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CONCEPTS OF PHYSICS

[PART 1]

H C VERMA, PhD
Department of Physics
IIT, Kanpur

Bharati Bhawan
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Concepts of Physics 1
Printed at B B Printers, Patna-800 006
Dedicated to
Indian Philosophy & Way of Life
of which
my parents were
an integral part
FOREWORD

A few years ago I had an occasion to go through the book Calculus by L.V.Terasov. It unravels intricacies
of the subject through a dialogue between Teacher and Student. I thoroughly enjoyed reading it. For me this
seemed to be one of the few books which teach a difficult subject through inquisition, and using programmed
concept for learning. After that book, Dr. Harish Chandra Verma's book on physics, CONCEPTS OF PHYSICS is
another such attempt, even though it is not directly in the dialogue form. I have thoroughly appreciated it. It
is clear that Dr. Verma has spent considerable time in formulating the structure of the book, besides its contents.
I think he has been successful in this attempt. Dr. Verma's book has been divided into two parts because of the
size of the total manuscript. There have been several books on this subject, each one having its own flavour.
However, the present book is a totally different attempt to teach physics, and I am sure it will be extremely
useful to the undergraduate students. The exposition of each concept is extremely lucid. In carefully formatted
chapters, besides problems and short questions, a number of objective questions have also been included. This
book can certainly be extremely useful not only as a textbook, but also for preparation of various competitive
examinations.
Those who have followed Dr. Verma's scientific work always enjoyed the outstanding contributions he has
made in various research areas. He was an outstanding student of Physics Department of IIT Kanpur during
his academic career. An extremely methodical, sincere person as a student, he has devoted himself to the task
of educating young minds and inculcating scientific temper amongst them. The present venture in the form of
these two volumes is another attempt in that direction. I am sure that young minds who would like to learn
physics in an appropriate manner will find these volumes extremely useful.
I must heartily congratulate Dr. Harish Chandra Verma for the magnificent job he has done.

Y. R Waghmare
Professor of Physics
IIT Kanpur.
PREFACE

Why a new book ?


Excellent books exist on physics at an introductory college level so why a new one ? Why so many books
exist at the same level, in the first place, and why each of them is highly appreciated. It is because each of
these books has the previlege of having an author or authors who have experienced physics and have their own
method of communicating with the students. During my years as a physics teacher, I have developed a somewhat
different methodology of presenting physics to the students. Concepts of Physics is a translation of this
methodology into a textbook.

Prerequisites
The book presents a calculus-based physics course which makes free use of algebra, trigonometry and
co-ordinate geometry. The level of the latter three topics is quite simple and high school mathematics is sufficient.
Calculus is generally done at the introductory college level and I have assumed that the student is enrolled in
a concurrent first calculus course. The relevant portions of calculus have been discussed in Chapter-2 so that
the student may start using it from the beginning.
Almost no knowledge of physics is a prerequisite. I have attempted to start each topic from the zero level.
A receptive mind is all that is needed to use this book.

Basic philosophy of the book


The motto underlying the book is physics is enjoyable.
Being a description of the nature around us, physics is our best friend from the day of our existence. I have
extensively used this aspect of physics to introduce the physical principles starting with common clay occurrences
and examples. The subject then appears to be friendly and enjoyable. I have taken care that numerical values
of different quantities used in problems correspond to real situations to further strengthen this approach.

Teaching and training


The basic aim of physics teaching has been to let the student know and understand the principles and
equations of physics and their applications in real life.
However, to be able to use these principles and equations correctly in a given physical situation, one needs
further training. A large number of questions and solved and unsolved problems are given for this purpose. Each
question or problem has a specific purpose. It may be there to bring out a subtle point which might have passed
unnoticed while doing the text portion. It may be a further elaboration of a concept developed in the text. It
may be there to make the student react when several concepts introduced in different chapters combine and
show up as a physical situation and so on. Such tools have been used to develop a culture : analyse the situation,
make a strategy to invoke correct principles and work it out.
Conventions
I have tried to use symbols, names etc. which are popular nowadays. SI units have been consistently used
throughout the book. SI prefixes such as micro, milli, mega etc. are used whenever they make the presentation
more readable. Thus, 20 pF is preferred over 20 x 10 6 F. Co-ordinate sign convention is used in geometrical
optics. Special emphasis has been given to dimensions of physical quantities. Numerical values of physical
quantities have been mentioned with the units even in equations to maintain dimensional consistency.
I have tried my best to keep errors out of this book. I shall be grateful to the readers who point out any
errors and/or make other constructive suggestions.

H. C. Verma
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The work on this book started in 1984. Since then, a large number of teachers, students and physics lovers
have made valuable suggestions which I have incorporated in this work. It is not possible for me to acknowledge
all of them individually. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to them. However, to Dr. S. B. Mathur,
who took great pains in going through the entire manuscript and made valuable comments, I am specially
indebted. I am also beholden to my colleagues Dr. A. Yadav, Dr. Deb Mukherjee, Mr. M. M. R. Akhtar,
Dr. Arjun Prasad, Dr. S. K. Sinha and others who gave me valuable advice and were good enough to find time
for fruitful discussions. To Dr. T. K. Dutta of B. E. College, Sibpur I am grateful for having taken time to go
through portions of the book and making valuable comments.
I thank my student Mr. Shailendra Kumar who helped me in checking the answers. I am grateful to
Dr. B. C. Rai, Mr. Sunil Khijwania & Mr. Tejaswi Khijwania for helping me in the preparation of rough sketches
for the book.
Finally, I thank the members of my family for their support and encouragement.

H. C. Verma
TO THE STUDENTS

Here is a brief discussion on the organisation of the book which will help you in using the book most
effectively. The book contains 47 chapters divided in two volumes. Though I strongly believe in the underlying
unity of physics, a broad division may be made in the book as follows :
Chapters 1-14 : Mechanics
15-17 : Waves including wave optics
18-22 : Optics
23-28 : Heat and thermodynamics
29-40 : Electric and magnetic phenomena
41-47 : Modern physics
Each chapter contains a description of the physical principles related to that chapter. It is well-supported
by mathematical derivations of equations, descriptions of laboratory experiments, historical background etc. There
are "in-text" solved examples. These examples explain the equation just derived or the concept just discussed.
These will help you in fixing the Ideas firmly in your mind. Your teachers may use these in-text examples in
the class-room to encourage students to participate in discussions.
After the theory section, there is a section on Worked Out Examples. These numerical examples correspond
to various thinking levels and often use several concepts introduced in that chapter or even in previous chapters.
You should read the statement of a problem and try to solve it yourself. In case of difficulty, look at the solution
given in the book. Even if you solve the problem successfully, you should look into the solution to compare it
with your method of solution. You might have thought of a better method, but knowing more than one method
is always beneficial.
Then comes the part which tests your understanding as well as develops it further. Questions for Short
Answer generally touch very minute points of your understanding. It is not necessary that you answer these
questions in a single sitting. They have great potential to initiate very fruitful dicussions. So, freely discuss
these questions with your friends and see if they agree with your answer. Answers to these questions are not
given for the simple reason that the answers could have cut down the span of such discussions and that would
have sharply reduced the utility of these questions.
There are two sections on multiple choice questions namely OBJECTIVE I and OBJECTIVE II. There are four
options following each of these questions. Only one option is correct for OBJECTIVE I questions. Any number of
options, zero to four, may be correct for OBJECTIVE II questions. Answers to all these questions are provided.
Finally, a set of numerical problems are given for your practice. Answers to these problems are also provided.
The problems are generally arranged according to the sequence of the concepts developed in the chapter but
they are not grouped under section-headings. I don't want to bias your ideas beforehand by telling you that this
problem belongs to that section and hence use that particular equation. You should yourself look into the problem
and decide which equations or which methods should be used to solve it. Many of the problems use several
concepts developed in different sections of the chapter. Many of them even use the concepts from the previous
chapters. Hence, you have to plan out the strategy after understanding the problem.
Remember, no problem is difficult. Once you understand the theory, each problem will become easy. So, don't
jump to exercise problems before you have gone through the theory, the worked out problems and the objectives.
Once you feel confident in theory, do the exercise problems. The exercise problems are so arranged that they
gradually require more thinking.
I hope you will enjoy Concepts of Physics.
H. C. Verma
Table of Contents

Objective II 50
Chapter 1
Exercises 51
Introduction to Physics 1
1.1 What Is Physics ? 1 Chapter 4
1.2 Physics and Mathematics 1 The Forces 56
1.3 Units 2 4.1 Introduction 56
1.4 Definitions of Base Units 3 4.2 Gravitational Force 56
1.5 Dimension 4 4.3 Electromagnetic (EM) Force 57
1.6 Uses of Dimension 4 4.4 Nuclear Forces 59
1.7 Order of Magnitude 6 4.5 Weak Forces 59
1.8 The Structure of World 6 59
4.6 Scope of Classical Physics
Worked Out Examples 7
Worked Out Examples 60
Questions for Short Answer 8
Questions for Short Answer 61
Objective I 9
Objective I 62
Objective II 9
Objective II 62
Exercises 9
Exercises 63
Chapter 2 Chapter 5
Physics and Mathematics 12
Newton's Laws of Motion 64
2.1 Vectors and Scalars 12
5.1 First Law of Motion 64
2.2 Equality of Vectors 13
5.2 Second Law of Motion 65
2.3 Addition of Vectors 13
5.3 Working with Newton's First and Second Law 66
2.4 Multiplication of a Vector by a Number 14
5.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion 68
2.5 Subtraction of Vectors 14
5.5 Pseudo Forces 69
2.6 Resolution of Vectors 14
5.6 The Horse and the Cart 71
2.7 Dot Product or Scalar Proudct of Two Vectors 15
5.7 Inertia 71
2.8 Cross Product or Vector Product of Two Vectors 16
Worked Out Examples 72
dy
2.9 Differential Calculus dx as Rate Measurer 17 Questions for Short Answer 76
Objective I 77
2.10 Maxima and Minima 18
Objective II 78
2.11 Integral Calculus 19
Exercises 79
2.12 Significant Digits 21
2.13 Significant Digits in Calculations 22 Chapter 6
2.14 Errors in Measurement 23
Worked Out Examples 24 Friction 85
Questions for Short Answer 27 6.1 Friction as the Component of Contact Force 85
Objective I 28 6.2 Kinetic Friction 86
Objective II 28 6.3 Static Friction 87
Exercises 29 6.4 Laws of Friction 88
6.5 Understanding Friction at Atomic Level 88
Chapter 3 6.6 A Laboratory Method to Measure
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 31 Friction Coefficient 89
3.1 Rest and Motion 31 Worked Out Examples 91
3.2 Distance and Displacement 31 Questions for Short Answer 95
3.3 Average Speed and Instantaneous Speed 32 Objective I 96
3.4 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity 33 Objective II 97
3.5 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration 34 Exercises 97
3.6 Motion in a Straight Line 34 Chapter 7
3.7 Motion in a Plana 37
3.8 Projectile Motion
. 38 Circular Motion 101
3.9 Change of Frame 39 7.1 Angular Variables 101
Worked Out Examples 41 7.2 Unit Vectors along the Radius and the Tangent 102
Questions for Short Answer 48 7.3 Acceleration in Circular Motion 102
Objective I 49 7.4 Dynamics of Circular Motion 103
7.5 Circular Turnings and Banking of Roads 104 10.6 Bodies in Equilibrium 172
7.6 Centrifugal Force 105 10.7 Bending of a Cyclist on a Horizontal Turn 172
7.7 Effect of Earth's Rotation on Apparent Weight 106 10.8 Angular Momentum 173
Worked Out Examples 107 10.9 L= 10 173
Questions for Short Answer 111 10.10 Conservation of Angular Momentum 173
Objective I 112 10.11 Angular Impulse 174
Objective II 113 10.12 Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body
Exercises 114 Rotating About a Given Axis 174
10.13 Power Delivered and Work Done by a Torque 175
Chapter 8 10.14 Calculation of Moment of Inertia 175
Work and Energy 118 10.15 Two Important Theorems on Moment of Inertia 178
118 10.16 Combined Rotation and Translation 180
8.1 Kinetic Energy
8.2 Work and Work-energy Theorem 118 10.17 Rolling 180
8.3 Calculation of Work Done 119 10.18 Kinetic Energy of a Body in Combined
Rotation and Translation 182
8.4 Work-energy Theorem for a System of Particles 120
10.19 Angular Momentum of a Body
8.5 Potential Energy 121 in Combined Rotation and Translation 182
8.6 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces 121 183
10.20 Why Does a Rolling Sphere Slow Down ?
8.7 Definition of Potential Energy and Worked Out Examples 183
Conservation of Mechanical Energy 122
Questions for Short Answer 192
8.8 Change in the Potential Energy
in a Rigid-body-motion 123 Objective I 193
8.9 Gravitational Potential Energy 124 Objective II 194
8.10 Potential Energy of a Compressed or Exercises 195
Extended Spring 124 Chapter 11
8.11 Different Forms of Energy : Mass Energy
Equivalence 126 Gravitation 203
Worked Out Examples 126 11.1 Historical Introduction 203
Questions for Short Answer 130 11.2 Measurement of Gravitational Constant G 204
Objective I 131 11.3 Gravitational Potential Energy 206
Objective II 131 11.4 Gravitational Potential 207
Exercises 132 11.5 Calculation of Gravitational Potential 207
11.6 Gravitational Field 210
Chapter 9 11.7 Relation between Gravitational Field and Potential 210
Centre of Mass, Linear Momentum, Collision 139 11.8 Calculation of Gravitational Field 211
9.1 Centre of Mass 139 11.9 Variation in the Value of g 214
9.2 Centre of Mass of Continuous Bodies 141 11.10 Planets and Satellites 216
9.3 Motion of the Centre of Mass 142 11.11 Kepler's Laws 217
9.4 Linear Momentum and its Conservation Principle 144 11.12 Weightlessness in a Satellite 217
9.5 Rocket Propulsion 144 11.13 Escape Velocity 217
9.6 Collision 145 11.14 Gravitational Binding Energy 218
9.7 Elastic Collision in One Dimension 147 11.15 Black Holes 218
9.8 Perfectly Inelastic Collision in One Dimension 148 11.16 Inertial and Gravitational Mass 218
9.9 Coefficient of Restitution 148 11.17 Possible Changes in the Law of Gravitation 219
9.10 Elastic Collision in Two Dimensions 148 Worked Out Examples 219
9.11 Impulse and Impulsive Force 149 Questions for Short Answer 223
Worked Out Examples 149 Objective I 224
.

Questions for Short Answer 156 Objective II 225


Objective I 157 Exercises 225
Objective II 158
Chapter 12
Exercises 159
Simple Harmonic Motion 229
Chapter 10
12.1 Simple Harmonic Motion 229
Rotational Mechanics 166 12.2 Qualitative Nature of Simple Harmonic Motion 229
10.1 Rotation of a Rigid Body 12.3 Equation of Motion of a Simple Harmonic Motion 230
about a Given Fixed Line 166 12.4 Terms Associated with Simple Harmonic Motion 231
10.2 Kinematics 167 12.5 Simple Harmonic Motion as a
10.3 Rotational Dynamics 168 Projection of Circular Motion 233
10.4 Torque of a Force about the Axis of Rotation 169 12.6 Energy Conservation in Simple Harmonic Motion 233
10.5 r = /a 170 12.7 Angular Simple Harmonic Motion 234
12.8 Simple Pendulum 235 Questions for Short Answer 297
12.9 Physical Pendulum 237 Objective I 298
12.10 Torsional Pendulum 237 Objective II 300
1,2.11 Composition of Two Simple Harmonic Motions 238 Exercises 300
12.12 Damped Harmonic Motion 242
12.13 Forced Oscillation and Resonance 242 Chapter 15
Worked Out Examples 243 Wave Motion and Waves on a String 303
Questions for Short Answer 249
15.1 Wave Motion 303
Objective I 250
15.2 Wave Pulse on a String 303
Objective II 251
15.3 Sine Wave Travelling on a String 305
Exercises 252
15.4 Velocity of a Wave on a String 307
Chapter 13 15.5 Power Transmitted along the String
by a Sine Wave 308
Fluid Mechanics 258 15.6 Interference and the Principle of Superposition 308
13.1 Fluids 258 15.7 Interference of Waves Going in Same Direction 309
13.2 Pressure in a Fluid 258 15.8 Reflection and Transmission of Waves 310
13.3 Pascal's Law 259 15.9 Standing Waves 311
13.4 Atmospheric Pressure and Barometer 260 15.10 Standing Waves on a String Fixed
13.5 Archimedes' Principle 261 at Both Ends (Qualitative Discussion) 312
13.6 Pressure Difference and Buoyant 15.11 Analytic Treatment of Vibration
Force in Accelerating Fluids 262 of a String Fixed at Both Ends 314
13.7 Flow of Fluids 263 15.12 Vibration of a String Fixed at One End 315
13.8 Steady and Turbulent Flow 263 15.13 Laws of Transverse Vibrations of a
13.9 Irrotational Flow of an String : Sonometer 315
Incompressible and Nonviscous Fluid 264
15.14 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves 317
13.10 Equation of Continuity 264
15.15 Polarization of Waves 317
13.11 Bernoulli's Equation 264
Worked Out Examples 318
13.12 Applications of Bernoulli's Equation 266
Questions for Short Answer 321
Worked Out Examples 267
Objective I 322
Questions for Short Answer 270
Objective II 323
Objective I 271
272 Exercises 323
Objective II
Exercises 273 Chapter 16
Chapter 14 Sound Waves 329
Some Mechanical Properties of Matter 277 16.1 The Nature and Propagation of Sound Waves 329
14.1 Molecular Structure of a Material 277 16.2 Displacement Wave and Pressure Wave 330
14.2 Elasticity 279 16.3 Speed of a Sound Wave in a Material Medium 331
14.3 Stress 279 16.4 Speed of Sound in a Gas : Newton's
14.4 Strain 280 Formula and Laplace's Correction 332
14.5 Hooke's Law and the Modulii of Elasticity 280 16.5 Effect of Pressure, Temperature and
Humidity on the Speed of Sound in Air 333
14.6 Relation between Longitudinal Stress and Strain 281
282 16.6 Intensity of Sound Waves 333
14.7 Elastic Potential Energy of a Strained Body
14.8 Determination of Young's Modulus in Laboratory 283 16.7 Appearance of Sound to Human Ear 334
14.9 Surface Tension 284 16.8 Interference of Sound Waves 335
14.10 Surface Energy 286 16.9 Standing Longitudinal Waves
and Vibrations of Air Columns 336
14.11 Excess Pressure Inside a Drop 286
16.10 Determination of Speed of Sound in Air 339
14.12 Excess Pressure/ in a Soap Bubble 288
288 16.11 Beats 340
14.13 Contact Angle
289 16.12 Diffraction 342
14.14 Rise of Liquid in a Capillary Tube
14.15 Viscosity 290 16.13 Doppler Effect 342
14.16 Flow through a Narrow Tube : Poiseuille's 16.14 Sonic Booms 344
Equation 291 16.15 Musical Scale 345
14.17 Stokes' Law 291 16.16 Acoustics of Buildings 345
14.18 Terminal Velocity 292 Worked Out Examples 346
14.19 Measuring Coefficient of Viscosity Questions for Short Answer 351
by Stokes' Method 292 Objective I 351
14.20 Critical Velocity and Reynolds Number 293 Objective II 352
Worked Out Examples 293 Exercises 352
Chapter 17 19.6 Resolving Power of a Microscope and a Telescope 425
19.7 Defects of Vision 425
{Light Waves 360 Worked Out Examples 427
17.17 Waves or l'articles 360 Questions for Short Answer 430
17.2 The Nature of ,Light Waves 360 Objective I 431
17.3 Hiiygens' Principle 362 Objective II 431
17.4 Young's Double Hole Experiment 365 Exercises 432
17.5 Young's Double Slit Experiment 365
17.6 Optical Path 366 Chapter 20
17.7 Interference from Thin Films 367 Dispersion and Spectra 434
17.8 Fresnel's Biprism 369
20.1 Dispersion 434
17.9 Coherent and Incoherent Sources 369
20.2 Dispersive Power 434
17.10 Diffraction of Light 370
20.3 Dispersion without Average Deviation
17.11 Fraunhofer Diffraction by a Single Slit 371 and Average Deviation without Dispersion 435
17.12 Fraunhofer Diffraction by a Circular Aperture 372 20.4 Spectrum 436
17.13 Fresnel Diffraction at a Straight Edge 373 20.5 Kinds of Spectra 437
17.14 Limit of Resolution 373
20.6 Ultraviolet and Infrared Spectrum 438
17.15 Scattering of Light 374
20.7 Spectrometer 438
17.16 Polarization of Light 374
20.8 Rainbow 440
Worked Out Examples 376
Worked Out Examples 440
Questions for Short Answer 379
Questions for Short Answer 441
Objective I 379
Objective I 441
Objective II 380
Objective II 442
Exercises 380
Exercises 442
Chapter 18
Geometrical Optics 385 Chapter 21
18.1 Reflection at Smooth Surfaces 385 Speed of Light 444
18.2 Spherical Mirrors 385 21.1 Historical Introduction 444
18.3 Relation Between u, v and R for Spherical Mirrors 387 21.2 Fizeau Method 444
18.4 Extended Objects and Magnification 388 21.3 Foucault Method 445
18.5 Refraction at Plane Surfaces 388 21.4 Michelson Method 447
18.6 Critical Angle 389 Questions for Short Answer 447
18.7 Optical Fibre 389 Objective I 448
18.8 Prism 390 Objective II 448
18.9 Refraction at Spherical Surfaces 391 Exercises 448
18.10 Extended Objects : Lateral Magnification 392
18.11 Refraction through Thin Lenses 393 Chapter 22
18.12 Lens Maker's Formula and Lens Formula 394
Photometry 449
18.13 Extended Objects : Lateral Magnification 395
18.14 Power of a Lens 396 22.1 Total Radiant Flux 449
18.15 Thin Lenses in Contact 396 22.2 Luminosity of Radiant Flux 449
18.16 Two Thin Lenses Separated By a Distance 397 22.3 Luminous Flux : Relative Luminosity 449
18.17 Defects of Images 398 22.4 Luminous Efficiency 450
Worked Out Examples 400 22.5 Luminous Intensity or Illuminating Power 450
Questions for Short Answer 410 22.6 Illuminance 450
Objective I 410 22.7 Inverse Square Law 451
Objective II 412 22.8 Lambert's Cosine Law 451
Exercises 412 22.9 Photometers 451
Worked Out Examples 452
Chapter 19 Questions for Short Answer 453
Optical Instruments 419 Objective I 454
19.1 The Eye 419 Objective II 454
19.2 The Apparent Size 420 Exercises 455
1\9.3 Simple Microscope 420 APPENDIX A 457
19.4 Compound Microscope 421 APPENDIX B 458
19.5 Telescopes 422 INDEX 459
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS

1.1 WHAT IS PHYSICS ? Physics goes the same way. The nature around us
is like a big chess game played by Nature. The events
The nature around us is colourful and diverse. It in the nature are like the moves of the great game.
contains phenomena of large varieties. The winds, the We are allowed to watch the events of nature and
sands, the waters, the planets, the rainbow, heating of guess at the basic rules according to which the events
objects on rubbing, the function of a human body, the take place. We may come across new events which do
energy coming from the sun and the nucleus there not follow the rules guessed earlier and we may have
are a large number of objects and events taking place to declare the old rules inapplicable or wrong and
around us. discover new rules.
Physics is the study of nature and its laws. We Since physics is the study of nature, it is real. No
expect that all these different events in nature take one has been given the authority to frame the rules of
place according to some basic laws and revealing these physics. We only discover the rules that are operating
laws of nature from the observed events is physics. For in nature. Aryabhat, Newton, Einstein or Feynman are
example, the orbiting of the moon around the earth, great physicists because from the observations
falling of an apple from a tree and tides in a sea on a available at that time, they could guess and frame the
full moon night can all be explained if we know the laws of physics which explained these observations in
Newton's law of gravitation and Newton's laws of a convincing way. But there can be a new phenomenon
motion. Physics is concerned with the basic rules any day and if the rules discovered by the great
which are applicable to all domains of life. scientists are not able to explain this phenomenon, no
Understanding of physics, therefore, leads to one will hesitate to change these rules.
applications in many fields including bio and medical
sciences. 1.2 PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS
The great physicist Dr R. P. Feynman has given a The description of nature becomes easy if we have
wonderful description of what is "understanding the the freedom to use mathematics. To say that the
nature". Suppose we do not know the rules of chess gravitational force between two masses is proportional
but are allowed to watch the moves of the players. If to the product of the masses and is inversely
we watch the game for a long time, we may make out proportional to the square of the distance apart, is
some of the rules. With the knowledge of these rules more difficult than to write
we may try to understand why a player played a
particular move. However, this may be a very difficult m1m2
F cc 2 ... (1.1)
task. Even if we know all the rules of chess, it is not r
so simple to understand all the complications of a game Further, the techniques of mathematics such as
in a given situation and predict the correct move. algebra, trigonometry and calculus can be used to
Knowing the basic rules is, however, the minimum make predictions from the basic equations. Thus, if we
requirement if any progress is to be made. know the basic rule (1.1) about the force between two
One may guess at a wrong rule by partially particles, we can use the technique of integral calculus
watching the game. The experienced player may make to find what will be the force exerted by a uniform rod
use of a rule for the first time and the observer of the on a particle placed on its perpendicular bisector.
game may get surprised. Because of the new move Thus, mathematics is the language of physics.
some of the rules guessed at may prove to be wrong Without knowledge of mathematics it would be much
and the observer will frame new rules. more difficult to discover, understand and explain the
2 Concepts of Physics

laws of nature. The importance of mathematics in and any changes in standard units are communicated
today's world cannot be disputed. However, through the publications of the Conference.
mathematics itself is not physics. We use a language
to express our ideas. But the idea that we want to Fundamental and Derived Quantities
express has the main attention. If we are poor at There are a large number of physical quantities
grammar and vocabulary, it would be difficult for us which are measured and every quantity needs a
to communicate our feelings but while doing so our definition of unit. However, not all the quantities are
basic interest is in the feeling that we want to express. independent of each other. As a simple example, if a
It is nice to board a deluxe coach to go from Delhi to unit of length is defined, a unit of area is automatically
Agra, but the sweet memories of the deluxe coach and obtained. If we make a square with its length equal
the video film shown on way are next to the prime to its breadth equal to the unit length, its area can be
goal of reaching Agra. "To understand nature" is called the unit area. All areas can then be compared
physics, and mathematics is the deluxe coach to take to this standard unit of area. Similarly, if a unit of
us there comfortably. This relationship of physics and length and a unit of time interval are defined, a unit
mathematics must be clearly understood and kept in of speed is automatically obtained. If a particle covers
mind while doing a physics course. a unit length in unit time interval, we say that it has
a unit speed. We can define a set of fundamental
1.3 UNITS quantities as follows :
(a) the fundamental quantities should be indepen-
Physics describes the laws of nature. This dent of each other, and
description is quantitative and involves measurement (b) all other quantities may be expressed in terms
and comparison of physical quantities. To measure a of the fundamental quantities.
physical quantity we need some standard unit of that It turns out that the number of fundamental quantities
quantity. An elephant is heavier than a goat but is only seven. All the rest may be derived from these
exactly how many times ? This question can be easily
quantities by multiplication and division. Many
answered if we have chosen a standard mass calling different choices can be made for the fundamental
it a unit mass. If the elephant is 200 times the unit quantities. For example, one can take speed and time
mass and the goat is 20 times we know that the
as fundamental quantities. Length is then a derived
elephant is 10 times heavier than the goat. If I have
quantity. If something travels at unit speed, the
the knowledge of the unit length and some one says
distance it covers in unit time interval will be called
that Gandhi Maidan is 5 times the unit length from a unit distance. One may also take length and time
here, I will have the idea whether I should walk down
interval as the fundamental quantities and then speed
to Gandhi Maidan or I should ride a rickshaw or I
will be a derived quantity. Several systems are in use
should go by a bus. Thus, the physical quantities are
over the world and in each system the fundamental
quantitatively expressed in terms of a unit of that
quantities are selected in a particular way. The units
quantity. The measurement of the quantity is defined for the fundamental quantities are called
mentioned in two parts, the first part gives how many
fundamental units and those obtained for the derived
times of the standard unit and the second part gives quantities are called the derived units.
the name of the unit. Thus, suppose I have to study
for 2 hours. The numeric part 2 says that it is 2 times Fundamental quantities are also called base
of the unit of time and the second part hour says that quantities.
the unit chosen here is an hour. SI Units

Who Decides the Units ? In 1971 CGPM held its meeting and decided a
system of units which is known as the International
How is a standard unit chosen for a physical System of Units. It is abbreviated as SI from the
quantity ? The first thing is that it should have French name Le Systeme International d'Unites. This
international acceptance. Otherwise, everyone will system is widely used throughout the world.
choose his or her own unit for the quantity and it will Table (1.1) gives the fundamental quantities and
be difficult to communicate freely among the persons their units in SI.
distributed over the world. A body named Conference
Generale des Poids et Mesures or CGPM also known
as General Conference on Weight and Measures in
English has been given the authority to decide the
units by international agreement. It holds its meetings
Introduction to Physics 3

Table 1.1 : Fundamental or Base Quantities (a) Invariability : The standard unit must be
Quantity Name of the Unit Symbol invariable. Thus, defining distance between the tip of
the middle finger and the elbow as a unit of length is
Length metre
not invariable.
Mass kilogram kg
(b) Availability : The standard unit should be
Time second easily made available for comparing with other
Electric Current ampere A quantities.
Thermodynamic Temperature kelvin The procedures to define a standard value as a
Amount of Substance mole mol unit are quite often not very simple and use modern
Luminous Intensity candela cd equipments. Thus, a complete understanding of these
procedures cannot be given in the first chapter. We
briefly mention the definitions of the base units which
Besides the seven fundamental units two
may serve as a reference if needed.
supplementary units are defined. They are for plane
angle and solid angle. The unit for plane angle is Metre
radian with the symbol rad and the unit for the solid
angle is steradian with the symbol sr. It is the unit of length. The distance travelled by
1
light in vacuum in second is called 1 m.
SI Prefixes
299,792,458

The magnitudes of physical quantities vary over a Kilogram


wide range. We talk of separation between two The mass of a cylinder made of platinum-iridium
protons inside a nucleus which is about 10 -15m and alloy kept at International Bureau of Weights and
the distance of a quasar from the earth which is about Measures is defined as 1 kg.
10 26 m. The mass of an electron is 9.1 x 10 31kg and
Second
that of our galaxy is about 2.2 x 10 41kg. The
Cesium-133 atom emits electromagnetic radiation
CGPM recommended standard prefixes for certain
of several wavelengths. A particular radiation is
powers of 10. Table (1.2) shows these prefixes.
selected which corresponds to the transition between
Table 1.2 : SI prefixes the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of Cs-133.
Power of 10 Prefix Symbol Each radiation has a time period of repetition of
certain characteristics. The time duration in
18 exa 9,192,631,770 time periods of the selected transition is
15 peta defined as 1 s.
12 tera
9 gigs Ampere
6 mega Suppose two long straight wires with negligible
3 kilo cross-section are placed parallel to each other in
2 hecto vacuum at a separation of 1 m and electric currents
1 deka da are established in the two in same direction. The wires
1 deci attract each other. If equal currents are maintained in
the two wires so that the force between them is
2 centi
2 x 10-7newton per metre of the wires, the current in
3 milli
any of the wires is called 1 A. Here, newton is the SI
6 micro
unit of force.
9 nano
12 pico Kelvin
15 femto
The fraction
18 atto a 273.16 of the thermodynamic
temperature of triple point of water is called 1 K.

Mole
1.4 DEFINITIONS OF BASE UNITS
The amount of a substance that contains as many
Any standard unit should have the following two elementary entities (molecules or atoms if the
properties : substance is monatomic) as there are number of atoms
4 Concepts of Physics

in 0.012 kg of carbon-12 is called a mole. This number Such an expression for a physical quantity in terms
(number of atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon-12) is called of the base quantities is called the dimensional
Avogadro constant and its best value available is formula. Thus, the dimensional formula of force is
6'022045 x 10 23 with an uncertainty of about MLT -2. The two versions given below are equivalent
0'000031 x 10 23. and are used interchangeably.
(a) The dimensional formula of force is MLT -2.
Candela
(b) The dimensions of force are 1 in mass, 1 in
The SI unit of luminous intensity is 1 cd which is length and 2 in time.
the luminous intensity of a blackbody of surface area
2 Example 1.1
m placed at the temperature of freezing
600,000
platinum and at a pressure of 101,325 N/m 2, in the Calculate the dimensional formula of energy from the
direction perpendicular to its surface. 1
equation E = my 2.
2

1.5 DIMENSION 1 is
Solution : Dimensionally, E = mass x (velocity)2, since
2
All the physical quantities of interest can be a number and has no dimension.
2
derived from the base quantities. When a quantity is
expressed in terms of the base quantities, it is written Or, [E] =M 4) = ML2 T -2.
as a product of different powers of the base quantities.
The exponent of a base quantity that enters into the
expression, is called the dimension of the quantity in
that base. To make it clear, consider the physical 1.6 USES OF DIMENSION
quantity force. As we shall learn later, force is equal
to mass times acceleration. Acceleration is change in A. Homogeneity of Dimensions in an Equation
velocity divided by time interval. Velocity is length
divided by time interval. Thus, An equation contains several terms which are
separated from each other by the symbols of equality,
force = mass x acceleration plus or minus. The dimensions of all the terms in an
vel city equation must be identical. This is another way of
= mass x saying that one can add or subtract similar physical
time
length/time quantities. Thus, a velocity cannot be added to a force
= mass x or an electric current cannot be subtracted from the
time
thermodynamic temperature. This simple principle is
mass x length x (time) - 2. ... (1.2) called the principle of homogeneity of dimensions in an
equation and is an extremely useful method to check
Thus, the dimensions of force are 1 in mass, 1 in whether an equation may be correct or not. If the
length and 2 in time. The dimensions in all other dimensions of all the terms are not same, the equation
base quantities are zero. Note that in this type of must be wrong. Let us check the equation
calculation the magnitudes are not considered. It is 2
x = + at
equality of the type of quantity that enters. Thus, 2
change in velocity, initial velocity, average velocity, for the dimensional homogeneity. Here x is the distance
final velocity all are equivalent in this discussion, each travelled by a particle in time t which starts at a speed
one is length/time. u and has an acceleration a along the direction of
For convenience the base quantities are motion.
represented by one letter symbols. Generally, mass is [x] = L
denoted by M, length by L, time by T and electric length
current by I. The thermodynamic temperature, the [ut] = velocity x time = x time = L
time
amount of substance and the luminous intensity are
[I 21 2 2
denoted by the symbols of their units K, mol and cd
L 2 at 1 = [at ] = acceleration x (time)
respectively. The physical quantity that is expressed
in terms of the base quantities is enclosed in square velocity 2 length/time
x (time) = x (time) 2 = L
brackets to remind that the equation is among the time time
dimensions and not among the magnitudes. Thus Thus the equation is correct as far as the dimensions
equation (1.2) may be written as [force] = MLT -2. are concerned.
Introduction to Physics 5

Limitation of the Method Thus, knowing the conversion factors for the base
1 2 quantities, one can work out the conversion factor for
Note that the dimension of 2 at is same as that
any derived quantity if the dimensional formula of the
of at 2. Pure numbers are dimensionless. Dimension derived quantity is known.
does not depend on the magnitude. Due to this reason
C. Deducing Relation among the Physical Quantities
the equation x = ut + at 2 is also dimensionally correct.
Thus, a dimensionally correct equation need not be Sometimes dimensions can be used to deduce a
actually correct but a dimensionally wrong equation relation between the physical quantities. If one knows
must be wrong. the quantities on which a particular physical quantity
depends and if one guesses that this dependence is of
Example 1.2 product type, method of dimension may be helpful in
the derivation of the relation. Taking an example,
Test dimensionally if the formula t = 2 7C - may be suppose we have to derive the expression for the time
F 1x
period of a simple pendulum. The simple pendulum
correct, where t is time period, m is mass, F is force and has a bob, attached to a string, which oscillates under
x is distance. the action of the force of gravity. Thus, the time period
Solution : The dimension of force is MLT-2. Thus, the may depend on the length of the string, the mass of
dimension of the right-hand side is the bob and the acceleration due to gravity. We assume
that the dependence of time period on these quantities
r1 1 T is of product type, that is,
M
MLT-2/L A T-2
The left-hand side is time period and hence the t=k/ a m b g c ... (1.3)
dimension is T. The dimensions of both sides are equal where k is a dimensionless constant and a, b and c
and hence the formula may be correct. are exponents which we want to evaluate. Taking the
dimensions of both sides,
(LT 2)c=La+cmbT-2c.
B. Conversion of Units T = La M b
When we choose to work with a different set of Since the dimensions on both sides must be identical,
units for the base quantities, the units of all the we have
derived quantities must be changed. Dimensions can a +c=0
be useful in finding the conversion factor for the unit b =0
of a derived physical quantity from one system to and 2c = 1
other. Consider an example. When SI units are used, giving a = b = 0 and c =
2
the unit of pressure is 1 pascal. Suppose we choose
1 cm as the unit of length, 1 g as the unit of mass and Putting these values in equation (1.3)
1 s as the unit of time (this system is still in wide use
and is called CGS system). The unit of pressure will t=k ... (1.4)
be different in this system. Let us call it for the time-
being 1 CGS pressure. Now, how many CGS pressure Thus, by dimensional analysis we can deduce that
is equal to 1 pascal ? the time period of a simple pendulum is independent
Let us first write the dimensional formula of of its mass, is proportional to the square root of the
pressure. length of the pendulum and is inversely proportional
to the square root of the acceleration due to gravity at
We have P= the place of observation.
A
Epi [F] MLT 2 -z Limitations of the Dimensional Method
Thus, 1T
[Al L2 Although dimensional analysis is very useful in
deducing certain relations, it cannot lead us too far.
so, 1 pascal = (1 kg) (1 m) 1 (1 s)2 First of all we have to know the quantities on which
and 1 CGS pressure = (1 g) (1 cm)1 (1 s) 2 a particular physical quantity depends. Even then the
method works only if the dependence is of the product
1 pascal 1 kg][1 m 2 type. For example, the distance travelled by a
Thus,
1 CGS pressure ( 1 g 1 cm 1s uniformly accelerated particle depends on the initial
velocity u, the acceleration a and the time t. But the
= (10 3) (10 2) - 1= 10 method of dimensions cannot lead us to the correct
or, 1 pascal = 10 CGS pressure. expression for x because the expression is not of
6 Concepts of Physics

product type. It is equal to the sum of two terms as of magnitude calculation. In this all numbers are
x = ut + at 2. approximated to 10 bform and the calculation is made.
2
Secondly, the numerical constants having no Let us estimate the number of persons that may
dimensions cannot be deduced by the method of sit in a circular field of radius 800 m. The area of the
dimensions. In the example of time period of a simple field is
pendulum, an unknown constant k remains in equation
A = itr 2= 3.14 x (800 m) 2 = 10 6 m 2.
(1.4). One has to know from somewhere else that this
constant is 27.c. The average area one person occupies in sitting
1m2
Thirdly, the method works only if there are as = 50 cm x 50 cm = 0.25 m 2 = 2.5 x 10 10-1m 2.
many equations available as there are unknowns. In The number of persons who can sit in the field is
mechanical quantities, only three base quantities 10 m 2
length, mass and time enter. So, dimensions of these N 10 7.
three may be equated in the guessed relation giving 10 -1111 2
at most three equations in the exponents. If a Thus of the order of 10 'persons may sit in the
particular quantity (in mechanics) depends on more field.
than three quantities we shall have more unknowns
and less equations. The exponents cannot be 1.8 THE STRUCTURE OF WORLD
determined uniquely in such a case. Similar
constraints are present for electrical or other Man has always been interested to find how the
nonmechanical quantities. world is structured. Long long ago scientists suggested
that the world is made up of certain indivisible small
1.7 ORDER OF MAGNITUDE particles. The number of particles in the world is large
but the varieties of particles are not many. Old Indian
In physics, we coma across quantities which vary philosopher Kanadi derives his name from this
over a wide range. We talk of the size of a mountain proposition (In Sanskrit or Hindi Kana means a small
and the size of the tip of a pin. We talk of the mass particle). After extensive experimental work people
of our galaxy and the mass of a hydrogen atom. We arrived at the conclusion that the world is made up of
talk of the age of the universe and the time taken by just three types of ultimate particles, the proton, the
an electron to complete a circle around the proton in neutron and the electron. All objects which we have
a hydrogen atom. It becomes quite difficult to get a around us, are aggregation of atoms and molecules.
feel of largeness or smallness of such quantities. To The molecules are composed of atoms and the atoms
express such widely varying numbers, one uses the have at their heart a nucleus containing protons and
powers of ten method. neutrons. Electrons move around this nucleus in
In this method, each number is expressed as special arrangements. It is the number of protons,
a x 10 b where 1 a < 10 and b is a positive or negative neutrons and electrons in an atom that decides all the
integer. Thus the diameter of the sun is expressed as properties and behaviour of a material. Large number
1.39 x 10 9m and the diameter of a hydrogen atom as of atoms combine to form an object of moderate or large
size. However, the laws that we generally deduce for
1.06 x 10-1m. To get an approximate idea of the these macroscopic objects are not always applicable to
number, one may round the number a to 1 if it is less atoms, molecules, nuclei or the elementary particles.
than or equal to 5 and to 10 if it is greater than 5.
These laws known as classical physics deal with large
The number can then be expressed approximately as
b size objects only. When we say a particle in classical
10 . We then get the order of magnitude of that physics we mean an object which is small as compared
number. Thus, the diameter of the sun is of the order to other moderate or large size objects and for which
of 10 9 m and that of a hydrogen atom is of the order the classical physics is valid. It may still contain
of 10-10m. More precisely, the exponent of 10 in such millions and millions of atoms in it. Thus, a particle
a representation is called the order of magnitude of of dust
i8 dealt in classical physics may contain about
that quantity. Thus, the diameter of the sun is 19 10 atoms.
orders of magnitude larger than the diameter of a Twentieth century experiments have revealed
hydrogen atom. This is because the order of magnitude another aspect of the construction of world. There are
of 10 9 is 9 and of 10 16 is 10. The difference is perhaps no ultimate indivisible particles. Hundreds of
9 ( 10) = 19. elementary particles have been discovered and there
To quickly get an approximate value of a quantity are free transformations from one such particle to the
in a given physical situation, one can make an order other. Nature is seen to be a well-connected entity.
Introduction to Physics 7

Worked Out Examples

1. Find the dimensional formulae of the following (c) Q =CV


quantities : or, IT = [C]ML2 I -1T -3 or, [C]=M-1L-2 I 2 T 4.
(a) the universal constant of gravitation G,
(d) V= RI
(b) the surface tension S,
(c) the thermal conductivity k and
ML2 I-1T -3
or, R= V or, [R] - ML2 I -2 T -3.
(d) the coefficient of viscosity xi.
Some equations involving these quantities are
Gm m _ pg r h 3. The SI and CGS units of energy are joule and erg
F- 12 2 S respectively. How many ergs are equal to one joule ?
2
A (A,- 0,) t V2 Vi Solution : Dimensionally, Energy = mass x (velocity)2
Q-k and F - A
d OC2 x1 length) 2 2 -2
= mass x (L -M T .
where the symbols have their usual meanings. time
M1 M 2 Thus, 1 joule= (1 kg) (1 m)2 (1 0-2
Solution : (a) F = G 2
r
and 1 erg= (1 g) (1 cm)2 (1 0-2
Fr 2
or, G _ 11E
( 111M 12 (is 12
mim2
1 erg 1g cm) s)
[F]L2 MLT -2 .L2
or [G]= 2 - 2 -M - 1LT
3 _ (1000 g) (100 cm)
- 1000 x 10000= 10 7.
lg lcm
p 2r h

(b) S - So, 1 joule = 10 7 erg.

M L 2 = m,r _2.
Or, [S] = [p] [g]L2 = 1,
l 3
T 4. Young's modulus of steel is 19 x 1010 N/m 2. Express it
A (0, - 0,) t in dyne/cm 2. Here dyne is the CGS unit of force.
(c) Q -k
d Solution : The unit of Young's modulus is N/m 2.
Qd Force
or, k - This suggests that it has dimensions of
A(92 - 01) t 2
(distance)
Here, Q is the heat energy having dimension [F] MLT 2 -2
Thus, [Y] = 2 2 ML- 1 T .
ML2 T-2, 02 - 01 is temperature, A is area, d is L L
thickness and t is time. Thus, N/m 2 is in SI units.
ML2 T 2 1d _
[K] MLT 3 K -1. So, 1 N/m 2 = (1 kg)(1 m) -1 (1 s) -2
L2 KT
v2 V I and 1 dyne/cm 2 = (1 g)(1 cm) -1(1 s) -2
(d) F = 11 A 1 -2
x, - 1 N/m 2 (1 kgpm) (1 s)
SO,
-2 2 L2 1 dyne/cm 2 g 1cm) s
Or, MLT = [ri]L = [r
]

or, =ML-1T 1. = 1000 x100


x 1 = 10

or, 1 N/m 2 = 10 dyne/cm 2


2. Find the dimensional formulae of
(a) the charge Q, or, 19 x 10 N/m 2 = 19 x 10 11dyne/cm 2.
(b) the potential V,
(c) the capacitance C, and 5. If velocity, time and force were chosen as basic quantities,
(d) the resistance R. find the dimensions of mass.
Some of the equations containing these quantities are
Q = It, U = VIt, Q= CV and V = RI; Solution : Dimensionally, Force = mass x acceleration
where I denotes the electric current, t is time and U is vel city
= mass x
energy. time
Solution : (a) Q = It. Hence, [Q] = IT. xtime
Or, mass - force
(b) U= V/t velocity
or, ML2 T 2 = [V]IT or, [V] = ML2 I -1T-3. or, [mass] = FTV 1.
8 Concepts of Physics

6. Test dimensionally if the equation v 2 =u 2 2ax may be Assuming that F is proportional to different powers of
correct. these quantities, guess a formula for F using the method
of dimensions.
Solution : There are three terms in this equation v 2, u 2
and 2ax. The equation may be correct if the dimensions Solution : Suppose the formula is F= k ar bV c.

of these three terms are equal.


2 Then, MLT -2 =[ML- T a Lb(-11c
[v 2] = = L2 T -2;
=m a L-a+b+c T -a-c.
2
[u2] = = L2 T-2; Equating the exponents of M, L and T from both sides,
a=1

and H L = L2 T -2.
[2ax] = [a] [x] =T%) a+b+c=1
ac= 2
Thus, the equation may be correct.
Solving these, a = 1, b = 1, and c = 1.
Thus, the formula for F is F =
7. The distance covered by a particle in time t is given by
x = a + bt + ct 2 dt3;find the dimensions of a, b, c and d.
Solution : The equation contains five terms. All of them 10. The heat produced in a wire carrying an electric current
should have the same dimensions. Since [x] = length, depends on the current, the resistance and the time.
each of the remaining four must have the dimension of Assuming that the dependence is of the product of powers
length. type, guess an equation between these quantities using
dimensional analysis. The dimensional formula of
Thus, [a] = length = L
resistance is ML2 I-2T -3and heat is a form of energy.
[bt] = L, or, [b] =LT -1
Solution : Let the heat produced be H, the current through
[ct 2] = L, or, [c] = LT -2
the wire be I, the resistance be R and the time be t.
and [dt 3] = L, or, [d] = LT -3. Since heat is a form of energy, its dimensional formula
is ML2 T-2.
8. If the centripetal force is of the form m a v b rc, find the Let us assume that the required equation is
values of a, b and c.
H = kI a Rb tc,
Solution : Dimensionally, where k is a dimensionless constant.
Force = (Mass) a x (velocity) b x (length) Writing dimensions of both sides,
2 = m a(Lb T -b) = m a Lb + T -b
or, MLT ML2 T -2 = Ia(IVIL2 I
-2 T 3) b T
Equating the exponents of similar quantities, = m b L2h T-3b + c l a - 2h
a = 1, b + c =1, b = 2 Equating the exponents,
my 2 b=1
or, a =1, b = 2, c = 1 or, F
r 2b = 2
3b + c = 2
9. When a solid sphere moves through a liquid, the liquid a 2b = 0
opposes the motion with a force F. The magnitude of F
depends on the coefficient of viscosity 11 of the liquid, the Solving these, we get, a = 2, b = 1 and c = 1.
radius r of the sphere and the speed v of the sphere. Thus, the required equation is H = kI 2 Rt.

QUESTIONS FOR SHORT ANSWER

1. The metre is defined as the distance travelled by light 2. What are the dimensions of :
second. Why didn't people choose some (a) volume of a cube of edge a,
in
299,792,458 (b) volume of a sphere of radius a,
1 (c) the ratio of the volume of a cube of edge a to the
easier number such as second ? Why not 1
300,000,000 volume of a sphere of radius a ?
second ?
Introduction to Physics 9

3. Suppose you are told that the linear size of everything 5. If two quantities have same dimensions, do they
in the universe has been doubled overnight. Can you represent same physical content ?
test this statement by measuring sizes with a metre
stick ? Can you test it by using the fact that the speed 6. It is desirable that the standards of units be easily
of light is a universal constant and has not changed ? available, invariable, indestructible and easily
What will happen if all the clocks in the universe also reproducible. If we use foot of a person as a standard
start running at half the speed ? unit of length, which of the above features are present
and which are not ?
4. If all the terms in an equation have same units, is it
necessary that they have same dimensions ? If all the 7. Suggest a way to measure :
terms in an equation have same dimensions, is it (a) the thickness of a sheet of paper,
necessary that they have same units ? (b) the distance between the sun and the moon.

OBJECTIVE I

1. Which of the following sets cannot enter into the list of L, T and x,
fundamental quantities in any system of units ? (c) may be represented in terms of L, T and x if a = 0,
(a) length, mass and velocity, (d) may be represented in terms of L, T and x if a 0.
(b) length, time and velocity,
4. A dimensionless quantity
(c) mass, time and velocity,
(a) never has a unit, (b) always has a unit,
(d) length, time and mass.
(c) may have a unit, (d) does not exist.
2. A physical quantity is measured and the result is
expressed as nu where u is the unit used and n is the 5. A unitless quantity
numerical value. If the result is expressed in various (a) never has a nonzero dimension,
units then (b) always has a nonzero dimension,
(a) n c< size of u (b) n u 2 (c) may have a nonzero dimension,
1 (d) does not exist.
(c) n -qu (d) n
dx n -X
1[
3. Suppose a quantity x can be dimensionally represented 6. a sin 11
m a Lb '\/2ax x 2 a
in terms of M, L and T, that is, [x] = . The
c

quantity mass The value of n is


(a) can always be dimensionally represented in terms of (a) 0 (b) 1
L, T and x, (c) 1 (d) none of these.
(b) can never be dimensoinally represented in terms of You may use dimensional analysis to solve the problem.

