré parIsrael Monroy Muñoz
- VedicReport1-3-20154-21-01PMTransféré parKSPremsudhaPremsudha
- space science lessonTransféré parapi-272774267
- Crimaldi - Mercury and its karmic and evolutive valence - part 2.pdfTransféré parValentin Badea
- Solar PlanetsTransféré pareconomisthouse
- SaturnTransféré parViviana Puebla
- end of unit testTransféré parapi-299952808
- KP_ How Does the Dasa Lord Function_ - Jupiters WebTransféré parkrishan
- ScienceTransféré parIrene Javier
- 6s3[Www.qmaths.in]Transféré parKaran Yadav
- Exercises 1 Multiple choiceTransféré parBelén de la Fuente
- soalTransféré parkusuma santi
- 414190 Interpreting Vimshottari DasaTransféré parANANTHPADMANABHAN
- Satellite Motion and Kepler's LawsTransféré parJeff Bryan Arellano Himor
- 08.13.19 Pluto is not a planetTransféré parbing

- Case Study LuxTransféré parAnirban Bhowmick
- Chapter 9 OSMTransféré parZar Chi
- 1Transféré parIacob Ciprian
- Protecting America's Great Outdoors from Climate Change: Sierra Club's VisionTransféré parProgressTX
- salesforce_creating_on_demand_apps.pdfTransféré parCecilio Gutierrez
- Netdot Manual 0.9 EsTransféré parJuan Pablo Guerrero Cueva
- billingTransféré parapi-279624866
- Z-Hire V5 Administration GuideTransféré parasterisknet
- Literature Review ParaTransféré parSamay Grover
- Paper Review 1 - Google File SystemTransféré parvicky.vetal
- Vestige Arunachal Pradesh Branches | DLCP | Mini DLCP Office - PDFTransféré parMd Firdosh
- 1 100573 Br Eurolight How-To-guide EnTransféré parkukaraja
- Bridge GuideTransféré parNurali Mamen
- Cs1 CatalogTransféré parChairil Anwar
- Chad Lewis - Successful Communication in Multicultural EnvironmentsTransféré paririnaob
- SBplanTransféré parmechadesanpancho
- NC 60-30-10 PlanTransféré parNC Policy Watch
- Integrating SNC with SAP PI.docxTransféré parMazharkhan Modi
- ecen 326 - lab 5 reportTransféré parapi-241454978
- Industrial development bank of PakistanTransféré parSyeda Sani
- PN Facility Report WEEK 47Transféré parBer Salazar Jr
- b 0930823Transféré parpiyushdwivedi
- New Text Document12Transféré parVirgilBga
- Vertical Drains With Surcharing AssesssmentTransféré parMarian Bond
- IEEE SpectrumThisCarRunsOnCodeTransféré parDomenico Argenziano
- Solid-liquid Extraction UnitTransféré parHarshal Agrawal
- Elcon 215 DSTransféré parJuan Pedreros
- DARPA_FY14PB.pdfTransféré parhola123456789jg
- Long Span in ConcreteTransféré parPrakharVirendra
- a89856 PLSQL ExceptTransféré parAman Khan Badal Khan

## Bien plus que des documents.

Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.

Annulez à tout moment.