OBJECTIVE II

1. The dimensions ML-' T-2may correspond to 3. Choose the correct statement(s) :


(a) work done by a force (a) All quantities may be represented dimensionally in
(b) linear momentum terms of the base quantities.
(c) pressure (b) A base quantity cannot be represented dimensionally
(d) energy per unit volume. in terms of the rest of the base quantities.
2. Choose the correct statement(s) : (c) The dimension of a base quantity in other base
(a) A dimensionally correct equation may be correct. quantities is always zero.
(b) A dimensionally correct equation may be incorrect. (d) The dimension of a derived quantity is never zero in
(c) A dimensionally incorrect equation may be correct. any base quantity.
(d) A dimensionally incorrect equation may be incorrect.

EXERCISES

1. Find the dimensions of 2. Find the dimensions of


(a) linear momentum, (a) angular speed w, (b) angular acceleration a,
(b) frequency and (c) torque I- and (d) moment of interia I.
(c) pressure. Some of the equations involving these quantities are
10 Concepts of Physics

e2 -91 , a - (02 - 01 F=F.r and / = mr 2 12. The normal duration of I.Sc. Physics practical period in
-

t2 - tl t2
.
Indian colleges is 100 minutes. Express this period in
The symbols have standard meanings. microcenturies. 1 microcentury = 10-6x 100 years. How
many microcenturies did you sleep yesterday ?
3. Find the dimensions of
(a) electric field E, (b) magnetic field B and 13. The surface tension of water is 72 dyne/cm. Convert it
(c) magnetic permeability g 0. in SI unit.
The relevant equations are 14. The kinetic energy K of a rotating body depends on its
goI moment of inertia I and its angular speed w. Assuming
F =qE, F = qvB, and B -
2na' the relation to be K= knob where k is a dimensionless
where F is force, q is charge, v is speed, I is current, constant, find a and b. Moment of inertia of a sphere
and a is distance. 2
about its diameter is - Mr 2.
4. Find the dimensions of 5
(a) electric dipole moment p and
15. Theory of relativity reveals that mass can be converted
(b) magnetic dipole moment M.
into energy. The energy E so obtained is proportional to
The defining equations are p = q.d and M = IA; certain powers of mass m and the speed c of light. Guess
where d is distance, A is area, q is charge and I is a relation among the quantities using the method of
current. dimensions.
5. Find the dimensions of Planck's constant h from the
equation E = hv where E is the energy and v is the 16. Let I = current through a conductor, R = its resistance
and V = potential difference across its ends. According
frequency.
to Ohm's law, product of two of these quantities equals
6. Find the dimensions of the third. Obtain Ohm's law from dimensional analysis.
(a) the specific heat capacity c,
Dimensional formulae for R and V are ML2 I-2 T-3 and
(b) the coefficient of linear expansion a and
ML2 T 3 I -1respectively.
(c) the gas constant R.
Some of the equations involving these quantities are 17. The frequency of vibration of a string depends on the
Q = mc(T2 - T1), 4=10[1+ a(T2 - T3)] and PV = nRT. length L between the nodes, the tension F in the string
7. Taking force, length and time to be the fundamental and its mass per unit length m. Guess the expression
quantities find the dimensions of for its frequency from dimensional analysis.
(a) density, (b) pressure, 18. Test if the following equations are dimensionally
(c) momentum and (d) energy. correct :
8. Suppose the acceleration due to gravity at a place is 2 S cose
10 m/s 2. Find its value in cm/(minute)2. (a) h = pr (b) v = A[11,
9. The average speed of a snail is 0.020 miles/hour and
7c13 r4 t 1 g
that of a leopard is 7\0 miles/hour. Convert these speeds (c) V- (d)v=
v=
in SI units. 8 11 1 2 TC I
where h = height, S = surface tension, p = density, P =
10. The height of mercury column in a barometer in a
pressure, V = volume, i = coefficient of viscosity, v =
Calcutta laboratory was recorded to be 75 cm. Calculate
frequency and I = moment of inertia.
this pressure in SI and CGS units using the following
data : Specific gravity of mercury = 13.6, Density of
19. Let x and a stand for distance. Is
f dx
water = 103 kg/m3, g = 9.8 in/s2 at Calcutta. Pressure
= hpg in usual symbols. J -\/a 2 - x 2
1 a
11. Express the power of a 100 watt bulb in CGS unit. = a-sin-1-
x dimensionally correct ?

ANSWERS

OBJECTIVE I EXERCISES

1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (a) 1. (a) MLT -1 (b) (c) ML 2
-2
2. (a) T -1 (b) T (c)ML2 T -2 (d) ML2
OBJECTIVE II 3. (a) MLT 3 I -1 (b) MT-2I -1 (c) MLT 2 I 2
4. (a) LTI (b) L2 I
1. (c), (d) 2. (a), (b), (d) 3. (a), (b), (c)
5. ML2 T -1
6. (a) L2 T 2 K-1 (b) K-1(c) ML2 T -2 K-1(mol)-1
Introduction to Physics 11

7. (a) FL-4 T 2 (b) FL-2 (c) FT (d) FL 14. a = 1, b = 2


8. 36 x 10 5 cm/(minute) 2 15. E = kmc 2
9. 0.0089 m/s, 31 m/s 16. V = IR
10. 10 x 10 4 N/m 2, 10 X 10 9dyne/cm 2 k \rif
17.
11. 10 9 erg/s L m
12. 1.9 microcenturies 18. all are dimensionally correct
13. 0.072 N/m 19. no

0
CHAPTER 2

PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS

Mathematics is the language of physics. It becomes length. Figure (2.1) shows representations of several
easier to describe, understand and apply the physical velocities in this scheme. The front end (carrying the
principles, if one has a good knowledge of mathematics. arrow) is called the head and the rear end is called
In the present course we shall constantly be using the the tail.
techniques of algebra, trigonometry and geometry as Further, if a particle is given two velocities
well as vector algebra, differential calculus and simultaneously its resultant velocity is different from
integral calculus. In this chapter we shall discuss the the two velocities and is obtained by using a special
latter three topics. Errors in measurement and the rule. Suppose a small ball is moving inside a long tube
concept of significant digits are also introduced. at a speed 3 m/s and the tube itself is moving in the
room at a speed 4 m/s along a direction perpendicular
2.1 VECTORS AND SCALARS to its length. In which direction and how fast is the
ball moving as seen from the room ?
Certain physical quantities are completely
described by a numerical value alone (with units
specified) and are added according to the ordinary
rules of algebra. As an example the mass of a system t=1s
is described by saying that it is 5 kg. If two bodies one
having a mass of 5 kg and other having a mass of 2 kg
are added together to make a composite system, the
total mass of the system becomes 5 kg + 2 kg = 7 kg. t=o
Such quantities are called scalars.
The complete description of certain physical
quantities requires a numerical value (with units Figure 2.2
specified) as well as a direction in space. Velocity of a
particle is an example of this kind. The magnitude of
velocity is represented by a number such as 5 m/s and Figure (2.2) shows the positions of the tube and
tells us how fast a particle is moving. But the the ball at t = 0 and t = 1 s. Simple geometry shows
description of velocity becomes complete only when the that the ball has moved 5 m in a direction 0 = 53 from
direction of velocity is also specified. We can represent the tube. So the resultant velocity of the ball is 5 m/s
this velocity by drawing a line parallel to the velocity along this direction. The general rule for finding the
and putting an arrow showing the direction of velocity. resultant of two velocities may be stated as follows.
We can decide beforehand a particular length to Draw a line AB representing the first velocity with
represent 1 m/s and the length of the line representing B as the head. Draw another line BC representing the
a velocity of 5 m/s may be taken as 5 times this unit second velocity with its tail B coinciding with the head
of the first line. The line AC with A as the tail and C
3 ms 1
as the head represents the resultant velocity.
Figure (2.3) shows the construction.
1 ms-1
ms-1 The resultant is also called the sum of the two
2.5 ms-1 velocities. We have added the two velocities AB and
BC and have obtained the sum AC. This rule of
Figure 2.1 addition is called the "triangle rule of addition".
Physics and Mathematics 13

we complete the parallelogram. The diagonal through


Resultant the common tails gives the sum of the two vectors.
velocity/ Second >
velocity Thus, in figure, (2.4b) AB + AC = AD .
A >
First velocity Suppose the magnitude of a = a and that of r; = b.
Figure 2.3 What is the magnitude of a+ FI and what is its
direction ? Suppose the angle between a and b is 9. It
The physical quantities which have magnitude and is easy to see from figure (2.5) that
direction and which can be added according to the
triangle rule, are called vector quantities. Other
examples of vector quantities are force, linear
momentum, electric field, magnetic field etc.
The vectors are denoted by putting an arrow over
>
the symbols representing them. Thus, we write AB , Figure 2.5
-->
BC etc. Sometimes a vector is represented by a single
letter such as v, F etc. Quite often in printed books AD 2 =(AB + BE) 2 (DE) 2
the vectors are represented by bold face letters like = (a + b cos()) 2 (bsine) 2
AB, BC, v, f etc.
2 2
If a physical quantity has magnitude as well as = a + 2ab cos() + b
direction but does not add up according to the triangle
rule, it will not be called a vector quantity. Electric Thus, the magnitude of a + b is
current in a wire has both magnitude and direction
"\la 2 b2 2ab cos0 . ... (2.1)
but there is no meaning of triangle rule there. Thus,
electric current is not a vector quantity. Its angle with a is a where
2.2 EQUALITY OF VECTORS DE b sine
tang_ _ ... (2.2)
AE a + b co'
Two vectors (representing two values of the same
physical quantity) are called equal if their magnitudes
and directions are same. Thus, a parallel translation Example 2.1
of a vector does not bring about any change in it.
Two vectors having equal magnitudes A make an angle
2.3 ADDITION OF VECTORS 0 with each other. Find the magnitude and direction of
The triangle rule of vector addition is already the resultant.
described above. If a and b are the two vectors to be Solution : The magnitude of the resultant will be
added, a diagram is drawn in which the tail of r; B ='\IA 2 +A 2 2AA cos0
coincides with the head of a. The vector joining the
tail of a with the head of b is the vector sum of a and = "\I2A 2(1 + cos0) = ~4A 2cos 2
&>. Figure (2.4a) shows the construction. The same rule
0
= 2A cos
2
The resultant will make an angle a with the first vector
where
0 0
2A sin-cos-
A sine 2 2 0
tang tan2
A +A cos' 2
2A cos 12
2
Figure 2.4
0
or,
may be stated in a slightly different way. We draw the
2
vectors a and b with both the tails coinciding Thus, the resultant of two equal vectors bisects the angle
(figure 2.4b). Taking these two as the adjacent sides between them.
14 Concepts of Physics

2.4 MULTIPLICATION OF A VECTOR BY A NUMBER B> is the sum of A* and (- B ). As shown in the
(b) :=1> - .-
->
Suppose a is a vector of magnitude a and k is a figure, the angle between A and (-B ) is 120. The
number. We define the vector b = k a as a vector of magnitudes of both A and (-B) is 5 unit. So,
magnitude I leak If k is positive the direction of 1:4-T41=A/5 2 +5 2 +2 x 5 x 5 coslar
-> ->
the vector b = k a is same as that of a. If k is negative,
-> -> = 2 x 5 cos60 = 5 unit.
the direction of b is opposite to a. In particular,
multiplication by (-1) just inverts the direction of the
--> --)
vector. The vectors a and - ahave equal magnitudes
but opposite directions. 2.6 RESOLUTION OF VECTORS
-> -> =
If a is a vector of magnitude a and uis a vector Figure (2.8) shows a vector a OA in the X-Y
->
of unit magnitude in the direction of a, we can write plane drawn from the origin 0. The vector makes an
-4 -4
a = au. angle a with the X-axis and 13 with the Y-axis. Draw
perpendiculars AB and AC from A to the X and Y axes
2.5 SUBTRACTION OF VECTORS respectively. The length OB is scalled the projection of
-4 )
-> -> --) -) OA on X-axis. Similarly OC is the projection of OA
Let a and b be two vectors. We define a - b as the
--> on Y-axis. According to the rules of vector addition
sum of the vector ->
a and the vector (- b ) . To subtract
-> -> -> -> ->
b from a, invert the direction of b and add to a. a = OA = OB + OC .
Figure (2.6) shows the process.
Thus, we have resolved the vector a into two parts,
one along OX and the other along OY. The magnitude
of the part along OX is OB = a cosa and the magnitude
a
/ of the part along OY is OC = a cos13. If t and j denote
vectors of unit magnitude along OX and OY
respectively, we get
Figure 2.6
-> ->
OB= a cosa i and OC = a cost j
so that a = a cosa + a cos13 j -7>

Example 2.2

Two vectors of equal magnitude 5 unit have an angle


60 between them. Find the magnitude of (a) the sum of
C A
the vectors and (b) the difference of the vectors. .?!

i'a i
0 B X
1

Figure 2.8
..---
...., ..
/ 120 //
1
7/
.--..-
, .....
,
'
, 3-- / ,
/
ET,' \-7\
\ ,\\ 5A/ //
:
If the vector a is not in the X-Y plane, it may have
//
V nonzero projections along X,Y,Z axes and we can
A
resolve it into three parts i.e., along the X, Y and Z
Figure 2.7 axes. If a, 13, y be the angles made by the vector a with
the three axes respectively, we get
Solution : Figure (2.7) shows the construction of the sum ->
a = a cosa + a cos13 j + a cosy k ... (2.3)
A +B and the difference A - B.
where / j and k are the unit vectors along X, Y and
(a) A +13 is the sum of A> and B. Both have a magnitude
Z axes respectively. The magnitude (a cosa) is called
of 5 unit and the angle between them is 60. Thus, the
the component of a along X-axis, (a cos(3) is called the
magnitude of the sum is
component along Y-axis and (a cosy) is called the
IA +B I = A/5 2 + 5 2 +2 x 5 x 5 cos60 component along Z-axis. In general, the component of
= 2 x 5 cos30 = 543 unit. a vector a along a direction making an angle 0 with it
Physics and Mathematics 15

-> --->
is a cos() (figure 2.9) which is the projection of ct>along a b = ab cos() ... (2.4)
the given direction.
where a and b are the magnitudes of ct>and r>>
respectively and 0 is the angle between them. The dot
product between two mutually perpendicular vectors
a cose is zero as cos90 = 0.
Figure 2.9

Equation (2.3) shows that any vector can be expressed


as a linear combination of the three unit vectors t, j
and r. Figure 2.10

Example 2.3
The dot product is commutative and distributive.
A force of 10.5 N acts on a particle along a direction
making an angle of 37 with the vertical. Find the
> > >
a b=ba
component of the force in the vertical direction.
-3 -> -> -> -4
Solution : The component of the force in the vertical a (b+c)=a b + a c.
direction will be
Example 2.4
F1= F cose = (10.5 N) (cos37)
The work done by a force P> during a displacement r is
= (10.5 N)1 = 8.40 N. given by F r. Suppose a force of 12 N acts on a particle
in vertically upward direction and the particle is
displaced through 2.0 m in vertically downward
We can easily add two or more vectors if we know direction. Find the work done by the force during this
their components along the rectangular coordinate displacement.
axes. Let us have
Solution : The angle between the force F and the
-4 > > -3
a = ax i+ ay j+ az k displacement r iis 180. Thus, the work done is
W=Fr
b= b, i + by + k
= Fr cos
> >
and c = c t + cy j + cz k = (12 N)(2.0 m)(cos180)
then = 24 Nm= 24J.
> > >
a + b + c = (a, + bx + cx)t + (ay + by + cy)j + (az+ bz + cz)17.
If all the vectors are in the X-Y plane then all the z
Dot Product of Two Vectors in terms of the
components are zero and the resultant is simply Components along the Coordinate Axes
> > >
a + b + c = (a, + bx + c)1 + (ay+ by + cy)j. Consider two vectors a and brepresented in terms
7> 7>
This is the sum of two mutually perpendicular vectors of the unit vectors t, j, k along the coordinate axes
of magnitude (ax + b + cx) and (ay + by +cy). The as
7> 7> 7> 7>
resultant can easily be found to have a magnitude a = ax + ay j + az k
-4 -4
.\/(a + b, + c) 2 + (ay by + cy) 2 and b = b, i + by j bz k.
making an angle a with the X-axis where Then
a +b + c > > -.--> 7-> -4
tana Y Y Y a b = (a, t + ayj + azk) (br+ by.74+ 4, iej
ax + bx +cx
=abt I+ ax by t j+a,bz t k
2.7 DOT PRODUCT OR SCALAR PROUDCT 7> 7>
+ ay bx j / ay by j j + ay by j k
OF TWO VECTORS
---> -4 .--> -4 )
+ azb k i + a, byk j + a, bz k k ... (i)
The dot product (also called scalar product) of two
> > >
vectors a and bis defined as Since, t, j and k are mutually orthogonal,
16 Concepts of Physics

7> 7> 74-4 7>7> 7> -> -> 7> -4 7>


we have ij=ik=j i=jk=kt=kj=0. way that the fingers are along the vector a and when
7> the fingers are closed they go towards 6). The direction
Also, z z =lx 1 cos = 1. of the thumb gives the direction of arrow to be put on
Similarly, jj=kk =1. the vector a x b.
Using these relations in equation (i) we get This is known as the right hand thumb rule. The
a>. b = ax bx + ay by +a, bz. left handers should be more careful in using this rule
as it must be practiced with right hand only.
2.8 CROSS PRODUCT OR VECTOR PRODUCT Note that this rule makes the cross product
OF TWO VECTORS noncommutative. In fact
>
The cross product or vector product of two vectors axb=bxa.
a and b, denoted by a x b is itself a vector. The The cross product follows the distributive law
magnitude of this vector is -2 -4 -2 -5 -5

, ax(b+c)=axb+axc.
laxbl=ab sine ... (2.5) It does not follow the associative law
where a and b are the magnitudes of a) and r ) > -4
ax(bxc)# (axb)xc.
respectively and 9 is the smaller angle between the
When we choose a coordinate system any two
two. When two vectors are drawn with both the tails
perpendicular lines may be chosen as X and Y axes.
coinciding, two angles are formed between them
However, once X and Y axes are chosen, there are two
(figure 2.11). One of the angles is smaller than 180
possible choices of Z-axis. The Z-axis must be
perpendicular to the X-Y plane. But the positive
direction of Z-axis may be defined in two ways. We
choose the positive direction of Z-axis in such a way
that
X =k
Figure 2.11 Such a coordinate system is called a right handed
system. In such a system
and the other is greater than 180 unless both are
equal to 180. The angle 0 used in equation (2.5) is the jx k= i and kx1=j.
smaller one. If both the angles are equal to 180, 7> 7> 7> 74 -4
Of course z x =j x j=k xk = O.
sin 0 = sin 180 = 0 and hence I a xbI = 0. Similarly
if 0 = 0, sin 0 = 0 and I a x bl = 0. The cross product Example 2.5
of two parallel vectors is zero.
-> -4 The vector A> has a magnitude of 5 unit, /3> has a
The direction of a x b is perpendicular to both
magnitude of 6 unit and the cross product of A> and
a and r)). Thus, it is perpendicular to the plane formed
has a magnitude of 15 unit. Find the angle between A
by a>and E.). To determine the direction of arrow on
and B.
this perpendicular several rules are in use. In order to
avoid confusion we here describe just one rule. Solution : If the angle between A
- and T3> is 9, the cross
product will have a magnitude

I A x 14 I= AB sine
Or, 15 = 5 x 6 sin
1
or, sine =
2
Thus, 0 = 30 or, 150.

Figure 2.12
Cross Product of Two Vectors in terms of
the Components along the Coordinate Axes
r,
Draw the two vectors a) and with both the tails
coinciding (figure 2.12). Now place your stretched right
Let
--> 74 7> ->
a = ax + ay j + a, k
palm perpendicular to the plane of a and b in such a and bx byr+ kr.
Physics and Mathematics 17

-> -> :4 :
4
Then a x b = (axi + ayj + az k) x (bx i+ byj + bz14 way. When x changes by Ax, y changes by Ay so that
7> 7> 7) 7>
= axbxI x i + axby z. x+
7> ->
+ axbz I x k the rate of change seems to be equal to --
AY If A be the
Ax

7) 7) 7) 7) -> point (x, y) and B be the point (x + Ax y + Ay), the rate


,

+ aybx j X I ayby j X j + aybx jX k


Ay
-> 7o -> ,> -> -4 equals the slope of the line AB. We have
+ azb, k x i + azbyk xj + azb, k x k
-> -> -> -> AY
= asby k axbz( - j) + aybx( - k ) + aybz( i ) = BC =tanO.
Ax AC
+ azbx(r)+azby(-r) However, this cannot be the precise definition of the
-> -> rate. Because the rate also varies between the points
= (aybz - azby) i+ (azbx - axbz)j A and B. The curve is steeper at B than at A. Thus,
+ (axby - aybx)r. to know the rate of change of y at a particular value
of x, say at A, we have to take & very small. However
Zero Vector small we take Ax, as long as it is not zero the rate
-3 may vary within that small part of the curve. However,
If we add two vectors A and B, we get a vector. if we go on drawing the point B closer to A and
Suppose the vectors A and B have equal magnitudes Ay
everytime calculate = tan0, we shall see that as Ax
but opposite directions. What is the vector A + B? The Ax
magnitude of this vector will be zero. For mathematical is made smaller and smaller the slope tame of the line
consistency it is convenient to have a vector of zero AB approaches the slope of the tangent at A. This slope
magnitude although it has a little significance in of the tangent at A thus gives the rate of change of y
physics. This vector is called zero vector. The direction
of a zero vector is indeterminate. We can write this
with respect to x at A. This rate is denoted by id x

Thus,
vector as 0. The concept of zero vector is also helpful
when we consider vector product of parallel vectors. If dy lam Ay
-->
A I I B, the vector A x B is zero vector. For any vector A, dx - o Ax
-4 -4 For small changes Ax we can approximately write
A+0=A
dy
-4 -9 Ay = Az.
Ax0=0 dx
and for any number X, Note that if the function y increases with an increase
dy
(1.= in x at a point, dx is positive there, because both Ay
and Ax are positive. If the function y decreases with
dy an increase in x, Ay is negative when Ax is positive.
2.9 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS : dx AS
Ay dy
Then and hence is negative.
RATE MEASURER dx
Consider two quantities y and x interrelated in Example 2.6
such a way that for each value of x there is one and dy
only one value of y. Figure (2.13) represents the graph From the curve given in figure (2.14) find Tx at x = 2,
6 and 10.

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Figure 2.13
Figure 2.14
of y versus x. The value of y at a particular x is
obtained by the height of the ordinate at that x. Let x
be changed by a small amount Ax, and the Solution : The tangent to the curve at x = 2 is AC. Its
AB 5
corresponding change in y be Ay. We can define the slope is tang,
"rate of change" of y with respect to x in the following =BC i
18 Concepts of Physics

dy 5 dy
Thus, Table 2.1 : for some common functions
dx = at x = 2' dx
The tangent to the curve at x = 6 is parallel to the X-axis.
dy y dy y dy
Thus, dx = tan = 0 at x = 6.
dx dx
The tangent to the curve at x = 10 is DF. Its slope is Xn
nx n 1-
sec x sec x tan x
DE 5
tanO, = = sin x cos x cosec x cosec x cot x
1
dy 5 cos x sin x In x
Thus, -7 at x = 10 x
dx tan x sec 2 x ex ex
cot x cosec 2 X
If we are given the graph of y versus x, we can
dy Besides, there are certain rules for finding the
find at any point of the curve by drawing the
dx derivatives of composite functions.
tangent at that point and finding its slope. Even if the dy
graph is not drawn and the algebraic relation between (a) yr (cy) = c cTx
- (c is a constant)
y and x is given in the form of an equation, we can du dv
dy (b) (u + v) = +
dx
find dx algebraically. Let us take an example.
dv du
The area A of a square of length L is A = L2. (c) -- (uv) = u 7
dx + v T-
If we change L to L + AL, the area will change
v du u dv
from A to A + AA (figure 2.15).
d dx dx
2
AL dx v V

dy dy du
L (e)dx = du dx
With these rules and table 2.1 derivatives of almost
L AL
all the functions of practical interest may be evaluated.
Figure 2.15
Example 2.7

A + AA = (L + Ara) 2
= 2L AL +
y
T x
Find Txif y = e sin x.

Solution : y =e x sinx.
or, AA = 2L(AL) + (AL) 2
dy x xd
So = (e sin x)= e -c-rx (sin x) + sin x (ex)
or, AA = 2L + AL.
x x
= e cos x + e sin x = e' (cos x + sin x).
Now if AL is made smaller and smaller, 2L + AL will
approach 2L.
dA = ainA A =
Thus, 2L. 2.10 MAXIMA AND MINIMA
di, A , AL
Table (2.1) gives the formulae for for some of Suppose a quantity y depends on another quantity
x in a manner shown in figure (2.16). It becomes
dy
the important functions. Txis called the differential maximum at x1and minimum at x2 .
coefficient or derivative of y with respect to x.

Figure 2.16
Physics and Mathematics 19

At these points the tangent to the curve is parallel dt 1 d 2)

to the X-axis and hence its slope is tan 0 = 0. But the )

dy 1
slope of the curve y-x equals the rate of change =it g(2t) = u - gt.
dx
Thus, at a maximum or a minimum, For maximum h,
dy dh -
= u. dt
dx
Just before the maximum the slope is positive, at Or, u gt=0
- or, t =
the maximum it is zero and just after the maximum
dy
it is negative. Thus, decreases at a maximum and
dx

dy

hence the rate of change of dx is negative at a



2.11 INTEGRAL CALCULUS
maximum i.e. Let PQ be a curve representing the relation
d (dy between two quantities x and y (figure 2.17). The point
< 0 at a maximum. P corresponds to x = a and Q corresponds to x = b.
dx dx
d (d i
Draw perpendiculars from P and Q on the X-axis so
The quantity is the rate of change of the

dx as to cut it at A and B respectively. We are interested
d in finding the area PABQ. Let us denote the value of
slope. It is written as y2 Thus, the condition of a y at x by the symbol y = fix).
dx
maximum is
dy 0
dx -
maximum. ... (2.6)
d 2y
y
dx <
0

Similarly, at a minimum the slope changes from


negative to positive. The slope increases at such a point
clY
and hence (
dx) dx j> 0. The condition of a minimum is
dy Figure 2.17
=0
dx Let us divide the length AB in N equal elements
minimum. ... (2.7)
d 2y b-a
2 >0
each of length Ax = From the ends of each small
dx
length we draw lines parallel to the Y-axis. From the
Quite often it is known from the physical situation points where these lines cut the given curve, we draw
whether the quantity is a maximum or a minimum. short lines parallel to the X-axis. This constructs the
2
dy rectangular bars shown shaded in the figure. The sum
The test on dx
2 may then be omitted.
of the areas of these N rectangular bars is
Example 2.8 = f(a) Ax + f(a + dx) +f(a + aaa) +
The height reached in time t by a particle thrown upward . + f [a + (N - 1) Ax] Ax
with a speed u is given by This may be written as
h = ut - 1gt 2 N
I' = f(xi)Ax ... (2.8)
where g = 913 m/s 2 is a constant. Find the time taken in i =1
reaching the maximum height. where ; takes the values a, a + Ax, a + b - Ax.
Solution : The height h is a function of time. Thus, h will
This area differs slightly from the area PABQ. This
dh
be maximum when = 0. We have, difference is the sum of the small triangles formed just
dt
1 2
under the curve. Now the important point is the
h =ut - - gt following. As we increase the number of intervals N,
2
the vertices of the bars touch the curve PQ at more
dh d 1 2
points and the total area of the small triangles
or,
= (ut)- d 1 1 decreases. As N tends to infinity (Ax tends to zero
20 Concepts of Physics

b-a b-a
because Ax = ) the vertices of the bars touch the where Ax- and xi= a, a + Ax, b-
curve at infinite number of points and the total area As 6..x -> 0 the total area of the bars becomes the
of the triangles tends to zero. In such a limit the sum area of the shaded part PABQ.
(2.8) becomes the area I of PABQ. Thus, we may write,
N
Thus, the required area is
N
I = lim If(xj)dx
As 0 . , I = lim xi Ax
=1 6x -30.

The limit is taken as Ax tends to zero or as N tends


to infinity. In mathematics this quantity is denoted as =f xdx. (i)
a
1=5 f(x) dx
a Now the terms making the series in the square
bracket in equation (2.9) are in arithmetic progression
and is read as the integral of f(x) with respect to x so that this series may be summed up using the
within the limits x = a to x = b. Here a is called the
lower limit and b the upper limit of integration. The formula S = 2 (a + 1). Equation (2.9) thus becomes
integral is the sum of a large number of terms of the
type f(x) Ax with x continuously varying from a to b I'= [a + fa + (N - 1)6x)]Ax
2
and the number of terms tending to infinity. Ax
Let us use the above method to find the area of a - N [2a + NAx - Ax]
trapezium. Let us suppose the line PQ is represented b a [2a
by the equation y = x. - +b-a-zsx]
2
The points A and B on the X-axis represent x = a b a
and x = b. We have to find the area of the trapezium - 2 [a + b - dx].
PABQ.
Thus, the area PABQ is

I= lim[b al[a + b -
ex 0 2
b -a
- (a + b)
2
=1(b s -a 2). (ii)

Thus, from (i) and (ii)


Figure 2.18 b
xdx= 1 2 a 2).
Let us divide the length AB in N equal intervals. a
2
b- a
The length of each interval is Ax = . The height In mathematics, special methods have been
of the first shaded bar is y = x = a, of the second bar developed to find the integration of various functions
is y =x = a + Ax, that of the third bar is y = x f (x). A very useful method is as follows. Suppose we
= a + 2 Ax etc. The height of the N th bar is y = x wish to find
b N
= a + (N - 1)Ax. The width of each bar is Ax, so that
the total area of all the bars is ff(x)dx= lim Ef(xi) Ax
/Ix > 0
a i =1
= +(a+ Ax) + (a + 2Ax) Ax + b-a
where &= -; xi = a, a +Ax, b-
+ [a + (N - 1)Ax]Ax
Now look for a function F(x) such that the
= [a + (a + Ax) + (a + 2Ax) +
derivative of F(x) is fix) that is,dF(x)
= f(x). If you can
+ fa + (N - 1)&1] Ax ... (2.9) find such a function F(x), then
This sum can be written as
ff(x) dx = F(b)- F(a) ;
N
a
=I &
i=1 F(b) - F(a) is also written as [F(x)] a.
Physics and Mathematics 21

F(x) is called the indefinite integration or the x 3 + 3T


X
2
X1
= 2-- + 5i-
antiderivative of fix). We also write 5f(x) dx = F(x).
This may be treated as another way of writing = x3-1- 2+ 5x.
dF(x) _ x) .
3 2x
6 6
dx 11
( 2) 1 d 2 1 Thus, f(2x 2 +3x+5)dx=[1x 3 +x 2 +5x]
e ix = -- (x ) = 2x = x.
For example, 3 2 3
3
dx 2 2 dx 2
b b = 3 (216 - 27) + --?. (36 9) + 5(6 3)
- -

3 2
Thus, f x dx = -1 x 2
2 a = 126 + 40.5 + 15 = 181.5.
a
_ b 2) (2
1 a 2)

1 2 2 2.12 SIGNIFICANT DIGITS


= - (b - a )
2
When a measurement is made, a numerical value
as deduced above. is read generally from some calibrated scale. To
Table (2.2) lists some important integration measure the length of a body we can place a metre
formulae. Many of them are essentially same as those scale in contact with the body. One end of the body
given in table (2.1). may be made to coincide with the zero of the metre
scale and the reading just in front of the other end is
Table 2.2 : Integration Formulae noted from the scale. When an electric current is
measured with an ammeter the reading of the pointer
f (x) F(x) = J f(x) the f (x) F(x)= f(x) dx on the graduation of the ammeter is noted. The value
noted down includes all the digits that can be directly
sin x cos x
- x n(n -1) x +1 read from the scale and one doubtful digit at the end.
n+1 The doubtful digit corresponds to the eye estimation
cos x sin x
1 x within the smallest subdivision of the scale. This
x smallest subdivision is known as the least count of the
1 instrument. In a metre scale, the major graduations
sec 2 x tan x tan- 1 a
x2 +a 2 a
are at an interval of one centimetre and ten
1
cosec 2X - cot X sin 1 i subdivisions are made between two consecutive major
qa 2 x a
-
graduations. Thus, the smallest subdivision measures
sec x tan x sec x a millimetre. If one end of the object coincides with
cosec x cot x cosec x
-
the zero of the metre scale, the other end may fall
between 10'4 cm and 10.5 cm mark of the scale
Some useful rules for integration are as follows: (figure 2.19). We can estimate the distance between
(a) 5 c f(x) dx = c J f(x) dx where c is a constant the 10.4 cm mark and the edge of the body as follows.

(b) Let f f(x) dx = F(x)


1111,1111111111111111111111,11111111 111111

then f(cx) dx = F(cx). 8 9 10 11

(c) [ f(x)+ g(x)] dx = f(x) dx + g(x) dx.


Figure 2.19
Example 2.9
We mentally divide the 1 mm division in 10 equal parts
6
and guess on which part is the edge falling. We may
Evaluate J (20c 2+ 3x + 5) dx. note down the reading as 10.46 cm. The digits 1, 0 and
3
4 are certain but 6 is doubtful. All these digits are
Solution : J (2x 2+ 3x - F 5) dx called significant digits. We say that the length is
measured up to four significant digits. The rightmost
= 2x 2d,x + 3x dx + 5 dx
or the doubtful digit is called the least significant digit
=21,x 2dx+3.1" xdx + 55 x dx and the leftmost digit is called the most significant
digit.
22 Concepts of Physics

There may be some confusion if there are zeroes decimal point. The least significant digit is rounded
at the right end of the number. For example, if a according to the rules given below.
measurement is quoted as 600 mm and we know If the digit next to the one rounded is more than
nothing about the least count of the scale we cannot 5, the digit to be rounded is increased by 1. If the digit
be sure whether the last zeros are significant or not. next to the one rounded is less than 5, the digit to be
If the scale had marking only at each metre then the rounded is left unchanged. If the digit next to the one
edge must be between the marks 0 m and 1 m and the rounded is 5, then the digit to be rounded is increased
digit 6 is obtained only through the eye estimation. by 1 if it is odd and is left unchanged if it is even.
Thus, 6 is the doubtful digit and the zeros after that
2. For addition or subtraction write the numbers
are insignificant. But if the scale had markings at
one below the other with all the decimal points in one
centimetres, the number read is 60 and these two
digits are significant, the last zero is insignificant. If line. Now locate the first column from left that has a
the scale used had markings at millimetres, all the doubtful digit. All digits right to this column are
dropped from all the numbers and rounding is done to
three digits 6, 0, 0 are significant. To avoid confusion
this column. The addition or subtraction is now
one may report only the significant digits and the
magnitude may be correctly described by proper performed to get the answer.
powers of 10. For example, if only 6 is significant in
Example 2.10
600 mm we may write it as 6 x 10 2 mm. If 6 and the
first zero are significant we may write it as Round off the following numbers to three significant
6.0 x 10 2 mm and if all the three digits are significant digits (a) 15462, (b) 14.745, (c) 14750 and (d) 14'650
we may write it as 6.00 x 10 2 mm. x 1012.
If the integer part is zero, any number of Solution : (a) The third significant digit is 4. This digit is
continuous zeros just after the decimal part is to be rounded. The digit next to it is 6 which is greater
insignificant. Thus, the number of significant digits in than 5. The third digit should, therefore, be increased
0.0023 is two and in 1.0023 is five. by 1. The digits to be dropped should be replaced by
zeros because they appear to the left of the decimal.
2.13 SIGNIFICANT DIGITS IN CALCULATIONS Thus, 15462 becomes 15500 on rounding to three
significant digits.
When two or more numbers are added, subtracted, (b) The third significant digit in 14.745 is 7. The number
multiplied or divided, how to decide about the number next to it is less than 5. So 14.745 becomes 14.7 on
of significant digits in the answer ? For example, rounding to three significant digits.
suppose the mass of a body A is measured to be 12.0 kg (c) 14.750 will become 14.8 because the digit to be
and of another body B to be 7.0 kg. What is the ratio rounded is odd and the digit next to it is 5.
of the mass of A to the mass of B? Arithmetic will
give this ratio as (d) 14.650 x 10 12 will become 14.6 x 10 12 because the
digit to be rounded is even and the digit next to it is 5.
12.0
- 1 714285...

However, all the digits of this answer cannot be Example 2.11


significant. The zero of 12.0 is a doubtful digit and the
zero of 7.0 is also doubtful. The quotient cannot have 25-2 x 1374
so many reliable digits. The rules for deciding the Evaluate All the digits in this expression
33.3
number of significant digits in an arithmetic are significant.
calculation are listed below.
25.2 x 1374
1. In a multiplication or division of two or more Solution : We have - 1039.7838....
33.3
quantities, the number of significant digits in the
Out of the three numbers given in the expression 25.2
answer is equal to the number of significant digits in
and 33.3 have 3 significant digits and 1374 has four.
the quantity which has the minimum number of
The answer should have three significant digits.
12.0
significant digits. Thus, 7.0 will have two significant Rounding 1039.7838... to three significant digits, it
digits only. becomes 1040. Thus, we write

The insignificant digits are dropped from the result 25.2 x 1374
- 1040.
if they appear after the decimal point. They are 33.3
replaced by zeros if they appear to the left of the
-

Physics and Mathematics 23

Example 2.12 true value. The chances that the true value will be
within x 3 a is more that 99%.
Evaluate 24.36 + 0.0623 + 256.2.
All this is true if the number of observations N is
Solution : large. In practice if N is greater than 8, the results
24.36 are reasonably correct.
0.0623
256.2 Example 2.13
Now the first column where a doubtful digit occurs is
the one just next to the decimal point (256.2). All digits The focal length of a concave mirror obtained by a
right to this column must be dropped after proper student in repeated experiments are given below. Find
rounding. The table is rewritten and added below the average focal length with uncertainty in a limit.
24.4
0.1 No. of observation focal length in cm
256.2 1 25.4
280.7
2 25.2
The sum is 2807. 3 25.6
4 25.1
5 25.3
2.14 ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT 6 25.2
While doing an experiment several errors can enter 7 25.5
into the results. Errors may be due to faulty 8 25.4
equipment, carelessness of the experimenter or 9 25.3
random causes. The first two types of errors can be 10 25.7
removed after detecting their cause but the random 10
7
errors still remain. No specific cause can be assigned Solution : The average focal length 1= 5-
to such errors. 10 -
i.1
When an experiment is repeated many times, the = 25.37 25.4.
random errors are sometimes positive and sometimes
negative. Thus, the average of a large number of the The calculation of a is shown in the table below:
results of repeated experiments is close to the true i
f f,-f (f-t) 2 E(f -p 2
value. However, there is still some uncertainty about cm cm cm cm
the truth of this average. The uncertainty is estimated 1 25.4 0.0 0.00
by calculating the standard deviation described below.
2 25.2 - 0.2 0.04
Let x1, x2, x3, ...xN are the, results of an
3 25.6 0.2 0.04
experiment repeated N times. The standard deviation
4 25.1 -0.3 0.09
a is defined as
5 25.3 -0.1 0.01 0.33
2 6 25.2 - 0.2 0.04
a= \ y(x j -x)
Kr i1 7 25.5 0.1 0.01
8 25.4 0.0 0.00
1
where x - xi is the average of all the values of x. 9 25.3 - 0.1 0.01
N
10 25.7 0.3 0.09
The best value of x derived from these experiments is
x and the uncertainty is of the order of a. In fact
x 1.96 a is quite often taken as the interval in which (5=/1 7 i (f -7) 2="\10-033 cm 2 =0-18 cm
13 /
the true value should lie. It can be shown that there
is a 95% chance that the true value lies within a 0.2 cm.

x 1.96 a. Thus, the focal length is likely to be within (25.4


0.2 cm) and we write
If one wishes to be more sure, one can use the
interval x 3 a as the interval which will contain the f = (25.4 0.2) cm.
-
-
-

24 Concepts of Physics

Worked Out Examples

1. A vector has component along the X-axis equal to 25 unit 3. The sum of the three vectors shown in figure (2-W2) is
and along the Y-axis equal to 60 unit. Find the zero. Find the magnitudes of the vectors OB and OC .
magnitude and direction of the vector. Solution : Take the axes as shown in the figure
Solution : The given vector is the resultant of two
perpendicular vectors, one along the X-axis of magnitude
25 unit and the other along the Y-axis of magnitude
60 units. The resultant has a magnitude A given by 45
X
A = 11(25) 2 + (60) 2 + 2 x 25 x 60 cos90 O

=14(25) 2 + (60) 2 =65. 5m

The angle a between this vector and the X-axis is given


by
0
tana =
25 Figure 2-W2

2. Find the resultant of the three vectors shown in figure ->


The x-component of OA = (0A)cos90 = 0.
(2-W1).
The x-component of OB = (0B)cos0 = OB.
1
The x-component of OC= (0C)cos135 = - OC.
12.0 m
Hence, the x-component of the resultant
3.0 m 1
= OB - OC. (i)
2
37
It is given that the resultant is zero and hence its
x x-component is also zero. From (i),
Figure 2-W1 1
OB = OC. (ii)
Solution : Take the axes as shown in the figure. The y-component of OA= OA cos180 = - OA.
->
The x-component of the 5.0 m vector = 5.0 m cos37 The y-component of OB = OB cos90 = 0.
= 4.0 m, 1
The y-component of OC = OC cos45 - - OC.
the x-component of the 3.0 m vector = 3'0 m -

and the x-component of the 2.0 m vector = 2.0 m cos90 Hence, the y-component of the resultant
= 0. = OC - OA (iii)
Hence, the x-component of the resultant
= 4.0 m + 3.0 m + 0 = 7.0 m. As the resultant is zero, so is its y-component. From (iii),
The y-component of the 5.0 m vector = 5.0 m sin37 OC = OA, or, OC = 42 OA = 542 m.
= 3.0 m,
1
the y-component of the 3.0 m vector = 0 From (ii), OB = - OC = 5 m
q2
and the y-component of the 2.0 m vector = 2.0 m.
->
Hence, the y-component of the resultant 4. The magnitudes of vectors OA, OB and OC in figure
= 3.0 m + 0 + 2'0 m = 5.0 m. -4 -4 -4
(2-W3) are equal. Find the direction of OA + OB - OC .
The magnitude of the resultant vector
= '4(7.0 m) 2 + (5-0 m) 2 A
= 8.6 m. 45 30
--- X
If the angle made by the resultant with the X-axis is 0, O
60
then
y-component 5.0
tan = - or, 0 = 35.5.
x-component 70
Figure 2-W3
-
--

Physics and Mathematics 25

Solution : Let OA = OB = OC = F.

x-component of OA = F cos30 =
2
x-component of OB= F cos60 = x

x-component of OC = F cos135 = -
- --> ->
x-component of OA + OB - OC
Solution : Take dotted lines as X, Y axes.
the-->
(F) x-component of OA = 4 m, x-component of
=( 42)
OB = 6 m cos0.
F
= -(43 + 1 + 42). x-component of the resultant = (4 + 6 cos0) m.
But it is given that the resultant is along Y-axis. Thus,
y-component of OA= F cos60 = the x-component of the resultant = 0
-> 4 + 6 cog) = 0 or, cos0 = - 2/3.
y-component of OB = F cos150 = - F43
2 -> 74 7* -4
7. Write the unit vector in the direction of A = 5 + - 2 k.
y-component of OC = F cos45 =
Solution : IA7 1 = .\/5 2 +1 2 (- 2) 2 =.
-4 -4 -3
y-component of OA + OB - OC The required unit vector is
IA I
= P + E 23 )- (. 12)
F =
5 7>
7 17>
7 2: j
F
= - (1 - - -42).
2
-> -> 8. If t> +1;1 =1;-1;1 show that al b
Angle of OA + OB - OC with the X-axis --) 2 -)
Solution : We have Ia -) +bI = (a + b) (a + b)
F
- (1 - 43 - 42) -4
2 (1 - 43 -.42) =aa+ab+ba+bb
=tan - - tan , .
(1 + 43+ 2)
(1 + + 42) =a 2 +b 2 +2ab.
2
Similarly,
-> la- I2 = ( t ( 1> F)>)
5. Find the resultant of the three vectors OA , OB and
--> 2 2 -*
OC shown in figure (2-W4). Radius of the circle is R. =a +b
If ,
a 2 +b 2 + 2 tr,-=a
' 2 +b 2 -21 > -e
or, a3. =
Or, t>J_ b.
-) -) -)
9. If a =2i+3j+4k and b=4i+ 3j+2k, find the angle
-4
Figure 2-W4 between ->
a and b.
-)
Solution : We have a b = ab cose
->
a-
Solution : OA = OC. or, cos() =
-> abb
OA + OC is along OB (bisector) and its magnitude is -)

where 0 is the angle between a and E.'.


2R cos45 =R42.
Now a b =ax bx + ay by+ azbz
( OA + OC) + OB is along OB and its magnitude is
=2 x 4+3 x 3+4 x2=25.
R42 + R = R(1 +q2).
Also a = "\ia: + ay2 az2

6. The resultant of vectors OA and OB is perpendicular to =44+9+16 =1


->
OA (figure 2-W5). Find the angle AOB. and &.
b = b; + b; + b; = 'N1.6 + 9 + 4 = "
26 Concepts of Physics

sin x
Thus, cos0 = 25 (b) -
_i(25). d . do/
or, 0 = cos x dx (sin x) - sin x
29 dx
dy
_ 2
-> 7.> 7) -4 -4 -) -4 -> -4 .- dx x
10. If A=2i-3j+7k, B=i+2k and C=j-k find
_xcosx_ sin x
ii>. ( .
ii x -6 ). 2
x
Solution : BxC=(1+2k)x(j-k) dy d , d(x 2)
= -4 -) -> -+ -> -> (c) (sm x )
(j-k)+2k x ( j - k ) dx = dx dx
-4 -) -> -)
Xi -t xk+2k xj-2k xk = cos x 2(2x)
= iz>+,r- 2 r - = - 2 r+.1)+17. = 2x cos x 2.

A' (.13> x -6)=.( 2 r- 3r + 7 ))(- 2 r+:/->+ >)


13. Find the maximum or minimum values of the function
= (2) (- 2) + (- 3) (1) + (7) (1) 1
y = x + - for x > 0.
= 0.
1
11. The volume of a sphere is given by Solution : y=x+
4
V = - it R dy d d _1
3
where R is the radius of the sphere. (a) Find the rate of d-Tc =
- (x) )
change of volume with respect to R. (b) Find the change =1+(-x -2)
in volume of the sphere as the radius is increased from
20.0 cm to 20.1 cm. Assume that the rate does not =1 -12
appreciably change between R = 20.0 cm to R = 20.1 cm.
For y to be maximum or minimum,
Solution : (a) V= ic R 3 dy 0
3
dx
dV 4 d 3
or -it(R) = 'It 3R 2 = 4 TC R 2. 1
dR 3 dr 3 or, 1- =0
(b) At R = 20 cm, the rate of change of volume with the x
radius is Thus, x = 1 or -1.
dV For x > 0 the only possible maximum or minimum is at
= 4 R 2 =411(400 cm 2)
dR
x=1. At x= 1, y = x + 1=2.
= 1600 n cm 2.
The change in volume as the radius changes from Near x = 0, y = x + - is very large because of the term
20.0 cm to 20.1 cm is x
1
dV - For very large x, again y is very large because of the
AV = veAR
term x. Thus x =1 must correspond to a minimum. Thus,
= (1600 7C erll 2) (0'1 cm) y has only a minimum for x > 0. This minimum occurs
= 160 TC C111 3. at x = 1 and the minimum value of y is y = 2.

12. Find the derivative of the following functions with respect 14. Figure (2-W6) shows the curve y = x 2. Find the area of
sin x the shaded part between x = 0 and x = 6.
to x. (a) y = x 2 sin x, (b) y -and (c) y=sin (x 2).

Solution :
(a) y = x 2 sin x
dy _ x 2 d . d 2
(sm x) + (sin x) (x )
dx dx
= x 2 cos x + (sin x) (2x)
= x(2sin x + xcos x). Figure 2-W6
Physics and Mathematics 27

Solution : The area can be divided into strips by drawing velocity varies from vo to v. Therefore, on the left the
ordinates between x = 0 and x = 6 at a regular interval limits of integration are from vo to v and on the right
of dx. Consider the strip between the ordinates at x and they are from 0 to x. Simiplifying (i),
x + dx. The height of this strip is y = x 2. The area of this
strip is dA = y dx = x 2dx. [1. 21 = co 2 [X 2
2 v vo 2 10
The total area of the shaded part is obtained by
summing up these strip-areas with x varying from 0 to 1 2 2 2 2
Or, - (v - v 0) = - co
6. Thus 2 2
6 2 2 2 2
or, v =V0 - 0) X
A = fx2dx
2 2
0 or, v = Aiv 20 - x
6
[X 31 - 216-0
-72. 17. The charge flown through a circuit in the time interval
3o 3
between t and t + dt is given by dq = tit dt, where ti is
a constant. Find the total charge flown through the
15. Evaluate A sin cot dt where A and co are constants. circuit between t = 0 to t =
0 Solution : The total charge flown is the sum of all the dq's
for t varying from t = 0 to t = to. Thus, the total charge
Solution : J A sin cut dt flown is

Q=fe tl dt
[-cos col A
-A
0) 0 0)
[e
-t Pt] 1
16. The velocity v and displacement x of a particle executing (1
e
o
simple harmonic motion are related as
du 2
v = -w x. 18. Evaluate (21.6002 + 234 + 2732.10) x 13.
dx
At x = 0, v = vo . Find the velccity v when the Solution :
displacement becomes x. 21.6002 22
Solution : We have 234 234
dv 2732.10 2732
2
vdx=-w x 2988
The three numbers are arranged with their decimal
or, v du = - 2 x dx
points aligned (shown on the left part above). The
column just left to the decimals has 4 as the doubtful
or, Ivdu=f-co 2 xdx (i) digit. Thus, all the numbers are rounded to this column.
V0 0
The rounded numbers are shown on the right part above.
When summation is made on - w 2 x dx the quantity to The required expression is 2988 x 13 = 38844. As 13 has
be varied is x. When summation is made on v dv the only two significant digits the product should be rounded
quantity to be varied is v. As x varies from 0 to x the off after two significant digits. Thus the result is 39000.

QUESTIONS FOR SHORT ANSWER

1. Is a vector necessarily changed if it is rotated through 3. Does the phrase "direction of zero vector" have physical
an angle ? significance ? Discuss in terms of velocity, force etc.
2. Is it possible to add two vectors of unequal magnitudes 4. Can you add three unit vectors to get a unit vector ?
and get zero ? Is it possible to add three vectors of equal Does your answer change if two unit vectors are along
magnitudes and get zero ? the coordinate axes ?
28 Concepts of Physics

5. Can we have physical quantities having magnitude and 9. Let eland e, be the angles made by A and i=1)with the
direction which are not vectors ? positive X-axis. Show that tam, = tam,. Thus, giving
6. Which of the following two statements is more tane does not uniquely determine the direction of A.
A
appropriate ? 10. Is the vector sum of the unit vectors T> and f> a unit
vector ? If no, can you multiply this sum by a scalar
(a) Two forces are added using triangle rule because
number to get a unit vector ?
force is a vector quantity. 7> 7>
(b) Force is a vector quantity because two forces are 11. Let A = 3 z + 4 j. Write four vector B such that A *B but
added using triangle rule. A = B.
> - .4 -4
12. Can you have A xB=AB with A *0 and B*0 ? What
7. Can you add two vectors representing physical
quantities having different dimensions ? Can you if one of the two vectors is zero ?
multiply two vectors representing physical quantities 13. If ;1> xi3> = 0, can you say that (a) A-> = (b) ?
having different dimensions ?
8. Can a vector have zero component along a line and still
14. Let A=5i 4.7 and i3>= 7.5 +6j Do we have
have nonzero magnitude ? /3> =k A>? Can we say #), = k ?
A

OBJECTIVE I

1. A vector is not changed if 4. The component of a vector is


(a) it is rotated through an arbitrary angle (a) always less than its magnitude
(b) it is multiplied b? an arbitrary scalar (b) always greater than its magnitude
(c) it is cross multiplied by a unit vector (c) always equal to its magnitude
(d) it is slid parallel to itself. (d) none of these.
2. Which of the sets given below may represent the 5. A vector ;19 points vertically upward and B points
magnitudes of three vectors adding to zero ? -9 -9

(a) 2, 4, 8 (b) 4, 8, 16 (c) 1, 2, 1 (d) 0.5, 1, 2. towards north. The vector product A x B is
(a) along west (b) along east
3. The resultant of ;1>and 73>makes an angle a with A> and (c) zero (d) vertically downward.
13 with 6. The radius of a circle is stated as 2.12 cm. Its area should
(a) a <13 (b) a <13 if A<B be written as
(c) a<(3 if A>B (d) a <13 if A=B. (a) 14 cm' (b) 14.1 cm' (c) 14.11 cm' (d) 14.1124 cm'.

OBJECTIVE II

1. A situation may be described by using different sets of (a) C must be equal to I A B I


coordinate axes having different orientations. Which of (b) C must be less than I A B
the following do not depend on the orientation of the (c) C must be greater than I A B I
axes ? (d) C may be equal to I A B
(a) the value of a scalar (b) component of a vector
(c) a vector (d) the magnitude of a vector. 4. The x-component of the resultant of several vectors
(a) is equal to the sum of the x-components of the vectors
(b) may be smaller than the sum of the magnitudes of
2. Let C> > 471>+:3). the vectors
(a) I C I is always greater than I A> I (c) may be greater than the sum of the magnitudes of
(b) It is possible to have I > I < I :4-> I and the vectors
(d) may be equal to the sum of the magnitudes of the
I 6 1< I 73> I vectors.
(c) C is always equal to A + B
5. The magnitude of the vector product of two vectors
(d) C is never equal to A + B. -4
I A I and I B I may be
3. Let the angle between two>nonzero vectors A and B be (a) greater than AB (b) equal to AB
120 and its resultant be C. (c) less than AB (d) equal to zero.
Physics and Mathematics 29

EXERCISES

1. A vector A makes an angle of 20 and B makes an angle 12. Let A, A2213 214 215 As Albe a regular hexagon. Write the
of 110 with the X-axis. The magnitudes of these vectors x-components of the vectors represented by the six sides
are 3 m and 4 m respectively. Find the resultant. taken in order. Use the fact that the resultant of these
-4 six vectors is zero, to prove that
2. Let A and B be the two vectors of magnitude 10 unit cos0 + cosn/3 + cos2n/3 + cos3n/3 + cos4n/3 + cos5n/3 = 0.
each. If they are inclined to the X-axis at angles 30 and
Use the known cosine values to verify the result.
60 respectively, find the resultant.
-> ->
3. Add vectors A, B and C each having magnitude of 100
unit and inclined to the X-axis at angles 45, 135 and
315 respectively.
->
4. Let a = 4 i + 3j and b= 3 i + 4 j (a) Find the magnitudes
- -/
of (a) a , (b) b, (c)a +b and (d) a - b.
5. Refer to figure (2-E1). Find (a) the magnitude, (b) x and
y components and (c) the angle with the X-axis of the
-> -, Figure 2 E2
-

resultant of OA, BC and DE .


- -4 -4
13. Let a=2i+3j+4k and b=3i+4j+5k. Find the
Y
angle between them.
14. Prove that A> (A x 13>
7 ) = O.
-x
0 -9 7> 7> -4
15. IfA=2 t+3 j+ 4k andB=4 t+3 j+2k, findAxB.
-9 7> 7> ->

1.0 m 16. If A, B, C are mutually perpendicular, show that


-9 -4
Et x ( A> x ) = O. Is the converse true ?
Figure 2-El. 17. A particle moves on a given straight line with a constant
speed v. At a certain time it is at a point P on its straight
6. Two vectors have magnitudes 3 unit and 4 unit line path. 0 is a fixed point. Show that OP xv is
respectively. What should be the angle between them if
independent of the position P.
the magnitude of the resultant is (a) 1 unit, (b) 5 unit
and (c) 7 unit. 18. The force on a charged particle due to electric and
-9 -)
7. A spy report about a suspected car reads as follows. "The magnetic fields is given by P-= q E + q v x B. Suppose
->
car moved 2.00 km towards east, made a perpendicular E is along the X-axis and B along the Y-axis. In what
left turn, ran for 500 m, made a perpendicular right direction and with what minimum speed v should a
turn, ran for 4.00 km and stopped". Find the positively charged particle be sent so that the net force
displacement of the car.
on it is zero ?
8. A carrom board (4 ft x 4 ft square) has the queen at the
centre. The queen, hit by the striker moves to the front 19. Give an example for which A.> T3>= C 73 but A>. # C.

edge, rebounds and goes in the hole behind the striking 20. Draw a graph from the following data. Draw tangents
line. Find the magnitude of displacement of the queen at x = 2, 4, 6 and 8. Find the slopes of these tangents.
(a) from the centre to the front edge, (b) from the front Verify that the curve drawn is y = 2x 2 and the slope of
edge to the hole and (c) from the centre to the hole. dy
tangent is tang = T
c x= 4x.
9. A mosquito net over a 7 ft x 4 ft bed is 3 ft high. The
net has a hole at one corner of the bed through which x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
a mosquito enters the net. It flies and sits at the y 2 8 18 32 50 72 98 128 162 200
diagonally opposite upper corner of the net. (a) Find the 21. A curve is represented by y = sin x. If x is changed from
magnitude of the displacement of the mosquito. (b) TC TC
Taking the hole as the origin, the length of the bed as to - + find approximately the change in y.
3 3
the X-axis, its width as the Y-axis, and vertically up as
the Z-axis, write the components of the displacement 22. The electric current in a charging R-C circuit is given
-tIRC
vector. by i =i,e where io , R and C are constant
10. Suppose a is a vector of magnitude 4.5 unit due north. parameters of the circuit and t is time. Find the rate of
What is the vector (a) 3 a, (b) - 4 (7? change of current at (a) t = 0, (b) t = RC, (c) t = 10 RC.
11. Two vectors have magnitudes 2 m and 3 m. The angle 23. The electric current in a discharging R-C circuit is given
-tIRC
between them is 60. Find (a) the scalar product of the by i = ioe where io ,R and C are constant parameters
two vectors, (b) the magnitude of their vector product. and t is time. Let io = 2.00 A, R=6-00 x 10 512
30 Concepts of Physics

and C = 0.500 (a) Find the current at t = 01 s. 30. Write the number of significant digits in (a) 1001,
(b) Find the rate of change of current at t = 0.3 s. (b) 100.1, (c) 100.10, (d) 0.001001.
(c) Find approximately the current at t = 011 s. 31. A metre scale is graduated at every millimetre. How
24. Find the area bounded under the curve y = 3x 2 + 6x + 7 many significant digits will be there in a length
and the X-axis with the ordinates at x = 5 and x = 10. measurement with this scale ?
25. Find the area enclosed by the curve y = sin x and the 32. Round the following numbers to 2 significant digits.
X-axis between x = 0 and x = n.
(a) 3472, (b) 84.16, (c) 2.55 and (d) 28.5.
26. Find the area bounded by the curve y = e', the X-axis
33. The length and the radius of a cylinder measured with
and the Y-axis.
a slide callipers are found to be 4.54 cm and 1.75 cm
27. A rod of length L is placed along the X-axis between
respectively. Calculate the volume of the cylinder.
x = 0 and x = L. The linear density (mass/length) p of
the rod varies with the distance x from the origin as 34. The thickness of a glass plate is measured to be
p = a + bx. (a) Find the SI units of a and b. (b) Find the 2.17 mm, 2.17 mm and 2.18 mm at three different
mass of the rod in terms of a, b and L. places. Find the average thickness of the plate from this
28. The momentum p of a particle changes with time t data.
dp
according to the relation -= (10 N) + (2 N/s)t. If the 35. The length of the string of a simple pendulum is
dt
momentum is zero at t = 0, what will the momentum be measured with a metre scale to be 90.0 cm. The radius
at t = 10 s ? of the bob plus the length of the hook is calculated to
29. The changes in a function y and the independent be 2.13 cm using measurements with a slide callipers.
dy 2 What is the effective length of the pendulum ? (The
variable x are related as -= x . Find y as a function effective length is defined as the distance between the
dx
of x. point of suspension and the centre of the bob.)

ANSWERS

OBJECTIVE I 11. (a) 3 m 2 (b) 343 m2


1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (a) 6. (b) 13. cos-1 (38/ 11450)
15. - 6 r+12/-6
16. no
OBJECTIVE II 18. along Z-axis with speed E IB
1. (a), (c), (d) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (a), (b), (d) 21. 0.0157
5. (b), (c), (d) -io
22. (c)
(a) R
R C- (b)RCe RCe
to

2.00 - 20
EXERCISES 23. (a) A (b)A/s (c) .8 A
3e
1. 5 m at 73 with X-axis 24. 1135
2. 20 cos15 unit at 45 with X-axis 25. 2
3. 100 unit at 45 with X-axis 26. 1
4. (a) 5 (b) 5 (c) 742 (d) i2 27. (a) kg/m, kg/m 2 (b) aL + bL2/2
5. (a) 1.6 m (b) 098 m and 1.3 m respectively 28. 200 kg-m/s
(c) tan-1(1.32) x3
29. y = - + C
3
6. (a) 180 (b) 90 (c) 0
30. (a) 4 (b) 4 (c) 5 (d) 4
7. 6.02 km, tan-1 1
12-
- 31. 1, 2, 3 or 4
2 4 32. (a) 3500 (b) 84 (c) 2.6 (d) 28
8. (a) - loft (b) - oft (c) 242 ft
3 3 33. 43.7 cm'
9. (a) ft (b) 7 ft, 4 ft, 3 ft 34. 2.17 mm
10. (a) 13.5 unit due north (b) 18 unit due south 35. 92.1 cm
CHAPTER 3

REST AND MOTION : KINEMATICS

3.1 REST AND MOTION particle with respect to that frame. Add a clock into
the frame of reference to measure the time. If all the
When do we say that a body is at rest and when three coordinates x, y and z of the particle remain
do we say that it is in motion ? You may say that if a unchanged as time passes, we say that the particle is
body does not change its position as time passes it is at rest with respect to this frame. If any one or more
at rest. If a body changes its position with time, it is coordinates change with time, we say that the body is
said to be moving. But when do we say that it is not moving with respect to this frame.
changing its position ? A book placed on the table There is no rule or restriction on the choice of a
remains on the table and we say that the book is at frame. We can choose a frame of reference according
rest. However, if we station ourselves on the moon (the to our convenience to describe the situation under
Appollo missions have made it possible), the whole
study. Thus, when we are in a train it is convenient
earth is found to be changing its position and so the to choose a frame attached to our compartment. The
room, the table and the book are all continuously coordinates of a suitcase placed on the upper berth do
changing their positions. The book is at rest if it is not change with time (unless the train gives a jerk)
viewed from the room, it is moving if it is viewed from and we say that the suitcase is at rest in the train-
the moon. frame. The different stations, electric poles, trees etc.
Motion is a combined property of the object under change their coordinates and we say that they are
study and the observer. There is no meaning of rest moving in the train-frame. Thus, we say that "Bombay
or motion without the viewer. Nothing is in absolute is coming" and "Pune has already passed".
rest or in absolute motion. The moon is moving with In the following sections we shall assume that the
respect to the book and the book moves with respect frame of reference is already chosen and we are
to the moon. Take another example. A robber enters describing the motion of the objects in the chosen
a train moving at great speed with respect to the frame. Sometimes the choice of the frame is clear from
ground, brings out his pistol and says "Don't move, the context and we do not mention it. Thus, when one
stand still". The passengers stand still. The passengers says the car is travelling and the rickshaw is not, it
are at rest with respect to the robber but are moving is clear that all positions are measured from a frame
with respect to the rail track. attached to the road.

3.2 DISTANCE AND DISPLACEMENT

Suppose a particle is at A at time t1 and at B at


time t2 with respect to a given frame (figure 3.2).
Y

Figure 3.1

To locate the position of a particle we need a frame 0,

of reference. A convenient way to fix up the frame of


reference is to choose three mutually perpendicular z
axes and name them X-Y-Z axes. The coordinates, (x,
y, z) of the particle then specify the position of the Figure 3.2
32 Concepts of Physics

During the time interval t1 to t2 the particle moves INDIA 210/4


along the path ACB. The length of the path ACB is Dyers 42
Average Runrate 5.00
called the distance travelled during the time interval Runs in prey. over:16
t1 to t2. If we connect the initial position A with the
final position B by a straight line, we get the
displacement of the particle. The magnitude of the
displacement is the length of the straight line joining
the initial and the final position. The direction is from
the initial to the final position. The displacement has
both the magnitude as well as the direction. Further Figure 3.3
the displacements add according to the triangle rule
of vector addition. Suppose a particle kept on a table increases the rate. We define the instantaneous speed
is displaced on the table and at the same time the at a time t as follows.
table is also displaced in the room. The net Let As be the distance travelled in the time interval
displacement of the particle in the room is obtained by t to t + At. The average speed in this time interval is
the vector sum of the two displacements. Thus, As
displacement is a vector quantity. In contrast the vav = At
distance covered has only a magnitude and is thus, a Now make At vanishingly small and look for the value
scalar quantity. As
of Remember As is the distance travelled in the
At
Example 3.1
chosen time interval At. As At approaches 0, the
An old person moves on a semi-circular track of radius distance As also approaches zero but the ratio As
&
--has
40.0 m during a morhing walk. If he starts at one end
of the track and reaches at the other end, find the a finite limit.
distance covered and the displacement of the person. The instantaneous speed at a time t is defined as
Solution : The distance covered by the person equals the v lira As ds
... (3.2)
length of the track. It is equal to IrR = IC x 40.0 m 6,t,o At dt
= 126 m. where s is the distance travelled in time t. The average
The displacement is equal to the diameter of the speed is defined for a time interval and the
semi-circular track joining the two ends. It is 2 R = 2 instantaneous speed is defined at a particular instant.
x 40.0 m = 80 m. The direction of this displacement is Instantaneous speed is also called "speed".
from the initial point to the final point.
Example 3.2

The distance travelled by a particle in time t is given


3.3 AVERAGE SPEED AND by s = (2.5 m/s 2) t 2. Find (a) the average speed of the
INSTANTANEOUS SPEED particle during the time 0 to 5.0 s, and (b) the
instantaneous speed at t = 5.0 s.
The average speed of a particle in a time interval
Solution : (a) The distance travelled during time 0 to
is defined as the distance travelled by the particle
divided by the time interval. If the particle travels a 5.0 s is
distance s in time t1 to t2, the average speed is defined s = (2.5 in/s 2) (5.0 s) 2 = 62.5 m.
as The average speed during this time is

vau ... (3.1) 62.5 m


v. = 12.5 m/s.
t2 ti 5s
The average speed gives the overall "rapidity" with which (b) s=(2.5m1s 2)t 2
the particle moves in this interval. In a one-day cricket ds
or, (2'5 m/s 2) (2 t) = (5'0 m/s 2) t.
match, the average run rate is quoted as the total runs dt =
divided by the total number of overs used to make these At t = 5.0 s the speed is
runs. Some of the overs may be expensive and some may ds
v = = (5'0 m/s 2) (5.0 s) = 25 m/s.
be economical. Similarly, the average speed gives the dt
total effect in the given interval. The rapidity or slowness
may vary from instant to instant. When an athelete If we plot the distance s as a function of time
starts running, he or she runs slowly and gradually (figure 3.4), the speed at a time t equals the slope of
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 33

the tangent to the curve at the time t. The average Example 3.3
speed in a time interval t to t + At equals the slope of
the chord AB where A and B are the points on the Figure (3.6) shows the speed versus time graph for a
particle. Find the distance travelled by the particle
during the time t = 0 to t = 3 s.

Figure 3.6
Figure 3.4

Solution : The distance travelled by the particle in the


curve corresponding to the time t and t + At. As At time 0 to 3 s is equal to the area shaded in the figure.
approaches zero, the chord AB becomes the tangent at This is a right angled triangle with height = 6 m/s and
A and the average speed AAt
--becomes the slope of the the base = 3 s. The area is (base) (height) = I x (3 s)
tangent which is 2 (6 m/s) = 9 m. Thus, the particle covered a distance of
9 m during the time 0 to 3 s.
If the speed of the particle at time t is v, the
distance ds travelled by it in the short time interval
t to t + dt is v dt. Thus, ds = vdt. The total distance
3.4 AVERAGE VELOCITY AND
travelled by the particle in a finite time interval t1 to
INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY
t2 can be obtained by summing over these small
distances ds as time changes from t1 to t2. Thus, the The average velocity of a particle in a time interval
distance travelled by a particle in the time interval t1 to t2 is defined as its displacement divided by the
time interval. If the particle is at a point A (figure
3.7) at time t = t1 and at B at time t = t2, the
displacement in this time interval is the vector AB .
The average velocity in this time interval is then,
-->
> AB
va,
t2 - ti
Y
Figure 3.5

t1 to t2 is
t2 x
s = f v dt. ... (3.3)
Z//
ti
Figure 3.7
If we plot a graph of the speed v versus time t, the
distance travelled by the particle can be obtained by
finding the area under the curve. Figure (3.5) shows Like displacement, it is a vector quantity.
such a speed-time graph. To find the distance travelled Position vector : If we join the origin to the position
in the time interval t1 to t2 we draw ordinates from of the particle by a straight line and put an arrow
t = t1 and t = t2. The area bounded by the curve v t, towards the position of the particle, we get the position
the X-axis and the two ordinates at t = t1 and t = t2 vector of the particle. Thus, the position vector:of the
(shown shaded in the figure) gives the total distance particle shown in figure (3.7) at time t = t1is OA and
covered. that at t = t2is OB . The displacement of the particle
The dimension of velocity is LT -1and its SI unit in the time interval t1 to t2 is
-+ > > --> --->
is metre/second abbreviated as m/s. AB = AO + OB = OB OA = r2 r1.
34 Concepts of Physics

The average velocity of a particle in the time interval Ar equals the distance As travelled in that interval. So
t1 to t2 can be written as the magnitude of the velocity is
-> ->
-> r2 -r1 dr I dr 1 ds
vat,- ... (3.4) v- ... (3.6)
t2 - t1 dt dt dt
Note that only the positions of the particle at time which is the instantaneous speed at time t.
t = t1 and t = t2 are used in calculating the average Instantaneous velocity is also called the "velocity".
velocity. The positions in between t1 and t2 are not
needed, hence the actual path taken in going from A 3.5 AVERAGE ACCELERATION AND
to B is not important in calculating the average INSTANTANEOUS ACCELERATION
velocity. If the velocity of a particle remains constant as
Example 3.4
time passes, we say that it is moving with uniform
velocity. If the velocity changes with time, it is said to
A table clock has its minute hand 4.0 cm long. Find the be accelerated. The acceleration is the rate of change
average velocity of the tip of the minute hand (a) between of velocity. Velocity is a vector quantity hence a change
6.00 a.m. to 6.30 a.m. and (b) between 6.00 a.m. to in its magnitude or direction or both will change the
6.30 p.m. velocity.
->
Solution : At 6.00 a.m. the tip of the minute hand is at Suppose the velocity of a particle at time t1 is v1
12 mark and at 6.30 a.m. or 6.30 p.m. it is 180 away. and at time t2 it is v2. The change produced in time
Thus, the straight line distance between the initial and -> ->
interval t1 to t2 is v2 - vi. We define the average
final position of the tip is equal to the diameter of the
clock. acceleration am, as the change in velocity divided by
Displacement = 2 fc = 2 x 4.0 cm = 8.0 cm. the time interval. Thus,
-> ->
The displacement is from the 12 mark to the 6 mark on -> V2 - Vi
aaa - ... (3.7)
the clock panel. This is also the direction of the average t2 - ti
velocity in both cases. Again the average acceleration depends only on the
(a) The time taken from 6.00 a.m. to 6.30 a.m. is 30 velocities at time t1 and t2 . How the velocity changed
minutes = 1800 s. The average velocity is in between t1 and t2 is not important in defining the
Displacement 8.0 cm average acceleration.
Vat, - - 4.4 x 10 -3 cm/s.
time 1800 s Instantaneous acceleration of a particle at time t
(b) The time taken from 6.00 a.m. to 6.30 p.m. is 12 is defined as
->
hours and 30 minutes = 45000 s. The average velocity --> 1.m Av dv
a = - =- ... (3.8)
is et-> o At dt
Displacement 8.0 cm where Av is the change in velocity between the time t
- 1 8 x 10 -4cm/s.
Vav - time - 45000 s and t + At. At time t the velocity is v and at time
-> -> AU
The instantaneous velocity of a particle at a time t + At it becomes v + Av. is the average acceleration
At
t is defined as follows. Let the average velocity of the of the particle in the interval At. As At approaches zero,
particle in a short time interval t to t + At be vau. This this average acceleration becomes the instantaneous
average velocity can be written as acceleration. Instantaneous acceleration is also called
,6,77>
-> "acceleration".
V av = At
The dimension of acceleration is LT -2 and its SI
-> unit is metre/second 2 abbreviated as m/s 2.
where Ar is the displacement in the time interval At.
We now make At vanishingly small and find the
3.6 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE
Ar
limiting value of - . This value is instantaneous
At When a particle is constrained to move on a
-> straight line, the description becomes fairly simple. We
velocity v of the particle at time t.
choose the line as the X-axis and a suitable time
--> Ar dr
v = m - =- ... (3.5) instant as t = 0. Generally the origin is taken at the
et o At dt
point where the particle is situated at t = 0. The
For very small intervals the displacement 67- is along position of the particle at time t is given by its
the line of motion of the particle. Thus, the length coordinate x at that time. The velocity is
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 35

dx 0 to x whereas on the right hand side the summation


v = ... (3.9) is made on time from 0 to t. Evaluating the integrals,
dt
dv the above equation becomes
and the acceleration is a = (3.10)
dt
[x]: = f u dt + f at dt
d (dx) d 2x
.. (3.11)
dt dt dt 2
If dx is positive, the direction of the velocity is or, x = uf dt + t dt
dt
along the positive X-axis and if dx
is negative, the
dt
t [t 2
direction, is along the negative X-axis. Similarly if = u[t] o + a
dt 10
is positive, the acceleration is along the positive X-axis
1 2
and if CIL' is negative, the acceleration is along the or, x = ut + at ... (3.13)
dt 2
negative X-axis. The magnitude of v is speed. If the From equation (3.12),
velocity and the acceleration are both positive, the 2 2
v= + at)
speed increases. If both of them are negative then also
the speed increases but if they have opposite signs, the or,
2 22
= u + 2 uat + a t
speed decreases. When the speed decreases, we say 2 2
that the particle is decelerating. Deceleration is Or, = U 2a ut + -- at
2
1
equivalent to negative acceleration. An acceleration of 2
)

2.0 m/s 2 towards east is same as a deceleration of or, = u + 2ax. (3.14)


2.0 m/s 2 towards west. The three equations (3.12) to (3.14) are collected
below in table 3.1. They are very useful in solving the
Motion with Constant Acceleration
problems of motion in a straight line with constant
Suppose the acceleration of a particle is a and acceleration.
remains constant. Let the velocity at time 0 be u and
the velocity at time t be v. Thus, Table 3.1

dv = a or, dv = a dt v = u + at
dt '
1
at 2
X = Ut +
or, dv = a dt.
2 2
2
v = u + 2ax
As time changes from 0 to t the velocity changes from
u to v. So on the left hand side the summation is made Remember that x represents the position of the
over v from u to v whereas on the right hand side the particle at time t and not (in general) the distance
summation is made on time from 0 to t. Evaluating travelled by it in time 0 to t. For example, if the
the integrals we get, particle starts from the origin and goes upto x = 4 m,
then turns and is at x = 2 m at time t, the distance
[v]. = a[t] 0
travelled is 6 m but the position is still given by
or, v u = at x = 2 m.
or, v = u + at. ... (3.12) The quantities u, v and a may take positive or
Equation (3.12) may be written as negative values depending on whether they are
directed along the positive or negative direction.
dx
= u + at Similarly x may be positive or negative.
dt
or, dx = (u + at)dt Example 3.5
x t A particle starts with an initial velocity 2.5 m/s along
or, J dx = f (u + at)dt. the positive x direction and it accelerates uniformly at
the rate 0.50 m/s 2. (a) Find the distance travelled by it
At t = 0 the particle is at x = 0. As time changes in the first two seconds. (b) How much time does it take
from 0 to t the position changes from 0 to x. So on the to reach the velocity 7.5 m/s ? (c) How much distance will
left hand side the summation is made on position from it cover in reaching the velocity 7.5 m/s ?
36 Concepts of Physics

Solution : (a) We have, a


st = u + - (2 t - 1).
2
x = ut +1at 2
This equation is often used to calculate the displacement
= (2.5 m/s) (2 s) + (0.50 m/s 2) (2 s) 2 in the "tth second". However, as you can verify, different
terms in this equation have different dimensions and
=5-0 m+1-0 m=6-0 m. hence the above equation is dimensionally incorrect.
Since the particle does not turn back it is also the Equation (i) is the correct form which was used to solve
distance travelled. part (b).
(b) We have, Also note that this equation gives the displacement of
v=u+ at the particle in the last 1 second and not necessarily the
distance covered in that second.
or, 7.5 m/s = 2.5 m/s + (0.50 m/s 2) t
75mis - 2-5 in/s
or, t- - 10 s Freely Falling Bodies
0-50 in/s 2
(c) We have, A common example of motion in a straight line
2 2 with constant acceleration is free fall of a body near
v = u + 2ax
the earth's surface. If air resistance is neglected and
or, (7.5 m/s) 2 = (2.5 m/s) 2 + 2(0.50 m/s 2)x a body is dropped near the surface of the earth, it falls
.5m/s) 2 -(2.5 m/s) 2 along a vertical straight line. The acceleration is in the
or, x - (7 2 -50 m. vertically downward direction and its magnitude is
2 x 0.50 m/s
almost constant if the height is small as compared with
the radius of the earth (6400 km). This magnitude is
approximately equal to 9.8 m/s or 32 ft/s 2 and is
Example 3.6
denoted by the letter g.
A particle having initial velocity u moves with a constant If we take vertically upward as the positive Y-axis,
acceleration a for a time t. (a) Find the displacement of acceleration is along the negative Y-axis and we write
the particle in the last 1 second. (b) Evaluate it for a = g. The equation (3.12) to (3.14) may be written

u = 5 m/s, a = 2 in/s 2 and t =10 s. in this case as


Solution : (a) The position at time t is v = u - gt
1 2 1 2
s=ut+ -at y = ut - - gt
2
2
The position at time (t -1 s) is 2 2
V = u - 2gy.
s' = u(t - 1 s) + - a(t - 1 s) 2 Here y is the y-coordinate (that is the height above
2
the origin) at time t, u is the velocity in y direction at
1 2 1
= tit - U(1 S)+ - at - at(1 s) + - a(1 s) 2 t = 0 and v is the velocity in y direction at time t. The
2 2
position of the particle at t = 0 is y = 0.
Thus, the displacement in the last 1 s is
Sometimes it is convenient to choose vertically
st= s - 5'
downward as the positive Y-axis. Then a = g and the
1 equations (3.12) to (3.14) become
= u(1 s) + ata s) - - a (1 s) 2
2
v = u +gt
or, st = u(1 s) + (2 t - 1 s) (1 s). (i) 1 2
y = of + gt
(b) Putting the given values in (i) 2
2= 2
V 2gy.
st = -
s-) (1 s) (2 :--
r12 ) (2 x 10 s - 1 s) (1 s)
Example 3.7
=5m+ s12-
)(19
12 s) (1 s)
A ball is thrown up at a speed of 4.0 in/s. Find the
= 5 m + 19 m = 24 m. maximum height reached by the ball. Take g = 10 m/s2.
Sometimes, we are not careful in writing the units Solution : Let us take vertically upward direction as the
appearing with the numerical values of physical positive Y-axis. We have u = 4.0 m/s and a = -10 m/s2.
quantities. If we forget to write the unit of second in At the highest point the velocity becomes zero. Using
eauation (i), we get, the formula.
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 37

2= 2
V 2ay , dv
and a 1 ... (3.19)
0 = (4.0 m/s) 2 2( 10 m/s 2 )y Y dt

16 ni 2IS 2 We see that the x-coordinate, the x-component of


Or, Y 0 80 m.
20 in/s 2 velocity v and the x-component of acceleration ax are
related by
dx dvx
v= and ax =
3.7 MOTION IN A PLANE x dt dt
These equations are identical to equations (3.9)
If a particle is free to move in a plane, its position
and (3.10). Thus, if ax is constant, integrating these
can be located with two coordinates. We choose the
equations we get
plane of motion as the X-Y plane. We choose a suitable
instant as t = 0 and choose the origin at the place Vx = ax t
where the particle is situated at t = 0. Any two 1 2
X = Uxt axt ... (3.20)
2
convenient mutually perpendicular directions in the 2 2
X-Y plane are chosen as the X and Y-axes. Vx = ux + 2axx
The position of the particle at a time t is completely where ux is the x-component of the velocity at t = 0.
specified by its coordinates (x, y). The coordinates at Similarly we have
time t + At are (x + Ax, y + Ay). Figure (3.8) shows the
dy dv
positions at t and t + At as A and B respectively. The v = and a =
Y dt Y dt
displacement during the time interval t to t + At is
> ---> > and if ay is constant,
Ar = AB = AC + CB
vY =uY +aY t
= t + Ay j 2
> y = uyt + -
2 ayt ... (3.21)
Ar Ax 4 Ay -7> j
or, 2 2
At = At At V), = Uy 2a)3/

B The general scheme for the discussion of motion in


y+Ay a plane is therefore simple. The x-coordinate, the
Ay
y )71 x-component of velocity and the x-component of
acceleration are related by equations of straight line
motion along the X-axis. Similarly the y-coordinate, the
X X + AX X y-component of velocity and the y-component of
acceleration are related by the equations of straight
Figure 3.8 line motion along the Y-axis. The problem of motion
in a plane is thus, broken up into two independent
problems of straight line motion, one along the X-axis
Taking limits as At 0
and the other along the Y-axis.
> dx
dy -7>
v + . ... (3.15)
= at dt Example 3.8
Thus, we see that the x-component of the velocity is
A particle moves in the X-Y plane with a constant
dx
vx = (3.16) acceleration of 1.5 m/s2in the direction making an angle
dt
of 37 with the X-axis. At t = 0 the particle is at the
and the y-component is origin and its velocity is 8.0 m/s along the X-axis. Find
dy the velocity and the position of the particle at t = 4.0 s.
v= ... (3.17)
Y dt

Differentiating (3.15) with respect to time,


>
dv dvx dv
a== + a= 1.5 m/s2
dt dt dt
Thus, the acceleration has components
u = 8.0 m/s
dvx
a = ... (3.18)
x dt Figure 3.9
38 Concepts of Physics

Solution : a= (1.5 m/s 2) (cos37) constant. It is in the vertically downward direction and
its magnitude is g which is about 9.8 m/s 2.
= (1.5 m/s 2) x = 1.2 in/s 2 Let us first make ourselves familiar with certain
terms used in discussing projectile motion. Figure
and ay= (1.5 m/s 2) (sin37)
(3.10) shows a particle projected from the point 0 with
= (1.5 m/s 2) = 0.90 in/s 2. an initial velocity u at an angle 0 with the horizontal.
It goes through the highest point A and falls at B on
The initial velocity has components the horizontal surface through 0. The point 0 is called
ux= 8.0 m/s the point of projection, the angle 0 is called the angle
of projection and the distance OB is called the
and uy =
horizontal range or simply range. The total time taken
At t = 0, x = 0 and y = 0. by the particle in describing the path OAB is called
The x-component of the velocity at time t = 4.0 s is given the time of flight.
by The motion of the projectile can be discussed
vx = ux + axt separately for the horizontal and vertical parts. We
= 8.0 m/s + (1.2 m/s 2) (4.0 s) take the origin at the point of projection. The instant
= 8.0 m/s + 4.8 m/s = 12.8 m/s. Y
The y-component of velocity at t = 4.0 s is given by .........
A
vY =uY +aY t
z
= 0 + (0.90 m/s 2) (4.0 s) = 3.6 m/s.
The velocity of the particle at t = 4.0 s is x
u cosh
V =1/vx Vy2 =1A/(12.8 m/s) 2+ (3.6 m/s) 2
Figure 3.10
= 13.3 m/s.
when the particle is projected is taken as t = 0. The
The velocity makes an angle 0 with the X-axis where
plane of motion is taken as the X-Y plane. The
3.6 m/s 9 horizontal line OX is taken as the X-axis and the
tang - -
vx 12.8 m/s 32 vertical line OY as the Y-axis. Vertically upward
The x-coordinate at t = 4.0 s is direction is taken as the positive direction of the
x = ux t + ax t-
2
2 Y-axis.
We have ux = u cogs ; ax = 0
= (8.0 m/s) (4.0 s) + -12L (1.2 m/s 2) (4.0 s) 2 uy = u sin0 ; ay = - g.
=32 m+ 9.6 m=41.6 m.
Horizontal Motion
The y-coordinate at t = 4.0 s is
As ax = 0, we have
y=uy t+2ay t 2
vx = ux + axt = ux= u cog)
= (0.90 m/s 2) (4-0 s) 2
and x = ux t + ax t 2 = t = /it cose.
= 7.2 m.
As indicated in figure (3.10), the x-component of
Thus, the particle is at (41.6 m, 7.2 m) at 4.0 s. the velocity remains constant as the particle moves.

Vertical Motion
3.8 PROJECTILE MOTION The acceleration of the particle is g in the
downward direction. Thus, a, = - g. The y-component
An important example of motion in a plane with
constant acceleration is the projectile motion. When a of the initial velocity is uy. Thus,
particle is thrown obliquely near the earth's surface, vy = uy -gt
it moves along a curved path. Such a particle is called 1
a projectile and its motion is called projectile motion. and y = uy t 2-
gt 2.
We shall assume that the particle remains close to the
surface of the earth and the air resistance is negligible. Also we have,
2 2
The acceleration of the particle is then almost VY = uy - 2gY
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 39

The vertical motion is identical to the motion of a = u sine gt.


particle projected vertically upward with speed u sine. At the maximum height
The horizontal motion of the particle is identical to a
particle moving horizontally with uniform velocity 0 = u sine gt
u cos. u sine
or, t ... (3.24)
g
Time of Flight
The maximum height is
Consider the situation shown in figure (3.10). The 1
particle is projected from the point 0 and reaches the H = uyt gt 2
same horizontal plane at the point B. The total time 2
taken to reach B is the time of flight. [u sine' 1 (a sine)
= (u sine) 2g g
Suppose the particle is at B at a time t. The g
equation for horizontal motion gives 2 2 2 2
u sin 0 1u sin 0
OB = x = ut cos g 2 g
The y-coordinate at the point B is zero. Thus, from 2 2
u sin 0
the equation of vertical motion, ... (3.25)
2g
2
y = ut sine gt Equation (3.24) gives the time taken in reaching
2 the maximum height. Comparison with equation (3.22)
1 2 shows that it is exactly half the time of the flight.
or, 0 = ut sine gt
2 Thus, the time taken in ascending the maximum
1 height equals the time taken in descending back to the
or, t(u sine gt) = 0.
2 same horizontal plane.
2u sing
Thus, either t = 0 or, t Example 3.9
g
Now t = 0 corresponds to the position 0 of the A ball is thrown from a field with a speed of 12.0 m/s
particle. The time at which it reaches B is thus, at an angle of 45 with the horizontal. At what distance
2u sine will it hit the field again ? Take g = 10.0 m/s 2.
T ... (3.22)
g u 2sin20
Solution : The horizontal range
This is the time of flight. g
(12 m/s) 2 x sin(2 x 45)
Range
10 MiS 2
The distance OB is the horizontal range. It is the
2u sine _ 144 m 2/s2 -14.4 m.
distance travelled by the particle in time T 10.0 m/s 2
g Thus, the ball hits the field at 14.4 m from the point of
By the equation of horizontal motion,
projection.
x = (ucose)t
(2u sine)
or, OB = (u cos())
g
3.9 CHANGE OF FRAME
2u 2sine cos()
g
So far we have discussed the motion of a particle
2 with respect to a given frame of reference. The frame
u sin20 (3.23) can be chosen according to the convenience of the
problem. The position r, the velocity v and the
Maximum Height Reached acceleration a of a particle depend on the frame
At the maximum height (A in figure 3.10) the chosen. Let us see how can we relate the position,
velocity of the particle is horizontal. The vertical velocity and acceleration of a particle measured in two
component of velocity is thus, zero at the highest point. different frames.
The maximum height is the y-coordinate of the particle Consider two frames of reference S and S' and
when the vertical component of velocity becomes zero. suppose a particle P is observed from both the frames.
We have, The frames may be moving with respect to each other.
vy = icy gt Figure (3.11) shows the situation.
40 Concepts of Physics

with respect to the body 2 is obtained by subtracting


Y
the velocity of body 2 from the velocity of body 1.
When we say that the muzzle velocity of a bullet
is 60 m/s we mean the velocity of the bullet with
respect to the gun. If the gun is mounted in a train
x' moving with a speed of 20 m/s with respect to the
ground and the bullet is fired in the direction of the
X
0 train's motion, its velocity with respect to the ground
Figure 3.11
will be 80 m/s. Similarly, when we say that a swimmer
can swim at a speed of 5 km/h we mean the velocity
of the swimmer with respect to the water. If the water
The position vector of the particle P with respect itself is flowing at 3 km/h with respect to the ground
to the frame S is rp,s = OP . The position vector of the and the swimmer swims in the direction of the current,
-> > he or she will move at the speed of 8 km/h with respect
particle with respect to the frame S' is p, s' = O'P . The
to the ground.
position of the frame S' (the origin of frame S' in fact)
with respect to the frame S is 00'. Example 3.10
It is clear that A swimmer can swim in still water at a rate 4.0 km/h.
If he swims in a river flowing at 3.0 km/h and keeps his
OP =00' + O'P = O'P + 00' direction (with respect to water) perpendicular to the
-8 -8 -8
Or, rp, s rp, s ... (3.26) current, find his velocity with respect to the ground.
Solution : The velocity of the swimmer with respect to
The position of the particle with respect to S is
equal to the position of the particle with respect to water is vs, = 4.0 km/h in the direction perpendicular to
S' plus the position off S' with respect to S. the river. The velocity of river with respect to the ground
If we differentiate equation (3.26) with respect to i s V B,G = 3.0 km/h along the length of the river. The
time, we get velocity of the swimmer with respect to the ground is
--> d -> vs,, where
d ->s)= it (rP's.)+ ( S., s)
lt (rP'
-->
50= 85+ V sG
-4 -8 -8
Or, Vp,S= VP, S VS',8 (3.27) Figure (3.12) shows the velocities. It is clear that,
-> V
where vp,sis the velocity of the particle with respect S,R VS ,G
-> i
to S, vp,s, is the velocity of the particle with respect to
-> 4.0 km/h
S' and v s is the velocity of the frame S' with respect
to S. The velocity of the particle with respect to S is
equal to the velocity of the particle with respect to
S' plus the velocity of S' with respect to S.
It is assumed that the meaning of time is same in
both the frames. Similarly it is assumed that has Figure 3.12

same meaning in both the frames. These assumptions V s, G = "q(4.0 km/h) 2+ (3.0 km/h) 2
are not correct if the velocity of one frame with respect
to the other is so large that it is comparable to = 5.0 km/h
3 x 10 8m/s, or if one frame rotates with respect to the The angle 0 made with the direction of flow is
other. If the frames only translate with respect to each
4 km/h 4
other with small velocity, the above assumptions are tan0
3.0 km/h 3
correct.
Equation (3.27) may be rewritten as
->
Up, = V p, s V s ... (3.28)
Example 3.11
Thus, if the velocities of two bodies (here the particle
and the frame S') are known with respect to a common A man is walking on a level road at a speed of 3.0 km/h.
frame (here S) we can find the velocity of one body Rain drops fall vertically with a speed of 4.0 km/h. Find
with respect to the other body. The velocity of body 1 the velocity of the raindrops with respect to the man.

Rest and Motion : Kinematics 41

Solution : We have to find the velocity of raindrops with 3 0 km/h 3


respect to the man. The velocity of the rain as well as tan()
4.0 km/h 4
the velocity of the man are given with respect to the
Thus, the rain appears to fall at an angle tan-1(3/4)
street. We have
with the speed 5.0 km/h as viewed by the man.
V ram., man = V ratn, street V man, street
Figure (3.13) shows the velocities. The relation between the accelerations measured
Vman,street Vman,street = 3.0 km/h
from two frames can be obtained by differentiating
no- equation (3.27) with respect to time.
We have,
d >
, , d --) , d >
rain,street = 4.0 km/h dt yr s)= dt (vp s') dt (v ,,$)

Figure 3.13
or, - s% .
ap, s= ap a s ... (3.29)
If S' moves with respect to S at a uniform velocity,
as., s = 0 and so
It is clear from the figure that
ap, s = ap .
vram, man = -\1(4.0 km/h) 2 +(3.0 km/h) 2
If two frames are moving with respect to each
= 5.0 km/h. other with uniform velocity, acceleration of a body is
The angle with the vertical is 0, where same in both the frames.

Worked Out Examples

1. A man walks at a speed of 6 km/hr for 1 km and 8 km/hr respectively and SI units are used. Find (a) the
for the next 1 km. What is his average speed for the walk dimensions of A, B, C and D, (b) the velocity of the
of 2 km ? particle at t = 4 s, (c) the acceleration of the particle at
Solution : Distance travelled is 2 km. t = 4 s, (d) the average velocity during the interval t = 0
1 km 1 km to t = 4 s, (e) the average acceleration during the interval
Time taken +
- 6 km/hr 8 km/hr t = 0 to t = 4 s.
= (1.+ hr = 24
7 hr. Solution : (a) Dimensions of x, At 3, Bt 2, Ct and D must
8 r.
be identical and in this case each is length. Thus,
2 km x 24 48
Average speed 7 km/hr [At 3] = L, or, [A] = LT-3
7 hr
7 km/hr. [Bt 2] = L, or, [B] =LT -2
[Ct] =L, or, [C] = LT-1
2. The I.Sc. lecture theatre of a college is 40 ft wide and and [D] =L.
has a door at a corner. A teacher enters at 12.00 noon (b) x = At 3 + Bt 2 + Ct + D
through the door and makes 10 rounds along the 40 ft dx
wall back and forth during the period and finally leaves or v = = 3At 2 + 2Bt + C.
dt
the class-room at 12.50 p.m. through the same door. Thus, at t = 4 s, the velocity
Compute his average speed and average velocity. = 3(1 m/s 3) (16 s 2) + 2(4 m/s 2) (4 s) + ( 2 m/s)
Solution : Total distance travelled in 50 minutes = 800 ft. = (48 + 32 2) m/s = 78 m/s.
800 (c) v = 3At 2 + 2Bt + C
Average speed = ft/min = 16 ft/min.
50
dv
At 12.00 noon he is at the door and at 12.50 pm he is or, a =
dt = 6 At + 2 B.
again at the same door.
The displacement during the 50 min interval is zero. At t = 4 s, a = 6(1 m/s 3) (4 s) + 2(4 m/s 2) = 32 m/s 2.
Average velocity = zero. (d) x = At 3 +Bt 2 + Ct +D.
Position at t = 0 is x = D = 5 m.
3. The position of a particle moving on X-axis is given by Position at t = 4 s is
x = At 3 +Bt 2 +Ct + D. (1 m/s 3) (64 s 3) + (4 in/s 2) (16 s 2) (2 m/s) (4 s) + 5 m
The numerical values of A, B, C, D are 1, 4, 2 and 5 = (64 + 64 8 + 5) m = 125 m.
42 Concepts of Physics

Thus, the displacement during 0 to 4 s is 5. A particle starts from rest with a constant acceleration.
125 m 5 m = 120 m. At a time t second, the speed is found to be 100 m/s and
120 m one second later the speed becomes 150 m/s. Find (a) the
Average velocity = 30 m/s. acceleration and (b) the distance travelled during the
4s
(t+l)th second.
(e) v = 3At 2 2Bt + C.
Solution : (a) Velocity at time t is
Velocity at t = 0 is C = 2 m/s.
100 m/s = a.(t second) ... (1)
Velocity at t = 4 s is = 78 m/s.
and velocity at time (t + 1) second is
V2
Average acceleration = 20 m/s 2 . 150 m/s = a. (t + 1). ... (2)
t2
Subtracting (1) from (2), a = 50 m/s 2
4. From the velocity-time graph of a particle given in figure (b) Consider the interval t second to (t + 1) second,
(3-W1), describe the motion of the particle qualitatively time elapsed = 1 s
in the interval 0 to 4 s. Find (a) the distance travelled initial velocity = 100 m/s
during first two seconds, (b) during the time 2 s to 4 s,
final velocity = 150 m/s.
(c) during the time 0 to 4 s, (d) displacement during
0 to 4 s, (e) acceleration at t = 1/2 s and (f) acceleration Thus, (150 m/s) 2 = (100 m/s) 2 + 2(50 m/s 2) x
at t = 2 s. or, x =125 m.

6. A boy stretches a stone against the rubber tape of a


catapult or gulel' (a device used to detach mangoes from
the tree by boys in Indian villages) through a distance
of 24 cm before leaving it. The tape returns to its normal
position accelerating the stone over the stretched length.
The stone leaves the gulel with a speed 2.2 s. Assuming
that the acceleration is constant while the stone was being
pushed by the tape, find its magnitude.
Solution : Consider the accelerated 24 cm motion of the
stone.
Figure 3-W1 Initial velocity = 0
Final velocity = 2-2 m/s
Solution : At t = 0, the particle is at rest, say at the origin.
After that the velocity is positive, so that the particle Distance travelled = 24 cm = 0.24 m
moves in the positive x direction. Its speed increases till Using v 2= u 2 2ax,
1 second 'when it starts decreasing. The particle
continues to move further in positive x direction. At 4-84 m 2/s 2
a 10.1 MiS 2.
t = 2 s, its velocity is reduced to zero, it has moved 2 x 0.24 m
through a maximum positive x distance. Then it changes
its direction, velocity being negative, but increasing in 7. A police inspector in a jeep is chasing a pickpocket on a
magnitude. At t = 3 s velocity is maximum in the straight road. The jeep is going at its maximum speed v
negative x direction and then the magnitude starts (assumed uniform). The pickpocket rides on the
decreasing. It comes to rest at t = 4 s. motorcycle of a waiting friend when the jeep is at a
distance d away, and the motorcycle starts with a
(a) Distance during 0 to 2 s = Area of OAB
constant acceleration a. Show that the pickpocket will be
= x 2 s x 10 m/s = 10 m. caught if v
2
Solution : Suppose the pickpocket is caught at a time t
(b) Distance during 2 to 4 s = Area of BCD = 10 m. The
after the motorcyle starts. The distance travelled by the
particle has moved in negative x direction during this
motorcycle during this interval is
period.
a
(c) The distance travelled during 0 to 4s = 10 m + 10 m
= 20 m. il v=0
(d) displacement during 0 to 4 s = 10 m + ( 10 m) = 0. 0
d
(e) at t = 1/2 s acceleration = slope of line OA = 10 m/s2.
(f) at t = 2 s acceleration = slope of line ABC = 10 m/s 2 . Figure 3-W2
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 43

s=2 at 2. (i) 5x/7


100 km/h)-140 km/h
During this interval the jeep travels a distance
ru-, = 40 x 2
s + d = vt. (ii) Thus,
140 = x
By (i) and (ii),
2 or, oc = OB - BC= x.
- at -vt+d=0
2

If at the beginning of the round trip (wall to the car and


v
2 2ad
or, t- back) the car is at a distance x away, it is 1
7x away
a
The pickpocket will be caught if t is real and positive. when the next trip again starts.
This will be possible if Distance of the. car at the beginning of the 1st
V 2 2ad or, v trip = 20 km.
Distance of the car at the beginning of the 2nd trip
8. A car is moving at a constant speed of 40 km/h along a 3
= - x 20 km.
straight road which heads towards a large vertical wall 7
and makes a sharp 90 turn by the side of the wall. A Distance of the car at the beginning of the 3rd trip
2
fly flying at a constant speed of 100 km/h, starts from
=I 10) X 2 km.
the wall towards the car at an instant when the car is 7
20 km away, flies until it reaches the glasspane of the Distance of the car at the beginning of the 4th trip
car and returns to the wall at the same speed. It continues
to fly between the car and the wall till the car makes the =131 x20 km.
7
90 turn. (a) What is the total distance the fly has
travelled during this period ? (b) How many trips has it Distance of the car at the beginning of the nth trip
made between the car and the wall ?
n
1)
7
X 20 km.
Solution : (a) The time taken by the car to cover 20 km (

201un1 Trips will go on till the car reaches the turn that is the
before the turn is h. The fly moves at a
40 km/h - 2 distance reduces to zero. This will be the case when n
constant speed of 100 km/h during this time. Hence the becomes infinity. Hence the fly makes an infinite
total distance coverd by it is 100 x h = 50 km.
kh
m number of trips before the car takes the turn.
(b) Suppose the car is at a distance x away (at A) when
the fly is at the wall (at 0). The fly hits the glasspane 9. A ball is dropped from a height of 19.6 m above the
at B, taking a time t. Then ground. It rebounds from the ground and raises itself up
AB = (40 km/h)t, to the same height. Take the starting point as the origin
and OB = (100 km/h)t. and vertically downward as the positive X-axis. Draw
approximate plots of x versus t, v versus t and a versus
Thus, x =AB + OB
t. Neglect the small interval during which the ball was
= (140 km/h)t in contact with the ground.
5
or, t Solution : Since the acceleration of the ball during the
- 140 km/h B= 7 x.
contact is different from 'g', we have to treat the
downward motion and the upward motion separately.
For the downward motion : a =g = 9.8 m/s 2,
2
0 X = Ut + at = (4.9 m/s 2)t 2.
A 2
The ball reaches the ground when x = 19.6 m. This gives
t = 2 s. After that it moves up, x decreases and at
Figure 3-W3
t = 4 s, x becomes zero, the ball reaching the initial point.
We have at t = 0, x=0
The fly returns to the wall and during this period the
car moves the distance BC. The time taken by the fly t = 1 s, x = 4.9 m
in this return path is t = 2 s, x = 19.6 m
t = 3 s, x = 4.9 m
t=4s, x = 0.
44 Concepts of Physics

as the positive X-axis. If it reaches the ground at


time t,
x = - 50 m, u = 5 m/s, a = - 10 in/s 2.
1 2
We have x = ut + - at
2
or, - 50 m = (5 mls).t + x (- 10 m/s 2)t 2
Figure 3-W4
1
or, t- 2 s.
Velocity : During the first two seconds,
Or, t = - 2.7 s or, 3.7 s.
v = u + at = (9.8 m/s 2)t
at t = 0 v=0 Negative t has no significance in this problem. The stone
reaches the ground at t = 3.7 s. During this time the
at t =1 s, v = 9.8 m/s
balloon has moved uniformly up. The distance covered
at t = 2 s, v= 19.6 m/s. by it is
During the next two seconds the ball goes upward,
5 in/s x 3-7 s = 18.5 m.
velocity is negative, magnitude decreasing and at
t = 4 s, v = 0. Thus, Hence, the height of the balloon when the stone reaches
the ground is 50 m + 18.5 m = 68.5 m.
at t = 2 s, v = - 19-6 in/s
at t = 3 s, v = - 9.8 m/s 11. A football is kicked with a velocity of 20 m/s at an angle
at t= 4 s, v = 0. of 45 with the horizontal. (a) Find the time taken by the
ball to strike the ground. (b) Find the maximum height
it reaches. (c) How far away from the kick does it hit the
ground ? Take g = 10 m/s 2.
Solution : (a) Take the origin at the point where the ball
t (second) is kicked, vertically upward as the Y-axis and the
horizontal in the plane of motion as the X-axis. The
initial velocity has the components
ux= (20 m/s) cos45 = 10 .
12 m/s
Figure 3-W5 and u = (20 m/s) sin45 = 10 I2 m/s.
When the ball reaches the ground, y = 0.
At t = 2 s there is an abrupt change in velocity from
1 2
19.6 m/s to -19.6 m/s. In fact this change in velocity Using y = uyt - gt ,
takes place over a small interval during which the ball
0 = (10- m/s)t - x (10 m/s2) x t 2
remains in contact with the ground.
Acceleration : The acceleration is constant 9.8 m/s 2 Or, t = 242 s = 2.8 s.
throughout the motion (except at t = 2 s).
Thus, it takes 2.8 s for the football to fall on the ground.
(b) At the highest point vy= 0. Using the equation
10 mis2
2 2
vy = 2 gy,,
1 2 3 4 t (second) 0 = (10q1 m/s) 2 2 x(10 m/s 2) H
10 m/s2 or, H= 10 m.
Thus, the maximum height reached is 10 m.
Figure 3-W6
(c) The horizontal distance travelled before falling to the
ground is x = uxt
10. A stone is dropped from a balloon going up with a = (10NIT m/s) (2T2-s) = 40 m.
uniform velocity of 5.0 m/s. If the balloon was 50 m high
when the stone was dropped, find its height when the
12. A helicopter on flood relief mission, flying horizontally
stone hits the ground. Take g = 10 m/s 2. with a speed u at an altitude H, has to drop a food packet
Solution : At t = 0, the stone was going up with a velocity for a victim standing on the ground. At what distance
of 5.0 m/s. After that it moved as a freely falling particle from the victim should the packet be dropped ? The victim
with downward acceleration g. Take vertically upward stands in the vertical plane of the helicopter's motion.
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 45

Solution : The velocity of the food packet at the time of Eliminating t from (i) and (ii)
release is u and is horizontal. The vertical velocity at 1 x2
y
the time of release is zero. = g
Also y = x tan.
2
2u 2tanO
Thus, = x tan() giving x = 0, or,
2u
H 2u 2 tan()
Clearly the point P corresponds to x ,
g
2u 2 tan20
then y = x tan
D g
Figure 3 W7 - The distance AP =1=11x 2 +y 2
Vertical motion : If t be the time taken by the packet 2u 2
to reach the victim, we have for vertical motion, = tan9 + tan 20
g
2
1 2 F
H 2u
H = gt or, t= (i) = tam seam
g
Horizontal motion : If D be the horizontal distance Alternatively : Take the axes as shown in
travelled by the packet, we have D = ut. Putting t from figure 3-W9. Consider the motion between A and P.
(i),

D= I

The distance between the victim and the packet at the


time of release is

6 2 +H 2 = 112u 21114,2 .
Figure 3 W9 -

13. A particle is projected horizontally with a speed u from Motion along the X-axis :
the top of a plane inclined at an angle 0 with the Initial velocity = u cose
horizontal. How far from the point of projection will the Acceleration =g sine
particle strike the plane?
Displacement = AP.
Solution : Take X,Y-axes as shown in figure (3-W8).
Suppose that the particle strikes the plane at a point P Thus, AP = (u cos 0) t (g sin 0) t 2. (i)
with coordinates (x, y). Consider the motion between A Motion along the Y-axis :
and P. Initial velocity = u sine
Acceleration =g cos0
Displacement = 0.
1 2
Thus, 0 = ut sine + gt cos0
2
2u sine
or, t = 0,
g cose
Figure 3 W8 - 2u sin
Clearly, the point P corresponds to t
Motion in x-direction : g cos0
Initial velocity = u Putting this value of t in (i),
Acceleration = 0
2u g sin() (2u sin0)2
x = ut. (i) AP = (u cose)
g co s0 2 g cos()
Motion in y-direction :
Initial velocity = 0 2u 2 sine 2u 2 sine tang
Acceleration =g g g
2
1 2 2u 2 2u 2
y =- gt . (ii) = sine sec 0 = tan0 sec0.
2
46 Concepts of Physics

14. A projectile is fired with a speed u at an angle 9 with


the horizontal. Find its speed when its direction of motion
makes an angle a with the horizontal.
Solution : Let the speed be v when it makes an angle a
with the horizontal. As the horizontal component of
velocity remains constant,
v cosa = u cos()
Figure 3 W11
-

Or, v = u cos9 seca.


v,,,.= velocity of the man with respect to the river
15. A bullet is fired horizontally aiming at an object which = 3 km/h making an angle 9 with the Y-axis
starts falling at the instant the bullet is fired. Show that and v,, g = velocity of the man with respect to the
the bullet will hit the object. ground along the Y-axis.
Solution : The situation is shown in figure (3-W10). The We have
-4 -)
object starts falling from the point B. Draw a vertical Vin, g = Vr, g (i)
line BC through B. Suppose the bullet reaches the line TakingcomponentsalongtheX-axis
BC at a point D and it takes a time t in doing so.
0 = (3 km/h)sin0 + 2 km/h
A. 2
or, sing =
3

(b) Taking components in equation (i) along the Y-axis,


= (3 km/h) cos0 + 0
or, v,,g= 45 km/h.
Displacement in y direction
Time
Velocity in y direction
Figure 3-W10
0.5 km 45

45 km/h 10 h.
Consider the vertical motion of the bullet. The initial
vertical velocity = 0. The distance travelled vertically 17. A man can swim at a speed of 3 km/h in still water. He
1 2 wants to cross a 500 m wide river flowing at 2 km/h. He
= BD =- gt In time t the object also travels a distance
2
keeps himself always at an angle of 120 with the river
gt 2 = BD. Hence at time t, the object will also be at flow while swimming.
2
the same point D. Thus, the bullet hits the object at (a) Find the time he takes to cross the river. (b) At what
point D. point on the opposite bank will he arrive ?
Solution : The situation is shown in figure (3-W12).

16. A man can swim in still water at a speed of 3 km/h. He


wants to cross a river that flows at 2 km/h and reach
the point directly opposite to his starting point. (a) In
which direction should he try to swim (that is, find the
angle his body makes with the river flow) ? (b) How much
time will he take to cross the river if the river is 500 m
wide ?
Solution : (a) The situation is shown in figure (3-W11).
The X-axis is chosen along the river flow and the origin
at the starting position of the man. The direction of the
velocity of man with respect to ground is along the Y-axis
(perpendicular to the river). We have to find the Figure 3 W12
-

direction of velocity of the man with respect to water.


Let vr, g= velocity of the river with respect to the Here vr,g= velocity of the river with respect to the ground
ground
r= velocity of the man with respect to the river
= 2 km/h along the X-axis
v m,g = velocity of the man with respect to the ground.
- -

Rest and Motion : Kinematics 47

(a) We have, Taking vertical components, equation (i) gives


-4 -->
V m, g V m, r V r, g (i) vr,gcos30 m
Hence, the velocity with respect to the ground is along 3
or, Ur , m = (20 km/h)
2
AC. Taking y-components in equation (i),
343 = 1043 km/h.
vm,g sine = 3 km/h cos30 + 2 km/h cos90 = km/h.
2
Time taken to cross the river 19. A man running on a horizontal road at 8 km/h finds the
displacement along the Y-axis rain falling vertically. He increases his speed to 12 km/h
velocity along the Y-axis and finds that the drops make angle 30 with the vertical.
1/2 km 1 Find the speed and direction of the rain with respect to
h
343/2 km/h 3 /3 . the road.
(b) Taking x-components in equation (i), Solution :
-4 -4 -4
vm,g core = 3 km/h sin30 + 2 km/h We have (i)
Drain, road = Drain, man + V man, road
1 The two situations given in the problem may be
2 represented by the following figure.
Displacement along the X-axis as the man crosses the
river
= (velocity along the X-axis) (time)
(1 km) x 1hj= kin
2h 343 643

18. A man standing on a road has to hold his umbrella at


30 with the vertical to keep the rain away. He throws
the umbrella and starts running at 10 km/h. He finds (a) (b)
that raindrops are hitting his head vertically. Find the
Figure 3-W14
speed of raindrops with respect to (a) the road, (b) the
moving man.
Drain, road is same in magnitude and direction in both the
Solution : When the man is at rest with respect to the
figures.
ground, the rain comes to him at an angle 30 with the
Taking horizontal components in equation (i) for figure
vertical. This is the direction of the velocity of raindrops
(3-W14a),
with respect to the ground. The situation when the man
Drain, road sina = 8km/h. (ii)
runs is shown in the figure (3-W13b).
Now consider figure (3-W14b). Draw a line
OA 1 Drain,man as shown.
Taking components in equation (i) along the line OA.
II rain, road sin(30+ a) = 12 km/h cos30. (iii)
From (ii) and (iii),
sin(30 + a) 12 x 43
sina - 8 x 2
sin3O'cosa + cos30sina 343
or,
(a) (b) (c) sina 4
Figure 3-W13 1 43 33
or, - 2= 4
2cota + 4
->
Here vr,g= velocity of the rain with respect to the ground I3
Vm, g = velocity of the man with respect to the ground or, cota =
2

and vr, = velocity of the rain with respect to the man. ,-1 43
-> or, a=
2
We have, Vg= V m, g (i)
Taking horizontal components, equation (i) gives 8 km/h
From (ii), V rain, road = sina - 447 km/h.
vr,gsin30 = vm,g= 10 km/h
g 10 km/h
km/h
Or, Ur, 20 km/h, 20. Three particles A, B and C are situated at the vertices
sin30
of an equilateral triangle ABC of side d at t = 0. Each
48 Concepts of Physics

of the particles moves with constant speed v. A always particle, say A. At any instant its velocity makes angle
has its velocity along AB, B along BC and C along CA. 30 with AO.
At what time will the particles meet each other ? The component of this velocity along AO is v cos30. This
Solution : The motion of the particles is roughly sketched component is the rate of decrease of the distance AO.
in figure (3-W15). By symmetry they will meet at the Initially,
2
Ao 2#\id 2 ()
3 2 43

Therefore, the time taken for AO to become zero


d /43 2d 2d
v cos30 43 v x 43 3v
Alternative : Velocity of A is v along AB. The velocity
of B is along BC. Its component along BA is v cos 60
= v/2. Thus, the separation AB decreases at the rate
v 3v
v+ =
2 2
Since this rate is constant, the time taken in reducing
the separation AB from d to zero is
Figure 3 W15
-

d 2d
centroid 0 of the triangle. At any instant the particles '= 3v = 3v
will form an equilateral triangle ABC with the same 2
centriod 0. Concentrate on the motion of any one

QUESTIONS FOR SHORT ANSWER

1. Galileo was punished by the Church for teaching that 2a for the first half and a for the second half. Which
the sun is stationary and the earth moves around it. His particle has covered larger distance ?
opponents held the view that the earth is stationary and 8. If a particle is accelerating, it is either speeding up or
the sun moves around it. If the absolute motion has no speeding down. Do you agree with this statement ?
meaning, are the two, viewpoints not equally correct or
equally wrong ? 9. A food packet is dropped from a plane going at an
altitude of 100 m. What is the path of the packet as
2. When a particle moves with constant velocity, its
seen from the plane ? What is the path as seen from the
average velocity, its instantaneous velocity and its speed
ground ? If someone asks "what is the actual path", what
are all equal. Comment on this statement.
will you answer ?
3. A car travels at a speed of 60 km/hr due north and the
other at a speed of 60 km/hr due east. Are the velocities 10. Give examples where (a) the velocity of a particle is zero
equal ? If no, which one is greater ? If you find any of but its acceleration is not zero, (b) the velocity is opposite
the questions irrelevant, explain. in direction to the acceleration, (c) the velocity is
perpendicular to the acceleration.
4. A ball is thrown vertically upward with a speed of 20
m/s. Draw a graph showing the velocity of the ball as a 11. Figure (3-Q1) shows the x coordinate of a particle as a
function of time as it goes up and then comes back. function of time. Find the signs of vx and ax at t =
5. The velocity of a particle is towards west at an instant. t = t2 and t = t3.
Its acceleration is not towards west, not towards east,
not towards north and not towards south. Give an x
example of this type of motion.
6. At which point on its path a projectile has the smallest
speed ?
7. Two particles A and B start from rest and move for equal
time on a straight line. The particle A has an
acceleration a for the first half of the total time and 2a
for the second half. The particle B has an acceleration Figure 3-Q1
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 49

12. A player hits a baseball at some angle. The ball goes accelerate a car without putting more petrol or less
high up in space. The player runs and catches the ball petrol into the engine ?
before it hits the ground. Which of the two (the player 14. Rain is falling vertically. A man running on the road
or the ball) has greater displacement ? keeps his umbrella tilted but a man standing on the
13. The increase in the speed of a car is proportional to the street keeps his umbrella vertical to protect himself from
additional petrol put into the engine. Is it possible to the rain. But both of them keep their umbrella vertical
to avoid the vertical sun-rays. Explain.

OBJECTIVE I

1. A motor car is going due north at a speed of 50 km/h. V1 V2


It makes a 90 left turn without changing the speed. (a) v (b) v = .N1v1v2
2
The change in the velocity of the car is about 1 1 1 1
(a) 50 km/h towards west (c) =
2 +- (d) = + 1
v V1 V2 v V1 V2
(b) 70 km/h towards south-west
6. A stone is released from an elevator going up with an
(c) 70 km/h towards north-west
acceleration a. The acceleration of the stone after the
(d) zero.
release is
2. Figure (3-Q2) shows the displacement-time graph of a (a) a upward (b) (g a) upward
particle moving on the X-axis. (c) a) downward (d) g downward.
x 7. A person standing near the edge of the top of a building
throws two balls A and B. The ball A is thrown vertically
upward and B is thrown vertically downward with the
same speed. The ball A hits the ground with a speed v,
and the ball B hits the ground with a speed v,. We have
to (a) v, > v,, (b) v < v (c) vA = v,
(d) the relation between v, and v, depends on height of
Figure 3-Q2 the building above the ground.
8. In a projectile motion the velocity
(a) the particle is continuously going in positive x (a) is always perpendicular to the acceleration
direction (b) is never perpendicular to the acceleration
(b) the particle is at rest (c) is perpendicular to the acceleration for one instant
(c) the velocity increases up to a time to, and then only
becomes constant (d) is perpendicular to the acceleration for two instants.
(d) the particle moves at a constant velocity up to a time 9. Two bullets are fired simultaneously, horizontally and
to , and then stops. with different speeds from the same place. Which bullet
will hit the ground first ?
3. A particle has a velocity u towards east at t = 0. Its
(a) the faster one (b) the slower one
acceleration is towards west and is constant. Let x, and
(c) both will reach simultaneously
xBbe the magnitude of displacements in the first 10 (d) depends on the masses.
seconds and the next 10 seconds
10. The range of a projectile fired at an angle of 15 is
(a) x, < x, (b) x, = x, (c) x, > x,
50 m. If it is fired with the same speed at an angle of
(d) the information is insufficient to decide the relation
45, its range will be
of x, with x,.
(a) 25 m (b) 37 m (c) 50 m (d) 100 m.
4. A person travelling on a straight line moves with a
11. Two projectiles A and B are projected with angle of
uniform velocity v1for some time and with uniform
projection 15 for the projectile A and 45 for the
velocity v2 for the next equal time. The average velocity
projectile B. If RA and RB be the horizontal range for the
is given by
two projectiles, then
V i + V2
(a) v (b) v = -%ct7
1. 2- (a) R, < RB (b) R, = RB (c) RA > RB
2 (d) the information is insufficient to decide the relation
(c)_2 1 1 1
1 +1.
(d) = of RA with R, .
v v1 v2 v v1 v2
12. A river is flowing from west to east at a speed of 5
5. A person travelling on a straight line moves with a metres per minute. A man on the south bank of the
uniform velocity vi for a distance x and with a uniform river, capable of swimming at 10 metres per minute in
velocity v2 for the next equal distance. The average still water, wants to swim across the river in the shortest
velocity v is given by time. He should swim in a direction
50 Concepts of Physics

(a) due north (b) 30 east of north


(c) 30 north of west (d) 60 east of north.
13. In the arrangement shown in figure (3-Q3), the ends P
and Q of an inextensible string move downwards with
uniform speed u. Pulleys A and B are fixed. The mass
M moves upwards with a speed
(a) 2u cosO (b) u/cos0 (c) 2u/cos() (d) ucos0. Figure 3 Q3
-

OBJECTIVE II

1. Consider the motion of the tip of the minute hand of a 6. The velocity of a particle is zero at t = 0.
clock. In one hour (a) The acceleration at t = 0 must be zero.
(a) the displacement is zero (b) The acceleration at t = 0 may be zero.
(b) the distance covered is zero (c) If the acceleration is zero from t = 0 to t = 10 s, the
(c) the average speed is zero speed is also zero in this interval.
(d) the average velocity is zero (d) If the speed is zero from t = 0 to t = 10 s the
2. A particle moves along the X-axis as acceleration is also zero in this interval.
x = u(t 2 s)+ a(t 2 s) 2. 7. Mark the correct statements :
(a) the initial velocity of the particle is u (a) The magnitude of the velocity of a particle is equal
(b) the accelerati?n of the particle is a to its speed.
(c) the acceleration of the particle is 2a (b) The magnitude of average velocity in an interval is
(d) at t = 2 s particle is at the origin.
equal to its average speed in that interval.
3. Pick the correct statements : (c) It is possible to have a situation in which the speed
(a) Average speed of a particle in a given time is never of a particle is always zero but the average speed is not
less than the magnitude of the average velocity. zero.
dv (d) It is possible to have a situation in which the speed
(b) It is possible to have a situation in which T # 0
it of the particle is never zero but the average speed in an
d
but
dt
I = O. interval is zero.
8. The velocity-time plot for a particle moving on a straight
(c) The average velocity of a particle is zero in a time line is shown in the figure (3-Q4).
interval. It is possible that the instantaneous velocity is
never zero in the interval.
(d) The average velocity of a particle moving on a
straight line is zero in a time interval. It is possible that
the instantaneous velocity is never zero in the interval.
(Infinite accelerations are not allowed.)
4. An object may have
(a) varying speed without having varying velocity
(b) varying velocity without having varying speed Figure 3 Q4
-

(c) nonzero acceleration without having varying velocity


(d) nonzero acceleration without having varying speed. (a) The particle has a constant acceleration.
5. Mark the correct statements for a particle going on a (b) The particle has never turned around.
straight line : (c) The particle has zero displacement.
(a) If the velocity and acceleration have opposite sign, (d) The average speed in the interval 0 to 10 s is the
the object is slowing down. same as the average speed in the interval 10 s to 20 s.
(b) If the position and velocity have opposite sign, the 9. Figure (3-Q5) shows the position of a particle moving on
particle is moving towards the origin. the X-axis as a function of time.
(c) If the velocity is zero at an instant, the acceleration (a) The particle has come to rest 6 times.
should also be zero at that instant. (b) The maximum speed is at t = 6 s.
(d) If the velocity is zero for a time interval, the (c) The velocity remains positive for t = 0 to t = 6 s.
acceleration is zero at any instant within the time (d) The average velocity for the total period shown is
interval. negative.
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 51

x (m) 10. The accelerations of a particle as seen from two frames


20 S, and S2have equal magnitude 4 m/s 2.
(a) The frames must be at rest with respect to each
other.
10 (b) The frames may be moving with respect to each other
but neither should be accelerated with respect to the
other.
(c) The acceleration of S2with respect to S1may either
Figure 3-Q5 be zero or 8 m/s 2.
(d) The acceleration of S2with respect to S1 may be
anything between zero and 8 m/s,

EXERCISES

1. A man has to go 50 m due north, 40 m due east and No) 5.0


20 m due south to reach a field. (a) What distance he
has to walk to reach the field ? (b) What is his C

displacement from his house to the field ? 00


,

10 . 20 30 Time in second
2. A particle starts from the origin, goes along the X-axis
to the point (20 m, 0) and then returns along the same 8
4-5.0
line to the point (-20 m, 0). Find the distance and
displacement of the particle during the trip.
3. It is 260 km from Patna to Ranchi by air and 320 km Figure 3-E2
by road. An aeroplane takes 30 minutes to go from Patna
to Ranchi whereas a delux bus takes 8 hours. (a) Find acceleration, (b) the distance travelled in 0 to 10 s and
the average speed of the plane. (b) Find the average (c) the displacement in 0 to 10 s.
speed of the bus. (c) Find the average velocity of the v (in m/s)
plane. (d) Find the average velocity of the bus.
8
4. When a person leaves his home for sightseeing by his 6
car, the meter reads 12352 km. When he returns home
after two hours the reading is 12416 km. (a) What is the 4
average speed of the car during this period ? (b) What
is the average velocity ?
0 5 10 t (second)
5. An athelete takes 2.0 s to reach his maximum speed of
18.0 km/h. What is the magnitude of his average
Figure 3-E3
acceleration ?
6. The speed of a car as a function of time is shown in
figure (3-E1). Find the distance travelled by the car in 9. Figure (3-E4) shows the graph of the x-coordinate of a
8 seconds and its acceleration. particle going along the X-axis as a function of time.
Find (a) the average velocity during 0 to 10 s,
"h- 20 (b) instantaneous velocity at 2, 5, 8 and 12s.

10
0.
CO

2 4 6 8 10
Time in second

Figure 3-E1
2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0

Figure 3-E4
7. The acceleration of a cart started at t = 0, varies with
time as shown in figure (3-E2). Find the distance
travelled in 30 seconds and draw the position-time graph.
8. Figure (3-E3) shows the graph of velocity versus time 10. From the velocitytime plot shown in figure (3-E5), find
for a particle going along the X-axis. Find (a) the the distance travelled by the particle during the first 40
52 Concepts of Physics

seconds. Also find the average velocity during this 17. A bullet going with speed 350 m/s enters a concrete wall
period. and penetrates a distance of 5.0 cm before coming to
rest. Find the deceleration.
18. A particle starting from rest moves with constant
acceleration. If it takes 5.0 s to reach the speed 18.0
km/h find (a) the average velocity during this period,
and (b) the distance travelled by the particle during this
period.
19. A driver takes 0.20 s to apply the brakes after he sees
a need for it. This is called the reaction time of the
Figure 3-E5 driver. If he is driving a car at a speed of 54 km/h and
the brakes cause a deceleration of 6.0 m/s2, find the
distance travelled by the car after he sees the need to
11. Figure (3-E6) shows x-t graph of a particle. Find the
time t such that the average velocity of the particle put the brakes on.
during the period 0 to t is zero. 20. Complete the following table :
x in m
Driver X Driver Y
20 Car Model Reaction time 0'20 s Reaction time 0'30 s
A (deceleration Speed = 54 km/h Speed = 72 km/h
10 on hard braking Braking distance Braking distance
= 6'0 m/s 2) a= c =
Total stopping Total stopping
0 10 20 distance distance
t in second b= d=

Figure 3-E6 B (deceleration Speed = 54 km/h Speed = 72km/h


on hard braking Braking distance Braking distance
= 7'5 m/s 2) e= g=
12. A particle starts from a point A and travels along the Total stopping Total stopping
distance distance
solid curve shown in figure (3-E7). Find approximately h=
f=
the position B of the particle such that the average
velocity between the positions A and B has the same 21. A police jeep is chasing a culprit going on a motorbike.
direction as the instantaneous velocity at B. The motorbike crosses a turning at a speed of 72 km/h.
The jeep follows it at a speed of 90 km/h, crossing the
turning ten seconds later than the bike. Assuming that
A
4m they travel at constant speeds, how far from the turning
will the jeep catch up with the bike ?
22. A car travelling at 60 km/h overtakes another car
travelling at 42 km/h. Assuming each car to be 5.0 m
long, find the time taken during the overtake and the
total road distance used for the overtake.
23. A ball is projected vertically upward with a speed of
Figure 3-E7 50 m/s. Find (a) the maximum height, (b) the time to
reach the maximum height, (c) the speed at half the
maximum height. Take g = 10 m/s2.
13. An object having a velocity 4.0 m/s is accelerated at the
rate of P2 m/s2 for 5.0 s. Find the distance travelled 24. A ball is dropped from a balloon going up at a speed of
during the period of acceleration. 7 m/s. If the balloon was at a height 60 m at the time
14. A person travelling at 43.2 km/h applies the brake giving of dropping the ball, how long will the ball take in
a deceleration of 6.0 m/s 2 to his scooter. How far will it reaching the ground ?
travel before stopping ? 25. A stone is thrown vertically upward with a speed of
15. A train starts from rest and moves with a constant 28 m/s. (a) Find the maximum height reached by the
acceleration of 2.0 m/s 2 for half a minute. The brakes stone. (b) Find its velocity one second before it reaches
are then applied and the train comes to rest in one the maximum height. (c) Does the answer of part
minute. Find (a) the total distance moved by the train, (b) change if the initial speed is more than 28 m/s such
(b) the maximum speed attained by the train and (c) the as 40 m/s or 80 m/s ?
position(s) of the train at half the maximum speed. 26. A person sitting on the top of a tall building is dropping
16. A bullet travelling with a velocity of 16 m/s penetrates balls at regular intervals of one second. Find the
a tree trunk and comes to rest in 0.4 m. Find the time positions of the 3rd, 4th and 5th ball when the 6th ball
taken during the retardation. is being dropped.
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 53

27. A healthy youngman standing at a distance of 7 m from Assume that the length of the bike is 5 ft, and it leaves
a 11.8 m high building sees a kid slipping from the top the road when the front part runs out of the approach
floor. With what speed (assumed uniform) should he run road.
to catch the kid at the arms height (1.8 m) ? 37. A person standing on the top of a cliff 171 ft high has
28. An NCC parade is going at a uniform speed of 6 km/h to throw a packet to his friend standing on the ground
through a place under a berry tree on which a bird is 228 ft horizontally away. If he throws the packet directly
sitting at a height of 12.1 m. At a particular instant the aiming at the friend with a speed of 15.0 ft/s, how short
bird drops a berry. Which cadet (give the distance from will the packet fall ?
the tree at the instant) will receive the berry on his 38. A ball is projected from a point on the floor with a speed
uniform ? of 15 m/s at an angle of 60 with the horizontal. Will it
29. A ball is dropped from a height. If it takes 0.200 s to hit a vertical wall 5 m away from the point of projection
cross the last 6.00 m before hitting the ground, find the and perpendicular to the plane of projection without
height from which it was dropped. Take g = 10 m/s 2. hitting the floor ? Will the answer differ if the wall is
30. A ball is dropped from a height of 5 m onto a sandy floor 22 m away ?
and penetrates the sand up to 10 cm before coming to 39. Find the average velocity of a projectile between the
rest. Find the retardation of the ball in sand assuming instants it crosses half the maximum height. It is
it to be uniform. projected with a speed u at an angle 0 with the
31. An elevator is descending with uniform acceleration. To horizontal.
measure the acceleration, a person in the elevator drops 40. A bomb is dropped from a plane flying horizontally with
a coin at the moment the elevator starts. The coin is 6 uniform speed. Show that the bomb will explode
ft above the floor of the elevator at the time it is dropped. vertically below the plane. Is the statement true if the
The person observes that the coin strikes the floor in 1 plane flies with uniform speed but not horizontally ?
second. Calculate from these data the acceleration of the
41. A boy standing on a long railroad car throws a ball
elevator.
straight upwards. The car is moving on the horizontal
32. A ball is thrown horizontally from a point 100 m above road with an acceleration of 1 m/s 2 and the projection
the ground with a speed of 20 m/s. Find (a) the time it velocity in the vertical direction is 9.8 m/s. How far
takes to reach the ground, (b) the horizontal distance it behind the boy will the ball fall on the car ?
travels before reaching the ground, (c) the velocity
(direction and magnitude) with which it strikes the 42. A staircase contains three steps each 10 cm high and
ground. 20 cm wide (figure 3-E9). What should be the minimum
horizontal velocity of a ball rolling off the uppermost
33. A ball is thrown at a speed of 40 m/s at an angle of 60 plane so as to hit directly the lowest plane ?
with the horizontal. Find (a) the maximum height
reached and (b) the range of the ball. Take g = 10 m/s 2 . -----------

34. In a soccer practice session the football is kept at the


centre of the field 40 yards from the 10 ft high goalposts.
A goal is attempted by kicking the football at a speed
of 64 ft/s at an angle of 45 to the horizontal. Will the
ball reach the goal post ? Figure 3 E9
-

35. A popular game in Indian villages is goli which is played


with small glass balls called golis. The goli of one player
is situated at a distance of 2.0 m from the goli of the 43. A person is standing on a truck moving with a constant
second player. This second player has to project his goli velocity of 14.7 m/s on a horizontal road. The man throws
by keeping the thumb of the left hand at the place of a ball in such a way that it returns to the truck after
his goli, holding the goli between his two middle fingers the truck has moved 58.8 m. Find the speed and the
and making the throw. If the projected goli hits the goli angle of projection (a) as seen from the truck, (b) as seen
of the first player, the second player wins. If the height from the road.
from which the goli is projected is 19.6 cm from the
44. The benches of a gallery in a cricket stadium are 1 m
ground and the goli is to be projected horizontally, with
wide and 1 m high. A batsman strikes the ball at a level
what speed should it be projected so that it directly hits
one metre above the ground and hits a mammoth sixer.
the stationary goli without falling on the ground earlier ?
The ball starts at 35 m/s at an angle of 53 with the
36. Figure (3-E8) shows a 11.7 ft wide ditch with the horizontal. The benches are perpendicular to the plane
approach roads at an angle of 15 with the horizontal. of motion and the first bench is 110 m from the batsman.
With what minimum speed should a motorbike be On which bench will the ball hit ?
moving on the road so that it safely crosses the ditch ?
45. A man is sitting on the shore of a river. He is in the
1.7}
1 ft line of a 1.0 m long boat and is 5.5 m away from the
centre of the boat. He wishes to throw an apple into the
15 15 boat. If he can throw the apple only with a speed of 10
m/s, find the minimum and maximum angles of
Figure 3-E8 projection for successful shot. Assume that the point of
54 Concepts of Physics

projection and the edge of the boat are in the same pilot should head the plane to reach the point B. (b) Find
horizontal level. the time taken by the plane to go from A to B.
46. A river 400 m wide is flowing at a rate of 2.0 m/s. A 50. Two friends A and B are standing a distance x apart in
boat is sailing at a velocity of 10 m/s with respect to the an open field and wind is blowing from A to B. A beats
water, in a direction perpendicular to the river. (a) Find a drum and B hears the sound t1time after he sees the
the time taken by the boat to reach the opposite bank. event. A and B interchange their positions and the
(b) How far from the point directly opposite to the experiment is repeated. This time B hears the drum t2
starting point does the boat reach the opposite bank ? time after he sees the event. Calculate the velocity of
47. A swimmer wishes to cross a 500 m wide river flowing sound in still air v and the velocity of wind u. Neglect
at 5 km/h. His speed with respect to water is 3 km/h. the time light takes in travelling between the friends.
(a) If he heads in a direction making an angle 0 with
the flow, find the time he takes to cross the river. 51. Suppose A and B in the previous problem change their
(b) Find the shortest possible time to cross the river. positions in such a way that the line joining them
becomes perpendicular to the direction of wind while
48. Consider the situation of the previous problem. The man
maintaining the separation x. What will be the time lag
has to reach the other shore at the point directly
opposite to his starting point. If he reaches the other B finds between seeing and hearing the drum beating
shore somewhere else, he has to walk down to this point. by A?
Find the minimum distance that he has to walk. 52. Six particles situated at the corners of a regular hexagon
49. An aeroplane has to go from a point A to another point of side a move at a constant speed v. Each particle
B, 500 km away due 30 east of north. A wind is blowing maintains a direction towards the particle at the next
due north at a speed of 20 m/s. The air-speed of the corner. Calculate the time the particles will take to meet
plane is 150 m/s. (a) Find the direction in which the each other.

ANSWERS

OBJECTIVE I 13. 35 m
14. 12 m
1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (d) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (d)
15. (a) 2.7 km (b) 60 m/s (c) 225 m and 2.25 kin
7. (c) 8. (c) 9. (c) 10, (d) 11. (d) 12. (a)
16. 0.05 s
13. (b)
17. 12.2 x 10 5 m/s2
OBJECTIVE II
18. (a) 2.5 m/s (b) 12.5 m
1. (a), (d) 2. (c), (d) 3. (a), (b), (c) 19. 22 m
4. (b), (d) 5. (a), (b), (d) 6. (b), (c), (d) 20. (a) 19 m (b) 22 m (c) 33 m (d) 39 m
7. (a) 8. (a), (d) 9. (a) (e) 15 m (f) 18 m (g) 27 m (h) 33 m
10. (d) 21. 1.0 km
EXERCISES 22. 2 s, 38 m
23. (a) 125 m (b) 5 s (c) 35 m/s
1. (a) 110 m (b) 50 m, tan -13/4 north to east 24. 4.3 s
2. 60 m, 20 m in the negative direction 25. (a) 40 m (b) 9.8 m/s (c) No
3. (a) 520 km/h (b) 40 km/h
26. 44.1 m, 19.6 m and 4.9 m below the top
(c) 520 km/h Patna to Ranchi
(d) 32.5 km/h Patna to Ranchi 27. 4.9 m/s
4. 32 km/h (b) zero 28. 2.62 m
5. 2.5 m/s2 29. 48 m
6. 80 m, 2.5 m/s 2 30. 490 m/s 2
7. 1000 ft 31. 20 ft/s 2
8. (a) 0.6 m/s 2 (b) 50 m 50 m 32. (a) 4.5 s (b) 90 m (c) 49 m/s, 0 = 66 with horizontal
9. (a) 10 m/s (b) 20 m/s, zero, 20 m/s, - 20 m/s
(b) 33. (a) 60 m (b) 801.13 m
10. 100 m, zero 34. Yes
11. 12 s 35. 10 m/s
12. x= 5m,y= 3m 36. 32 ft/s
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 55

37. 192 ft 46. (a) 40 s (b) 80 m


38. Yes, Yes (a) 10 minutes
47. (b) 10 minutes
39. u cos0, horizontal in the plane of projection sine
41. 2 m 48. 2/3 km
42. 2 m/s 49. (a) sin-1(1/15) east of the line AB (b) 50 min
43. (a) 19'6 m/s upward 50. x [1. 1) x (1 1)
(b) 24.5 m/s at 53 with horizontal t + t2 2- ' - t2
44. Sixth
45. Minimum angle 15, maximum angle 75 but there is 51. .\/v 2 _ u 2
an interval of 53 between 15 and 75, which is not
allowed for successful shot 52. 2 a/v.

0
CHAPTER 4

THE FORCES

4.1 INTRODUCTION force on the block to hold it and the block exerts a
force on the rope to make it tight and stretched. In
Force is a word which we have all heard about. fact these are a few examples of Newton's third law of
When you push or pull some object you exert a force motion which may be stated as follows.
on it. If you push a body you exert a force away from
yourself; when you pull, you exert a force toward Newton's Third Law of Motion
yourself. When you hold a heavy block in your hand
you exert a large force; when you hold a light block, If a body A exerts a force P-on another body B,
you exert a small force. then B exerts a force F on A, the two forces acting
Can nonliving bOdies exert a force ? Yes, they can. along the line joining the bodies.
If we stand in a great storm, we feel that the wind is
The two forces F and connected by Newton's
exerting a force on us. When we suspend a heavy block
third law are called action-reaction pair. Any one may
from a rope, the rope holds the block just as a man
be called 'action' and the other 'reaction'.
can hold it in air. When we comb our dry hair and
bring the comb close to small pieces of paper, the We shall discuss this law in greater detail in the
pieces jump to the comb. The comb has attracted the next chapter.
paper pieces i.e. the comb has exerted force on the The various types of forces in nature can be
pieces. When a cork is dipped in water it comes to the grouped in four categories :
surface; if we want to keep it inside water, we have (a) Gravitational, (b) Electromagnetic,
to push it downward. We say that water exerts a force (c) Nuclear and (d) Weak.
on the cork in the upward direction.
The SI unit for measuring the force is called a 4.2 GRAVITATIONAL FORCE
newton. Approximately, it is the force needed to hold
a body of mass 102 g near the earth's surface. An Any two bodies attract each other by virtue of their
accurate quantitative definition can be framed using masses. The force of attraction between two point
Newton's laws of motion to be studied in the next masses is F =G mi72,where m1and m2 are the masses
chapter.
of the particles and r is the distance between them. G
Force is an interaction between two objects. Force
is exerted by an object A on another object B. For any is a universal constant having the value
force you may ask two questions, (i) who exerted this 6.67 x 10 -11N-m 2/kg 2. To find the gravitational force
force and (ii) on which object was this force exerted ? on an extended body by another such body, we have
Thus, when a block is kept on a table, the table exerts to write the force on each particle of the 1st body by
a force on the block to hold it. all the particles of the second body and then we have
Force is a vector quantity and if more than one to sum up vectorially all the forces acting on the first
forces act on a particle we can find the resultant force body. For example, suppose each body contains just
using the laws of vector addition. Note that in all the three particles, and let Fib denote the force on the i th
examples quoted above, if a body A exerts a force on particle of the first body due to the j th particle of the
B, the body B also exerts a force on A. Thus, the table second body. To find the resultant force on the first
exerts a force on the block to hold it and the block body (figure 4.1), we have to add the following 9 forces :
exerts a force on the table to press it down. When a
heavy block is suspended by a rope, the rope exerts a F11, F12, F13, F21, F22, F23, F31, F32, F33
The Forces 57

near the earth's surface is mg in the vertically


downward direction.
The gravitational constant G is so small that the
gravitational force becomes appreciable only if at least
one of the two bodies has a large mass. To have an
idea of the magnitude of gravitational forces in
practical life, consider two small bodies of mass 10 kg
Figure 4.1 each, separated by 0.5 m. The gravitational force is
n 2/kg 2 x 10 2 kg 2
6.7 x 10 -
For large bodies having a large number of particles, F
we have to add quite a large number of forces. If the 0-25 m 2
bodies are assumed continuous (a good approximation = 2.7 x 10 -8 N
in our course), one has to go through the integration
process for the infinite summation involved. However, a force needed to hold about 3 microgram. In many of
the integration yields a particularly simple result for the situations we encounter, it is a good approximation
a special case which is of great practical importance to neglect all the gravitational forces other than that
and we quote it below. The proof of this result will be exerted by the earth.
given in a later chapter.
The gravitational force exerted by a spherically 4.3 ELECTROMAGNETIC (EM) FORCE
symmetric body of mass m1on another such body of
mass m2kept outside the first body is G , where Over and above the gravitational force G m1m2 2 ,the
r
r is the distance between the centres of the two bodies. particles may exert upon each other electromagnetic
Thus, for the calculation of gravitational force between forces. If two particles having charges q1 and q2 are at
two spherically symmetric bodies, they can be treated rest with respect to the observer, the force between
as point masses placed at their centres. them has a magnitude
1 q1q2
Gravitational Force on Small Bodies by the Earth
F 2
47Ce0 r
The force of attraction exerted by the earth on 12 C 2/Nna
where c = 8.85419 x 10 2 is a constant. The
other objects is called gravity. Consider the earth to
1 9 Nm 2
be a homogeneous sphere of radius R and mass M. quantity is 9.0 x 10
The values of R and M are roughly 6400 km and 47ceo C2
6 x 10 24 kg respectively. Assuming that the earth is This is called Coulomb force and it acts along the
spherically symmetric, the force it exerts on a particle line joining the particles. If q1 and q2 are of same
of mass m kept near its surface is by the previous nature (both positive or both negative), the force is
result, F = G 14. The direction of this force is towards repulsive otherwise it is attractive. It is this force
R which is responsible for the attraction of small paper
the centre of the earth which is called the vertically pieces when brought near a recently used comb. The
downward direction. electromagnetic force between moving charged
The same formula is valid to a good approximation paritcles is comparatively more complicated and
even if we have a body of some other shape instead of contains terms other than the Coulomb force.
a particle, provided the body is very small in size as Ordinary matter is composed of electrons, protons
compared to the earth. The quantity G M is a constant and neutrons. Each electron has 1.6 x 10 19 coulomb
R
and has the dimensions of acceleration. It is called the of negative charge and each proton has an equal
acceleration due to gravity, and is denoted by the letter amount of positive charge. In atoms, the electrons are
g (a quantity much different from G). Its value is bound by the electromagnetic force acting on them due
approximately 9.8 m/s 2. For simplicity of calculations to the protons. The atoms combine to form molecules
we shall often use g = 10 m/s 2. We shall find in the due to the electromagnetic forces. A lot of atomic and
next chapter that all bodies falling towards earth molecular phenomena result from electromagnetic
(remaining all the time close to the earth's surface) forces between the subatomic particles (electrons,
have this particular value of acceleration and hence protons, charged mesons, etc.).
the name acceleration due to gravity. Thus, the force Apart from the atomic and molecular phenomena,
exerted by the earth on a small body of mass m, kept the electromagnetic forces show up in many forms in
58 Concepts of Physics

daily experience. Some examples having practical (b) Tension in a String or a Rope
importance given below.
In a tug of war, two persons hold the two ends of
a rope and try to pull the rope on their respective sides.
(a) Forces between Two Surfaces in Contact The rope becomes tight and its length is slightly
increased. In many situations this increase is very
When we put two bodies in contact with each other,
small and goes undetected. Such a stretched rope is
the atoms at the two surfaces come close to each other.
said to be in a state of tension.
The charged constituents of the atoms of the two
bodies exert great forces on each other and a Similarly, if a heavy block hangs from a ceiling by
measurable force results out of it. We say that the two a string, the string is in a state of tension. The
bodies in contact exert forces on each other. When you electrons and protons of the string near the lower end
place a book on a table, the table exerts an upward exert forces on the electrons and protons of the block
force on the book to hold it. This force comes from the and the resultant of these forces is the force exerted
electromagnetic forces acting between the atoms and by the string on the block. It is the resultant of these
molecules of the surface of the book and of the table. electromagnetic forces which supports the block and
prevents it from falling. A string or rope under tension
exerts electromagnetic forces on the bodies attached at
the two ends to pull them.

(c) Force due to a Spring

When a metallic wire is coiled it becomes a spring.


The straight line distance between the ends of a spring
is called its length. If a spring is placed on a horizontal
Figure 4.2 surface with no horizontal force on it, its length is
called the natural length. Every spring has its own
natural length. The spring can be stretched to increase
Generally, the forces between the two objects in its length and it can be compressed to decrease its
contact are along the common normal (perpendicular) length. When a spring is stretched, it pulls the bodies
to the surfaces of contact and is that of a push or attached to its ends and when compressed, it pushes
repulsion. Thus, the table pushes the book away from the bodies attached to its ends. If the extension or the
it (i.e., upward) and the book pushes the table compression is not too large, the force exerted by the
downward (again away from it). spring is proportional to the change in its length. Thus,
if the spring has a length x and its natural length is
However, the forces between the two bodies in x, the magnitude of the force exerted by it will be
contact may have a component parallel to the surface
of contact. This component is known as friction. We F=klxx0 1 =kiAxi.
assume existence of frictionless surfaces which can If the spring is extended, the force will be directed
exert forces only along the direction perpendicular to towards its centre and if compressed, it will be directed
them. The bodies with smooth surfaces can exert only away from the centre. The proportionality constant k,
small amount of forces parallel to the surface and which is the force per unit extension or compression,
hence are close to frictionless surface. Thus, it is is called the spring constant of the spring. This force
difficult to stay on a smooth metallic lamp-post, again comes into picture due to the electromagnetic
because it cannot exert enough vertical force and so it forces between the atoms of the material.
will not hold you there. The same is not true if you The macroscopic bodies which we have to generally
try to stay on the trunk of a tree which is quite rough. deal with are electrically neutral. Hence two bodies
We shall often use the word smooth to mean not in contact do not exert appreciable electromagnetic
frictionless. forces. The forces between the charged particles of the
The contact forces obey Newton's third law. Thus first body and those of the second body have both
the book in figure (4.2) exerts a downward force F on attractive and repulsive nature and hence they largely
the table to press it down and the table exerts an equal cancel each other. This is not the case with
upward force F on the book to hold it there. When you gravitational forces. The gravitational forces between
stay on the trunk of a tree, it exerts a frictional upward the particles of one body and those of the other body
force (frictional force because it is parallel to the are all attractive and hence they add to give an
surface of the tree) on you to hold you there, and you appreciable gravitational force in many cases. Thus,
exert an equal frictional downward force on the tree. the gravitational force between the earth and a 1 kg
The Forces 59

block kept 100 m above the earth's surface is about attraction will turn out to be totally negligible as
9.8 N whereas the electromagnetic force between the compared to the Coulomb repulsion.
earth and this block is almost zero even though both In fact, a third kind of force, altogether different
these bodies contain a very large number of charged and over and above the gravitational and
particles, the electrons and the protons. electromagnetic force, is operating here. These forces
are called Nuclear forces and are exerted only if the
Example 4.1
interacting particles are protons or neutrons or both.
Suppose the exact charge neutrality does not hold in a (There are some more cases where this force operates
world and the electron has a charge 1% less in magnitude but we shall not deal with them.) These forces are
than the proton. Calculate the Coulomb force acting largely attractive, but are short ranged. The forces are
between two blocks of iron each of mass 1 kg separated much weaker than the Coulomb force if the separation
by a distance of 1 m. Number of protons in an iron atom between the particles is more than say 10 14 m. But
= 26 and 58 kg of iron contains 6 x 10 26 atoms. for smaller separation 10 15 m) the nuclear force is
Solution : Each atom of iron will have a net positive charge much stronger than the Coulomb force and being
26 x 0'01 x 1'6 x 10 -19C on it in the assumed world. The attractive it holds the nucleus stable.
total positive charge on a 1 kg block would be Being short ranged, these forces come into picture
6 x 10 26
only if the changes within the nucleus are discussed.
X 26 x 1.6 x 10 -21 C As bare nuclei are less frequently encountered in daily
58
life, one is generally unaware of these forces.
= 4.3 x 10 5 C. Radioactivity, nuclear energy (fission, fusion) etc.
The Coulomb force between the two blocks is result from nuclear forces.
q 1q2 9.0 x 10 9Nm 2/C 2X (4.3 x 10 5 C) 2
(1 M) 2 4.5 WEAK FORCES
411e0 r2
= 9 x 10 9 X 18.49 x 10 1 N Yet another kind of forces is encountered when
reactions involving protons, electrons and neutrons
= 1.7 x 10 21 N. take place. A neutron can change itself into a proton
A tremendous force indeed ! and simultaneously emit an electron and a particle
called antinutrino. This is called p decay. Never think
that a neutron is made up of a proton, an electron and
4.4 NUCLEAR FORCES an antineutrino. A proton can also change into neutron
and simultaneously emit a positron (and a neutrino).
Each atom contains a certain number of protons This is called 0+decay. The forces responsible for these
and neutrons in its nucleus. The nucleus occupies a changes are different from gravitational, electro-
volume of about 10- in 2 3 whe
reas the atom itself has magnetic or nuclear forces. Such forces are called weak
a volume of about 10-m . Thus, the nucleus occupies forces. The range of weak forces is very small, in fact
only 1/10 21of the volume of the atom. Yet it contains much smaller than the size of a proton or a neutron.
about 99.98% of the mass of the atom. The atomic Thus, its effect is experienced inside such particles
nucleus of a non-radioactive element is a stable only.
particle. For example, if both the electrons are removed
from a helium atom, we get the bare nucleus of helium
4.6 SCOPE OF CLASSICAL PHYSICS
which is called an alpha particle. The alpha particle
is a stable object and once created it can remain intact The behaviour of all the bodies of linear sizes
until it is not made to interact with other objects. greater than 10 -6 m are adequately described on the
An alpha particle contains two protons and two basis of relatively a small number of very simple laws
neutrons. The protons will repel each other due to the of nature. These laws are the Newton's laws of motion,
Coulomb force and will try to break the nucleus. Newton's law of gravitation, Maxwell's electro-
Neutrons will be silent spectators in this electro- magnetism, Laws of thermodynamics and the Lorentz
magnetic drama (Remember, neutron is an uncharged force. The principles of physics based on them is called
particle). Then, why does the Coulomb force fail to the classical physics. The formulation of classical
break the nucleus ? Can it be the gravitational physics is quite accurate for heavenly bodies like the
attractive force which keeps the nucleus bound ? All sun, the earth, the moon etc. and is equally good for
the protons and the neutrons will take part in this the behaviour of grains of sand and the raindrops.
attraction, but if calculated, the gravitational However, for the subatomic particles much smaller
60 Concepts of Physics

-6
than 10 m (such as atoms, nuclei etc.) these rules do size > 10 6 m moving with velocities < 10 8 m/s. In a
not work well. The behaviour of such particles is major part of this book, we shall work within these
governed by quantum physics. In fact, at such short restrictions and hence learn the techniques of classical
dimensions the very concept of "particle" breaks down. physics. The size restriction automatically excludes
The perception of the nature is altogether different at any appreciable effects of nuclear or weak forces and
this scale. The validity of classical physics also depends we need to consider only the gravitational and electro-
on the velocities involved. The classical mechanics as magnetic forces. We might consider the subatomic
formulated by Newton has to be considerably changed particles here and there but shall assume the existence
when velocities comparable to 3 x 10 8 m/s are of gravitational and electromagnetic forces only and
involved. This is the speed of light in vacuum and is that classical physics is valid for these particles. The
the upper limit of speed which material particle can results arrived at by our analysis may only be
ever reach. No matter how great and how long you approximately true because we shall be applying the
apply a force, you can never get a particle going with laws which are not correct in that domain. But even
a speed greater than 3 x 10 8 m/s. The mechanics of that may play an important role in the understanding
particles moving with these large velocities is known of nature. We shall also assume that the Newton's
as relativistic mechanics and was formulated by third law is valid for the forces which we shall be
Einstein in 1905. dealing with. In the final chapters we shall briefly
Thus, classical physics is a good description of the discuss quantum physics and some of its important
nature if we are concerned with the particles of linear consequences.

Worked Out Examples

1. Figure (4-W1) shows two hydrogen atoms. Show on a H


separate diagram all the electric forces acting on different A
particles of the system. +q q q -q
r+

Figure 4-W3

Solution : The force on the rod A due to the charge +q of


the rod B
2 2
Figure 4-W1
__ 2 4 Ic coa2
4 IC Eo (1+ a)

Solution : Each particle exerts electric forces on the towards right. The force on this rod due to the
remaining three particles. Thus there exist 4 x 3 = 12 charge q
2 2
forces in all. Figure (4-W2) shows them. q q
, ..........- 4 TC 8 0(2/ + a)2 4it eo(1 + a) 2
....'"- --- -.,
\ ...
towards right.
The resultant force on the rod is
I I I I 2
1 2 1
F 4 q [
towards right.
, ..-... ,........_,..... rce a (/ + a)2 (2/ + a) 2

Figure 4-W2 If 1 a, the last two terms in the square bracket are
negligible as compared to the first term. Then,
2

F 2.
2. Figure (4-W3) shows two rods each of length I placed 4 ic co a
side by side, with their facing ends separated by a If a 1
distance a. Charges + q, q reside on the rods as shown. 2
q 1 2 [1
Calculate the electric force on the rod A due to the rod F
4 n Ea a 2- a 2+ a
21 0
B. Discuss the cases when 1a, a1.
The Forces 61

Two neutral objects placed far away exert only negligible G(m e) 2
force on each other but when they are placed closer they and
an the gravitational
it ti lforce
f 2
r
may exert appreciable force. e
2

The ratio is
4 IC co G (in e) 2
3. Calculate the ratio of electric to gravitational force
m2
between two electrons. 9x 10 9N x
2 (1.6 x 10 -19 C) 2
e
2 4'17 x 10 42 .
Solution : The electric force = Ngm 2
4 IC co r
2
6.67 x 10-1 x (9.1 x 10-31kg)2
k

QUESTIONS FOR SHORT ANSWER

1. A body of mass m is placed on a table. The earth is


pulling the body with a force mg. Taking this force to
be the action what is the reaction ?
2. A boy is sitting on a chair placed on the floor of a room.
Write as many action-reaction pairs of forces as you can.
3. A lawyer alleges in court that the police has forced his
client to issue a statement of confession. What kind of Figure 4-Q2
force is this ?
4. When you hold a pen and write on your notebook, what
kind of force is exerted by you on the pen ? By the pen
on the notebook ? By you on the notebook ?
5. Is it true that the reaction of a gravitational force is
always gravitational, of an electromagnetic force is
always electromagnetic and so on ?
6. Suppose the magnitude of Nuclear force between two
protons varies with the distance between them as shown
in figure (4-Q1). Estimate the ratio "Nuclear
force/Coulomb force" for (a) x = 8 fm (b) x = 4 fm,
(c) x = 2 fm and (d) x = 1 fm (1 fm = 10 -15 m).
Figure 4 Q3
-

104

103 9. Figure (4-Q4) shows a boy pulling a wagon on a road.


List as many forces as you can which are relevant with
102 this figure. Find the pairs of forces connected by
Newton's third law of motion.
8 10
0
LL

IIIIIi1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
x in fermi

Figure 4-Q1
Figure 4 Q4
-

7. List all the forces acting on the block B in figure (4-Q2).


8. List all the forces acting on (a) the pulley A, (b) the boy 10. Figure (4-Q5) shows a cart. Complete the table shown
and (c) the block C in figure (4-Q3). below.
62 Concepts of Physics

Force on Force by Nature of the force Direction


Cart 1
2
3

Horse 1
2
3

Driver 1
Figure 4-Q5
2
3

OBJECTIVE I

1. When Neils Bohr shook hand with Werner Heisenberg, (a) only if all the particles are positively charged
what kind of force they exerted ? (b) only if all the particles are negatively charged
(a) Gravitational (b) Electromagnetic (c) only if half the particles are positively charged and
(c) Nuclear (d) Weak. half are negatively charged
2. Let E, G and N represent the magnitudes of (d) irrespective of the signs of the charges.
electromagnetic, gravitational and nuclear forces 4. A 60 kg man pushes a 40 kg man by a force of 60 N.
between two electrons at a given separation. Then The 40 kg man has pushed the other man with a force
(a) N>E>G (b) E>N>G (c) G>N>E (d) E>G>N. of
3. The sum of all electromagnetic forces between different (a) 40 N (b) 0 (c) 60 N (d) 20 N.
particles of a system of charged particles is zero

OBJECTIVE II

1. A neutron exerts a force on a proton which is 5. Which of the following systems may be adequately
(a) gravitational (b) electromagnetic described by classical physics ?
(c) nuclear (d) weak. (a) motion of a cricket ball
2. A proton exerts a force on a proton which is (b) motion of a dust particle
(a) gravitational (b) electromagnetic (c) a hydrogen atom
(c) nuclear (d) weak. (d) a neutron changing to a proton.
3. Mark the correct statements : 6. The two ends of a spring are displaced along the length
(a) The nuclear force between two protons is always of the spring. All displacements have equal
greater than the electromagnetic force between them. mangnitudes. In which case or cases the tension or
(b) The electromagnetic force between two protons is compression in the spring will have a maximum
always greater than the gravitational force between magnitude ?
them. (a) the right end is displaced towards right and the left
(c) The gravitational force between two protons may be end towards left
greater than the nuclear force between them. (b) both ends are displaced towards right
(d) Electromagnetic force between two protons may be (c) both ends are displaced towards left
greater than the nuclear force acting between them. (d) the right end is displaced towards left and the left
4. If all matter were made of electrically neutral particles end towards right.
such as neutrons, 7. Action and reaction
(a) there would be no force of friction (a) act on two different objects
(b) there would be no tension in the string (b) have equal magnitude
(c) it would not be possible to sit on a chair (c) have opposite directions
(d) the earth could not move around the sun. (d) have resultant zero.
The Forces 63

EXERCISES

1. The gravitational force acting on a particle of 1 g due 8. Two charged particles placed at a separation of 20 cm
to a similar particle is equal to 6.67 x 10 -17N. Calculate exert 20 N of Coulomb force on each other. What will
the separation between the particles. be the force if the separation is increased to 25 cm ?
2. Calculate the force with which you attract the earth. 9. The force with which the earth attracts an object is
called the weight of the object. Calculate the weight of
3. At what distance should two charges, each equal to 1 C, the moon from the following data : The universal
be placed so that the force between them equals your
weight ? constant of gravitation G = 6.67 x 10-11N-m 2/kg 2 mass
,

4. Two spherical bodies, each of mass 50 kg, are placed at of the moon = 7.36 x 10 22 kg, mass of the earth
a separation of 20 cm. Equal charges are placed on the = 6 x 10 24 kg and the distance between the earth and the
bodies and it is found that the force of Coulomb repulsion moon = 3.8 x 10 5 km.
equals the gravitational attraction in magnitude. Find
10. Find the ratio of the magnitude of the electric force to
the magnitude of the charge placed on either body. the gravitational force acting between two protons.
5. A monkey is sitting on a tree limb. The limb exerts a 11. The average separation between the proton and the
normal force of 48 N and a frictional force of 20 N. Find electron in a hydrogen atom in ground state is
the magnitude of the total force exerted by the limb on
5.3 x 10 - 11in. (a) Calculate the Coulomb force between
the monkey.
them at this separation. (b) When the atom goes into its
6. A body builder exerts a force of 150 N against a first excited state the average separation between the
bullworker and compresses it by 20 cm. Calculate the proton and the electron increases to four times its value
spring constant of the spring in the bullworker. in the ground state. What is the Coulomb force in this
7. A satellite is projected vertically upwards from an earth state ?
station. At what height above the earth's surface will 12. The geostationary orbit of the earth is at a distance of
the force on the satellite due to the earth be reduced to about 36000 km from the earth's surface. Find the
half its value at the earth station ? (Radius of the earth weight of a 120-kg equipment placed in a geostationary
is 6400 km.) satellite. The radius of the earth is 6400 km.

ANSWERS

OBJECTIVE I EXERCISES

1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (d) 4. (c) 1. 1 m


4. 4.3 x 10 -9 C
OBJECTIVE II 5. 52 N
6. 750 N/m
1. (a), (c) 2. (a), (b), (c) 3. (b), (c), (d) 7. 2650 km
4. (a), (b), (c) 5. (a), (b) 6. (a), (d) 8. 13 N
9. 2 x 10 29 N
7. (a), (b), (c), (d)
10. 1.24 x 10 36
11. (a) 8.2 x 10 -8 N,(b) 5.1 x 10-9 N
12. 27 N

0
CHAPTER 5

NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION

Newton's laws of motion are of central importance particle is, in general, different when measured from
in classical physics. A large number of principles and different frames. Is it possible then, that the first law
results may be derived from Newton's laws. The first is valid in all frames of reference ?
two laws relate to the type of motion of a system that Let us consider the situation shown in figure (5.1).
results from a given set of forces. These laws may be An elevator cabin falls down after the cable breaks.
interpreted in a variety of ways and it is slightly The cabin and all the bodies fixed in the cabin are
uninteresting and annoying at the outset to go into the accelerated with respect to the earth and the
technical details of the interpretation. The precise acceleration is about 9.8 m/s 2 in the downward
definitions of mass, force and acceleration should be direction.
given before we relate) them. And these definitions
themselves need use of Newton's laws. Thus, these
laws turn out to be definitions to some extent. We shall
assume that we know how to assign mass to a body,
how to assign the magnitude and direction to a force
and how to measure the acceleration with respect to
a given frame of reference. Some discussions of these
aspects were given in the previous chapters. The
development here does not follow the historical track
these laws have gone through, but are explained to
make them simple to apply.
Figure 5.1

5.1 FIRST LAW OF MOTION


Consider the lamp in the cabin. The forces acting
If the (vector) sum of all the forces acting on a on the lamp are (a) the gravitational force W by the
particle is zero then and only then the particle remains earth and (b) the electromagnetic force T (tension) by
unaccelerated (i.e., remains at rest or moves with the rope. The direction of W is downward and the
constant velocity). directon of T is upward. The sum is (W T) downward.
If the sum of all the forces on a given particle is Measure the acceleration of the lamp from the
frame of reference of the cabin. The lamp is at rest.
F and its acceleration is a, the above statement may The acceleration of the lamp is zero. The person A who
also be written as measured this acceleration is a learned one and uses
" a = 0 if and only if F = 0 ". Newton's first law to conclude that the sum of the
Thus, if the sum of the forces acting on a particle forces acting on the particle is zero, i.e.,
is known to be zero, we can be sure that the particle W T = 0 or, W = T.
is unaccelerated, or if we know that a particle is Instead, if we measure the acceleration from the
unaccelerated, we can be sure that the sum of the ground, the lamp has an acceleration of 9.8 m/s 2 Thus,
.

forces acting on the particle is zero. a 0 and hence the person B who measured this
However, the concept of rest, motion or acceleration, concludes from Newton's first law that
acceleration is meaningful only when a frame of the sum of the forces is not zero. Thus, W T # 0 or
reference is specified. Also the acceleration of the W T. If A measures acceleration and applies the first
Newton's Laws of Motion 65

law he gets W = T. If B measures acceleration and Example 5.1


applies the same first law, he gets W # T. Both of
A heavy particle of mass 0.50 kg is hanging from a string
them cannot be correct simultaneously as W and T can
fixed with the roof Find the force exerted by the string
be either equal or unequal. At least one of the two
on the particle (Figure 5.3). Take g = 9.8 m/s 2.
frames is a bad frame and one should not apply the
first law in that frame.
There are some frames of reference in which
Newton's first law is valid. Measure acceleration from
such a frame and you are allowed to say that " a = 0
if and only if F = 0 ". But there are frames in which
Newton's first law is not valid. You may find that even Figure 5.3
if the sum of the forces is not zero, the acceleration is
still zero. Or you may find that the sum of the forces Solution : The forces acting on the particle are
is zero, yet the particle is accelerated. So the validity (a) pull of the earth, 0.50 kg x 9.8 m/s 2= 4.9 N, vertically
of Newton's first law depends on the frame of reference downward
from which the observer measures the state of rest,
(b) pull of the string, T vertically upward.
motion and acceleration of the particle.
The particle is at rest with respect to the earth (which
A frame of reference in which Newton's first law
we assume to be an inertial frame). Hence, the sum of
is valid is called an inertial frame of reference. A frame
the forces should be zero. Therefore, T is 4.9 N acting
in which Newton's first law is not valid is called a vertically upward.
noninertial frame of reference.
Newton's first law, thus, reduces to a definition
of inertial frame. Why do we call it a law then ? Inertial Frames other than Earth
Suppose after going through this lesson, you keep the
book on your table fixed rigidly with the earth Suppose S is an inertial frame and S' a frame
(figure 5.2). moving uniformly with respect to S. Consider a particle
P having acceleration ap, s with respect to S and ap, s .

with respect to S'.


We know that,
--)

a p, s = ap, s .

Figure 5.2 As S' moves uniformly with respect to S,


)

as', s = O.
The book is at rest with respect to the earth. The ) )

acceleration of the book with respect to the earth is Thus, ap, s = aps, (i)
zero. The forces on the book are (a) the gravitational Now S is an inertial frame. So from definition,
force W exerted by the earth and (b) the cojitact force ap, s = 0 , if and only if F = 0 and hence, from (i),
sV by the table. Is the sum of W and dV zero ? A ap, s, = 0 if and only if F = O.
very accurate measurement will give the answer "No".
The sum of the forces is not zero although the book is Thus, S' is also an inertial frame. We arrive at an
at rest. The earth is not strictly an inertial frame. important result : All frames moving uniformly with
However, the sum is not too different from zero and respect to an inertial frame are themselves inertial.
we can say that the earth is an inertial frame of Thus, a train moving with uniform velocity with
reference to a good approximation. Thus, for routine respect to the ground, a plane flying with uniform
velocity with respect to a highway, etc., are examples
affairs, "a = 0 if and only if F = 0" is true in the earth
of inertial frames. The sum of the forces acting on a
frame of reference. This fact was identified and
suitcase kept on the shelf of a ship sailing smoothly
formulated by Newton and is known as Newton's first and uniformly on a calm sea is zero.
law. If we restrict that all measurements will be made
from the earth frame, indeed it becomes a law. If we 5.2 SECOND LAW OF MOTION
try to universalise this to different frames, it becomes
a definition. We shall assume that unless stated The acceleration of a particle as measured from an
otherwise, we are working from an inertial frame of inertial frame is given by the (vector) sum of all the
reference. forces acting on the particle divided by its mass.
66 Concepts of Physics

-4
-)
... (5.2) time interval is same as that by A. The same is true
In symbols : a =Flm or, F = m a.
for G. The distance moved by G in any time interval
The inertial frame is already defined by the is same as that by A, B or C. The direction of motion
first law of motion. A force F acting on a particle of is also the same for A, B, C and G. They have identical
--4
mass m produces an acceleration F I m in it with accelerations. We can take any of these blocks as a
respect to an inertial frame. This is a law of nature. system or any combination of the blocks from these as
If the force ceases to act at some instant, the a system. Some of the examples are (A), (B), (A + B),
acceleration becomes zero at the same instant. In (B + C), (A + B + C), (C + G), (A + C + G), (A + B +
equation (5.2) a and F are measured at the same C + G) etc. The distance covered by E is also the same
instant of time. as the distance covered by G but their directions are
different. E moves in a vertical line whereas G in a
horizontal line. (E + G) should not be taken as a
5.3 WORKING WITH NEWTON'S
system. At least at this stage we are unable to apply
FIRST AND SECOND LAW
Newton's law treating E + G as a single particle. As
Newton's laws refer to a particle and relate the the disc D slides over the string the distance covered
forces acting on the particle with its acceleration and by D is not equal to that by E in the same time
its mass. Before attempting to write an equation from interval. We should not treat D + E as a system. Think
Newton's law, we should very clearly understand carefully.
which particle we are considering. In any practical
situation, we deal with extended bodies which are Step 2 : Identify the Forces
collection of a large number of particles. The laws as Once the system is decided, make a list of the
stated above may be used even if the object under forces acting on the system due to all the objects other
consideration is an extended body, provided each part than the system. 'Any force applied by the system
of this body has the same acceleration (in magnitude should not be included in the list of the forces.
and direction). A systematic algorithm for writing
equations from Newton's laws is as follows : Consider the situation shown in figure (5.5). The
boy stands on the floor balancing a heavy load on his
Step 1 : Decide the System head. The load presses the boy, the boy pushes the
load upward the boy presses the floor downward, the
The first step is to decide the system on which the floor pushes the boy upward, the earth attracts the
laws of motion are to be applied. The system may be load downward, the load attracts the earth upward,
a single particle, a block, a combination of two blocks the boy attracts the earth upward and the earth
one kept over the other, two blocks connected by a attracts the boy downward. There are many forces
string, a piece of string etc. The only restriction is that operating in this world. Which of these forces should
all parts of the system should have identical we include in the list of forces ?
acceleration.
Consider the situation shown in figure (5.4). The
block B does not slip over A, the disc D slides over the
string and all parts of the string are tight.

Figure 5.5

We cannot answer this question. Not because we


do not know, but because we have not yet specified
the system. Which is the body under consideration ?
Figure 5.4
Do not try to identify forces before you have decided
the system. Suppose we concentrate on the state of
motion of the boy. We should then concentrate on the
A and B move together. C is not in contact with A forces acting on the boy. The forces are listed in the
or B. But as the length of the string between A and upper half of table (5.1). Instead, if we take the load
C does not change, the distance moved by C in any as the system and discuss the equilibrium of the load,
Newton's Laws of Motion 67

the list of the forces will be different. These forces If the forces are coplanar, only two axes, say X and
appear in the lower half of table (5.1). Y, taken in the plane of forces are needed. Choose the
X-axis along the direction in which the system is
Table 5.1 known to have or is likely to have the acceleration. A
direction perpendicular to it may be chosen as the
System Force Magnitude Direction Nature of the
exerted by of the of the force force Y-axis. If the system is in equilibrium, any mutually
force perpendicular directions in the plane of the diagram
Earth W Downward Gravitational may be chosen as the axes. Write the components of
Boy Floor dV Upward Electro- all the forces along the X-axis and equate their sum
magnetic to the product of the mass of the system and its
Load dVl Downward acceleration. This gives you one equation. Write the
Earth W' Downward Gravitational
components of the forces along the Y-axis and equate
the sum to zero. This gives you another equation. If
Load
the forces are collinear, this second equation is not
Boy Upward Electro- needed.
magnetic
If necessary you can go to step 1, choose another
One may furnish as much information as one has object as the system, repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 to get
about the magnitude and direction of the forces. The more equations. These are called equations of motion.
contact forces may have directions other than normal Use mathematical techniques to get the unknown
to the contact surface if the surfaces are rough. We quantities out of these equations. This completes the
shall discuss more about it under the heading of algorithm.
friction. The magnitudes of acceleration of different objects
in a given situation are often related through
Step 3 : Make a Free Body Diagram kinematics. This should be properly foreseen and used
Now, represent the system by a point in a separate together with the equations of motion. For example in
diagram and draw vectors representing the forces figure (5.4) the accelerations of C and E have same
acting on the system with this point as the common magnitudes. Equations of motion for C and for E
origin. The forces may lie along a line, may be should use the same variable a for acceleration.
distributed in a plane (coplanar) or may be distributed
Example 5.2
in the space (non-planar). We shall rarely encounter
situations dealing with non-planar forces. For coplanar A block of mass M is pulled on a smooth horizontal table
forces the plane of diagram represents the plane of the by a string making an angle 9 with the horizontal as
forces acting on the system. Indicate the magnitudes shown in figure (5.7). If the acceleration of the block is
and directions of the forces in this diagram. This is a, find the force applied by the string and by the table
called a free body diagram. The free body diagram for on the block.
the example discussed above with the boy as the
system and with the load as the system are shown in
figure (5.6).
dv
St(

Figure 5.7

w w' Solution : Let us consider the block as the system.


boy load The forces on the block are
(a) pull of the earth, Mg, vertically downward,
Figure 5.6 (b) contact force by the table, V, vertically upward,
(c) pull of the string, T, along the string.
The free body diagram for the block is shown in
Step 4 : Choose Axes and Write Equations figure (5.8).
Any three mutually perpendicular directions may The acceleration of the block is horizontal and towards
be chosen as the X-Y-Z axes. We give below some the right. Take this direction as the X-axis and vertically
suggestions for choosing the axes to solve problems. upward direction as the Y-axis. We have,
68 Concepts of Physics

A
Newton's third law of motion is not strictly correct
when interaction between two bodies separated by a
large distance is considered. We come across such
deviations when we study electric and magnetic forces.

Working with the Tension in a String


Mg
The idea of tension was qualitatively introduced in
Figure 5.8
chapter 4. Suppose a block of mass M is hanging
through a string from the ceiling (figure 5.9).

component of Mg along the X-axis = 0


component of along the X-axis = 0
component of T along the X-axis = T cog,.
Hence the total force along the X-axis = T cost).
Using Newton's law, T cos = Ma. (i)
Figure 5.9
Component of Mg along the Y-axis = Mg
component of dV along the Y-axis = dV
Consider a cross-section of the string at A. The
component of T along the Y-axis = T sine.
cross-section divides the string in two parts, lower part
Total force along the Y-axis =,./1( + T sine Mg. and the upper part. The two parts are in physical
Using Newton's law, ,N + T sine Mg = 0. (ii) contact at the cross-section at A. The lower part of the
Ma string will exert an electromagnetic force on the upper
From equation (i),1 T = Putting this in equation (ii)
cos part and the upper part will exert an electromagnetic
.111 = Mg Ma tone. force on the lower part. According to the third law,
these two forces will have equal magnitude. The lower
part pulls down the upper part with a force T and the
upper part pulls up the lower part with equal force T.
5.4 NEWTON'S THIRD LAW OF MOTION The common magnitude of the forces exerted by the
Newton's third law has already been 4troduced in two parts of the string on each other is called the
chapter 4. "If a body A exerts 4t force F on another tension in the string at A. What is the tension in the
string at the lower end ? The block and the string are
body B, then B exerts a force F on A."
in contact at this end and exert electromagnetic forces
Thus, the force exerted by A on B and that by B on each other. The common magnitude of these forces
on A are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. is the tension in the string at the lower end. What is
This law connects the forces exerted by two bodies on the tension in the string at the upper end ? At this
one another. The forces connected by the third law act end, the string and the ceiling meet. The string pulls
on two different bodies and hence will never appear the ceiling down and the ceiling pulls the string up.
together in the list of forces at step 2 of applying The common magnitude of these forces is the tension
Newton's first or second law. in the string at the upper end.
For example, suppose a table exerts an upward
force SV on a block placed on it. This force should be Example 5.3
accounted if we consider the block as the system. The The mass of the part of the string below A in figure (5.9)
block pushes the table down with an equal force dV. is m. Find the tension of the string at the lower end and
But this force acts on the table and should be at A.
considered only if we take the table as the system. Solution : To get the tension at the lower end we need the
Thus, only one of the two forces connected by the third force exerted by the string on the block.
law may appear in the equation of motion depending
Take the block as the system. The forces on it are
on the system chosen. The force exerted by the earth
on a particle of mass M is Mg downward and therefore, (a) pull of the string, T, upward,
by the particle on the earth is Mg upward. These two (b) pull of the earth, Mg, downward,
forces will not cancel each other. The downward force The free body diagram for the block is shown in figure
on the particle will cause acceleration of the particle (5.10a). As the acceleration of the block is zero, these
and that on the earth will cause acceleration (how forces should add to zero. Hence the tension at the lower
large ?) of the earth. end is T =Mg.
Newton's Laws of Motion 69

The first is gravitational and the second is


electromagnetic. We do not have to write the force by
the string on the block. This electromagnetic force is by
one part of the system on the other part. Only the forces
acting on the system by the objects other than the
mg
system are to be included.
Mg T
The system is descending with an acceleration a. Taking
(a) (b) the downward direction as the X-axis, the total force
Figure 5.10 along the X-axis is (M + m)g T. Using Newton's law
(M+ m)g T = (M + m)a.
To get the tension T at A we need the force exerted by Or, T = (M + m)(g a). ...
the upper part of the string on the lower part of the We have omitted the free body diagram. This you can
string. For this we may write the equation of motion for do if you can draw the free body diagram in your mind
the lower part of the string. So take the string below A and write the equations correctly.
as the system. The forces acting on this part are
To get the tension T' at the lower end we can put
(a) T', upward, by the upper part of the string m = 0 in (i).
(b) mg, downward, by the earth
Effectively, we take the point A at the lower end. Thus,
(c) T, downward, by the block.
we get T' =M(g a).
Note that in (c) we have written T for the force by the
block on the string. We have already used the symbol T
for the force by the string on the block. We have used Suppose the string in Example 5.3 or 5.4 is very light
Newton's third law here. The force exerted by the block so that we can neglect the mass of the string. Then
on the string is equal in magnitude to the force exerted T'= T. The tension is then the same throughout the
by the string on the block. string. This result is of general nature. The tension at
The free body diagram for this part is shown in figure all the points in a string or a spring is the same
(5.10b). As the system under consideration (the lower provided it is assumed massless and no massive
part of the string) is in equilibrium, Newton's first law particle or body is connected in between.
gives
T'=T+ mg
But T = Mg hence, T' = (M + m)g.

Example 5.4

The block shown in figure (5.11) has a mass M and


descends with an acceleration a. The mass of the string
below the point A is m. Find the tension of the string at
the point A and at the lower end.

If the string in figure (5.12) is light, the tension T1


of the string is same at all the points between the
block A and the pulley B. The tension T, is same at
all the points between the pulley B and the block C.
The tension T3 is same at all the points between the
block C and the block D. The three tensions T1, T2
and T3 may be different from each other. If the pulley
B is also light, then T1 = T2.
Figure 5.11
5.5 PSEUDO FORCES

Solution : Consider "the block + the part of the string In this section we discuss the techniques of solving
below A" as the system. Let the tension at A be T. The the motion of a body with respect to a noninertial
forces acting on this system are frame of reference.
(a) (M + m)g, downward, by the earth Consider the situation shown in figure (5.13).
(b) T, upward, by the upper part of the string. Suppose the frame of reference S' moves with a
-

70 Concepts of Physics

constant acceleration 4 with respect to an inertial force m ao. Applying Newton's second law will then
frame S. The acceleration of a particle P measured lead to equation (5.3). Such correction terms m ao in
with respect to S' is ap, s, =a and that with respect to the list of forces are called pseudo forces. This so-called
S is ap, s . The acceleration of S' with respect to S is force is to be included in the list only because we are
discussing the motion from a noninertial frame and
ag,s= ao still want to use Newton's second law as "total force
a0 equals mass times acceleration". If we work from an
p inertial frame, the acceleration 4 of the frame is zero
and no pseudo force is needed. The pseudo forces are
S S '
also called inertial forces although their need arises
because of the use of noninertial frames.

Example 5.5
Figure 5.13 A pendulum is hanging from the ceiling of a car having
an acceleration aowith respect to the road. Find the angle
made by the string with the vertical.
Since S' is translating with respect to S we have,
Solution : The situation is shown in figure (5.14a).
ap, s,= ap, s as, =ap, s as% s
Suppose the mass of the bob is m and the string makes
- > -0
or, a = ap, s ao an angle 0 with the vertical. We shall work from the car
frame. This frame is noninertial as it has an acceleration
or, m a = m ap, s m ao
ao with respect to an inertial frame (the road). Hence,
where m is the mass of the particle P. Since S is an if we use Newton's second law we shall have to include
inertial frame m ap , is equal to the sum of all the a pseudo force.
forces acting on P. Writing this sum as F, we get
>
ma=Frn ao
F m ao may
or, a ... (5.3)
m
This equation relates the acceleration of the particle
Mg
and the forces acting on it. Compare it with
equation (5.2) which relates the acceleration and the (a) (b)
force when the acceleration is measured with respect Figure 5.14
to an inertial frame. The acceleration of the frame
(with respect to an inertial frame) comes into the
> Take the bob as the system.
equation of a particle. Newton's second law a =Flm is
not valid in such a noninertial frame. An extra term The forces are :
m ao has to be added to the sum of all the forces (a) T along the string, by the string
acting on the particle before writing the equation (b) mg downward, by the earth
> (c) may towards left (pseudo force).
a =F 1 m. Note that in this extra term, m is the mass
The free body diagram is shown in figure (5.14b). As the
of the particle under consideration and ao is the bob is at rest (remember we are discussing the motion
acceleration of the working frame of reference with with respect to the car) the force in (a), (b) and (c) should
respect to some inertial frame. add to zero. Take X-axis along the forward horizontal
However, we people spend most of our lifetime on direction and Y-axis along the upward vertical direction.
the earth which is an (approximate) inertial frame. We The components of the forces along the X-axis give
are so familiar with the Newton's laws that we would T sine m ao = 0 or, T sine = m ao (i)
still like to use the terminology of Newton's laws even
and the components along the Y-axis give
when we use a noninertial frame. This can be done if
T cos mg = 0 or, T cost) = mg. (ii)
we agree to call ( m ao) a force acting on the particle.
Dividing (i) by (ii) tan() = ao 1g.
Then while preparing the list of the forces acting on
the particle P, we include all the (real) forces acting Thus, the string makes an angle tan -1(a, /g) with the
on P by all other objects and also include an imaginary vertical.
Newton's Laws of Motion 71

5.6 THE HORSE AND THE CART road pushes the horse by a force P which has a forward
component. This force acts on the horse and we must
A good example which illustrates the ideas
add this force when we discuss the motion of the horse.
discussed in this chapter is the motion of a cart pulled
The horse accelerates forward if the forward
by a horse. Suppose the cart is at rest when the driver
component f of the force P exceeds F2 (Figure 5.16).
whips the horse. The horse pulls the cart and the cart
The acceleration of the horse is (f F2)1Mh. We should
accelerates forward. The question posed is as follows.
The horse pulls the cart by a force F1in the forward make sure that all the forces acting on the system are
direction. From the third law of motion the cart pulls added. Note that the force of gravity acting on the
horse has no forward component.
the horse by an equal force F2 = F1 in the backward
direction. The sum of these forces is, therefore, zero
(figure 5.15). Why should then the cart accelerate
forward ?

Figure 5.16

: Force on the cart by the horse Going back to the previous paragraph the
F2: Force on the horse by the cart acceleration of the cart may not be F1I Mc. The road
F.1 = F2= F exerts a force Q on the cart which may have a
backward component f'. The total force on the cart is
Figure 5.15
F1 f'. The acceleration of the cart is then
f'
Try to locate the mistake in the argument. a in the forward direction.
Mc
According to our scheme, we should first decide the
system. We can take the horse as the system or the The forces f and f ' are self adjustable and they so
cart as the system or the cart and the horse taken f f F2
'

adjust their values that The


together as the system. Suppose you take the cart as MC Mh
the system. Then the forces on the cart should be listed acceleration of the horse and that of the cart are equal
and the forces on the horse should not enter the in magnitude and direction and hence they move
discussion. The force on the cart is F1in the forward together.
direction and the acceleration of the cart is also in the So, once again we remind you that only the forces
forward direction. How much is this acceleration ? on the system are to be considered to discuss the
Take the mass of the cart to be M. Is the acceleration motion of the system and all the forces acting on the
of the cart a = F1 IMc in forward direction ? Think system are to be considered. Only then apply F = ma.
carefully. We shall return to this question.
Let us now try to understand the motion of the 5.7 INERTIA
horse. This time we have to consider the forces on the
horse. The forward force F1by the horse acts on the A particle is accelerated (in an inertial frame) if
cart and it should not be taken into account when we and only if a resultant force acts on it. Loosely
discuss the motion of the horse. The force on the horse speaking, the particle does not change its state of rest
by the cart is F2in the backward direction. Why does or of uniform motion along a straight line unless it is
the horse go in the forward direction when whipped ? forced to do this. This unwillingness of a particle to
The horse exerts a force on the cart in the forward change its state of rest or of uniform motion along a
direction and hence the cart is accelerated forward. straight line is called as inertia. We can understand
But the cart exerts an equal force on the horse in the the property of inertia in more precise terms as follows.
backward direction. Why is the horse not accelerated If equal forces are applied on two particles, in general,
in backward direction ? (Imagine this situation. If the the acceleration of the particles will be different. The
cart is accelerated forward and the horse backward, property of a particle to allow a smaller acceleration
the horse will sit on the cart kicking out the driver is called inertia. It is clear that larger the mass of the
and the passengers.) Where are we wrong ? We have particle, smaller will be the acceleration and hence
not considered all the forces acting on the horse. The larger will be the inertia.
72 Concepts of Physics

Worked Out Examples

1. A body of mass m is suspended by two strings making Solution : Figure (5-W3) shows the situation with the
angles a and 13 with the horizontal. Find the tensions in forces on m1 and m2 shown. Take the body of mass m2
the strings. as the system. The forces acting on it are
Solution : Take the body of mass m as the system. The
forces acting on the system are
(i) mg downwards (by the earth),
(ii) T1along the first string (by the first string) and
(iii) T2along the second string (by the second string).

Figure 5 W3
-

(i) m2 g vertically downward (by the earth),


(ii) T vertically upward (by the string).
mg As the system is at rest, these forces should add to zero.
Figure 5-W1 This gives T = m2 g. ...
Next, consider the body of mass m1as the system. The
forces acting on this system are
These forces are shown in figure (5-W1). As the body is
in equilibrium, these forces must add to zero. Taking (i) m1gvertically downward (by the earth),
horizontal components, (ii) T along the string up the incline (by the string),
(iii) dl/ normal to the incline (by the incline).
2=0
T1cosa T2 cos + mg cos
As the string and the pulley are all light and smooth,
or, T1cosa = T2 cos13. (i) the tension in the string is uniform everywhere. Hence,
same T is used for the equations of m1 and m2. As the
Taking vertical components,
system is in equilibrium, these forces should add to zero.
T1sina + T2sin mg = 0. (ii)
Taking components parallel to the incline,
Eliminating T2 from (i) and (ii),
TC
cos a T = m g cos 0 = m g sin 0. (ii)
T1sin a + T1 sin = mg
cos 13
Taking components along the normal to the incline,
mg mg cos 13
or, T1 = SV = m1 g cose. (iii)
cos a sin (a +(3)
sin a + sin 13 Eliminating T from (i) and (ii),
cosa
m2 g = m1 g sine,
mg cos a
From (i), T, or, sine, = m2 /m1
sin (a +13)
giving = sin-1(m2 /m1).
2. Two bodies of masses m1and m2are connected by a light
string going over a smooth light pulley at the end of an From (iii) SY = ml g (n2 /m,) 2
incline. The mass m1lies on the incline and m2hangs
vertically. The system is at rest. Find the angle of the 3. A bullet moving at 250 m/s penetrates 5 cm into a tree
incline and the force exerted by the incline on the body limb before coming to rest. Assuming that the force
of mass m1(figure 5-W2). exerted by the tree limb is uniform, find its magnitude.
Mass of the bullet is 10 g.
Solution : The tree limb exerts a force on the bullet in the
direction opposite to its velocity. This force causes
deceleration and hence the velocity decreases from
250 m/s to zero in 5 cm. We have to find the force
exerted by the tree limb on the bullet. If a be the
deceleration of the bullet, we have,
Figure 5 W2-

u = 250 m/s , v = 0 , x = 5 cm = 0.05 m


Newton's Laws of Motion 73

(250 m/s) 2 - 0 2 Solution : Suppose the pulley is displaced to B' and the
giving, a- - 625000 m/s 2.
2 x 0'05 m block to A' (figure 5-W6). The length of the string is
The force on the bullet is F = ma = 6250 N. CB + BA and is also equal to CB + BB' + B'B + BA'.
Hence, CB + BA' + A'A = CB + BB' + B'B + BA'
4. The force on a particle of mass 10 g is ( 10 +/+5) N. If or, A'A = 2 BB'.
it starts from rest what would be its position at time
C
t =5 s ?
B.
B'
Solution : We have Fx= 10 N giving A
Fx
10 N - 1000 m/s 2.
a' m 0'01 kg Figure 5-W6
As this is a case of constant acceleration in x-direction,
x=ux t+lax t 2 =2x 1000 in/s 2 x(5 s) 2 The displacement of A is, therefore, twice the
= 12500 m displacement of B in any given time interval.
Diffrentiating twice, we find that the acceleration of A
Fy 5N
Similarly, ay = - 500 m/s 2 is twice the acceleration of B.
M 0'01kg -
To find the acceleration of the block we will need the
and y = 6250 m.
tension in the string. That can be obtained by
Thus, the position of the particle at t = 5 s is,
considering the pulley as the system.
r = (i 12500 +j 6250) m.
The forces acting on the pulley are
(i) F towards right by the experimenter,
5. With what acceleration 'a' should the box of figure (5-W4)
(ii) T towards left by the portion BC of the string and
descend so that the block of mass M exerts a force (iii) T towards left by the portion BA of the string.
Mg 1 4 on the floor of the box ?
The vertical forces, if any, add to zero as there is no
vertical motion.
M
ai As the mass of the pulley is zero, the equation of motion
n is
F - 2T = 0 giving T = F/2.
Figure 5-W4
Now consider the block as the system. The only
Solution : The block is at rest with respect to the box horizontal force acting on the block is the tension T
which is accelerated with respect to the ground. Hence, towards right. The acceleration of the block is, therefore,
the acceleration of the block with respect to the ground a=TIm= 2F The acceleration of the pulley is
is 'a' downward. The forces on the block are
F
(i) Mg downward (by the earth) and a/2 =
4m
(ii) mil/ upward (by the floor).
The equation of motion of the block is, therefore 7. A smooth ring A of mass m can slide on a fixed horizontal
Mg - .1)1 = Ma. rod. A string tied to the ring passes over a fixed pulley
If dV = Mg 14, the above equation gives a = 3 g/4. The B and carries a block C of mass M ( = 2 m) as shown in
block and hence the box should descend with an figure (5-W7). At an instant the string between the ring
acceleration 3 g /4. and the pulley makes an angle 0 with the rod. (a) Show
that, if the ring slides with a speed v, the block descends
6. A block 'A' of mass m is tied to a fixed point C on a with speed v cos 0. (b) With what acceleration will the
horizontal table through a string passing round a ring start moving if the system is released from rest with
massless smooth pulley B (figure 5-W5). A force F is 0 = 30 ?
applied by the experimenter to the pulley. Show that if
the pulley is displaced by a distance x, the block will be
displaced by 2x. Find the acceleration of the block and
the pulley.
C B
F
I Al m I

Figure 5-W5 Figure 5-W7


74 Concepts of Physics

Solution : (a) Suppose in a small time interval At the ring an upward force greater than 360 N is applied to it.
is displaced from A to A' (figure 5-W8) and the block Find the maximum acceleration in the upward direction
from C to C'. Drop a perpendicular A'P from A' to AB. with which the man can climb safely. Neglect friction
For small displacement A'B PB. Since the length of the at the tree branch. Take g = 10 m/s 2.

string is constant, we have


A A'

Figure 5 W9-

Solution : Let T be the tension in the rope. The upward


AB + BC = A'B + BC' force on the clamp is T sin 30 = T/2. The maximum
AP+PB+BC=A'B+BC' tension that will not detach the clamp from the ground
or,
is, therefore, given by
or, AP = BC' BC = CC' (as A'B = PB) T
= 360 N
Or, AA' cos 0 = CC' 2
AA' cos 0 CC' or, T = 720 N.
or,
At At If the acceleration of the man in the upward direction
or, (velocity of the ring) cos 0 = (velocity of the block). is a, the equation of motion of the man is
(b) If the initial acceleration of the ring is a, that of the T 600 N= (60 kg) a
block will be a cos 0. Let T be the tension in the string The maximum acceleration of the man for safe climbing
at this instant. Consider the block as the system. The is, therefore
forces acting on the block are 720 N 600 N
a 2 mis 2.
(i) Mg downward due to the earth, and 60 kg
(ii) T upward due to the string.
The equation of motion of the block is 9. Three blocks of masses m1 , m2 and m3are connected as
Mg T = Ma cos0. (i) shown in the figure (5W10). All the surfaces are
Now consider the ring as the system. The forces on the frictionless and the string and the pulleys are light. Find
ring are the acceleration of m1 .
(i) Mg downward due to gravity,
(ii) ,N upward due to the rod,
(iii) T along the string due to the string.
Taking components along the rod, the equation of motion
of the ring is
T cos() = ma. (ii)
From (i) and (ii)
ma Figure 5 W10
Mg M a cos -

cos0
Mg COS Solution : Suppose the acceleration of m1 is ao towards
or a 9
m+Mcos -0 right. That will also be the downward acceleration of
Putting 0 = 30, M = 2 m and g = 9.8 m/s2; therefore the pulley B because the string connecting m1 and B is
a = 6.78 m/s 2 .
constant in length. Also the string connecting
m2 and m, has a constant length. This implies that the
8. A light rope fixed at one end of a wooden clamp on the decrease in the separation between m2 and B equals
ground passes over a tree branch and hangs on the other the increase in the separation between in, and B. So,
side (figure 5-W9). It makes an angle of 30 with the the upward acceleration of m2 with respect to B equals
ground. A man weighing (60 kg) wants to climb up the the downward acceleration of m3with respect to B. Let
rope. The wooden clamp can come out of the ground if this acceleration be a.
Newton's Laws of Motion 75

The acceleration of m2 with respect to the ground ao 1 1


Adding, 2a, = 2g - 2 m2+ m3
= a - a (downward) and the acceleration of m3 with
respect to the ground = a, + a (downward). ao 11

Or, a, - g - 4 m2 m3
These accelerations will be used in Newton's laws. Let
the tension be T in the upper string and T ' in the lower
string. Consider the motion of the pulley B. Or, a, [1 ++ -1L-Th g
4 m2 ma
g
or, ao -
1+ 771+-1-1
4 m2 m3)

10. A particle slides down a smooth inclined plane of


elevation 0, fixed in an elevator going up with an
acceleration a, (figure 5-W12). The base of the incline has
a length L. Find the time taken by the particle to reach
ao+ a the bottom.
Figure 5-W11
1 ao
The forces on this light pulley are
(a) T upwards by the upper string and
(b) 2 T' downwards by the lower string.
As the mass of the pulley is negligible,
2 T'-T=O
L
giving
T ' =TI2. (i) Figure 5-W12
Motion of m1 :
The acceleration is a, in the horizontal direction. The Solution : Let us work in the elevator frame. A pseudo
force ma, in the downward direction is to be applied on
forces on m1 are
the particle of mass m together with the real forces.
(a) T by the string (horizontal). Thus, the forces on m are (figure 5-W13)
(b) m1 g by the earth (vertically downwards) and (i) ,n/ normal force,
(c) by the table (vertically upwards). (ii) mg downward (by the earth),
In the horizontal direction, the equation is (iii) ma, downward (pseudo).
T = miao. (ii)
Motion of m2 : acceleration is a0 - a in the downward
direction. The forces on m2 are
(a) m2 g downward by the earth and
(b) T ' = T/2 upward by the string.
Thus, m2g T/2 = m2 (ao - a) (iii) Figure 5 W13
-

Motion of m3: The acceleration is (a, + a) downward. The


forces on m3 are Let a be the acceleration of the particle with respect to
the incline. Taking components of the forces parallel to
(a) m3 g downward by the earth and
the incline and applying Newton's law,
(b) T ' = T 12 upward by the string. Thus,
m g sine + ma, sine = m a
m, g - T/2 = m (a, + a). ... (iv) Or, a = (g + a0) sine.
We want to calculate a0 , so we shall eliminate T and a This is the acceleration with respect to the elevator. In
from (ii), (iii) and (iv). this frame, the distance travelled by the particle is
Putting T from (ii) in (iii) and (iv), L /cool Hence,
M2 g Mi ao /2 mi ao L 1
a, - a - -g - + a0) sine.t 2
m2 2 m2 cos() 2
11/2
m,g-mi a,/2 ml a 2L
and a,, + a - -g or, t -[
m, 2 m3 ( g + ao ) sine cos()
76 Concepts of Physics

11. All the surfaces shown in figure (5-W14) are assumed to The block slides down the plane. Components of the
be frictionless. The block of mass m slides on the prism forces parallel to the incline give
which in turn slides backward on the horizontal surface.
ma, cos() + mg sine = ma
Find the acceleration of the smaller block with respect to
the prism. Or, a = aocos0 +g sine. (i)
Components of the force perpendicular to the incline give
SV + ma, sine = mg cos0. (ii)
Now consider the motion of the prism from the lab
Figure 5 W14
-
frame. No pseudo force is needed as the frame used is
inertial. The forces are (figure 5-W15b)
Solution : Let the acceleration of the prism be a, in the (i) Mg downward,
backward direction. Consider the motion of the smaller (ii) SV normal to the incline (by the block),
block from the frame of the prism. (iii) 1V" upward (by the horizontal surface).
The forces on the block are (figure 5-W15a) Horizontal components give,
(i) N normal force, SV sine = Mao or, dV = Mao /sine.
(ii) mg downward (gravity),
(iii) ma, forward (psuedo). Putting in (ii)
Mao
+m
a, sine = mg cos0
sine
m g sine cose
or, a,
M + m sin 20
m gsine cos 20
From (i), a 2 +gsine
(a) (b)
M + m sin 0
(M + m) g sine
Figure 5-W15
M + m sin 20
0

QUESTIONS FOR SHORT ANSWER

1. The apparent weight of an object increases in an elevator 6. It is sometimes heard that inertial frame of reference is
while accelerating upward. A moongphaliwala sells his only an ideal concept and no such inertial frame actually
moongphali using a beam balance in an elevator. Will exists. Comment.
he gain more if the elevator is accelerating up ? 7. An object is placed far away from all the objects that
can exert force on it. A frame of reference is constructed
2. A boy puts a heavy box of mass M on his head and
by taking the origin and axes fixed in this object. Will
jumps down from the top of a multistoried building to the frame be necessarily inertial ?
the ground. How much is the force exerted by the box 8. Figure (5-Q1) shows a light spring balance connected to
on his head during his free fall ? Does the force greatly two blocks of mass 20 kg each. The graduations in the
increase during the period he balances himself after balance measure the tension in the spring. (a) What is
striking the ground ? the reading of the balance? (b) Will the reading change
if the balance is heavy, say 2.0 kg ? (c) What will happen
3. A person drops a coin. Describe the path of the coin as
if the spring is light but the blocks have unequal
seen by the person if he is in (a) a car moving at constant
masses ?
velocity and (b) in a freely falling elevator.
4. Is it possible for a particle to describe a curved path if
no force acts on it ? Does your answer depend on the
frame of reference chosen to view the particle ?
5. You are riding in a car. The driver suddenly applies the
brakes and you are pushed forward. Who pushed you
forward ? Figure 5 Q1
-
Newton's Laws of Motion 77

9. The acceleration of a particle is zero as measured from system is released on a frictionless horizontal platform.
an inertial frame of reference. Can we conclude that no Are the forces due to the spring on the two blocks equal
force acts on the particle ? and opposite ? If yes, is it an example of Newton's third
10. Suppose you are running fast in a field when you law ?
suddendly find a snake in front of you. You stop quickly. 16. When a train starts, the head of a standing passenger
Which force is responsible for your deceleration ? seems to be pushed backward. Analyse the situation
11. If you jump barefooted on a hard surface, your legs get from the ground frame. Does it really go backward ?
injured. But they are not injured if you jump on a soft Coming back to the train frame, how do you explain the
surface like sand or pillow. Explain. backward movement of the head on the basis of Newton's
12. According to Newton's third law each team pulls the laws ?
opposite team with equal force in a tug of war. Why
then one team wins and the other loses ? 17. A plumb bob is hung from the ceiling of a train
compartment. If the train moves with an acceleration 'a'
13. A spy jumps from an airplane with his parachute. The
along a straight horizontal track, the string supporting
spy accelerates downward for some time when the
parachute opens. The acceleration is suddenly checked the bob makes an angle tan -1(a /g) with the normal to
and the spy slowly falls on the ground. Explain the the ceiling. Suppose the train moves on an inclined
action of parachute in checking the acceleration. straight track with uniform velocity. If the angle of
14. Consider a book lying on a table. The weight of the book incline is tan-1(a1 g), the string again makes the same
and the normal force by the table on the book are equal angle with the normal to the ceiling. Can a person sitting
in magnitude and opposite in direction. Is this an inside the compartment tell by looking at the plumb
example of Newton's third law ? line whether the train is accelerated on a horizontal
15. Two blocks of unequal masses are tied by a spring. The straight track or it is going on an incline ? If yes, how ?
blocks are pulled stretching the spring slightly and the If no, suggest a method to do so.

OBJECTIVE I

1. A body of weight w1is suspended from the ceiling of a (a) Both the scales will read 10 kg.
room through a chain of weight w, . The ceiling pulls (b) Both the scales will read 5 kg.
the chain by a force (c) The upper scale will read 10 kg and the lower zero.
w1 w2 (d) The readings may be anything but their sum will he
(a) w1 (b) w2 (c) w1 +w 2 (d) 10 kg.
2
2. When a horse pulls a cart, the force that helps the horse 5. A block of mass m is placed on a smooth inclined plane
to move forward is the force exerted by of inclination 0 with the horizontal. The force exerted
(a) the cart on the horse (b) the ground on the horse by the plane on the block has a magnitude
(c) the ground on the cart (d) the horse on the ground. (a) mg (b) mg I cos (c) mg cosh (d) mg tan0.

3. A car accelerates on a horizontal road due to the force 6. A block of mass m is placed on a smooth wedge of
exerted by inclination 0. The whole system is accelerated
(a) the engine of the car (b) the driver of the car horizontally so that the block does not slip on the wedge.
(c) the earth (d) the road. The force exerted by the wedge on the block has a
magnitude
4. A block of mass 10 kg is suspended through two light
(a) mg (b) mg I cos() (c) mg cos() (d) mg tan0.
spring balances as shown in figure (5-Q2).
7. Neglect the effect of rotation of the earth. Suppose the
earth suddenly stops attracting objects placed near its
surface. A person standing on the surface of the earth
will
(a) fly up (b) slip along the surface
(c) fly along a tangent to the earth's surface
(d) remain standing.
8. Three rigid rods are joined to form an equilateral triangle
ABC of side 1 m. Three particles carrying charges
20 p.0 each are attached to the vertices of the triangle.
The whole system is at rest in an inertial frame. The
resultant force on the charged particle at A has the
magnitude
Figure 5 Q2
- (a) zero (b) 3.6 N (c) 3.61/3 N (d) 7.2 N.
78 Concepts of Physics

9. A force F1acts on a particle so as to accelerate it from 12. In an imaginary atmosphere, the air exerts a small force
rest to a velocity v. The force F1is then replaced by F2 F on any particle in the direction of the particle's motion.
which decelerates it to rest. A particle of mass m projected upward takes a time t1
(a) F1must be equal to F2 (b)F1may be equal to F2 in reaching the maximum height and t2 in the return
(c) F1must be unequal to F2(d) none of these. journey to the original point. Then
(a) t1< t2 (b)t1 > t2 (c) t1 = t2 (d) the relation between
10. Two objects A and B are thrown upward simultaneously t1 and t2 depends on the mass of the particle.
with the same speed. The mass of A is greater than the
mass of B. Suppose the air exerts a constant and equal 13. A person standing on the floor of an elevator drops a
force of resistance on the two bodies. coin. The coin reaches the floor of the elevator in a time
(a) The two bodies will reach the same height. t1if the elevator is stationary and in time t2 if it is
(b) A will go higher than B. moving uniformly. Then
(c) B will go higher than A. (a) t1 = t2(b) t1 < t, (c) t1 > t2 (d) t1 < t2 or t1> t2 depending
(d) Any of the above three may happen depending on on whether the lift is going up or down.
the speed with which the objects are thrown.
14. A free 2381/ nucleus kept in a train emits an alpha
11. A smooth wedge A is fitted in a chamber hanging from particle. When the train is stationary, a nucleus decays
a fixed ceiling near the earth's surface. A block B placed and a passenger measures that the separation between
at the top of the wedge takes a time T to slide down the alpha particle and the recoiling nucleus becomes x
the length of the wedge. If the block is placed at the top at time t after the decay. If the decay takes place while
of the wedge and the cable supporting the chamber is the train is moving at a uniform velocity v, the distance
broken at the same instant, the block will between the alpha particle and the recoiling nucleus at
(a) take a time longer than T to slide down the wedge a time t after the decay as measured by the passenger
(b) take a time shorter than T to slide down the wedge is
(c) remain at the top of the wedge (a) x + v t (b) x v t (c) x
(d) jump off the wedge. (d) depends on the direction of the train.

OBJECTIVE II

1. A reference frame attached to the earth x


(a) is an inertial frame by definition
(b) cannot be an inertial frame because the earth is
revolving around the sun
(c) is an inertial frame because Newton's laws are
applicable in this frame
(d) cannot be an inertial frame because the earth is
rotating about its axis.
2. A particle stays at rest as seen in a frame. We can Figure 5-Q3
conclude that
(a) the frame is inertial
(b) resultant force on the particle is zero 5. Figure (5-Q4) shows a heavy block kept on a frictionless
(c) the frame may be inertial but the resultant force on surface and being pulled by two ropes of equal mass m.
the particle is zero At t = 0, the force on the left rope is withdrawn but the
(d) the frame may be noninertial but there is a nonzero force on the right end continues to act. Let F1and F2 be
resultant force. the magnitudes of the forces by the right rope and the
3. A particle is found to be at rest when seen from a frame left rope on the block respectively.
S1and moving with a constant velocity when seen from
another frame S2 . Mark out the possible options.
(a) Both the frames are inertial. m
(b) Both the frames are noninertial.
F
(c) S, is inertial and 52 is noninertial.
Figure 5-Q4
(d) S, is noninertial and S2 is inertial.
4. Figure (5-Q3) shows the displacement of a particle going (a) F1 =F2 = F for t < 0
along the X-axis as a function of time. The force acting (b) Fi = F2 = F + mg for t < 0
on the particle is zero in the region (c) F1 = F, F2 = F for t > 0
(a) AB (b) BC (c) CD (d) DE. (d) F,< F, F2 = F for t > 0.
Newton's Laws of Motion 79

6. The force exerted by the floor of an elevator on the foot a. Let F, and F2be the pseudo forces on the particle
of a person standing there is more than the weight of when seen from S, and S2respectively. Which of the
the person if the elevator is
following are not possible ?
(a) going up and slowing down
(b) going up and speeding up (a) F1 = 0, F2 # 0 (b) F,# 0, F2 = 0
(c) going down and slowing down (c)F1 0, F,# 0 (d) F1 = 0, F,= 0.
(d) going down and speeding up.
9. A person says that he measured the acceleration of a
7. If the tension in the cable supporting an elevator is equal
particle to be nonzero while no force was acting on the
to the weight of the elevator, the elevator may be
(a) going up with increasing speed particle.
(b) going down with increasing speed (a) He is a liar.
(c) going up with uniform speed (b) His clock might have run slow.
(d) going down with uniform speed. (c) His meter scale might have been longer than the
8. A particle is observed from two frames S1and. S, . The standard.
frame S2moves with respect to S1with an acceleration (d) He might have used noninertial frame.

EXERCISES

1. A block of mass 2 kg placed on a long frictionless the blocks accelerate. If the block A exerts a force F on
horizontal table is pulled horizontally by a constant force the block B, what is the force exerted by the
F. It is found to move 10 m in the first two seconds. experimenter on A ?
Find the magnitude of F. 8. Raindrops of radius 1 mm and mass 4 mg are falling
2. A car moving at 40 km/h is to be stopped by applying with a speed of 30 m/s on the head of a bald person.
brakes in the next 4.0 m. If the car weighs 2000 kg, The drops splash on the head and come to rest.
what average force must be applied on it ? Assuming equivalently that the drops cover a distance
3. In a TV picture tube electrons are ejected from the equal to their radii on the head, estimate the force
cathode with negligible speed and reach a velocity of exerted by each drop on the head.
5 x 10 6 m/s in travelling one centimeter. Assuming 9. A particle of mass 0.3 kg is subjected to a force
straight line motion, find the constant force exerted on F = k x with k = 15 N/m. What will be its initial
the electron. The mass of the electron is 9.1 x 10 -31kg. acceleration if it is released from a point x = 20 cm ?
4. A block of mass 0.2 kg is suspended from the ceiling by 10. Both the springs shown in figure (5-E2) are unstretched.
a light string. A second block of mass 0.3 kg is suspended If the block is displaced by a distance x and released,
from the first block through another string. Find the what will be the initial acceleration?
tensions in the two strings. Take g = 10 m/s 2 .
m
k1 k2
5. Two blocks of equal mass m are tied to each other
through a light string. One of the blocks is pulled along -(0MRP- -10-t10000'-
the line joining them with a constant force F. Find the
tension in the string joining the blocks. Figure 5-E2
6. A particle of mass 50 g moves on a straight line. The
variation of speed with time is shown in figure (5-E1). 11. A small block B is placed on another block A of mass
Find the force acting on the particle at t = 2, 4 and 6 5 kg and length 20 cm. Initially the block B is near the
seconds. right end of block A (figure 5-E3). A constant horizontal
force of 10 N is applied to the block A. All the surfaces
are assumed frictionless. Find the time elapsed before
the block B separates from A.

Figure 5-E1
Figure 5-E3

7. Two blocks A and B of mass m, and mBrespectively 12. A man has fallen into a ditch of width d and two of his
are kept in contact on a frictionless table. The friends are slowly pulling him out using a light rope and
experimenter pushes the block A from behind so that two fixed pulleys as shown in figure (5-E4). Show that
80 Concepts of Physics

the force (assumed equal for both the friends) exerted 16. Find the reading of the spring balance shown in figure
by each friend on the road increases as the man moves (5-E6). The elevator is going up with an acceleration of
up. Find the force when the man is at a depth h. g /10, the pulley and the string are light and the pulley
is smooth.
17. A block of 2 kg is suspended from the ceiling through a
massless spring of spring constant k = 100 N/m. What is
the elongation of the spring ? If another 1 kg is added
to the block, what would be the further elongation ?
18. Suppose the ceiling in the previous problem is that of
an elevator which is going up with an acceleration of
2.0 m/s 2 Find the elongations.
.

19. The force of buoyancy exerted by the atmosphere on a


balloon is B in the upward direction and remains
constant. The force of air resistance on the balloon acts
opposite to the direction of velocity and is proportional
Figure 5-E4 to it. The balloon carries a mass M and is found to fall
down near the earth's surface with a constant velocity
13. The elevator shown in figure (5-E5) is descending with v. How much mass should be removed from the balloon
so that it may rise with a constant velocity v ?
an acceleration of 2 m/s 2 The mass of the block A is
.

0.5 kg. What force is exerted by the block A on the 20. An empty plastic box of mass m is found to accelerate
block B ? up at the rate of g /6 when placed deep inside water.
How much sand should be put inside the box so that it
may accelerate down at the rate of g / 6 ?
21. A force F= v x A is exerted on a particle in addition to
m/s2
the force of gravity, where v is the velocity of the particle
and A is a constant vector in the horizontal direction.
With what minimum speed a particle of mass m be
Figure 5-E5 projected so that it continues to move undeflected with
a constant velocity ?
22. In a simple Atwood machine, two unequal masses m,
14. A pendulum bob of mass 50 g is suspended from the and m2 are connected by a string going over a clamped
ceiling of an elevator. Find the tension in the string if
light smooth pulley. In a typical arrangement
the elevator (a) goes up with acceleration 1.2 m/s 2 ,
(figure 5-E7) m, = 300 g and m2 = 600 g. The system is
(b) goes up with deceleration 1.2 m/s 2 (c) goes up with
,

uniform velocity, (d) goes down with acceleration released from rest. (a) Find the distance travelled by
1.2 m/s 2 (e) goes down with deceleration 1.2 m/s 2 and
,
the first block in the first two seconds. (b) Find the
(f) goes down with uniform velocity. tension in the string. (c) Find the force exerted by the
clamp on the pulley.
15. A person is standing on a weighing machine placed on
the floor of an elevator. The elevator starts going up
with some acceleration, moves with uniform velocity for
a while and finally decelerates to stop. The maximum
and the minimum weights recorded are 72 kg and 60 kg.
Assuming that the magnitudes of the acceleration and
the deceleration are the same, find (a) the true weight
of the person and (b) the magnitude of the acceleration.
Take g = 9.9 m/s 2 . Figure 5 E7
-

23. Consider the Atwood machine of the previous problem.


The larger mass is stopped for a moment 2.0 s after the
system is set into motion. Find the time elapsed before
the string is tight again.
24. Figure (5-E8) shows a uniform rod of length 30 cm
having a mass of 3.0 kg. The strings shown in the figure
are pulled by constant forces of 20 N and 32 N. Find
the force exerted by the 20 cm part of the rod on the
10 cm part. All the surfaces are smooth and the strings
Figure 5-E6 and the pulleys are light.
Newton's Laws of Motion 81

10 cm 20 cm

20 N
32 N

Figure 5-E8

25. Consider the situation shown in figure (5-E9). All the


surfaces are frictionless and the string and the pulley
are light. Find the magnitude of the acceleration of the Figure 5 E12
-

two blocks.

29. In the previous problem, suppose m2 = 2.0 kg and


m, = 3.0 kg. What should be the mass m so that it
remains at rest ?
30. Calculate the tension in the string shown in figure
(5-E13). The pulley and the string are light and all
surfaces are frictionless. Take g = 10 m/s 2 .
Figure 5 E9-

L_I 11 kg

26 A constant force F= m2 g/2 is applied on the block of


mass m, as shown in figure (5-E10). The string and the 1 kg E
pulley are light and the surface of the table is smooth.
Find the acceleration of m, . Figure 5-E13

31. Consider the situation shown in figure (5-E14). Both the


pulleys and the string are light and all the surfaces are
frictionless. (a) Find the acceleration of the mass M.
(b) Find the tension in the string. (c) Calculate the force
exerted by the clamp on the pulley A in the figure.
Figure 5 E10
-

2M B A
n () St,

27. In figure (5-E11) m, = 5 kg, m, = 2 kg and F = 1N


N . Find M ED
the acceleration of either block. Describe the motion of
m, if the string breaks but F continues to act.
Figure 5-E14

32. Find the acceleration of the block of mass M in the


situation shown in figure (5-E15). All the surfaces are
frictionless and the pulleys and the string are light.

Figure 5 Ell
-

28. Let m, = 1 kg, m2= 2 kg and m, = 3 kg in figure (5-E12).


Find the accelerations of m, , m2 and m,. The string
from the upper pulley to m, is 20 cm when the system
Figure 5-E15
is released from rest. How long will it take before m,
strikes the pulley ?
82 Concepts of Physics

33. Find the mass M of the hanging block in figure (5-E16) move in the same direction with equal acceleration. If
which will prevent the smaller block from slipping over initially both were at rest, their separation will not
the triangular block. All the surfaces are frictionless and change as time passes.
the strings and the pulleys are light.

Figure 5 E16
-

34. Find the acceleration of the blocks A and B in the three Figure 5 E19
-

situations shown in figure (5-E17).

2 kg
38. The monkey B shown in figure (5-E20) is holding on to
the tail of the monkey A which is climbing up a rope.
The masses of the monkeys A and B are 5 kg and 2 kg
4 kg
respectively. If A can tolerate a tension of 30 N in its
tail, what force should it apply on the rope in order to
carry the monkey B with it ? Take g = 10 m/s 2 .

B kg

(a)

35. Find the acceleration of the 500 g block in figure (5-E18).

500 g

Figure 5-E18

Figure 5-E20
36. A monkey of mass 15 kg is climbing on a rope with one
end fixed to the ceiling. If it wishes to go up with an
acceleration of 1 m/s 2 how much force should it apply
,

to the rope ? If the rope is 5 m long and the monkey 39. Figure (5-E21) shows a man of mass 60 kg standing on
starts from rest, how much time will it take to reach a light weighing machine kept in a box of mass 30 kg.
the ceiling ? The box is hanging from a pulley fixed to the ceiling
through a light rope, the other end of which is held by
37. A monkey is climbing on a rope that goes over a smooth the man himself. If the man manages to keep the box
light pulley and supports a block of equal mass at the at rest, what is the weight shown by the machine ? What
other end (figure 5-E19). Show that whatever force the force should he exert on the rope to get his correct weight
monkey exerts on the rope, the monkey and the block on the machine ?
Newton's Laws of Motion 83

40. A block A can slide on a frictionless incline of angle 0


and length 1, kept inside an elevator going up with
uniform velocity v (figure 5-E22). Find the time taken
by the block to slide down the length of the incline if it
is released from the top of the incline.
41. A car is speeding up on a horizontal road with an
acceleration a. Consider the following situations in the
car. (i) A ball is suspended from the ceiling through a
string and is maintaining a constant angle with the
Figure 5-E21 vertical. Find this angle. (ii) A block is kept on a smooth
incline and does not slip on the incline. Find the angle
of the incline with the horizontal.
42. A block is kept on the floor of an elevator at rest. The
elevator starts descending with an acceleration of
12 m/s 2 Find the displacement of the block during the
.

first 0.2 s after the start. Take g = 10 m/s 2 .

Figure 5-E22

ANSWERS

OBJECTIVE I
10. (k1+ k2) opposite to the displacement.
m
1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (b) 11. 0.45 s.
7. (d) 8. (a) 9. (b) 10. (b) 11. (c) 12. (b)
13. (a) 14. (c) 12. 7111"qd 2 + 4 h 2
4h
13. 4 N
OBJECTIVE II 14. (a) 0.55 N (b) 0.43 N (c) 0.49 N
(d) 0.43 N (e) 0.55 N (f) 0.49 N
1. (b), (d) 2. (c), (d) 3. (a), (b)
4. (a), (c) 5. (a) 6. (b), (c) 15. 66 kg and 0.9 m/s 2
7. (c), (d) 8. (d) 9. (d) 16. 4.4 kg
17. 0.2 m, 0.1 m
EXERCISES 18. 0.24 m, 0.12 m

1. 10 N 19. 2 (111 - -11


g
2. 3.1 x 10 4 N 20. 2 m/5
21. mg I A
3. 1.1 x 10-15N
4. 5 N and 3 N 22. ((a)
a 6.5 m (b) 3.9 N (c) 7.8 N
5. F I 2 23. 2/3 s
6. 0.25 N along the motion, zero and 0.25 N opposite to 24. 24 N
the motion. 25. g/10
rn, g
7. F(1.+ 77). 26
2(m, + m2)
towards right
rnB
8. 1.8 N 27. 4.3 m/s 2 moves downward with acceleration
,

9. 10 m/s 2 g + 0.2 ni/s 2


84 Concepts of Physics

19 17 21
28. g (up), (down) ,ig
-g (down) , 0.25 s 35.13 downward
29. 4.8 kg 36. 165 N, -%/17
0s
30. 5 N 38. between 70 N and 105 N
31. (a) 2g/3 (b) Mg /3 39. 15 kg, 1800 N
(c) .42 Mg 13 at an angle of 45 with the horizontal .\1 2 l
40.
32. g/3 up the plane g sin 0
M'+ m 41. tan-1(a 1 g) in each case
33.
cotO 1 42. 20 cm
34. (a) ,1 g downward, upward
10 5
(b) g forward, g downward
2
(c) g downward, upward
3 3
CHAPTER 6

FRICTION

6.1 FRICTION AS THE COMPONENT OF


CONTACT FORCE
When two bodies are kept in contact, electro-
magnetic forces act between the charged particles at
the surfaces of the bodies. As a result, each body exerts Figure 6.2
a contact force on the other. The magnitudes of the
contact forces acting on the two bodies are equal but
their directions are opposite and hence the contact
The component of F perpendicular to the contact surface
forces obey Newton's third law.
is the normal force SV and the component of F parallel
to the surface is the friction f As the surface is
,N= normal force horizontal, ,./V is vertically upward. For vertical
F = contact force equilibrium,
I
I
I dV = Mg = (0.400 kg) (10 m/s 2) = 4.0 N.
E f - friction
The frictional force is f = 3.0 N.

(a) tan uA = =
3

./1( 4
Figure 6.1 or, 0 = tan -1(3 / 4) = 37.
(b) The magnitude of the contact force is

F = -L.N 2+ f 2
The direction of the contact force acting on a
particular body is not necessarily perpendicular to the = "q(4.0 N) + (3.0 N) = 5.0 N.
contact surface. We can resolve this contact force into
Friction can operate between a given pair of solids,
two components, one perpendicular to the contact
between a solid and a fluid or between a pair of fluids.
surface and the other parallel to it (Figure 6.1). The
Frictional force exerted by fluids is called viscous force
perpendicular component is called the normal contact
and we shall study it in a later chapter. Here we shall
force or normal force and the parallel component is
study about the frictional forces operating between a
called friction.
pair of solid surfaces.
Example 6.1 When two solid bodies slip over each other, the
A body of mass 400 g slides on a rough horizontal force of friction is called kinetic friction. When two
surface. If the frictional force is 3.0 N, find (a) the angle bodies do not slip on each other, the force of friction
made by the contact force on the body with the vertical is called static friction.
and (b) the magnitude of the contact force. Take
It is difficult to work out a reliable theory of
g=10 m/s 2 .
friction starting from the electromagnetic interaction
Solution : Let the contact force on the block by the surface between the particles at the surface. However, a wide
be F which makes an angle 9 with the vertical range of observations can be summarized in a small
(figure 6.2). number of laws of friction which we shall discuss.
86 Concepts of Physics

6.2 KINETIC FRICTION fk = Ilk sV ... (6.1)


When two bodies in contact move with respect to where dV is the normal force. The proportionality
each other, rubbing the surfaces in contact, the friction constant 1.11, is called the coefficient of kinetic friction
between them is called kinetic friction. The directions and its value depends on the nature of the two surfaces
of the frictional forces are such that the relative in contact. If the surfaces are smooth pik will be small,
slipping is opposed by the friction. if the surfaces are rough ilk will be large. It also
depends on the materials of the two bodies in contact.
According to equation (6.1) the coefficient of kinetic
friction does not depend on the speed of the sliding
bodies. Once the bodies slip on each other the frictional
Figure 6.3 force is ilk dV, whatever be the speed. This is
approximately true for relative speeds not too large
Suppose a body A placed in contact with B is (say for speeds < 10 m/s).
moved with respect to it as shown in figure (6.3). The We also see from equation (6.1) that as long as the
force of friction acting on A due to B will be opposite normal force dV is same, the frictional force is
to the velocity of A with respect to B. In figure (6.3) independent of the area of the surface in contact. For
this force is shown towards left. The force of friction
example, if a rectangular slab is slid over a table, the
on B due to A is opposite to the velocity of B with frictional force is same whether the slab lies flat on
respect to A. In figure (6.3) this force is shown towards
the table or it stands on its face of smaller area
right. The force of kinetic friction opposes the relative
(figure 6.5)
motion. We can formulate the rules for finding the
direction and magnitude of kinetic friction as follows :
(a) Direction of Kinetic Friction
The kinetic friction on a body A slipping against
another body B is opposite to the velocity of A with
respect to B. Figure 6.5
It should be carefully noted that the velocity
coming into picture is with respect to the body applying Example 6.2
the force of friction.
A heavy box of mass 20 kg is pulled on a horizontal
surface by applying a horizontal force. If the coefficient
of kinetic friction between the box and the horizontal
surface is 0.25, find the force of friction exerted by the
horizontal surface on the box.
Figure 6.4
Solution : The situation is shown in figure (6.6). In the
vertical direction there is no acceleration, so
As another example, suppose we have a long box
= Mg.
having wheels and moving on a horizontal road
(figure 6.4). A small block is placed on the box which
slips on the box to fall from the rear end. As seen from
the road, both the box and the block are moving
towards right, of course the velocity of the block is
smaller than that of the box. What is the direction of
the kinetic friction acting on the block due to the box ? mg
The velocity of the block as seen from the box is
Figure 6.6
towards left. Thus, the friction on the block is towards
right. The friction acting on the box due to the block
is towards left. As the box slides on the horizontal surface, the surface
exerts kinetic friction on the box. The magnitude of the
(b) Magnitude of the Kinetic Friction kinetic friction is
fk =k 9V = k Mg
The magnitude of the kinetic friction is proportional
to the normal force acting between the two bodies. We = 0'25 x (20 kg) x (9'8 m/s 2) = 49 N.
can write This force acts in the direction opposite to the pull.
Friction 87

6.3 STATIC FRICTION force is constant, the maximum possible friction does
not depend on the area of the surfaces in contact.
Frictional forces can also act between two bodies
which are in contact but are not sliding with respect Once again we emphasise that us is the
to each other. The friction in such cases is called static maximum possible force of static friction that can act
friction. For example, suppose several labourers are between the bodies. The actual force of static friction
trying to push a heavy almirah on the floor to take it may be smaller than ptsdV and its value depends on
out of a room (figure 6.7). other forces acting on the body. The magnitude of
frictional force is equal to that required to keep the
body at relative rest. Thus,
is 5- fr.= . . . (6.3)

Example 6.3

Figure 6.7
A boy (30 kg) sitting on his horse whips it. The horse
speeds up at an average acceleration of 2.0 m/s 2. (a) If
The almirah is heavy and even the most sincere the boy does not slide back, what is the force of friction
effort by them is not able to slide it on the floor even exerted by the horse on the boy ? (b) If the boy slides back
by a millimeter. As the almirah is at rest the resultant during the acceleration, what can be said about the
force on the almirah should be zero. Thus, something coefficient of static friction between the horse and the boy.
is exerting a force on the almirah in the opposite Take g = 10 m/s 2.
direction. In this case, it is the floor which exerts a
frictional force on the almirah. The labourers push the Solution : (a) The forces acting on the boy are
almirah towards left in figure (6.7) and the floor exerts (i) the weight Mg.
a frictional force on the almirah towards right. This is (ii) the normal contact force SV and
an example of static friction. (iii) the static friction f, .
How strong is this frictional force ? Suppose the
almirah is pushed with a small force in the beginning
and the force is gradually increased. It does not slide
until the force applied is greater than a minimum fs
value say F. The force of static friction is equal and
opposite to the force exerted by the labourers as long
as the almirah is at rest. This means that the Mg
magnitude of static friction adjusts its value according
to the applied force. As the applied force increases, the
frictional force also increases. The static friction is Figure 6.8
thus, self adjustable. It adjusts its magnitude (and
direction) in such a way that together with other forces
applied on the body, it maintains 'relative rest' As the boy does not slide back, its acceleration a is equal
between the two surfaces. However, the frictional force to the acceleration of the horse. As friction is the only
cannot go beyond a maximum. When the applied force horizontal force, it must act along the acceleration and
exceeds this maximum, friction fails to increase its its magnitude is given by Newton's second law
value and slipping starts. The maximum static friction f, = Ma = (30 kg) (2.0 m/s 2) = 60 N.
that a body can exert on the other body in contact with
(b) If the boy slides back, the horse could not exert a
it, is called limiting friction. This limiting friction is
friction of 60 N on the boy. The maximum force of static
proportional to the normal contact force between the
friction that the horse may exert on the boy is
two bodies. We can write
[max = -11( ...(6.2) f = SY = Mg
where fma, is the maximum possible force of static = (30 kg) (10 nils 2) = las300 N
friction and is the normal force. The constant of where 1.isis the coefficient of static friction. Thus,
proportionality is called the coefficient of static friction 14 (300 N) < 60 N
and its value again depends on the material and
60
roughness of the two surfaces in contact. In general, or, s < 300
= 0.20.
g, is slightly greater than uk . As long as the normal
88 Concepts of Physics

Finding the Direction of Static Friction (2) The direction of kinetic friction on a body is
opposite to the velocity of this body with respect to the
The direction of static friction on a body is such body applying the force of friction.
that the total force acting on it keeps it at rest with
respect to the body in contact. Newton's first or second (3) If the bodies do not slip over each other, the
law can often be used to find the direction of static force of friction is given by
friction. Figure (6.9) shows a block A placed on another ./1/
block B which is placed on a horizontal table. where pisis the coefficient of static friction between the
bodies and SV is the normal force between them. The
direction and magnitude of static friction are such that
the condition of no slipping between the bodies is
ensured.
Figure 6.9 (4) The frictional force fk or L does not depend on
the area of contact as long as the normal force SI/ is
The block B is pulled by a force F towards right. same.
Suppose the force is small and the blocks do not move. Table (6.1) gives a rough estimate of the values of
Let us focus our attention on the upper block. The coefficient of static friction between certain pairs of
upper block is at rest with respect to the ground which materials. The actual value depends on the degree of
is assumed to be inertial. Thus, the resultant force on smoothness and other environmental factors. For
the upper block is zero (Newton's first law). As no other example, wood may be prepared at various degrees of
external force acts on the upper block the friction smoothness and the friction coefficient will varry.
acting on the upper block due to the lower block, must
be zero. If the force F is increased, the two blocks move Table 6.1 : The Friction Coefficients
together towards right, with some acceleration. As the
upper block accelerates towards right the resultant Material gs Material Ils
force on it must be towards right. As friction is the Steel and steel 0.58 Copper and copper 1.60
only horizontal force on the upper block it must be Steel and brass 0.35 Teflon and teflon 0.04
towards right.
Glass and glass 1.00 Rubber tyre on dry 1.0
Notice that it is the friction on the upper block Wood and wood 0.35 concrete road
which accelerates it towards right. It is a general Wood and metal 0.40 Rubber tyre on wet 0.7
misconception that friction always opposes the motion. concrete road
Ice and ice 0.10
It is not really true. In many cases friction causes the
motion. A vehicle accelerates on the road only because Dust, impurities, surface oxidation etc. have a
the frictional force on the vehicle due to the road drives great role in determining the friction coefficient.
it. It is not possible to accelerate a vehicle on a Suppose we take two blocks of pure copper, clean them
frictionless road. Friction opposes the relative motion carefully to remove any oxide or dust layer at the
between the bodies in contact. surfaces, heat them to push out any dissolved gases
Another way to find the direction of static friction and keep them in contact with each other in an
is as follows. For a moment consider the surfaces to evacuated chamber at a very low pressure of air. The
be frictionless. In absence of friction the bodies will blocks stick to each other and a large force is needed
start slipping against each other. One should then find to slide one over the other. The friction coefficient as
the direction of friction as opposite to the velocity with defined above, becomes much larger than one. If a
respect to the body applying the friction. small amount of air is allowed to go into the chamber
so that some oxidation takes place at the surface, the
friction coefficient reduces to usual values.
6.4 LAWS OF FRICTION
6.5 UNDERSTANDING FRICTION
We can summarise the laws of friction between two
bodies in contact as follows : AT ATOMIC LEVEL

(1) If the bodies slip over each other, the force of It has already been pointed out that friction
friction is given by appears because of the interaction between the charged
particles of the two bodies near the surfaces of contact.
fk - km
Any macroscopic object like a steel plate or a wood
where is the normal contact force and Ilk is the piece has irregular surface at atomic scale. A polished
coefficient of kinetic friction between the surfaces. steel surface may look plane to naked eyes but if seen
Friction 89

under a powerful microscope, its surface is found to be The weights of the block B and the hanger H are
quite irregular. Figure (6.10) shows qualitatively how measured. Standard weights are kept on the hanger.
an apparently plane surface may be at the atomic The weights are gradually increased and the minimum
scale. weight needed to just slide the block is noted.
Suppose the weight of the block is W1 and the
weight of the hanger together with the standard
weights is W2 when the block just starts to slide. The
Figure 6.10
tension in the string is W2 and same is the force of
friction on the block by the plank. Thus, the maximum
When two bodies are kept one over the other, the
force of static friction on the block is fmax = W2. The
real area in contact is much smaller than the total
surface area of the bodies (figure 6.11) The distance normal force on the block by the plank is equal to the
between the particles of the two bodies becomes very weight of the block itself as the block is in vertical
small at these actual points of contact and the equilibrium. Thus, the normal force is dV = W1.
molecular forces start operating across the surface. The coefficient of static friction is
Molecular bonds are formed at these contact points. fm ax W2
When one of the two bodies is pulled over the other, 1-ts
W1
these bonds are broken, the materials under the bond
is deformed and new bonds are formed. The local To obtain the coefficient of kinetic friction, the
deformation of the bodies send vibration waves into weight on the hanger is slightly reduced and the block
the bodies. These vibrations finally damp out and the is gently pushed with a finger to move it on the plank.
energy appears as the increased random motion of the The weight on the hanger is so adjusted that once
particles of the bodies. The bodies thus, become heated. pushed, the block continues to move on the plank with
A force is, therefore, needed to start the motion or to uniform speed. In this case, the tension in the string
maintain the motion. equals the force of kinetic friction. As the hanger also
moves with uniform velocity, the tension equals the
weight of the hanger plus the standard weights kept
in it. For vertical equilibrium of the block, the normal
force on the block equals the weight of the block. Thus,
Figure 6.11 if W1is the weight of the block and W,' is the weight
of the hanger plus the standard weights, the coefficient
of kinetic friction is
6.6 A LABORATORY METHOD TO
MEASURE FRICTION COEFFICIENT fk W2t
=

(a) Horizontal Table Method One can put certain standard weights on the block
Figure (6.12) shows the apparatus. A wooden plank to increase the normal force and repeat the
A is fixed on a wooden frame kept on a table. A experiment. It can be verified that the force of friction
frictionless pulley is fixed to one end of the plank. A also increases and fk /sV comes out to be the same as
block B is kept on the plank and is attached to a it should be because the nature of the surfaces is same.
hanger H by a string which passes over the pulley. If the block is kept on the plank on some other face,
the area of contact is changed. It can be verified by
repeating the above experiment that the force of
friction does not depend on the area of contact for a
given value of normal contact force.

(b) Inclined Table Method


In this method no pulley is needed. A wooden
Figure 6.12
plank A is fixed on a wooden frame. One end of the
plank is fixed to the frame on a hinge and the other
end can be moved vertically and can be fixed at the
desired position. Thus, the plank can be fixed in an
The plank is kept in a horizontal position. The inclined position and the angle of incline can
friction coefficient between the block B and the plank be adjusted. A schematic diagram is shown in
A can be obtained by using this apparatus. figure (6.13).
90 Concepts of Physics

so that the coefficient of kinetic friction between the


block and the plank is
fk
1-tk = = tan() = h' I D'

Example 6.4
A wooden block is kept on a polished wooden plank and
Figure 6.13 the inclination of the plank is gradually increased. It is
found that the block starts slipping when the plank
Block B is placed on the incline and the angle of makes an angle of 18 with the horizontal. However, once
the incline is gradually increased. The angle of the started the block can continue with uniform speed if the
incline is so adjusted that the block just starts to slide. inclination is reduced to 15. Find the coefficients of
The height h and the horizontal distance D between static and kinetic friction between the block and the
the two ends of the plank are measured. The angle of plank.
incline 0 satisfies Solution : The coefficient of static friction is
tang = h /D. = tan 18
Let m be the mass of the block. The forces on the and the coefficient of kinetic friction is
block in case of limiting equilibrium are (figure 6.14) j.tk = tan 15

(i) weight of the block mg,


Rolling Friction
(ii) the normal contact force iV and ,

It is quite difficult to pull a heavy iron box on a


(iii) the force of static friction L. rough floor. However, if the box is provided with four
wheels, also made of iron, it becomes easier to move
the box on the same floor.

Figure 6.14
Figure 6.15

Taking components along the incline and applying The wheel does not slide on the floor rather it rolls
Newton's first law, on the floor. The surfaces at contact do not rub each
fs = mg sine. other. The velocity of the point of contact of the wheel
Taking components along the normal to the incline, with respect to the floor remains zero all the time
although the centre of the wheel moves forward. The
.J11 = mg cos0.
friction in the case of rolling is quite small as compared
Thus, the coefficient of static friction between the to kinetic friction. Quite often the rolling friction is
block and the plank is negligible in comparison to the static or kinetic
L mg sin() friction which may be present simultaneously. To
thne = - h reduce the wear and tear and energy loss against
J1( mg cos()
friction, small steel balls are kept between the rotating
To obtain the kinetic friction, the inclination is parts of machines which are known as ball bearings
reduced slightly and the block is made to move on the (figure 6.16).
plank by gently pushing it with a finger. The
inclination is so adjusted that once started, the block
Fixed Part
continues with uniform velocity on the plank. The
height h' and the distance D' are noted. An identical Ball Bearing
Rotating Part
analysis shows that the force of kinetic friction is
fk = mg sine
and the normal contact force is
/1! = mg cos0 Figure 6.16
Friction 91

As one part moves with respect to the other, the and rolling friction being very small causes much less
balls roll on the two parts. No kinetic friction is involed energy loss.

Worked Out Examples

1. The coefficient of static friction between a block of mass not move on the table, how much frictional force the table
m and an incline is IA, = 0.3. (a) What can be the is applying on the block ? What can be said about the
maximum angle 0 of the incline with the horizontal so coefficient of static friction between the block and the
that the block does not slip on the plane ? (b) If the incline table ? Take g = 10 m/s 2.
makes an angle 0/2 with the horizontal, find the Solution : The situation is shown in figure (6-W2). The
frictional force on the block. forces on the block are
Solution : The situation is shown in figure (6-W1).
(a) the forces on the block are
(i) the weight mg downward by the earth,
(ii) the normal contact force SV by the incline, and N
f
(iii) the friction f parallel to the incline up the plane, by
the incline.
40 N
Figure 6-W2

(a) 4 kg x 10 m/s 2 = 40 N downward by the earth,


(b) SV upward by the table,
(c) 20 N towards right by the experimenter and
Figure 6 W1-

(d) f towards left by the table (friction).


As the block is at rest, these forces should add up to
As the block is at rest, these forces should add up to
zero. Taking horizontal and vertical components,
zero. Also, since 0 is the maximum angle to prevent
slipping, this is a case of limiting equilibrium and so f = 20 N and dV = 40 N.
f = sy Thus, the table exerts a frictional (static) force of 20 N
on the block in the direction opposite to the applied force.
Taking components prependicular to the incline,
Sine it is a case of static friction,
V mg cos() = 0
Or, .111 = mg cos9. ...
f 1.1.8 , or, s > f l SV or, s > 0'5.
Taking components parallel to the incline,
3. The coefficient of static friction between the block of 2 kg
f mg sin = 0 and the table shown in figure (6-W3) is pis= 0.2. What
or, f = mg sing should be the maximum value of m so that the blocks do
Or, [Ls cAi = mg sing. (ii) not move ? Take g = 10 m/s 2. The string and the pulley
Dividing (ii) by (i) s = tan0 are light and smooth.

or, 0 = tan 1 s = tan (0'3). :11(


(b) If the angle of incline is reduced to 0/2, the
equilibrium is not limiting, and hence the force of static
friction f is less than sSV. To know the value of f, we
proceed as in part (a) and get the equations
= mg cos(0/2)
and f = mg sin(0/2).
Thus, the force of friction is mg sin(9/2). Figure 6 W3
-

2. A horizontal force of 20 N is applied to a block of mass Solution : Consider the equilibrium of the block of mass
4 kg resting on a rough horizontal table. If the block does m. The forces on this block are
92 Concepts of Physics

(a) mg downward by the earth and (a) mg downward by the earth (gravity),
(b) T upward by the string. (b) SV upward by the block M (normal force) and
Hence, T - mg = 0 or, T = mg. (i) (c) f = 'V (friction) towards right by the block M.
Now consider the equilibrium of the 2 kg block. The In the vertical direction, there is no acceleration. This
forces on this block are gives
(a) T towards right by the string, SV = mg. (i)
(b) f towards left (friction) by the table, In the horizontal direction, let the acceleration be a, then
(c) 20 N downward (weight) by the earth and SV =m a
(d) SV upward (normal force) by the table. Or, 1.1. mg = ma
For vertical equilibrium of this block, Or, a =1.1.g. (ii)
sV= 20 N. (ii) Next, consider the motion of M (figure 6-W6).
As m is the largest mass which can be used without
SV
41
moving the system, the friction is limiting.
Thus, f= s ( cNi I
For horizontal equilibrium of the 2 kg block, f =1.1,A/
f = T. ... (iv)
Using equations (i), (iii) and (iv)
Mg
SV = mg
Figure 6-W6
Or, 0'2 x 20N=mg
0'2 x 20 The forces on M are
or, m- kg = 0.4 kg.
10 (a) Mg downward by the earth (gravity),
(b) 9V, upward by the table (normal force),
4. The coefficient of static friction between the two blocks
shown in figure (6-W4) is 1.t and the table is smooth. What (c) SI/ downward by m (normal force),
maximum horizontal force F can be applied to the block (d) f = SV (friction) towards left by m and
of mass M so that the blocks move together ? (e) F (applied force) by the experimenter.
The equation of motion is
F-ASV =Ma
F
Or, F - p. mg = M g [Using (i) and (ii)]
Figure 6-W4 Or, F=p,g(M+m).

Solution : When the maximum force F is applied, both the 5. A block slides down an incline of angle 30 with an
blocks move together towards right. The only horizontal acceleration g/4. Find the kinetic friction coeffcient.
force on the upper block of mass m is that due to the
Solution : Let the mass of the block be m. The forces on
friction by the lower block of mass M. Hence this force
the block are (Figure 6-W7),
on m should be towards right. The force of friction on
M by m should be towards left by Newton's third law.
As we are talking of the maximum possible force F that
can be applied, the friction is limiting and hence
f = SV, where dV is the normal force between the
blocks.
Consider the motion of m. The forces on m are Figure 6 W7-

(figure 6-W5),
(a) mg downward by the earth (gravity),
(b) SY normal force by the incline and
(c) f up the plane, (friction) by the incline.
Taking components parallel to the incline and writing
Newton's second law,
mg sin 30 - f = mg14
Figure 6-W5 Or, f=mg14.
Friction 93

There is no acceleration perpendicular to the incline. 7. A block placed on a horizontal surface is being pushed
Hence, by a force F making an angle El with the vertical. If the
-43 friction coefficient is 1.t , how much force is needed to get
dV = mg cos 30 = mg 2 the block just started. Discuss the situation when
As the block is slipping on the incline, friction is tan() < p.
f= - A f. Solution : The situation is shown in figure (6-W9). In the
limiting equilibrium the frictional force f will be equal
So, mg to p SI/. For horizontal equilibrium
SI( 4mg '43 /2 2 -43
F sine =11 SV
6. A block of mass 2.5 kg is kept on a rough horizontal
surface. It is found that the block does not slide if a
horizontal force less than 15 N is applied to it. Also it
is found that it takes 5 seconds to slide through the first
10 m if a horizontal force of 15 N is applied and the
block is gently pushed to start the motion. Taking mg
g = 10 m/s 2, calculate the coefficients of static and kinetic
Figure 6-W9
friction between the block and the surface.
Solution : The forces acting on the block are shown in For vertical equilibrium
figure (6-W8). Here M = 2.5 kg and F = 15 N.
F cos + mg =SV
Eliminating SV from these equations,
F sine F cos() + mg
p. mg
Or, F

sine p, cos()
If tang < p, we have (sine p. cos()) < 0 and then F is
Mg
negative. So for angles less than tan-1p., one cannot push
Figure 6-W8 the block ahead, however large the force may be.

When F = 15 N is applied to the block, the block remains 8. Find the maximum value of M I m in the situation shown
in limiting equilibrium. The force of friction is thus in figure (6-W10) so that the system remains at rest.
f = s dV . Applying Newton's first law, Friction coefficient at both the contacts is Discuss the
f = !is SV and SY = mg situation when tan() <

so that F = !is Mg
F 15 N
or mg 0'60.
(2'5 kg) (10 m/s 2)
When the block is gently pushed to start the motion,
kinetic friction acts between the block and the surface.
Since the block takes 5 second to slide through the first Figure 6 W10
-

10 m, the acceleration a is given by


Solution : Figure (6-W11) shows the forces acting on the
10 m = a (5 s) 2 two blocks. As we are looking for the maximum value
2
of M/m, the equilibrium is limiting. Hence, the frictional
20 , ,
or, a = m/s = s IJ. 0 m/ 2 . forces are equal to p. times the corresponding normal
25
The frictional force is forces.
f=ilk-N= ilk mg
Applying Newton's second law
F pik Mg = Ma
F Ma
or, k =
Mg
15 N (2'5 kg) (0'8 m/s 2)
0'52 .
(2'5 kg) (10 m/s 2) Figure 6-W11
94 Concepts of Physics

Equilibrium of the block m gives For vertical equilibrium SI/ = mg.


T=sV1 and = mg As the minimum force needed to prevent slipping is
which gives applied, the friction is limiting. Thus,
T = p, mg. (i) f =11 ,N =1.1. mg.
Next, consider the equilibrium of the block M. Taking As the block moves towards right with an acceleration
components parallel to the incline a,
T+ 2 = Mg sin0. T f = ma
Taking components normal to the incline or, T j.t mg = ma. (ii)
= Mg cos0. Now take the block B as the system. The forces are
(figure 6-W14),
These give T = Mg (sin cos)). (ii)
(i) tension T upward,
From (i) and (ii), p, mg = Mg (sin0 cos0) (ii) weight mg downward,
11, (iii) normal force /1/' towards right, and
or, M/m
sin0 cos0 (iv) friction f ' upward.
If tan() < p, , (sin0 cos0) < 0 and the system will not As the block moves towards right with an acceleration a,
slide for any value of M/m. SV' = ma.
As the friction is limiting, f ' = p, = p, ma.
9. Consider the situation shown in figure (6-W12). The For vertical equilibrium
horizontal surface below the bigger block is smooth. The T+f'=mg
coefficient of friction between the blocks is 1.1. Find the Or, T + 1.1. ma = mg. (iii)
minimum and the maximum force F that can be applied
Eliminating T from (ii) and (iii)
in order to keep the smaller block at rest with respect to
1 p,
the bigger block. a g
1+
When a large force is applied the block A slips on C
towards left and the block B slips on C in the upward
direction. The friction on A is towards right and that on
B is downwards. Solving as above, the acceleration in
this case is
Figure 6 W12
-

1+
ate, _ 11 g .
Solution : If no force is applied, the block A will slip on C
towards right and the block B will move downward. 1 11 1+
Thus, a lies between g and g.
Suppose the minimum force needed to prevent slipping 1 +11 1
is F. Taking A + B + C as the system, the only external From (i) the force F should be between
horizontal force on the system is F. Hence the 1 1+
(M + 2m)g and 7
1 -11
- (M + 2m)g.
acceleration of the system is 1+

a ...
M + 2m 10. Figure (6-W15) shows two blocks connected by a light
Now take the block A as the system. The forces on A string placed on the two inclined parts of a triangular
are (figure 6-W13), structure. The coefficients of static and kinetic friction
are 0.28 and 0.25 respectively at each of the surfaces. (a)
sv Find the minimum and maximum values of m for which
the system remains at rest. (b) Find the acceleration of
f_ T e either block if m is given the minimum value calculated
in the first part and is gently pushed up the incline for
mg mg
a short while.

Figure 6-W13 Figure 6-W14

(i) tension T by the string towards right,


(ii) friction f by the block C towards left,
(iii) weight mg downward and
(iv) normal force SV upward. Figure 6-W15
Friction 95

Solution : (a) Take the 2 kg block as the system. The forces (1 11) 1 0'28
on this block are shown in figure (6-W16) with M = 2 kg. Or, m x2kg
(1+14) 1+0'28
It is assumed that m has its minimum value so that the
9
2 kg block has a tendency to slip down. As the block is
= kg'
in equilibrium, the resultant force should be zero.
When maximum possible value of m is supplied, the
directions of friction are reversed because m has the
tendency to slip down and 2 kg block to slip up. Thus,
the maximum value of m can be obtained from (iii) by
putting u. = 0.28. Thus, the maximum value of m is

1 + 0'28
Figure 6-W16 Figure 6-W17 m- x2kg
1-0.28
32
Taking components 1 to the incline = kg.
9
= Mg cos 45 =Mg/42. (b) If m = 9/8 kg and the system is gently pushed,
Taking components I I to the incline kinetic friction will operate. Thus,
T + f = Mg sin 45 = Mg142 Mg ,k mg
f=l1k 42 and f
Or, T = Mg 142 f.
As it is a case of limiting equilibrium, where II* = 0.25. If the acceleration is a, Newton's second
f=lissy law for M gives (figure 6-W16).

Or,
_Mg Mg Mg
o
(1-g. (i)
Mg sin 45 T f = Ma
T = 42 14 42 Mg Mg
or, T 42 Ma. ... (iv)
Now consider the other block as the system. The forces
acting on this block are shown in figure (6-W17). Applying Newton's second law m (figure 6-W17),
Taking components 1 to the incline,
T mg sin 45 f ' = ma
= mg cos 45 = mg 142. Ilk m g
TakingromponentNI to the incline Or, T mg ma. (v)
2 42
T=mg sin 45 +f'= 17 +f' Adding (iv) and (v)
As it is the case of limiting equilibrium Mg mg
(1 (1 + = (M + m) a
, mg
f' =Pissv = \E M(1 m+
or,
a (M+ m) g
Thus, T= (1 +14). (ii)
42 2 x 0-75 9/8 x 1.25
From (i) and (ii) 42 (2 + 9/8)
m(1 +14) = M (1 1.4) (iii) = 0.31 in/s 2.

QUESTIONS FOR SHORT ANSWER

1. For most of the surfaces used in daily life, the friction 5. Can you accelerate a car on a frictionless horizontal road
coefficient is less than 1. Is it always necessary that the by putting more petrol in the engine ? Can you stop a
friction coefficient is less than 1 ? car going on a frictionless horizontal road by applying
2. Why is it easier to push a heavy block from behind than brakes ?
to press it on the top and push ? 6. Spring fitted doors close by themselves when released.
You want to keep the door open for a long time, say for
3. What is the average friction force when a person has a an hour. If you put a half kg stone in front of the open
usual 1 km walk ? door, it does not help. The stone slides with the door
4. Why is it difficult to walk on solid ice ? and the door gets closed. However, if you sandwitch a
96 Concepts of Physics

20 g piece of wood in the small gap between the door 8. Can a tug of war be ever won on a frictionless surface ?
and the floor, the door stays open. Explain why a much
lighter piece of wood is able to keep the door open while 9. Why do tyres have a better grip of the road while going
the heavy stone fails. on a level road than while going on an incline ?

7. A classroom demonstration of Newton's first law is as 10. You are standing with your bag in your hands, on the
follows : A glass is covered with a plastic card and a ice in the middle of a pond. The ice is so slippery that
coin is placed on the card. The card is given a quick it can offer no friction. How can you come out of the ice ?
strike and the coin falls in the glass. (a) Should the
friction coefficient between the card and the coin be 11. When two surfaces are polished, the friction coefficient
small or large ? (b) Should the coin be light or heavy ? between them decreases. But the friction coefficient
(c) Why does the experiment fail if the card is gently increases and becomes very large if the surfaces are
pushed ? made highly smooth. Explain.

OBJECTIVE I

1. In a situation the contact force by a rough horizontal (a) is upward (b) is downward (c) is zero
surface on a body placed on it has constant magnitude. (d) the system cannot remain in equilibrium.
If the angle between this force and the vertical is
decreased, the frictional force between the surface and 6. Suppose all the surfaces in the previous problem are
the body will rough. The direction of friction on B due to A
(a) increase (b) decrease (a) is upward (b) is downward (c) is zero
(c) remain the saint (d) may increase or decrease. (d) depends on the masses of A and B.
2. While walking on ice, one should take small steps to
avoid slipping. This is because smaller steps ensure 7. Two cars of unequal masses use similar tyres. If they
(a) larger friction (b) smaller friction are moving at the same initial speed, the minimum
(c) larger normal force (d) smaller normal force. stopping distance
3. A body of mass M is kept on a rough horizontal surface (a) is smaller for the heavier car
(friction coefficient = it). A person is trying to pull the (b) is smaller for the lighter car
(c) is same for both cars
body by applying a horizontal force but the body is not
(d) depends on the volume of the car.
moving. The force by the surface on A is F, where
(a) F = Mg (b) F = IA Mg
8. In order to stop a car in shortest distance on a horizontal
(c) Mg Mg All + 1.1. 2 (d)Mg F Mg All 11 2 . road, one should
4. A scooter starting from rest moves with a constant (a) apply the brakes very hard so that the wheels stop
acceleration for a time At then with a constant velocity rotating
for the next At, and finally with a constant deceleration (b) apply the brakes hard enough to just prevent slipping
(c) pump the brakes (press and release)
for the next At, to come to rest. A 500 N man sitting on
(d) shut the engine off and not apply brakes.
the scooter behind the driver manages to stay at rest
with respect to the scooter without touching any other
9. A block A kept on an inclined surface just begins to slide
part. The force exerted by the seat on the man is
if the inclination is 30. The block is replaced by another
(a) 500 N throughout the journey
block B and it is found that it just begins to slide if the
(b) less than 500 N throughout the journey
inclination is 40.
(c) more than 500 N throughout the journey
(a) mass of A > mass of B (b) mass of A < mass of B
(d) > 500 N for time At, and At3 and 500 N for At,.
(c) mass of A = mass of B (d) all the three are possible.
5. Consider the situation shown in figure (6-Q1). The wall
is smooth but the surfaces of A and B in contact are 10. A boy of mass M is applying a horizontal force to slide
rough. The friction on B due to A in equilibrium a box of mass M' on a rough horizontal surface. The
coefficient of friction between the shoes of the boy and
the floor is pt. and that between the box and the floor is
if. In which of the following cases it is certainly not
possible to slide the box ?
(a) <', M < M ' (b) > , M < M '
Figure 6-Q1 (c) <', M > M ' (d) >', M > M
Friction 97

OBJECTIVE II

1. Let F, F, and f denote the magnitudes of the contact (c) Limiting friction is always greater than the kinetic
force, normal force and the friction exerted by one friction.
surface on the other kept in contact. If none of these is (d) Limiting friction is never less than static friction.
zero, 4. A block is placed on a rough floor and a horizontal force
(a) F >F (b) F> f (c) F,> f (d) FN -f<F<FN + f. F is applied on it. The force of friction f by the floor on
2. The contact force exerted by a body A on another body the block is measured for different values of F and a
B is equal to the normal force between the bodies. We graph is plotted between them.
conclude that (a) The graph is a straight line of slope 45.
(a) the surfaces must be frictionless (b) The graph is a straight line parallel to the F-axis.
(b) the force of friction between the bodies is zero (c) The graph is a straight line of slope 45 for small F
(c) the magnitude of normal force equals that of friction and a straight line parallel to the F-axis for large F.
(d) the bodies may be rough but they don't slip on each (d) There is a small kink on the graph.
other. 5. Consider a vehicle going on a horizontal road towards
3. Mark the correct statements about the friction between east. Neglect any force by the air. The frictional forces
two bodies. on the vehicle by the road
(a) Static friction is always greater than the kinetic (a) is towards east if the vehicle is accelerating
friction. (b) is zero if the vehicle is moving with a uniform velocity
(b) Coefficient of static friction is always greater than (c) must be towards east
the coefficient of kinetic friction. (d) must be towards west.

EXERCISES

1. A body slipping on a rough horizontal plane moves with


a deceleration of 4.0 m/s 2. What is the coefficient of
kinetic friction between the block and the plane ?
2. A block is projected along a rough horizontal road with
a speed of 10 m/s. If the coefficient of kinetic friction is
0.10, how far will it travel before coming to rest ?
3. A block of mass m is kept on a horizontal table. If the Figure 6-El.
static friction coefficient is 1.t, find the frictional force
acting on the block.
4. A block slides down an inclined surface of inclination 9. A body starts slipping down an incline and moves half
30 with the horizontal. Starting from rest it covers 8 m meter in half second. How long will it take to move the
in the first two seconds. Find the coefficient of kinetic next half meter ?
friction between the two. 10. The angle between the resultant contact force and the
5. Suppose the block of the previous problem is pushed normal force exerted by a body on the other is called the
down the incline with a force of 4 N. How far will the angle of friction. Show that, if X be the angle of friction
block move in the first two seconds after starting from and la the coefficient of static friction, X s tan
rest ? The mass of the block is 4 kg.
11. Consider the situation shown in figure (6-E2). Calculate
6. A body of mass 2 kg is lying on a rough inclined plane (a) the acceleration of the 1.0 kg blocks, (b) the tension
of inclination 30. Find the magnitude of the force in the string connecting the 1.0 kg blocks and (c) the
parallel to the incline needed to make the block move tension in the string attached to 0.50 kg.
(a) up the incline (b) down the incline. Coefficient of
static friction = 0.2. 1.0 kg 1.0 kg
7. Repeat part (a) of problem 6 if the push is applied
horizontally and not parallel to the incline.
g=0.2 = 0.2
8. In a children-park an inclined plane is constructed with
an angle of incline 45 in the middle part (figure 6-E1).
Find the acceleration of a boy sliding on it if the friction 0.5 kg
coefficient between the cloth of the boy and the incline
is 0.6 and g =10 m/s 2 . Figure 6-E2
98 Concepts of Physics

12. If the tension in the string in figure (6-E3) is 16 N and and the incline is Calculate the acceleration of the
the acceleration of each block is 0.5 m/s 2, find the friction 2.0 kg block if (a) j.t, = 0.20 and II, = 010, (b) 1 = 010
coefficients at the two contacts with the blocks. and 2 = 0.20. Take g = 10 m/s 2.

111

Figure 6-E3 Figure 6 E6 -

13. The friction coefficient between the table and the block 19, Two masses M1 and M2 are connected by a light rod
shown in figure (6-E4) is 0.2. Find the tensions in the and the system is slipping down a rough incline of angle
two strings. with the horizontal. The friction coefficient at both the
5 kg contacts is pt. Find the acceleration of the system and
the force by the rod on one of the blocks.
20. A block of mass M is kept on a rough horizontal surface.
The coefficient of static friction between the block and
the surface is p.. The block is to be pulled by applying
a force to it. What minimum force is needed to slide the
block ? In which direction should this force act ?
21. The friction coefficient between the board and the floor
shown in figure (6-E7) is IA. Find the maximum force
14. The friction coefficient between a road and the tyre of a that the man can exert on the rope so that the board
vehicle is 4/3. Find the maximum incline the road may does not slip on the floor.
have so that once hard brakes are applied and the wheel
starts skidding, the vehicle going down at a speed of
36 km/hr is stopped within 5 m.
15. The friction coefficient between an athelete's shoes and
the ground is 0.90. Suppose a superman wears these
shoes and races for 50 m. There is no upper limit on his
capacity of running at high speeds. (a) Find the
minimum time that he will have to take in completing Figure 6 E7 -

the 50 m starting from rest. (b) Suppose he takes exactly


this minimum time to complete the 50 m, what
minimum time will he take to stop ? 22. A 2 kg block is placed over a 4 kg block and both are
16. A car is going at a speed of 21.6 km/hr when it placed on a smooth horizontal surface. The coefficient of
encounters a 12.8 m long slope of angle 30 (figure 6-E5). friction between the blocks is 0.20. Find the acceleration
The friction coefficient between the road and the tyre is of the two blocks if a horizontal force of 12 N is applied
1/2\13. Show that no matter how hard the driver applies to (a) the upper block, (b) the lower block. Take
the brakes, the car will reach the bottom with a speed g= 10 m/s 2.
greater than 36 km/hr. Take g = 10 m/s 2. 23. Find the accelerations a a, , a3 of the three blocks
shown in figure (6-E8) if a horizontal force of 10 N is
_ON applied on (a) 2 kg block, (b) 3 kg block, (c) 7 kg block.
Take g= 10 irils 2 .

30 gi = 0.2 I 2 kg I
112= 0.3 3 kg I
1.13= 0.0 7 kg I
Figure 6-E5

Figure 6-E8
17. A car starts from rest on a half kilometer long bridge.
The coefficient of friction between the tyre and the road
is 1.0. Show that one cannot drive through the bridge 24. The friction coefficient between the two blocks shown in
in less than 10 s. figure (6-E9) is but the floor is smooth. (a) What
18. Figure (6-E6) shows two blocks in contact sliding down maximum horizontal force F can be applied without
an inclined surface of inclination 30. The friction disturbing the equilibrium of the system ? (b) Suppose
coefficient between the block of mass 2.0 kg and the the horizontal force applied is double of that found in
incline is p. and that between the block of mass 4.0 kg part (a). Find the accelerations of the two masses.
Friction 99

29. A block of mass 2 kg is pushed against a rough vertical


Cdr wall with a force of 40 N, coefficient of static friction
being 0.5. Another horizontal force of 15 N, is applied
on the block in a direction parallel to the wall. Will the
Figure 6-E9 block move ? If yes, in which direction ? If no, find the
frictional force exerted by the wall on the block.
25. Suppose the entire system of the previous question is 30. A person (40 kg) is managing to be at rest between two
kept inside an elevator which is coming down with an vertical walls by pressing one wall A by his hands and
acceleration a <g. Repeat parts (a) and (b). feet and the other wall B by his back (figure 6-E11).
26. Consider the situation shown in figure (6-E9). Suppose Assume that the friction coefficient between his body
a small electric field E exists in the space in the and the walls is 0.8 and that limiting friction acts at all
vertically upward direction and the upper block carries the contacts. (a) Show that the person pushes the two
a positive charge Q on its top surface. The friction walls with equal force. (b) Find the normal force exerted
coefficient between the two blocks is g but the floor is by either wall on the person. Take g = 10 m/s 2 .

smooth. What maximum horizontal force F can be


applied without disturbing the equilibrium ?
[Hint : The force on a charge Q by the electric field E
is F = QE in the direction of E.]
27. A block of mass m slips on a rough horizontal table
under the action of a horizontal force applied to it. The
coefficient of friction between the block and the table is
g. The table does not move on the floor. Find the total
frictional force applied by the floor on the legs of the
table. Do you need the friction coefficient between the
table and the floor or the mass of the table ? Figure 6 Ell
-

31. Figure (6-E12) shows a small block of mass m kept at


the left end of a larger block of mass M and length 1.
The system can slide on a horizontal road. The system
is started towards right with an initial velocity v. The
friction coefficient between the road and the bigger block
is g and that between the block is p12. Find the time
elapsed before the smaller blocks separates from the
bigger block.
Figure 6 E10
-

m
M
28. Find the acceleration of the block of mass M in the
situation of figure (6-E10). The coefficient of friction
between the two blocks is g, and that between the bigger Figure 6 E12
-

block and the ground is p2.

ANSWERS
OBJECTIVE I EXERCISES
1. 0.4
1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (d) 6. (a)
7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (d) 10. (a) 2. 50 m
3. zero
OBJECTIVE II 4. 0.11

1. (a), (b), (d) 2. (b). (d) 5. 10 m


3. (b), (c), (d)
4. (c), (d) 5. (a), (b) 6. (a) 13 N (b) zero
100 Concepts of Physics

7. 17-5 N 23. (a) a, = 3 m/s 2, a2 = a, = 0.4 mls 2


8. 242 m/s2
(b) a, = a2 = a, =! m/s 2 (c)same as (b)
9. 0.21 s
11. (a) 0.4 in/s2 (b) 2.4 N (c) 4.8 N 2 mg
24. (a) 2 g mg (b) in opposite directions
12. = 0-75, 2 =0.06 M+
13. 96 N in the left string and 68 N in the right 21.tm (g -a)
14. 16 25. (a) 21.tm (g - (b)
m +M
10 10
15. (a) - s (b) -s 26. 21.1. (mg - QE)
3 3
18. 2.7 m/s2, 2.4 m/s2 27. mg
19. a =g (sin 0 -11 cos 0), zero
[2 (M+ m)] g
g mg -1 28.
20. 2 at an angle tan with the horizontal M+ m [5 + 2 (1.1.1 -14)]
1I1+
29. it will move at an angle of 53 with the 15 N force
tt(M+m)g
21.1 + II 30. (b) 250 N
22. (a) upper block 4 m/s 2, lower block 1 m/s 2
31. 4M
(b) both blocks 2 m/s2
(M + m) t g

0
CHAPTER 7

CIRCULAR MOTION

7.1 ANGULAR VARIABLES As = r AO


As A0
or,
Suppose a particle P is moving in a circle of radius At r At
r (figure 7.1). Let 0 be the centre of the circle. Let 0 or, v= r co ... (7.4)
be the origin and OX the X-axis. The position of the
where v is the linear speed of the particle.
particle P at a given instant may be described by the
Differentiating equation (7.4) with respect to time, the
angle 0 between OP and OX. We call 0 the angular
rate of change of speed is
position of the particle. As the particle moves on the
circle, its angular position 0 changes. Suppose the dv dw
at = = r
particle goes to a nearby point P' in time At so that 0 dt dt
increases to 0 + A0. The rate of change of angular or, at = r a. ... (7.5)
position is called angular velocity. Thus, the angular
velocity is Remember that a, = dt is the rate of change of
A0 dO speed and is not the rate of the change of velocity. It
o.) = lim = is, therefore, not equal to the net acceleration.
et 0 At dt
We shall show that at is the component of
acceleration along the tangent and hence we have used
the suffix t. It is called the tangential acceleration.
Example 7.1

A particle moves in a circle of radius 20 cm with a linear


speed of 10 m/s. Find the angular velocity.
Solution : The angular velocity is
The rate of change of angular velocity is called angular v 10 m/s
acceleration. Thus, the angular acceleration is = = 50 rad/s.
r 20 cm

20
a dco= d Example 7.2
dt dt 2 A particle travels in a circle of radius 20 cm at a speed
that uniformly increases. If the speed changes from
If the angular acceleration a is constant, we have
5.0 m/s to 6.0 m/s in 2.0 s, find the angular acceleration.
1 2
0 = Wn 2 at
t Solution : The tangential acceleration is given by
dv _ t:
a, _dt vvt:
03 = 030 + t
2 2 6'0 5'0 2
and = 030 +2a 0 m/s = 0.5 m/s 2 .

2*0
where cooand co are the angular velocities at t = 0 and The angular acceleration is a = at Ir
at time t and 0 is the angular position at time t. The
linear distance PP' travelled by the particle in time 0'5 mis 2
2'5 rad/s 2 .

20 cm
At is
- -

102 Concepts of Physics

7.2 UNIT VECTORS ALONG THE RADIUS The term r co is the speed of the particle at time t
AND THE TANGENT (equation 7.4) and the vector in the square bracket is
Consider a particle moving in a circle. Suppose the the unit vector et along the tangent. Thus, the velocity
particle is at a point P in the circle at a given instant of the particle at any instant is along the tangent to
(figure 7.2). Take the centre of the circle to be the the circle and its magnitude is v = r w.
origin, a line OX as the X-axis and a perpendicular The acceleration of the particle at time t is
radius OY as the Y-axis. The angular position of the E*= From (ii),
particle at this instant is 0. dt
> [ d -> dw ->
a = r co isine + j cos0] + [- i sine +3 cos0]
dt[- dt
de del do) ->
= or [- t cos() - j sine Tii- + r et
dt dt
7> dco ->
=- Zr [t cos() + j sine] + r e
dt t
2 -) dv ->
=-w r er + et ... (7.8)
dt
--> ->
Figure 7.2 where er and et are the unit vectors along the radial
and tangential directions respectively and v is the
-> speed of the particle at time t. We have used
Draw a unit vector PA = e,. along the outward
-3 _ do)d dv
radius and a unit vector PB = et along the tangent in r = (r CO) =itT
dt dt
the direction of increasing 0. We call r the radial unit
->
vector and et the tangential unit vector. Draw PX ' Uniform Circular Motion
parallel to the X-axis and PY ' parallel to the Y-axis. If the particle moves in the circle with a uniform
From the figure, speed, we call it a uniform circular motion. In this
--> ->
PA = i PA cos0 + j PA sin0 case v = 0 and equation (7.8) gives
, dt
-4 2-
or, e,.= i
cog) + j sine, ... (7.6) a=-w r er.
where rand j are the unit vectors along the X and Y Thus, the a>cceleration of the particle is in the
axes respectively. Similarly, direction of - er, that is, towards the centre. The
magnitude of the acceleration is
PB = - i PB sine +.7 PB COS 2
-)
ar= o) r
Or, et = i sine +3 cos0.
- ... (7.7) 2
v U2
= r= r ... (7.9)
7.3 ACCELERATION IN CIRCULAR MOTION
Thus, if a particle moves in a circle of radius r with a
Consider the situation shown in figure (7.2). It is constant speed v, its acceleration is v 21r directed
clear from the figure that the position vector of the towards the centre.. This acceleration is called
particle at time t is centripetal acceleration. Note that the speed remains
-4 )
r = OP = OP er constant, the direction continuously changes and hence
the "velocity" changes and there is an acceleration
= r (I c + 3 si ne). (i) during the motion.
Differentiating equation (i) with respect to time, the
velocity of the particle at time t is Example 7.3

Find the magnitude of the linear acceleration of a


-> dr
v = it
T=d [r (t cos() + j sine)] particle moving in a circle of radius 10 cm with uniform
dt
speed completing the circle in 4 s.
= r[r 1. sine -c-1-1+,r( cos()
cle)] Solution : The distance covered in completing the circle is
dt dt
27t r = 2n x 10 cm. The linear speed is
7>. 74
= r o.)[- sine + j cos0]. (ii) v = 27c r 1 t
Circular Motion 103

2it x 10 cm The tangential acceleration is


5ncmis.
4s dv d (2t)
a 2 m/s 2.
The linear acceleration is t dt dt
v 2 (57c cm/s) 2
a 2'5 n 2 cm/s 2.
10 cm
This acceleration is directed towards the centre of the 7.4 DYNAMICS OF CIRCULAR MOTION
circle.
If a particle moves in a circle as seen from an
inertial frame, a resultant nonzero force must act on
Nonuniform Circular Motion the particle. That is because a particle moving in a
If the speed of the particle moving in a circle is circle is accelerated and acceleration can be produced
not constant, the acceleration has both the radial and in an inertial frame only if a resultant force acts on
the tangential components. According to equation (7.8), it. If the speed of the particle remains constant, the
the radial and the tangential accelerations are acceleration of the particle is towards the centre and
its magnitude is v 2 r. Here v is the speed of the
ar= 2r = v 2 /r
particle and r is the radius of the circle. The resultant
du ... (7.10)
and at = force must act towards the centre and its magnitude
dt F must satisfy
Thus, the component of the acceleration towards F
a=
the centre is co 2r = v 2 / r and the component along the m
tangent (along the direction of motion) is dv I dt. The v2 F
magnitude of the acceleration is or, =
r m
2
2 my
2 2 22 dv or, F ... (7.11)
a= + at =
v + r
r dt
Since this resultant force is directed towards the
centre, it is called centripetal force. Thus, a centripetal
force of magnitude my 2 1r is needed to keep the particle
in uniform circular motion.
It should be clearly understood that "centripetal
force" is another word for "force towards the centre".
This force must originate from some external source
such as gravitation, tension, friction, coulomb force,
etc. Centripetal force is not a new kind of force, just
Figure 7.3 as an "upward force" or a "downward force" is not a
new kind of force.
The direction of this resultant acceleration makes Example 7.5
an angle a with the radius (figure 7.3) where
(2 A small block of mass 100 g moves with uniform speed
tana = (c/ )/ I) in a horizontal circular groove, with vertical side walls,
dt r
of radius 25 cm. If the block takes 2.0 s to complete one
Example 7.4
round, find the normal contact force by the side wall of
the groove.
A particle moves in a circle of radius 20 cm. Its linear Solution : The speed of the block is
speed is given by v = 2 t, where t is in second and v in 27cx (25 cm)
metre I second. Find the radial and tangential v 0'785 m/s .
2'0 s
acceleration at t = 3 s. The acceleration of the block is
Solution : The linear speed at t = 3 s is v 2 (0'785 in/s) 2
a 2'5 nils 2
v = 2 t = 6 m/s. r 0'25 m
towards the centre. The only force in this direction is
The radial acceleration at t = 3 s is
the normal contact force due to the side walls. Thus,
36 m2is 2 from Newton's second law, this force is
v 2 1r 180 m/s 2.
0'20m
,J1( = ma = (0'100 kg) (2'5 m/s 2) = 0'25 N.
104 Concepts of Physics

7.5 CIRCULAR TURNINGS AND V


2
BANKING OF ROADS Or, ... (7.12)
rg

When vehicles go through turnings, they travel Friction is not always reliable at circular turns if
along a nearly circular arc. There must be some force high speeds and sharp turns are involved. To avoid
which will produce the required acceleration. If the dependence on friction, the roads are banked at the
vehicle goes in a horizontal circular path, this turn so that the outer part of the road is somewhat
resultant force is also horizontal. Consider the lifted up as compared to the inner part (figure 7.5).
situation as shown in figure (7.4). A vehicle of mass
M moving at a speed v is making a turn on the circular
path of radius r. The external forces acting on the
vehicle are
(i) weight Mg
(ii) Normal contact force _/( and
(iii) friction f,.
Figure 7.5

The surface of the road makes an angle 0 with the


dv horizontal throughout the turn. The normal force dV
makes an angle 0 with the vertical. At the correct
fs speed, the horizontal component of dV is sufficient to
produce the acceleration towards the centre and the
mg
self adjustable frictional force keeps its value zero.
Applying Newton's second law along the radius and
the first law in the vertical direction,
2
MV
dV sine
r
Figure 7.4
and dV cos = Mg.
If the road is horizontal, the normal force is These equations give
vertically upward. The only horizontal force that can V
2

act towards the centre is the friction f,. This is static tan() = ... (7.13)
rg
friction and is self adjustable. The tyres get a tendency
to skid outward and the frictional force which opposes The angle 0 depends on the speed of the vehicle as
this skidding acts towards the centre. Thus, for a safe well as on the radius of the turn. Roads are banked
turn we must have for the average expected speed of the vehicles. If the
2 speed of a particular vehicle is a little less or a little
V f, more than the correct speed, the self adjustable static
r M friction operates between the tyres and the road and
2 the vehicle does not skid or slip. If the speed is too
Mv
or, fs = different from that given by equation (7.13), even the
maximum friction cannot prevent a skid or a slip.
However, there is a limit to the magnitude of the
frictional force. If II, is the coefficient of static friction Example 7.6
between the tyres and the road, the magnitude of
friction fscannot exceed RsSV. For vertical equilibrium The road at a circular turn of radius 10 m is banked by
dV = Mg, so that an angle of 10. With what speed should a vehicle move
on the turn so that the normal contact force is able to
fs Mg.
provide the necessary centripetal force ?
Thus, for a safe turn Solution : If v is the correct speed,
2 2
Mv
1 s Mg tanO =
rg
Circular Motion 105

Or, V = Alrg tan


The floor exerts a force of static friction f = mco2r
='1(10 m) (9'8 m/s 2) (tan 10) = 4'2 m/s. towards the origin.
Now consider the same box when observed from
the frame of the rotating cabin. The observer there
finds that the box is at rest. If he or she applies
7.6 CENTRIFUGAL FORCE Newton's laws, the resultant force on the box should
be zero. The weight and the normal contact force
We discussed in chapter 5 that Newton's laws of balance each other but the frictional force f=mco 2r
motion are not valid if one is working from a acts on the box towards the origin. To make the
noninertial frame. If the frame translates with respect resultant zero, a pseudo force must be assumed which
to an inertial frame with an acceleration ao , one must acts on the box away from the centre (radially
assume the existence of a pseudo force mao , acting outward) and has a magnitude mco 2r. This pseudo
on a particle of mass m. Once this pseudo force is force is called the centrifugal force. The analysis from
included, one can use Newton's laws in their usual the rotating frame is as follows :
form. What pseudo force is needed if the frame of The forces on the box are
reference rotates at a constant angular velocity co with
(a) weight mg
respect to an inertial frame ?
(b) normal force dV
(c) friction f
(d) centrifugal force mw 2r.
f .
The free body diagram is shown in figure (7.6c). As
f .
2 r. the box is at rest, Newton's first law gives
[g 2
mg f= /7/ (0 r.

(a) (b) (c) Note that we get the same equation for friction as we
got from the ground frame. But we had to apply
Figure 7.6 Newton's second law from the ground frame and
Newton's first law from the rotating frame. Let us now
Suppose the observer is sitting in a closed cabin summarise our discussion.
which is made to rotate about the vertical Z-axis at a Suppose we are working from a frame of reference
uniform angular velocity co (figure 7.6). The X and Y that is rotating at a constant angular velocity co with
axes are fixed in the cabin. Consider a heavy box of respect to an inertial frame. If we analyse the
mass m kept on the floor at a distance r from the dynamics of a particle of mass m kept at a distance r
Z-axis. Suppose the floor and the box are rough and from the axis of rotation, we have to assume that a
the box does not slip on the floor as the cabin rotates. force mco2r acts radially outward on the particle. Only
The box is at rest with respect to the cabin and hence then we can apply Newton's laws of motion in the
is rotating with respect to the ground at an angular rotating frame. This radially outward pseudo force is
velocity co. Let us first analyse the motion of the box called the centrifugal force.
from the ground frame. In this frame (which is inertial)
the box is moving in a circle of radius r. It, therefore, In fact, centrifugal force is a sufficient pseudo
force, only if we are analysing the particles at rest in
has an acceleration v 2 /r = co 2r towards the centre. The a uniformly rotating frame. If we analyse the motion
resultant force on the box must be towards the centre of a particle that moves in the rotating frame, we may
and its magnitude must be mco2r. The forces on the have to assume other pseudo forces, together with the
box are centrifugal force. Such forces are called the coriolis
(a) weight mg forces. The coriolis force is perpendicular to the velocity
of the particle and also perpendicular to the axis of
(b) normal force SV by the floor rotation of the frame. Once again, we emphasise that
(c) friction f by the floor. all these pseudo forces, centrifugal or coriolis, are
needed only if the working frame is rotating. If we
Figure (7.6b) shows the free body diagram for the box.
work from an inertial frame, there is no need to apply
Since the resultant is towards the centre and its
any pseudo force.
magnitude is mco2r, we should have
It is a common misconception among the beginners
2
f= r. that centrifugal force acts on a particle because the
106 Concepts of Physics

particle goes on a circle. Centrifugal force acts (or is (c) the tension in the string T along the string.
assumed to act) because we describe the particle from
a rotating frame which is noninertial and still use
Newton's laws.

7.7 EFFECT OF EARTH'S ROTATION


ON APPARENT WEIGHT

The earth rotates about its axis at an angular


speed of one revolution per 24 hours. The line joining
the north and the south poles is the axis of rotation.
Every point on the earth moves in a circle. A point at
equator moves in a circle of radius equal to the radius
of the earth and the centre of the circle is same as the Figure 7.8
centre of the earth. For any other point on the earth,
the circle of rotation is smaller than this. Consider a
place P on the earth (figure 7.7). As the particle is in equilibrium (in the frame of earth),
the three forces on the particle should add up to zero.
The resultant of mg and mw2r
= .\1(ing)2 + ono) 2r)2 2(mg) (mw 2r) cos(90 + 0)
.\ig2 + w 4R 2 sin 2-
=m 2g-co 2 R sin 20
= mg '
where g ' = g 2 - 2 R sin 2 0 (2g 2 R) . ... (7.14)
Also, the direction of this resultant makes an angle a
with the vertical OP, where
Figure 7.7 2 .
mw r sin(90 + 0)
tan a 2
mg + mw r cos(90 + 0)
Drop a perpendicular PC from P to the axis SN.
The place P rotates in a circle with the centre at C. w2R sin() cos0
The radius of this circle is CP. The angle between the 2 ... (7.15)
g R sin 20
axis SN and the radius OP through P is called the
colatitude of the place P. We have As the three forces acting on the particle must add up
CP = OP sing to zero, the force of tension must be equal and opposite
to the resultant of the rest two. Thus, the magnitude
or, r =R sing of the tension in the string must be mg' and the
where R is the radius of the earth. direction of the string should make an angle a with
If we work from the frame of reference of the earth, the true vertical.
we shall have to assume the existence of the pseudo The direction of g' is the apparent vertical
forces. In particular, a centrifugal force mw2r has to direction, because a plumb line stays in this direction
be assumed on any particle of mass m placed at P. only. The walls of the buildings are constructed by
Here w is the angular speed of the earth. If we discuss making them parallel to g' and not to g. The water
the equilibrium of bodies at rest in the earth's frame, surface placed at rest is perpendicular to g'.
no other pseudo force is needed. The magnitude of g' is also different from g. As
Consider a heavy particle of mass m suspended 2g > w 2R, it is clear from equation (7.14) that g' <g.
through a string from the ceiling of a laboratory at One way of measuring the weight of a body is to
colatitude 8 (figure 7.8). Looking from the earth's suspend it by a string and find the tension in the
frame the particle is in equilibrium and the forces on string. The tension itself is taken as a measure of the
it are weight. As T = mg', the weight so observed is less than
(a) gravitational attraction mg towards the centre the true weight mg. This is known as the apparent
of the earth, i.e., vertically downward, weight. Similarly, if a person stands on the platform
(b) centrifugal force mw 2r towards CP and of a weighing machine, the platform exerts a normal
Circular Motion 107

force SV which is equal to mg'. The reading of the Example 7.7


machine responds to the force exerted on it and hence
the weight recorded is the apparent weight mg'. A body weighs 98 N on a spring balance at the north
pole. What will be its weight recorded on the ,same scale
At equator, 0 = 90 and equation (7.14) gives if it is shifted to the equator ? Use g = GM I R 2 = 9.8 m/s 2
Vg 2 2g0) 2R + co 4R 2 and the radius of the earth R = 6400 km.
Solution : At poles, the apparent weight is same as the
=g (.0 2R true weight.
Thus,
2
or, mg' = mg MO) R. ... (7.16)
98 N = mg = m(913 m/s 2)
This can be obtained in a more straightforward way. or, m = 10 kg.
At the equator, mco 2R is directly opposite to mg and At the equator, the apparent weight is
the resultant is simply mg mw 2R. Also, this mg' = mg mo) 2R.
resultant is towards the centre of the earth so that at The radius of the earth is 6400 km and the angular
the equator the plumb line stands along the true speed is
vertical. 27c rad
_ 7.27 x 10 -5rad/s.
At poles, e = 0 and equation (7.14) gives g' = g and 24 x 60 x 60 s
equation (7.15) shows that a = 0. Thus, there is no Thus,
apparent change in g at the poles. This is because the mg' = 98 N (10 kg) (7'27 x 10 -5 s-1) 2(6400 km)
poles themselves do not rotate and hence the effect of
earth's rotation is not felt there. = 97'66 N.

Worked Out Examples

1. A car has to move on a level turn of radius 45 m. If the Putting the values, v =1/2 x 10 m/s 2 X 45 m
coefficient of static friction between the tyre and the road
= 30 m/s = 108 km/hr.
is Rs = 2.0, find the maximum speed the car can take
without skidding. 2. A circular track of radius 600 m is to be designed for
Solution Let the mass of the car be M. The forces on the cars at an average speed of 180 km/hr. What should be
car are the angle of banking of the track ?
(a) weight Mg downward Solution : Let the angle of banking be 0. The forces on the
(b) normal force sY by the road upward car are (figure 7-W1)
(c) friction fs by the road towards the centre. (a) weight of the car Mg downward and
The car is going on a horizontal circle of radius R, so it (b) normal force sY.
is accelerating. The acceleration is towards the centre
and its magnitude is v 2 /R, where v is the speed. For
vertical direction, acceleration = 0. Resolving the forces
in vertical and horizontal directions and applying
Newton's laws, we have
dV = mg
and fs = My 2 /R. Figure 7-W1
As we are looking for the maximum speed for no
For proper banking, static frictional force is not needed.
skidding, it is a case of limiting friction and hence
For vertical direction the acceleration is zero. So,
SI/ cog) = Mg. (i)
So, we have 2
For horizontal direction, the acceleration is v /r towards
p5 Mg=Mv 2 /R the centre, so that
2
or, v = usgR dl/ sine = My 2 /r. (ii)
108 Concepts of Physics

From (i) and (ii), horizontal. If the mass is made to rotate at an angular
tan() = v 2 /rg. velocity of 2 rad/s, find the elongation of the spring.
2 Solution : The particle is moving in a horizontal circle, so
Putting the values, tan0 = (180 km/hr) 0'4167 it is accelerated towards the centre with magnitude
(600 m) (10 m/s -)
v 2 Ir. The horizontal force on the particle is due to the
Or, 0 = 22.6. spring and equals kl, where l is the elongation and k is
the spring constant. Thus,
3. A particle of mass m is suspended from a ceiling through kl = mu 2I r = mw r = mco 2(1, + 1).
a string of length L. The particle moves in a horizontal
Here co is the angular velocity, 1, is the natural length
circle of radius r. Find (a) the speed of the particle and
(0.5 m) and 1, + l is the total length of the spring which
(b) the tension in the string. Such a system is called a
is also the radius of the circle along which the particle
conical pendulum.
moves.
Solution : The situation is shown in figure (7-W2). The
Thus, (k mco 2)1= mo 210
angle 0 made by the string with the vertical is given by
mco 2l0
sine = r/L. (i) or l
k mu) 2
Putting the values,
0.5 x 4 x 0.5 1
/= m m = 1 cm.
100 0.5 x 4 100

5. A simple pendulum is constructed by attaching a bob of


mass m to a string of length L fixed at its upper end.
The bob oscillates in a vertical circle. It is found that the
speed of the bob is v when the string makes an angle 0
Figure 7-W2 with the vertical. Find the tension in the string at this
instant.
The forces on the particle are Solution : The forces acting on the bob are (figure 7-W3)
(a) the tension T along the string and (a) the tension T
(b) the weight mg vertically downward. (b) the weight mg.
The particle is moving in a circle with a constant speed
v. Thus, the radial acceleration towards the centre has
magnitude v 2 Ir. Resolving the forces along the radial
direction and applying Newton's second law,
T sin() = m (v 2 /r). (ii)
As there is no acceleration in vertical direction, we have
from Newton's first law, mg cose
T cos() = mg.
Dividing (ii) by (iii),
2
V
tan() =
rg As the bob moves in a vertical circle with centre at 0,
or, v = erg tane. the radial acceleration is v 2 /L towards 0. Taking the
And from (iii), components along this radius and applying Newton's
mg second law, we get,
T
cos() T mg cos() = my 2/L
Using (i), or, T = m (g cos + v 2I L).
rig mgL
v=2 1/4 and T 2 2 1/2
(L r
) (L r ) 6. A cylindrical bucket filled with water is whirled around
in a vertical circle of radius r. What can be the minimum
4. One end of a massless spring of spring constant 100 N/m speed at the top of the path if water does not fall out
and natural length 0.5 m is fixed and the other end is from the bucket ? If it continues with this speed, what
connected to a particle of mass 0.5 kg lying on a normal contact force the bucket exerts on water at the
frictionless horizontal table. The spring remains lowest point of the path ?
Circular Motion 109

Solution : Consider water as the system. At the top of the 8. Figure (7-W5) shows a rod of length 20 cm pivoted near
circle its acceleration towards the centre is vertically an end and which is made to rotate in a horizontal plane
downward with magnitude v 2 /r. The forces on water are with a constant angular speed. A ball of mass m is
(figure 7-W4) suspended by a string also of length 20 cm from the other
(a) weight Mg downward and end of the rod. If the angle 9 made by the string with
(b) normal force by the bucket, also downward. the vertical is 30, find the angular speed of the rotation.
Take g = 10 m/s 2.

Figure 7 W5
-

Figure 7 W4
-

Solution : Let the angular speed be co. As is clear from the


So, from Newton's second law figure, the ball moves in a horizontal circle of radius
Mg +SII =Mv 2Ir. L + L sing, where L = 20 cm. Its acceleration is,
For water not to fall out from the bucket, SY 0. therefore, (n 2(L + L sing) towards the centre. The forces
Hence, My 2I r Mg or, v rg . on the bob are (figure 7-W5)
The minimum speed at the top must be7 .N17g (a) the tension T along the string and
(b) the weight mg.
If the bucket continues on the circle with this minimum
speed Arrg , the forces at the bottom of the path are Resolving the forces along the radius and applying
Newton's second law,
(a) weight Mg downward and
T sin0 = mco 2L (1 + sine). . (i)
(b) normal contact force SV' by the bucket upward.
Applying Newton's first law in the vertical direction,
The acceleration is towards the centre which is vertically
upward, so T cos9 = mg. (ii)
Dividing (i) by (ii),
SV' Mg =Mv 2 Ir
or, sY' = M(g + v I r) = 2 Mg. cu 2L(1 + sine)
tang
g
7. A fighter plane is pulling out for a dive at a speed of
2 g tane (10 m/s 2) (1[43)
Or, w
900 km/hr. Assuming its path to be a vertical circle of L(1 + sine) (0.20 m) (1 + 1/2)
radius 2000 m and its mass to be 16000 kg, find the or, = 4.4 rad/s.
force exerted by the air on it at the lowest point. Take
g = 9.8 m/s 2. 9. Two blocks each of mass M are connected to the ends of
Solution : At the lowest point in the path the acceleration a light frame as shown in figure (7-W6). The frame is
is vertically upward (towards the centre) and its rotated about the vertical line of symmetry. The rod
magnitude is v 2 /r. breaks if the tension in it exceeds To. Find the maximum
The forces on the plane are frequency with which the frame may be rotated without
(a) weight Mg downward and breaking the rod.
(b) force F by the air upward.
Hence, Newton's second law of motion gives
FMg=Mv 2 Ir
or, F=M(g+v 2 Ir).
9 x 10 5
Here v = 900 km/hr = m/s = 250 m/s
3600

or, F = 16000 9.8 +


[ 205000
0)
N = 6.56 x 10 5N (upward).
Figure 7-W6
110 Concepts of Physics

Solution : Consider one of the blocks. If the frequency of kept in the bowl rotates with the bowl without slipping
revolution is f, the angular velocity is w = 2n f. The on its surface. If the surface of the bowl is smooth, and
= 2l = 2 f.2 It
the angle made by the radius through the block with the
acceleration towards the centre is v 2 /l
The only horizontal force on the block is the tension of vertical is 0, find the angular speed at which the bowl
the rod. At the point of breaking, this force is T,. So is rotating.
from Newton's second law, Solution : Suppose the angular speed of rotation of the
m 4it 2f 2/ bowl is a The block also moves with this angular speed.
1/2 The forces on the block are (figure 7-W8)
f = 1 [ 7'0 (a) the normal force dV and
or,
27c M/ (b) the weight mg.

10. In a rotor, a hollow vertical cylindrical structure rotates


about its axis and a person rests against the inner wall.
At a particular speed of the rotor, the floor below the
person is removed and the person hangs resting against
the wall without any floor. If the radius of the rotor is
2 m and the coefficient of static friction between the wall Figure 7 W8
-

and the person is 0.2, find the minimum speed at which


the floor may be removed. Take g = 10 m/s 2. The block moves in a horizontal circle with the centre
at C, so that the radius is PC = OP sine = R sine. Its
Solution : The situation is shown in figure (7-W7).
acceleration is, therefore, w 2R sine. Resolving the forces
along PC and applying Newton's second law,
s)/ sine = mw 2R sine
or, dV = mw 2R. (i)
As there is no vertical acceleration,
cos) = mg. (ii)
Dividing (i) by (ii),
1 w 2R
Figure 7 W7 -
cos) g

or, w= g
When the floor is removed, the forces on the person are R cos()
(a) weight mg downward
(b) normal force SV due to the wall, towards the centre 12. A metal ring of mass m and radius R is placed on a
(c) frictional force f, , parallel to the wall, upward. smooth horizontal table and is set rotating about its own
The person is moving in a circle with a uniform speed, axis in such a way that each part of the ring moves with
a speed v. Find the tension in the ring.
so its acceleration is v 2 /r towards the centre.
Newton's law for the horizontal direction (2nd law) and Solution : Consider a small part ACB of the ring that
for the vertical direction (1st law) give subtends an angle 00 at the centre as shown in figure
SV = my 2/r (7-W9). Let the tension in the ring be T.
(i)
and f,=. mg. (ii)
For the minimum speed when the floor may be removed,
the friction is limiting one and so equals Rs sV. This
gives
I-is V = mg
2
lismv
or, mg [using OA
r

rg ..\1 2 m x12 m/s 2 Figure 7 W9


or, v= 10 m/s. -

s 02
The forces on this small part ACB are
11. A hemispherical bowl of radius R is set rotating about (a) tension T by the part of the ring left to A,
its axis of symmetry which is kept vertical. A small block (b) tension T by the part of the ring right to B,
Circular Motion 111

(c) weight (Arn)g and the X-axis along the groove (figure 7-W10). The Y-axis
(d) normal force SV by the table. is along the line perpendicular to OX coplanar with the
The tension at A acts along the tangent at A and the surface of the table and the Z-axis is along the vertical.
tension at B acts along the tangent at B. As the small Suppose at time t the particle in the groove is at a
part ACB moves in a circle of radius R at a constant distance x from the origin and is moving along the X-axis
speed v, its acceleration is towards the centre (along CO) with a speed v. The forces acting on the particle
and has a magnitude (Arn)v I R . (including the pseudo forces that we must assume
Resolving the forces along the radius CO, because we have taken our frame on the table which is
rotating and is nonintertial) are
T cos (900 - T cos (900 -A(4) - (Am) )

2 2 - (a) weight mg vertically downward,


[
2 (b) normal contact force SV, vertically upward by the
AO
Or, 2T sin = (Am) (9 (i)
2 bottom surface of the groove,
The length of the part ACB is RAO. As the total mass (c) normal contact force SV, parallel to the Y-axis by
of the ring is m, the mass of the part ACB will be the side walls of the groove,
ma (d) centrifugal force mco 2x along the X-axis, and
Am =27rRRAO -27r
(e) coriolis force along Y-axis (coriolis force is
Putting Am in (i), perpendicular to the velocity of the particle and the axis
Ao m (I) 1 of rotation.)
2T sin
2=
27c
As the particle can only move in the groove, its
mv 2 A9 / 2 acceleration is along the X-axis. The only force along the
or, T-
2n R sin(A0 /2) X-axis is the centrifugal force m0 2x. All the other forces
A0/2 mv 2 are perpendicular to the X-axis and have no components
As AO is very small, 1 and T - along the X-axis.
sin(A0/ 2) - 2n R
Thus, the acceleration along the X-axis is
13. A table with smooth horizontal surface is turning at an
F mo) 2X 2
angular speed co about its axis. A groove is made on the a - - - x
surface along a radius and a particle is gently placed
inside the groove at a distance a from the centre. Find dv 2
or, = x
the speed of the particle as its distance from the centre dt
becomes L. dv dx 2
Or,
d x - - o) x
dt
Solution : The situation is shown in figure (7-W10).
dv 2
or, V = 0.) x
dx
or, v dv = co 2x dx

or, 1 vdv =5
. 0) 2X dx
0 a

1 v 2] [ 122
0) x 1
or,
2 0
2 a
Figure 7-W10 2
V 2 2 2
Or, = (L - a )
2 2
Let us work from the frame of reference of the table.
v = (0 .\1.1,2 a 2
Let us take the origin at the centre of rotation 0 and or,

QUESTIONS FOR SHORT ANSWER

1. You are driving a motorcycle on a horizontal road. It is accelerate the motorcyle without putting higher petrol
moving with a uniform velocity. Is it possible to input rate into the engine ?
112 Concepts of Physics

2. Some washing machines have cloth driers. It contains a


drum in which wet clothes are kept. As the drum rotates,
the water particles get separated from the cloth. The
general description of this action is that "the centrifugal
force throws the water particles away from the drum".
Comment on this statement from the viewpoint of an
observer rotating with the drum and the observer who
is washing the clothes.
3. A small coin is placed on a record rotating at 333
Figure 7 Q1
-

rev/minute. The coin does not slip on the record. Where


does it get the required centripetal force from ?
8. Consider the circular motion of the earth around the
4. A bird while flying takes a left turn, where does it get sun. Which of the following statements is more
the centripetal force from ? appropriate ?
5. Is it necessary to express all angles in radian while using (a) Gravitational attraction of the sun on the earth is
the equation co = w0 + at ? equal to the centripetal force.
(b) Gravitational attraction of the sun on the earth is
6. After a good meal at a party you wash your hands and
the centripetal force.
find that you have forgotten to bring your handkerchief.
You shake your hands vigorously to remove the water 9. A car driver going at some speed v suddenly finds a wide
as much as you can. Why is water removed in this wall at a distance r. Should he apply brakes or turn the
process ? car in a circle of radius r to avoid hitting the wall ?
10. A heavy mass m is hanging from a string in equilibrium
7. A smooth block loosely fits in a circular tube placed on
without breaking it. When this same mass is set into
a horizontal surface. The block moves in a uniform
oscillation, the string breaks. Explain.
circular motion along the tube (figure 7-Q1). Which wall
(inner or outer) will exert a nonzero normal contact force
on the block ?

OBJECTIVE I

2
1. When a particle moves in a circle with a uniform speed MV
(a) towards the centre
(a) its velocity and acceleration are both constant r

(b) its velocity is constant but the acceleration changes my 2


(c) its acceleration is constant but the velocity changes (b) away from the centre
r
(d) its velocity and acceleration both change. my
2

(c) along the tangent through the particle


2. Two cars having masses m, and m2move in circles of r
radii r, and r2respectively. If they complete the circle (d) zero.
in equal time, the ratio of their angular speeds co, ko2 is 5. A particle of mass m rotates with a uniform angular
(a) m, /m2 (b) r1 /r2 (c)m,r, I m,r, (d) 1. speed co. It is viewed from a frame rotating about the
Z-axis with a uniform angular speed coo. The centrifugal
3. A car moves at a constant speed on a road as shown in
figure (7-Q2). The normal force by the road on the car force on the particle is
is NA and NB when it is at the points A and B C0012a
(a) mw 2a (b) mo) 20 a (c) m((t) (d) mu) coo a.
respectively. 2
(a) NA= N, (b) NA > NB (c) NA <NB(d) insufficient 6. A particle is kept fixed on a turntable rotating
information to decide the relation of NA and N,. uniformly. As seen from the ground the particle goes in
a circle, its speed is 20 cm/s and acceleration is 20 cm/s 2 .
The particle is now shifted to a new position to make
the radius half of the original value. The new values of
the speed and acceleration will be
(a) 10 cm/s, 10 cm/s 2 (b) 10 cm/s, 80 cm/s 2
Figure 7 Q2
- (c) 40 cm/s, 10 cm/s 2 (d) 40 cm/s, 40 cm/s 2.
7. Water in a bucket is whirled in a vertical circle with a
4. A particle of mass m is observed from an inertial frame string attached to it. The water does not fall down even
of reference and is found to move in a circle of radius r when the bucket is inverted at the top of its path. We
with a uniform speed v. The centrifugal force on it is conclude that in this position
Circular Motion 113

2
my mu 2 speed along the equator. A presses the track with a force
(a) mg (b) mg is greater than F1 and B presses the track with a force F2 .
r r
2
my (a) F1> F,. (b) F1 < F2. (c) F,= F,.
(c) mg is not greater than
r (d) the information is insufficient to find the relation
MU 2
between F1 and F2 .
(d) mg is not less than 13. If the earth stops rotating, the apparent value of g on
r
8. A stone of mass m tied to a string of length 1 is rotated its surface will
in a circle with the other end of the string as the centre. (a) increase everywhere
The speed of the stone is v. If the string breaks, the (b) decrease everywhere
stone will move (c) remain the same everywhere
(a) towards the centre (b) away from the centre (d) increase at some places and remain the same at
(c) along a tangent (d) will stop. some other places.
9. A coin placed on a rotating turntable just slips if it is 14. A rod of length L is pivoted at one end and is rotated
placed at a distance of 4 cm from the centre. If the with a uniform angular velocity in a horizontal plane.
angular velocity of the turntable is doubled, it will just Let T1 and T2be the tensions at the points L /4 and
slip at a distance of 3L /4 away from the pivoted ends.
(a) 1 cm (b) 2 cm (c) 4 cm (d) 8 cm. (a) T,> T,. (b) T,> Ti . (c) Ti = T,. (d) The relation
10. A motorcyle is going on an overbridge of radius R. The between T1 and T2depends on whether the rod rotates
driver maintains a constant speed. As the motorcycle is clockwise or anticlockwise.
ascending on the overbridge, the normal force on it 15. A simple pendulum having a bob of mass m is suspended
(a) increases (b) decreases from the ceiling of a car used in a stunt film shooting.
(c) remains the same (d) fluctuates. The car moves up along an inclined cliff at a speed
11. Three identical cars A, B and C are moving at the same and makes a jump to leave the cliff and lands at some
speed on three bridges. The car A goes on a plane bridge, distance. Let R be the maximum height of the car from
B on a bridge convex upward and C goes on a bridge the top of the cliff. The tension in the string when the
concave upward. Let FA, FB and F, be the normal forces car is in air is
2
exerted by the cars on the bridges when they are at the MU 2
(a) mg (b) mg R (c) mg + (d) zero.
middle of bridges.
(a) FAis maximum of the three forces. 16. Let 0 denote the angular displacement of a simple
(b) FBis maximum of the three forces. pendulum oscillating in a vertical plane. If the mass of
(c) F, is maximum of the three forces. the bob is m, the tension in the string is mg cos()
(d) FA = F,= . (a) always (b) never
12. A train A runs from east to west and another train B (c) at the extreme positions
of the same mass runs from west to east at the same (d) at the mean position.

OBJECTIVE II

1. An object follows a curved path. The following quantities Its


may remain constant during the motion (a) velocity remains constant
(a) speed (b) velocity (b) speed remains constant
(c) acceleration (d) magnitude of acceleration. (c) acceleration remains constant
(d) tangential acceleration remains constant.
2. Assume that the earth goes round the sun in a circular
4. A particle is going in a spiral path as shown in figure
orbit with a constant speed of 30 km/s.
(7-Q3) with constant speed.
(a) The average velocity of the earth from 1st Jan, 90
to 30th June, 90 is zero.
(b) The average acceleration during the above period is
60 km/s 2.
(c) The average speed from 1st Jan, 90 to 31st Dec, 90
is zero.
(d) The instantaneous acceleration of the earth points
towards the sun. Figure 7-Q3

3. The position vector of a particle in a circular motion (a) The velocity of the particle is constant.
about the origin sweeps out equal area in equal time. (b) The acceleration of the particle is constant.
114 Concepts of Physics

(c) The magnitude of acceleration is constant. (b) If the car turns at a speed less than 40 km/hr, it will
(d) The magnitude of acceleration is decreasing slip down.
continuously. (c) If the car turns at the correct speed of 40 km/hr, the
2
5. A car of mass M is moving on a horizontal circular path my
force by the road on the car is equal to
of radius r. At an instant its speed is u and is increasing r
at a rate a. (d) If the car turns at the correct speed of 40 km/hr, the
(a) The acceleration of the car is towards the centre of force by the road on the car is greater than mg as well
the path. m 2
(b) The magnitude of the frictional force on the car is as greater than
r
greater than mu 7. A person applies a constant force F on a particle of mass
(c) The friction coefficient between the ground and the m and finds that the particle moves in a circle of radius
car is not less than alg. r with a uniform speed v as seen from an inertial frame
(d) The friction coefficient between the ground and the of reference.
2 (a) This is not possible.
car is p. = tan -11. - (b) There are other forces on the particle.
rg
2
6. A circular road of radius r is banked for a speed v = 40 (c) The resultant of the other forces is my towards the
km/hr. A car of mass m attempts to go on the circular r
road. The friction coefficient between the tyre and the centre.
road is negligible. (d) The resultant of the other forces varies in magnitude
(a) The car cannot make a turn without skidding. as well as in direction.

EXERCISES

1. Find the acceleration of the moon with respect to the 9. In the Bohr model of hydrogen atom, the electron is
earth from the following data : Distance between the treated as a particle going in a circle with the centre at
earth and the moon = 3.85 x 10 5km and the time taken the proton. The proton itself is assumed to be fixed in
by the moon to complete one revolution around the earth an inertial frame. The centripetal force is provided by
= 27.3 days. the Coloumb attraction. In the ground state, the electron
goes round the proton in a circle of radius
2. Find the acceleration of a particle placed on the surface
of the earth at the equator due to earth's rotation. The 5.3 x 10 -11m. Find the speed of the electron in
diameter of earth = 12800 km and it takes 24 hours for the ground state. Mass of the electron = 9.1 x 10 -31kg
the earth to complete one revolution about its axis. and charge of the electron = 1.6 x 10 -19 C.
3. A particle moves in a circle of radius 1.0 cm at a speed 10. A stone is fastened to one end of a string and is whirled
given by v = 2.0 t where v is in cm/s and t in seconds. in a vertical circle of radius R. Find the minimum speed
(a) Find the radial acceleration of the particle at t = 1 s. the stone can have at the highest point of the circle.
(b) Find the tangential acceleration at t = 1 s. (c) Find 11. A ceiling fan has a diameter (of the circle through the
the magnitude of the acceleration at t = 1 s. outer edges of the three blades) of 120 cm and rpm 1500
4. A scooter weighing 150 kg together with its rider moving at full speed. Consider a particle of mass 1 g sticking at
at 36 km/hr is to take a turn of radius 30 m. What the outer end of a blade. How much force does it
horizontal force on the scooter is needed to make the experience when the fan runs at full speed ? Who exerts
turn possible ? this force on the particle ? How much force does the
5. If the horizontal force needed for the turn in the previous particle exert on the blade along its surface ?
problem is to be supplied by the normal force by the 12. A mosquito is sitting on an L.P. record disc rotating on
road, what should be the proper angle of banking ? a turn table at 333 per minute. The distance
3
6. A park has a radius of 10 m. If a vehicle goes round it
of the mosquito from the centre of the turn table is
at an average speed of 18 km/hr, what should be the
10 cm. Show that the friction coefficient between the
proper angle of banking ?
record and the mosquito is greater than It 2/81. Take
7. If the road of the previous problem is horizontal (no
banking), what should be the minimum friction g =10 IniS 2.
coefficient so that a scooter going at 18 km/hr does not 13. A simple pendulum is suspended from the ceiling of a
skid ? car taking a turn of radius 10 m at a speed of 36 km/h.
8. A circular road of radius 50 m has the angle of banking Find the angle made by the string of the pendulum with
equal to 30. At what speed should a vehicle go on this the vertical if this angle does not change during the turn.
road so that the friction is not used ? Take g= 10 nils 2.
Circular Motion 115

14. The bob of a simple pendulum of length 1 m has mass ensure that the cyclist can move with constant speed ?
100 g and a speed of 1.4 m/s at the lowest point in its Take g= 10 nils 2.

path. Find the tension in the string at this instant.


15. Suppose the bob of the previous problem has a speed of
1.4 m/s when the string makes an angle of 0.20 radian
with the vertical. Find the tension at this instant. You
can use cosO = 1- 0 2 /2 and sinO = 0 for small 0.
E
16. Suppose the amplitude of a simple pendulum having a
bob of mass m is 00 . Find the tension in the string when
the bob is at its extreme position.
17. A person stands on a spring balance at the equator.
(a) By what fraction is the balance reading less than his Figure 7-E1
true weight ? (b) If the speed of earth's rotation is
increased by such an amount that the balance reading
is half the true weight, what will be the length of the 23. In a children's park a heavy rod is pivoted at the centre
day in this case ? and is made to rotate about the pivot so that the rod
always remains horizontal. Two kids hold the rod near
18. A turn of radius 20 m is banked for the vehicles going the ends and thus rotate with the rod (figure 7-E2). Let
at a speed of 36 km/h. If the coefficient of static friction the mass of each kid be 15 kg, the distance between the
between the road and the tyre is 0.4, what are the points of the rod where the two kids hold it be 3.0 m
possible speeds of a vehicle so that it neither slips down and suppose that the rod rotates at the rate of 20
nor skids up ? revolutions per minute. Find the force of friction exerted
19. A motorcycle has to move with a constant speed on an by the rod on one of the kids.
overbridge which is in the form of a circular arc of radius
R and has a total length L. Suppose the motorcycle
starts from the highest point. (a) What can its maximum
velocity be for which the contact with the road is not
broken at the highest point ? (b) If the motorcycle goes
at speed 1/42 times the maximum found in part (a),
where will it lose the contact with the road ? (c) What
maximum uniform speed can it maintain on the bridge
if it does not lose contact anywhere on the bridge ? Figure 7 E2
-

20. A car goes on a horizontal circular road of radius R, the


speed increasing at a constant rate
dv
= a. The friction 24. A hemispherical bowl of radius R is rotated about its
dt axis of symmetry which is kept vertical. A small block
coefficient between the road and the tyre is 1.t. Find the is kept in the bowl at a position where the radius makes
speed at which the car will skid. an angle 0 with the vertical. The block rotates with the
21. A block of mass m is kept on a horizontal ruler. The bowl without any slipping. The friction coefficient
friction coefficient between the ruler and the block is g. between the block and the bowl surface is u. Find the
The ruler is fixed at one end and the block is at a range of the angular speed for which the block will not
distance L from the fixed end. The ruler is rotated about slip.
the fixed end in the horizontal plane through the fixed 25. A particle is projected with a speed u at an angle 0 with
end. (a) What can the maximum angular speed be for the horizontal. Consider a small part of its path near
which the block does not slip ? (b) If the angular speed the highest position and take it approximately to be a
of the ruler is uniformly increased from zero at an circular arc. What is the radius of this circle ? This
angular acceleration a, at what angular speed will the radius is called the radius of curvature of the curve at
block slip ? the point.
22. A track consists of two circular parts ABC and CDE of 26. What is the radius of curvature of the parabola traced
equal radius 100 m and joined smoothly as shown in out by the projectile in the previous problem at a point
figure (7-E1). Each part subtends a right angle at its where the particle velocity makes an angle 0/2 with the
centre. A cycle weighing 100 kg together with the rider horizontal ?
travels at a constant speed of 18 km/h on the track. 27. A block of mass m moves on a horizontal circle against
(a) Find the normal contact force by the road on the the wall of a cylindrical room of radius R. The floor of
cycle when it is at B and at D. (b) Find the force of the room on which the block moves is smooth but the
friction exerted by the track on the tyres when the cycle friction coefficient between the wall and the block is g.
is at B, C and D. (c) Find the normal force between the The block is given an initial speed v0. As a function of
road and the cycle just before and just after the cycle the speed v write (a) the normal force by the wall on
crosses C. (d) What should be the minimum friction the block, (b) the frictional force by the wall and (c) the
coefficient between the road and the tyre, which will tangential acceleration of the block. (d) Integrate the
116 Concepts of Physics

dv dv
tangential acceleration (-= v - to obtain the speed
dt ds
of the block after one revolution.
28. A table with smooth horizontal surface is fixed in a cabin
that rotates with a uniform angular velocity co in a
circular path of radius R (figure 7-E3). A smooth groove
AB of length L( R) is made on the surface of the table. 0
The groove makes an angle 0 with the radius OA of the
circle in which the cabin rotates. A small particle is kept
at the point A in the groove and is released to move
along AB. Find the time taken by the particle to reach
the point B. Figure 7 E4
-

30. A table with smooth horizontal surface is placed in a


cabin which moves in a circle of a large radius R
0 (figure 7-E5). A smooth pulley of small radius is
fastened to the table. Two masses m and 2m placed on
the table are connected through a string going over the
pulley. Initially the masses are held by a person with
the strings along the outward radius and then the
Figure 7-E3 system is released from rest (with respect to the cabin).
Find the magnitude of the initial acceleration of the
29. A car moving at a speed of 36 km/hr is taking a turn on masses as seen from the cabin and the tension in the
a circular road of radius 50 m. A small wooden plate is string.
kept on the seat with its plane perpendicular to the
radius of the circular road (figure 7-E4). A small block
of mass 100 g is kept on the seat which rests against
the plate. The friction coefficient between the block and
mi
the plate is 1.1 = 0.58. (a) Find the normal contact force 0
exerted by the plate on the block. (b) The plate is slowly () El
turned so that the angle between the normal to the plate m2
and the radius of the road slowly increases. Find the
angle at which the block will just start sliding on the
Figure 7 E5
-
plate.

ANSWERS

OBJECTIVE I 2. 0.0336 m/s 2


1. (d) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (b) 6. (a) 3. (a) 4.0 cm/s 2 (b) 2.0 cm/s 2 (c) Ai:3t cm/s 2
7. (c) 8. (c) 9. (a) 10. (a) 11. (c) 12. (a) 4. 500 N
13. (d) 14. (a) 15. (d) 16. (c)
5. tan-1(1/3)
6. tan-1(1/4)
OBJECTIVE II
7. 0.25
1. (a), (d) 2. (d) 3. (b), (d) 8. 17 m/s
4. (c) 5. (b), (c) 6. (b), (d)
9. 2.2 x 10 6 m/s
7. (b), (d)
10. 4.-
Ri
EXERCISES 11. 14.8 N, 14.8 N
13. 45
1. 2.73 x 10 -3m/s 2 14. 1.2 N
Circular Motion 117

1/2
15. 1.16 N g(sine cos()) g(sine + cose) I/2
16. mg cog', 24. to
[R sine(cose + sine) [ R sine(cose sine)
17. (a) 3.5 x 10 -3 (b) 2.0 hour u 2cos 20
18. Between 14.7 km/h and 54 km/hr 25.
g
19. (a) A
NF?,F, u2COS 20
(b) a distance ItR/3 along the bridge from the highest 26.
g cos 3(0 12)
point,
2 2
(c)'\IgRcos(L 12 R) 2
27. (a) (b) (c) (d) voe -21t g
2g 2 a 2)R 211/4 R
20. [01
2 ]1/4
2L
28. A/
21. (a).N,7
ug-Tf (b) [(ligr) a 2 co 2R cos()
22. (a) 975 N, 1025 N (b) 0, 707 N, 0 29. (a) 0.2 N (b) 30
(c) 682 N, 732 N (d) 1.037
co R 4 2
23. 10 n 2 30. -mco R
CHAPTER 8

WORK AND ENERGY

8.1 KINETIC ENERGY From the definition of kinetic energy


dK d (1 2 dv
A dancing, running man is said to be more = m v = my = r t v,
energetic compared to a sleeping snoring man. In dt dt 2 dt
physics, a moving particle is said to have more energy where Ft is the resultant tangential force. If the
than an identical particle at rest. Quantitatively the resultant force F makes an angle 0 with the velocity,
energy of the moving particle (over and above its dK > > > dr
energy at rest) is defined by Ft = F cosi) and = Fv cos0 =F v =F
dt dt
2 or, dK= F dr. ... (8.2)
mv = MV V ... (8.1)
2
and is called the kinetic energy of the particle. The 8.2 WORK AND WORK-ENERGY THEOREM
kinetic energy of a system of particles is the sum of > >

the kinetic energies of all its constituent particles, i.e., The quantity F dr =F dr cos is called the work
1 2 done by the force F on the particle during the small
m. v displacement dr.
2 "
The work done on the particle by a force F acting
on it during a finite displacement is obtained by
W= f F dr-4= f F cos dr, ... (8.3)
Less energetic man
Qt xr where the integration is to be performed along the path
of the particle. If F is the resultant force on the particle
Less energetic More energetic man we can use equation (8.2) to get
balls
Figure 8.1
= F dr=J dK= K2 K1.
The kinetic energy of a particle or a system of Thus, the work done on a particle by the resultant
particles can increase or decrease or remain constant force is equal to the change in its kinetic energy. This
as time passes. is called the work-energy theorem.
If no force is applied on the particle, its velocity v Let F1, F2 F3 . . . be the individual foes 4cting on
remains constant and hence the kinetic energy a particle. The resultant force is F = F1+ F2+ F3 ..., and
remains the same. A force is necessary to change the the work done by the resultant force on the particle is
kinetic energy of a particle. If the resultant force acting
on a particle is perpendicular to its velocity, the speed
147 = P> dr)
-4 -4 -4
of the particle does not change and hence the kinetic = >
+ F2 + F3 ) dr
energy does not change. Kinetic energy changes only r r
when the speed changes and that happens only when P dr + F2 dr + F3 dr ... ,
the resultant force has a tangential component. When r > >
where = F1. dr is the work done on the particle by
a particle falls near the earth's surface, the force of
gravity is parallel to its velocity. Its kinetic energy F1and so on. Thus, the work done by the resultant
increases as time passes. On the other hand, a particle force is equal to the sum of the work done by the
projected upward has the force opposite to the velocity individual forces. Note that the work done on a particle
and its kinetic energy decreases. by an individual force is not equal to the change in its
Work and Energy 119

kinetic energy; the sum of the work done by all the If the particle goes from the point A to the point
forces acting on the particle (which is equal to the work B along some other curve, the work done by the force
done by the resultant force) is equal to the change in of gravity is again mgh. We see that the work done by
its kinetic energy. a constant force in going from A to B depends only on
The rate of doing work is calleA the power the positions of A and B and not on the actual path
delivered. The work done by a force F in a small taken. In case of gravity, the work is weight mg times
> the height descended. If a particle starts from A and
displacement dr is dW = F dr.
reaches to the same point A after some time, the work
Thus, the power delivered by the force is done by gravity during this round trip is zero, as the
> height descended is zero. We shall encounter other
P= F =F V. forces having this property.
dt dt
The SI unit of power is joule/second and is written
as "watt". A commonly used unit of power is Spring Force
horsepower which is equal to 746 W.
Consider the situation shown in figure (8.3). One
end of a spring is attached to a fixed vertical support
8.3 CALCULATION OF WORK DONE and the other end to a block which can move on a
horizontal table. Let x = 0 denote the position of the
The work done by a force on a particle during a
block when the spring is in its natural length. We shall
displacement has been defined as
calculate the work done on the block by the
W= J F> dr>. spring-force as the block moves from x = 0 to x =

Constant Force

Suppose, the force is constant (in direction and


magnitude) during the displacement. Then
J --> > -) -) -) - Figure 8.3
W = j F-dr_ =FJ dr =Fr, where r is the total
displacement of the particle during which the work is The force on the block is k times the elongation of
calculated. If 0 be the angle between the constant force the spring. But the elongation changes as th block
F and the displacement r, the work is moves and so does the force. We cannot take F out of
r --> _->
W = Fr cosh. ... (8.4) the integration F dr. We have to write the work
In particular, if the displacement is along the force, done during a small interval in which the block moves
as is the case with a freely and vertically falling from x to x + dx. The force in this interval is kx and
particle, 0 = 0 and W = Fr. the displacement is dx. The force and the displacement
are opposite in direction.
The force of gravity (mg) is constant in magnitude
and direction if the particle moves near the surface of So, F d = F dx = kx dx
the earth. Suppose a pa4icle moves from A to B along during this interval. The total work done as the block
some curve and that AB makes an angle 0 with the is displaced from x = 0 to x = xi is
vertical as shown in figure (8.2). The work done by the
force of gravity during the transit from A to B is
W = 5 kx dx =--
1 kx 2 =-1kx 2
W = mg (AB) cos() = mgh, 2 2 1.
where h is the height descended by the particle. If a If the block moves from x = x1 to x = x2 , the limits of
particle ascends a height h, the work done by the force integration are x1and x2 and the work done is
of gravity is mgh.
W=(2 kx12 -1kx22)
2 _ (8.5)

Note that if the block is displaced from x1to x2 and


brought back to x=x1 , the work done by the
spring-force is zero. The work done during the return
journey is negative of the work during the onward
journey. The net work done by the spring-force in a
Figure 8.2 round trip is zero.
120 Concepts of Physics

Three positions of a spring are shown in figure application and the work will be negative. Thus, the
(8.4). In (i) the spring is in its natural length, in (ii) work done by the spring-force is -2.5 mJ.
it is compressed by an amount x and in (iii) it is
elongated by an amount x. Work done by the
The following three cases occur quite frequently :
spring-force on the block in various situations is shown
in the following table. (a) The force is perpendicular to the velocity at all
the instants. The work done by the force is then zero.
Table 8.1 (b) The force is constant (both in magnitude and
direction). The work done by the force is
Initial state of Final state of x, x2 W = Fd cos% where F and d are magnitudes of the
the spring the spring force and the displacement and 0 is the angle between
Natural Compressed 0 x kx 2 them. The amount of work done depends only on the
2
end positions and not on the intermediate path. The
Natural Elongated 0 x kx 2 work in a round trip is zero. Force of gravity on the
2
Natural 0
bodies near the earth's surface is an example.
Elongated lkx2
2 The work done due to the force of gravity on a
Compressed Natural x 0 particle of mass m is mgh, where h is the vertical
-1---kx2
2 height 'descended' by the particle.
Elongated Compressed x x 0 (c) The force is F kx as is the case with an
Compressed Elongated -x x 0 elastic spring. The magnitude of the work done by the
force during a displacement x from or to its natural
1 2 1 2
position (x = 0) is 2 kx . The work may be + kx or
2
1 2
kx depending on whether the force and the
displacement are along the same or opposite directions.
Example 8.2

A particle of mass 20 g is thrown vertically upwards


Figure 8.4 with a speed of 10 m/s. Find the work done by the force
of gravity during the time the particle goes up.
Solution : Suppose the particle reaches a maximum height
Force Perpendicular to Velocity h. As the velocity at the highest point is zero, we have
--> 0 = u 2-2gh
Suppose F 1 v for all the time. Then
_> >
F dr = F v dt is zero in any small interval and the Or, h=U2
2g
work done by this force is zero.
The work done by the force of gravity is
For example, if a particle is fastened to the end of 2 1 2
a string and is whirled in a circular path, the tension u - = - mu
- mgh = - mg rg
is always perpendicular to the velocity of the particle
and hence the work done by the tension is zero in 1
= - - (0.02 kg) x (10 m/s) 2 = - 1-0 J.
circular motion. 2

Example 8.1
8.4 WORK-ENERGY THEOREM FOR A
A spring of spring constant 50 N/m is compressed from
SYSTEM OF PARTICLES
its natural position through 1 cm. Find the work done
by the spring-force on the agency compressing the spring. So far we have considered the work done on a
Solution : The magnitude of the work is single particle. The total work done on a particle
1 2 1 equals the change in its kinetic energy. In other words,
kx = x (50 Wm) x (1 cm) 2 to change the kinetic energy of a particle we have to
apply a force on it and the force must do work on it.
= (25 N/m) x (1 x 10 -2m) 2 = 2.5 x 10 -3 J. Next, consider a system containing more than one
As the compressed spring will push the agency, the force particle and suppose the particles exert forces on each
will be opposite to the displacement of the point of other. As a simple example, take a system of two
Work and Energy 121

charged particles as shown in figure (8.5) attracting decreases. Thus, the kinetic energy of the two-particle
each other (such as a positive and a negative charge). system decreases as time passes. Suppose at a time
t2, the particles are at A' and B', the speeds have
Fqg FBA
O O changed to v1 and v2 and the kinetic energy becomes
A
K2. We call the positions of the particles at time t2 as
Figure 8.5 configuration-2. The kinetic energy of the system is
decreased by K1 K2.
Because of mutual attraction, the particles are However, if you wait for some more time, the
accelerated towards each other and the kinetic energy particles return to the original positions A and B, i.e.,
of the system increases. We have not applied any in configuration-1. At this time, say t3, the particles
external force on the system, yet the kinetic energy move towards each other with speeds v1and u2 . Their
has changed. Let us exaTine this in more detail. The kinetic energy is again K1 .
particle B exerts a force FABon A. As A moves towards When the particles were in configuration-1 the
B, this force does work. The work done by this force kinetic energy was K1 . When they reached
is equal to the increase in the kinetic energy of A. configuration-2 it decreased to K2 The kinetic energy
.

Similarly, A exerts a force FBA on B. This force does has decreased but is not lost for ever. We just have to
wait. When the particles return to configuration-1 at
work on B and this work is equal to lie increase in
time t3, the kinetic energy again becomes K1 . It seems
the kinetic energy of B. The work by FAB+ the work
--* meaningful and reasonable if we think of yet another
by FBA is equal to the increase in the total kinetic kind of energy which depends on the configuration. We
energy of the two particles. Note that ;AB = F FBA, so call this as the potential energy of the system. Some
that FAB + FBA = 0. But the work by FAB+ the work by kinetic energy was converted into potential energy
FBA * 0. The two forces are opposite in direction but when the system passed from configuration-1 to
the displacements are also opposite. Thus, the work configuration-2. As the system returns to
done by both the forces are positive and are added. configuration-1, this potential energy is converted back
The total work done on different particles of the system into kinetic energy. The sum of the kinetic energy and
by the internal forces may not be zero. The change in the potential energy remains constant.
the kinetic energy of a system is equal to the work How do we precisely define the potential energy of
done on the system by the external as well as the a system ? Before defining potential energy, let us
internal forces. discuss the idea of conservative and nonconservative
forces.
8.5 POTENTIAL ENERGY
8.6 CONSERVATIVE AND
Consider the example of the two charged particles NONCONSERVATIVE FORCES
A and B taken in the previous section. Suppose at some
instant t1the particles are at positions A, B and are Let us consider the following two examples.
going away from each other with speeds u1 and v2 (1) Suppose a block of mass m rests on a rough
(figure 8.6). horizontal table (figure 8.7). It is dragged horizontally
towards right through a distance 1 and then back to
N/2 t t
1 A its initial position. Let g be the friction coefficient
between the block and the table. Let us calculate the
B -b.v2 t = t 2 work done by friction during the round trip.
i

V
vl V2
t = t3 V
A
f

Figure 8.6 mg

The kinetic energy of the system is K1 . We call the Figure 8.7


positions of the particles at time t1as configuration-1.
The particle B attracts A and hence the speed v1 The normal force between the table and the block
decreases as time passes. Similarly, the speed v, of B is sY = mg and hence the force of friction is !Irv. When
122 Concepts of Physics

the block moves towards right, friction on it is towards 8.7 DEFINITION OF POTENTIAL ENERGY AND
left and the work by friction is ( iimg/) . When the CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY
block moves towards left, friction on it is towards right We define the change in potential energy of a
and the work is again ( lime) . system corresponding to a conservative internal force
Hence, the total work done by the force of friction as
in the round trip is ( 21.ungl) . r
Uf - Ui= - 147 = - .1 F dr

where W is the work done by the internal force on the


system as the system passes from the initial
configuration i to the final configuration f.
Figure 8.8 We don't (or can't) define potential energy
corresponding to a nonconservative internal force.
(2) Suppose a block connected by a spring is kept Suppose only conservative internal forces operate
on a rough table as shown in figure (8.8). The block is between the parts of the system and the potential
pulled aside and then released. It moves towards the energy U is defined corresponding to these forces.
centre A and has some velocity vc, as it passes through There are either no external forces or the work done
the centre. It goes to the other side of A and then by them is zero. We have
comes back. This time it passes through the centre Uf = W = (Kt.
with somewhat smaller velocity v1. Compare these two or, Uf + Kf + Kt . ... (8.6)
cases in which the block is at A, once going towards The sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy
left and then towards right. In both the cases the is called the total mechanical energy. We see from
system (table + block + spring) has the same equation (8.6) that the total mechanical energy of a
configuration. The spring has the same length. The system remains constant if the internal forces are
block is at the same point on the table and the table conservative and the external forces do no work. This
of course is fixed to the ground. The kinetic energy in is called the principle of conservation of energy.
the second case is less than the kinetic energy in the The total mechanical energy K + U is not constant
first case. This loss in the kinetic energy is a real loss. if nonconservative forces, such as friction, act between
Every time the block passes through the mean position the parts of the system. We can't apply the principle
A, the kinetic energy of the system is smaller and in of conservation of energy in presence of
due course, the block stops on the table. We hold nonconservative forces. The work-energy theorem is
friction as the culprit, because in absence of friction still valid even in the presence of nonconservative
the system regains its kinetic energy as it returns to forces.
its original configuration. Remember, work done by Note that only a change in potential energy is
friction in a round trip is negative and not zero defined above. We are free to choose the zero potential
[example (1) above]. energy in any configuration just as we are free to
choose the origin in space anywhere we like.
We divide the forces in two categories If nonconservative internal forces operate within
(a) conservative forces and (b) nonconservative forces. the system, or external forces do work on the system,
If the work done by a force during a round trip of a the mechanical energy changes as the configuration
system is always zero, the force is said to be changes. According to the work-energy theorem, the
conservative. Otherwise, it is called nonconservative. work done by all the forces equals the change in the
kinetic energy. Thus,
Conservative force can also be defined as follows :
We + Wric + Wext Kf Ki
If the work done by a force depends only on the
where the three terms on the left denote the work done
initial and final states and not on the path taken, it is
by the conservative internal forces, nonconservative
called a conservative force. internal forces and the external forces.
Thus, the force of gravity, Coulomb force and the As W, = (Uf U,) ,
force of spring are conservative forces, as the work
we get
done by these forces are zero in a round trip. The force
of friction is nonconservative because the work done Wnc + Wext = (K-f Uf) (Ki + Ui)
by the friction is not zero in a round trip. = E f Ei ... (8.7)
Work and Energy 123

where E = K + U is the total mechanical energy. on the system because it acts on the charge A which
does not move. Thus, the external forces do no work and
If the internal forces are conservative but external
internal forces are conservative. The total mechanical
forces also act on the system and they do work,
energy must, therefore, remain constant. There are two
W, = 0 and from (8.7),
internal forces; FABacting on A and FBAacting on B. The
Wext = Ef - ... (8.8) force FABdoes no work because' it acts on A which does
The work done by the external forces equals the change not move. The work done by FBAas the particle B is
in the mechanical energy of the system. taken away is,
Let us summarise the concepts developed so far in 00

this chapter.
r k k
W=S Pd7.=j --idr= (i)
r r,,
(1) Work done on a particle is equal to the change r,
in its kinetic energy. External force
A
(2) Work done on a system by all the (external and F
AB
= kir FBA= kir 2
internal) forces is equal to the change in its kinetic
Figure 8.9
energy.
(3) A force is called conservative if the work done The change in the potential energy of the system is
by it during a round trip of a system is always zero.
Uf U,=W =
The force of gravitation, Coulomb force, force by a To
spring etc. are conservative. If the work done by it As the total mechanical energy is conserved,
during a round trip is not zero, the force is Kf (If = Ki + Ui
nonconservative. Friction is an example of or, Kf = - (Uf - Ui)
nonconservative force. 1 2 k
(4) The change in the potential energy of a system or, mu = T
2
corresponding to conservative internal forces is equal
to negative of the work done by these forces. or, v =
mr,
(5) If no external forces act (or the work done by
them is zero) and the internal forces are conservative,
the mechanical energy of the system remains constant. 8.8 CHANGE IN THE POTENTIAL ENERGY
This is known as the principle of conservation of IN A RIGID-BODY-MOTION
mechanical energy.
If the separation between the particles do not
(6) If some of the internal forces are change during motion, such as in the case of the
nonconservative, the mechanical energy of the system motion of a rigid body, the internal forces do no work.
is not constant. This is a consequence of Newton's third law. As an
(7) If the internal forces are conservative, the work example, consider a system of two particles A and B.
done by the external forces is equal to the change in Suppose, the particles move in such a way that the
mechanical energy. life AB translates parallel to itself. The displacement
drAof the particle A is equal to the displacement drB
Example 8.3
of the particle B in any short titav interval. The net
Two charged particles A and B repel each other by a work done by the internal forces FAB and PBA is
force k 1 r 2, where k is a constant and r is the separation
between them. The particle A is clamped to a fixed point W = J (FAB drA + FBA drB)
in the lab and the particle B which has a mass m, is
released from rest with an initial separation r, from A. =5 "AB +FBA) drA = 0.
Find the change in the potential energy of the two-particle Thus, the work done by FAB and FBA add up to zero.
system as the separation increases to a large value. What Even if AB does not translate parallel to itself but
will be the speed of the particle B in this situation? rotates, the result is true. The internal forces acting
Solution : The situation is shown in figure (8.9). Take between the particles of a rigid body do no work in its
A + B as the system. The only external force acting on motion and we need not consider the potential energy
the system is that needed to hold A fixed. (You can corresponding to these forces.
imagine the experiment being conducted in a gravity free The potential energy of a system changes only
region or the particles may be kept and allowed to move when the separations between the parts of the system
on a smooth horizontal surface, so that the normal force change. In other words, the potential energy depends
balances the force of gravity). This force does no work only on the separation between the interacting particles.
124 Concepts of Physics

8.9 GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY is perpendicular to its velocity. No external force does
any work on the system. Hence,
Consider a block of mass m kept near the surface increase in kinetic energy = decrease in potential energy
of the earth and suppose it is raised through a height
h. Consider "the earth + the block" as the system. The or,
22
mv = mgh or, v = -q2gh
gravitational force between the earth and the block is
conservative and we can define a potential energy Example 8.5
corresponding to this force. The earth is very heavy as
A pendulum bob has a speed 3 m/s while passing through
compared to the block and so one can neglect its
acceleration. Thus, we take our reference frame its lowest position. What is its speed when it makes an
attached to the earth, it will still be very nearly an angle of 60 with the vertical ? The length of the
inertial frame. The work done by the gravitational pendulum is 0.5 m. Take g = 10 m/s 2.
force due to the block on the earth is zero in this frame. Solution : Take the bob + earth as the system. The
The force mg on the block does work (mgh) if the external force acting on the system is that due to the
block ascends through a height h and hence the string. But this force is always perpendicular to the
potential energy is increased by mgh. Thus, if a block velocity of the bob and so the work done by this force
of mass m ascends a height h above the earth's surface is zero. Hence, the total mechanical energy will remain
(h << radius of earth), the potential energy of the "earth constant. As is clear from figure (8.11), the height
+ block" system increases by mgh. If the block descends ascended by the bob at an angular displacement a is
by a height h, the potential energy decreases by mgh. 1 1 case = 1 (1 cos0). The increase in the potential
Since the earth almost remains fixed, it is customary energy is mgl (1 cog)). This should be equal to the
to call the potential energy of the earth-block system decrease in the kinetic energy of the system. Again, as
as the potential energy of the block only. We then say the earth does not move in the lab frame, this is the
that the gravitatiohal potential energy of the "block" decrease in the kinetic energy of the bob. If the speed
is increased by an amount mgh when it is raised at an angular displacement 0 is v1, the decrease in
through a hieght h above the earth's surface. kinetic energy is
We have been talking in terms of the changes in
gravitational potential energy. We can choose any
position of the block and call the gravitational
potential energy to be zero in this position. The
potential energy at a height h above this position is
mgh. The position of the zero potential energy is
chosen according to the convenience of the problem.

Example 8.4

A block of mass m slides along a frictionless surface as Figure 8.11


shown in the figure (8.10). If it is released from rest at
A, what is its speed at B ? 1 1 mv2
mvo2 ,
2 2
where vois the speed of the block at the lowest position.
1 2 1 2
Thus, mu, mv, =mgl (1 cos())
2 2
or, v, = Niv 02 -2g1 (1 cos())

= .\/(9 m 2/S 2) - 2 x (10 m/s)x (0-5 m) 1"-)

= 2 m/s.
Figure 8.10

Solution : Take the block + the earth as the system. Only


8.10 POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A COMPRESSED
the block moves, so only the work done on the block will
OR EXTENDED SPRING
contribute to the gravitational potential energy. As it
descends through a height h between A and B, the Consider a massless spring of natural length 1, one
potential energy decreases by mgh. The normal contact end of which is fastened to a wall (figure 8.12). The
force SV on the block by the surface does no work as it other end is attached to a block which is slowly pulled
Work and Energy 125

on a smooth horizontal surface to extend the spring. other end of the spring is fixed to a wall. If it has a speed
Take the spring as the system. When it is elongated v when the spring is at its natural length, how far will
by a distance x, the tension in it is kx, where k is its it move on the table before coming to an instantaneous
spring constant. It pulls the wall towards right and rest ?
the block towards left by forces of magnitude kx. The Solution : Consider the block + the spring as the system.
forces exerted on the spring. are (i) kx towards left by The external forces acting on the system are (a) the force
the wall and (ii) kx towards right by the block. of gravity, (b) the normal force by the table and (c) the
force by the wall. None of these do any work on this
system and hence the total mechanical energy is
conserved. If the block moves a distance x before
comming to rest, we have,
2 2
2 mv = kx
2
Figure 8.12
or, x = v -4m1k.

How much work has been done on the spring by Example 8.7
these two external forces ? The force by the wall does
no work as the point of application is fixed. The force A block of mass m is suspended through a spring of
spring constant k and is in equilibrium. A sharp blow
by the block does work 5 kx dx = kx 2. The work is gives the block an initial downward velocity v. How far
2
0 below the equilibrium position, the block comes to an
positive as the force is towards right and the particles instantaneous rest ?
of the spring, on which this force is acting, also move Solution : Let us consider the block + the spring + the
towards right. Thus, the total external work done on earth as the system. The system has gravitational
1 2
the spring is 2 kx 2, when the spring is elongated by potential energy corresponding to the force between the
an amount x from its natural length. The same is the block and the earth as well as the elastic potential
external work done on the spring if it is compressed energy corresponding to the spring-force. The total
by a distance x. mechanical energy includes kinetic energy, gravitational
potential energy and elastic potential energy.
We have seen (equation 8.8) that the external work
done on a system is equal to the change in its total
mechanical energy. The spring is assumed to be
massless and hence its kinetic energy remains zero all
the time. Thus, its potential energy has increased by
1 2
kx .
2
We conclude that a stretched or compressed spring
has a potential energy 1
2 kx 2 larger than its potential
Figure 8.13
energy at its natural length. The potential energy of
the spring corresponds to the internal forces between When the block is in equilibrium, it is acted upon by
the particles of the spring when it is stretched or two forces, (a) the force of gravity mg and (b) the tension
compressed. It is called elastic potential energy or the in the spring T = kx, where x is the elongation. For
strain energy of the spring. Again, the calculation gives equilibrium, mg = kx, so that the spring is stretched by
only the change in the elastic potential energy of the a length x = mg /k. The potential energy of the spring
spring and we are free to choose any length of the in this position is
spring and call the potential energy zero at that length. 2
2 M 2g
It is customary to choose the potential energy of a 1k (mg 1 k)
2 2k
spring in its natural length to be zero. With this choice
1 2 Take the gravitational potential energy to be zero in this
the potential energy of a spring is 2kx 2, where x is the position. The total mechanical energy of the system just
elongation or the compression of the spring. after the blow is
2 2
1 2 771 g
Example 8.6 MV
2 2k
A block of mass m, attached to a spring of spring The only external force on this system is that due to the
constant k, oscillates on a smooth horizontal table. The ceiling which does no work. Hence, the mechanical
126 Concepts of Physics

energy of this system remains constant. If the block rest, the particles in it are continuously moving inside
descends through a height h before coming to an the body. These particles also exert forces on each
instantaneous rest, the elastic potential energy becomes other and there is a potential energy corresponding to
k (mg I k + h) 2 and the gravitational potential energy
these forces. The total energy corresponding to the
2 internal motion of molecules and their interaction, is
mgh. The kinetic energy is zero in this state. Thus, called internal energy or thermal energy of the body.
we have Light and sound are other forms of energy. When a
22 source emits light or sound, it loses energy. Chemical
1 2 M g 1
mv + k (mg I k + h) 2-mgh. energy is significant if there are chemical reactions.
2 2k 2
Solving this we get, Einstein's special theory of relativity shows that a
h = v k. material particle itself is a form of energy. Thus, about
Compare this with the result obtained in Example (8.6).
8.18 x 10 -14 J of energy may be converted to form an
If we neglect gravity and consider the length of the electron and equal amount of energy may be obtained
spring in equilibrium position as the natural length, the by destroying an electron. The ralation between the
answer is same. This simplification is often used while mass of a particle m and its equivalent energy E is
dealing with vertical springs. given as
E = mc 2 ,

8.11 DIFFERENT FORMS OF ENERGY :


MASS ENERGY EQUIVALENCE where c = 3 x 10 8m/s is the speed of light in vacuum.
When all forms of energy are taken into account,
The kinetic energy and the potential energy of a
we arrive at the generalised law of conservation of
system, taken together, form mechanical energy.
energy.
Energy can exist an'
in other forms. In measuring
kinetic energy of an extended body, we use the speed Energy can never be created or destroyed, it can
of the body as a whole. Even if we keep the body at only be changed from one form into another.

Worked Out Examples

1. A porter lifts a suitcase weighing 20 kg from the platform (in magnitude). The rate of doing work, i.e., the power
and puts it on his head 2.0 m above the platform. delivered is
Calculate the work done by the porter on the suitcase. P = F v = mgv
Solution : The kinetic energy of the suitcase was zero = (500 kg) (9.8 m/s2) (0.2 m/s) = 980 W
when it was at the platform and it again became zero
when it was put on the head. The change in kinetic
Assuming no loss against friction etc., in the motor, the
energy is zero and hence the total work done on the
minimum horsepower of the motor is
suitcase is zero. Two forces act on the suitcase, one due
to gravity and the other due to the porter. Thus, the 80
P = 980 W = hp = 1.3 hp.
work done by the porter is negative of the work done by 746
gravity. As the suitcase is lifted up, the work done by
gravity is 3. A block of mass 2.0 kg is pulled up on a smooth incline
W = mgh of angle 30 with the horizontal. If the block moves with
an acceleration of 1'0 m/s2, find the power delivered by
= (20 kg) (9.8 m/s 2) (2 m) = 392 J
the pulling force at a time 4.0 s after the motion starts.
The work done by the porter is 392 J = 390 J. What is the average power delivered during the 4.0 s
after the motion starts?
2. An elevator weighing 500 kg is to be lifted up at a
constant velocity of 0.20 in/s. What would be the Solution : The forces acting on the block are shown in
minimum .horsepower of the motor to be used ? figure (8-W1). Resolving the forces parallel to the incline,
we get
Solution : As the elevator is going up with a uniform
F mg sin() = ma
velocity, the total work done on it is zero in any time
interval. The work done by the motor is, therefore, equal or, F = mg sines + ma
to the work done by the force of gravity in that interval = (2.0 kg) [(9.8 m/s 2) (1/2) + 1.0 m/s = 11.8 N.
Work and Energy 127

The friction coefficient between the block and the surface


is II. If the block travels at a uniform velocity, find the
work done by this applied force during a displacement
d of the block.
Solution : Forces on the block are
Figure 8-W1 (i) its weight Mg,
(ii) the normal force
The velocity at t = 4.0 s is (iii) the applied force F and
(iv) the kinetic friction SV.
v = at = (1.0 m/s 2) (4.0 s) = 4-0 m/s.
sv
The power delivered by the force at t = 4.0 s is
P =i4' )i= (11-8 N) (4.0 in/s) 47 W.
The displacement during the first four seconds is Mg
2 .1(1.0 in/s 2) (16
x=at s 2) = 8'0 m. Figure 8-W2
2 2
The work done in these four seconds is, therefore,
The forces are shown in figure (8-W2). As the block
W=P1= (11.8 N) (8-0 m) = 94.4 J. moves with a uniform velocity, the forces add up to zero.
.4 J Taking horizontal and vertical components,
The average power delivered 94
4.0 s Fcos()=sV
and F sine +SV = Mg.
= 23.6 W 24 W.
Eliminating SV from these equations,
F cos() = (Mg F sin())
4. A force F = (10 + 0.50 x) acts on a particle in the
Mg
x direction, where F is in newton and x in meter. Find or, F
cos() + sine
the work done by this force during a displacement from
The work done by this force during a displacement d is
x = 0 to x = 2'0 m.
1.t Mgd cos()
Solution : As the force is variable, we shall find the work W = F d cos()
cos() + sin()
done in a small displacement x to x + dx and then
integrate it to find the total work. The work done in this
small displacement is 7. Two cylindrical vessels of equal cross-sectional area A
contain water upto heights h, and h2. The vessels are
dW =F dx= (10 + 0.5 x)dx.
20
interconnected so that the levels in them become equal.
Thus, W= f (10 + 0-50 x) dx Calculate the work done by the force of gravity during
0

=[10x+0.50
1 20
=21J.
the process. The density of water is p.
Solution : Since the total volume of the water is constant,
the height in each vessel after interconnection will be
2 0
(h1 +11012 . The level in the left vessel shown in the
figure, drops from A to C and that in the right vessel
5. A body dropped from a height H reaches the ground with
rises from B to D. Effectively, the water in the part AC
a speed of 1.2 Vg-r-I. Calculate the work done by has dropped down to DB.
air-friction.
Solution : The forces acting on the body are the force of
D
gravity and the air-friction. By work-energy theorem, the
total work done on the body is t, h1+ h2 B T
1 2 h2
W= m(1.2 -Jai) 2 - 0 = 0.72 mgH.

The work done by the force of gravity is mgH. Hence,


Figure 8-W3
the work done by the air-friction is
0.72 mgH mgH = 0.28 mgH.
The mass of this volume of water is

6. A block of mass M is pulled along a horizontal surface m = p A (II, h2 )


2
by applying a force at an angle 0 with the horizontal.
128 Concepts of Physics

p
l
l 2
The height descended by this water is AC = (h,- h2)12.
The work done by the force of gravity during this process
is, therefore,
2
p A (h,
-2 Figure 8-W5
5.

8. What minimum horizontal speed should be given to the The potential energy of the l/3 of the chain that
1/3
bob of a simple pendulum of length l so that it describes
overhangs is U1=
r -
m
gx dx
a complete circle ?
Solution : Suppose the bob is given a horizontal speed v0
._[m 0 (x 1/3 ._ 1 ni0/.
at the bottom and it describes a complete vertical circle. / 2 18
Let its speed at the highest point be v. Taking the
gravitational potential energy to be zero at the bottom, This is also the potential energy of the full chain in the
the conservation of energy gives, initial position because the part lying on the table has
1 2 1 2 zero potential energy. The potential energy of the chain
my, = mv + 2mg1 when it completely slips off the table is
2 2
2 2
or, my = mv0 - 4 mgl. (i)
U2 = f - l gx dx = - mgl.
o
1-mg1)-(- mg1)
18
The loss in potential energy = C-

4
= mgl.

This should be equal to the gain in the kinetic energy.


But the initial kinetic enegry is zero. Hence, the kinetic
energy of the chain as it completely slips off the table
Figure 8-W4 4
is mgl.
9
The forces acting on the bob at the highest point are mg
due to the gravity and T due to the tension in the string. 10. A block of mass m is pushed against a spring of spring
The resultant force towards the centre is, therefore, constant k fixed at one end to a wall. The block can slide
mg + T. As the bob is moving in a circle, its acceleration on a frictionless table as shown in figure (8-W6). The
towards the centre is v 2 /1. Applying Newton's second natural length of the spring is Loand it is compressed
law and using (i), to half its natural length when the block is released. Find
2
1 the velocity of the block as a function of its distance x
mg + T = rtzt l= (mv 02 - 4mg1)
= from the wall.
or, MU = 5 me + T 1. m
k
Now, for v, to be minimum, T should be minimum. As -1000.00V- V
the minimum value of T can be zero, for minimum speed,
I- L0/2 -I
my: = 5 mgl or, v0 = 4V-
gd.
x

9. A uniform chain of length 1 and mass m overhangs a Figure 8-W6


smooth table with its two third part lying on the table.
Find the kinetic energy of the chain as it completely slips Solution : When the block is released, the spring pushes
off the table. it towards right. The velocity of the block increases till
Solution : Let us take the zero of potential energy at the the spring acquires its natural length. Thereafter, the
table. Consider a part dx of the chain at a depth x below block loses contact with the spring and moves with
the surface of the table. The mass of this part is constant velocity.
dm = m 11 dx and hence its potential energy is Initially, the compression of the spring is L, /2. When
- (m11 dx)gx. the distance of the block from the wall becomes x, where
Work and Energy 129

x < L, , the compression is (L,- x). Using the principle


of conservation of energy,
2
(Los
ik =1k (Lo- x) 2 mu 2. 4.9 m
2 2 2 +2
Solving this,

ApT: 1 1/2
Figure 8-W8
v= - (L - x) 2
m 4
When the spring acquires its natural length, x = Lo and Solution : At the instant of maximum compression the
speed of the 40 g mass reduces to zero. Taking the
_NF L
v= 77:
- 1 Thereafter, the block continues with this gravitational potential energy to be zero at the
horizontal part, the conservation of energy shows,
velocity.
mgh = I kx 2

11. A particle is placed at the point A of a frictionless track where m = 0.04 kg, h = 4.9 m, k = 400 N/m and x is the
ABC as shown in figure (8-W7). It is pushed slightly maximum compression.
towards right. Find its speed when it reaches the point
Thus, x = *V2271-g-LI
B. Take g = 10 mls 2.

C
.\/ 2 x (0.04 kg) x (9.8 m/s)x (4.9 m)

Im
vv

= 9.8 cm.
(400 N/m)

0.5 m
13. Figure (8-W9) shows a loop-the-loop track of radius R.
A car (without engine) starts from a platform at a
Figure 8-W7 distance h above the top of the loop and goes around the
loop without falling off the track. Find the minimum
Solution : Let us take the gravitational potential energy value of h for a successful looping. Neglect friction.
to be zero at the horizontal surface shown in the figure.
The potential energies of the particle at A and B are
UA Mg (1 m) =
and UB = Mg (0.5 m).
The kinetic energy at the point A is zero. As the track
is frictionless, no energy is lost. The normal force on the
particle does no work. Applying the principle of Figure 8 W9
-

conservation of energy,
UA + KA = UB + KB Solution : Suppose the speed of the car at the topmost
point of the loop is v. Taking the gravitational potential
Or, Mg(1 m)= Mg(0.5 m) + My,: energy to be zero at the platform and assuming that the
car starts with a negligible speed, the conservation of
or, V B= g(1 m - 0.5 m)
-
2
2
energy shows,
1 2
0 = - mgh + - my
= (10 m/s 2) 0.5 m 2
= 5m or, mu 2 = 2 mgh, (i)
2/s2

Or, VB = 41.15-
where m is the mass of the car. The car moving in a
circle must have radial acceleration v 2 /R at this instant.
The forces on the car are, mg due to gravity and s1( due
12. Figure (8-W8) shows a smooth curved track terminating to the contact with the track. Both these forces are in
in a smooth horizontal part. A spring of spring constant radial direction at the top of the loop. Thus, from
400 N/m is attached at one end to a wedge fixed rigidly Newton's Law
with the horizontal part. A 40 g mass is released from
n21.1 2
rest at a height of 4.9 m on the curved track. Find the mg + dV - R
maximum compression of the spring.
130 Concepts of Physics

or, mg + sN = 2 mgh1R. or,


2
v = gl cos() (i)
For h to be minimum, c/1( should assume the minimum where v is its speed at P. Using conservation of energy,
value which can be zero. Thus, 1 2 1 2
myo= my + mgl (1 + cos0)
hmin 2 2
2 mg R = mg or, hi.= R 12. 2 2
or, = y, 2g/(1 + cos0). (ii)
From (i) and (ii), vo 2 g l (1 + cos()) = g l cos0
14. A heavy particle is suspended by a string of length I, The
Or, vo =gl (2 + 3 cos0). (iii)
particle is given a horizontal velocity v 0 . The string
becomes slack at some angle and the particle proceeds on Now onwards the particle goes in a parabola under the
a parabola. Find the value of voif the particle passes action of gravity. As it passes through the point of
through the point of suspension. suspension 0, the equations for horizontal and vertical
motions give,
/ P / sine = (v cosO) t

and / cose = (v sin0) t I gt 2


Ii 2

/ sine 1 / sine 2
or, / cose = (v sine) (
V cos0 2gv cose

Figure 8-W10
g v2
/ sin
i vs200
Or, cos 20 = sin 20
Solution : Suppose the string becomes slack when the
particle reaches the point P (figure 8-W10). Suppose the Or, cos 20 = 1 cos 20 1
2g soins22 [From (i)]
gil c :

string OP makes an angle 0 with the upward vertical.


The only force acting on the particle at P is its weight 1 2
mg. The radial component of the force is mg cos0. As the Or, 1 = tan 0
2
particle moves on the circle upto P, Or, tan 0 = 42.
2
mg cos0 = m From (iii), vo = [gl (2 + -43)] 1/2.

QUESTIONS FOR SHORT ANSWER

1. When you lift a box from the floor and put it on an 8. A heavy box is kept on a smooth inclined plane and is
almirah the potential energy of the box increases, but pushed up by a force F acting parallel to the plane. Does
there is no change in its kinetic energy. Is it a violation the work done by the force F as the box goes from A to
of conservation of energy ? B depend on how fast the box was moving at A and B ?
2. A particle is released from the top of an incline of height Does the work by the force of gravity depend on this ?
h. Does the kinetic energy of the particle at the bottom 9. One person says that the potential energy of a particular
of the incline depend on the angle of incline ? Do you book kept in an almirah is 20 J and the other says it is
need any more information to answer this question in 30 J. Is one of them necessarily wrong ?
Yes or No ? 10. A book is lifted from the floor and is kept in an almirah.
One person says that the potential energy of the book
3. Can the work by kinetic friction on an object be positive ?
is increased by 20 J and the other says it is increased
Zero ?
by 30 J. Is one of them necessarily wrong ?
4. Can static friction do nonzero work on an object ? If yes, 11. In one of the exercises to strengthen the wrist and
give an example. If no, give reason. fingers, a person squeezes and releases a soft rubber
5. Can normal force do a nonzero work on an object. If yes, ball. Is the work done on the ball positive, negative or
give an example. If no, give reason. zero during compression ? During expansion ?
12. In tug of war, the team that exerts a larger tangential
6. Can kinetic energy of a system be increased without
force on the ground wins. Consider the period in which
applying any external force on the system ?
a team is dragging the opposite team by applying a
7. Is work-energy theorem valid in noninertial frames ? larger tangential force on the ground. List which of the
Work and Energy 131

following works are positive, which are negative and 15. The magnetic force on a charged particle is always
which are zero ? perpendicular to its velocity. Can the magnetic force
(a) work by the winning team on the losing team change the velocity of the particle ? Speed of the
(b) work by the losing team on the winning team particle ?
(c) work by the ground on the winning team 16. A ball is given a speed v on a rough horizontal surface.
(d) work by the ground on the losing team The ball travels through a distance 1 on the surface and
(e) total external work on the two teams. stops. (a) What are the initial and final kinetic energies
13. When an apple falls from a tree what happens to its of the ball ? (b) What is the work done by the kinetic
gravitational potential energy just as it reaches the friction ?
ground ? After it strikes the ground ? 17. Consider the situation of the previous question from a
frame moving with a speed vo parallel to the initial
14. When you push your bicycle up on an incline the velocity of the block. (a) What are the initial and final
potential energy of the bicyle and yourself increases. kinetic energies ? (b) What is the work done by the
Where does this energy come from ? kinetic friction ?

OBJECTIVE I

1. A heavy stone is thrown from a cliff of height h with a (a) total energy (b) kinetic energy
speed v. The stone will hit the ground with maximum (c) potential energy (d) none of these.
speed if it is thrown 7. of a two particle system depends only on the
(a) vertically downward (b) vertically upward separation between the two particles. The most
(c) horizontally appropriate choice for the blank space in the above
(d) the speed does not depend on the initial direction. sentence is
2. Two springs A and B(kA= 2k,) are stretched by applying (a) Kinetic energy (b) Total mechanical energy
forces of equal magnitudes at the four ends. If the energy (c) Potential energy (d) Total energy.
stored in A is E, that in B is
(a) E/2 (b) 2E (c) E (d) E/4. 8. A small block of mass m is kept on a rough inclined
surface of inclination 0 fixed in an elevator. The elevator
3. Two equal masses are attached to the two ends of a
goes up with a uniform velocity v and the block does not
spring of spring constant k. The masses are pulled out
slide on the wedge. The work done by the force of friction
symmetrically to stretch the spring by a length x over
on the block in time t will be
its natural length. The work done by the spring on each
(a) zero (b) mgvt cos 20
mass is
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 (c) mgvt sin 20 (d) mgvt sin 20.
(a) kx (b) - kx (c) kx (d) - kx .
2 2 4 4 9. A block of mass m slides down a smooth vertical circular
4. The negative of the work done by the conservative track. During the motion, the block is in
internal forces on a system equals the change in
(b) kinetic energy (a) vertical equilibrium (b) horizontal equilibrium
(a) total energy
(c) potential energy (d) none of these. (c) radial equilibrium (d) none of these.
5. The work done by the external forces on a system equals 10. A particle is rotated in a vertical circle by connecting it
the change in to a string of length 1 and keeping the other end of the
(a) total energy (b) kinetic energy string fixed. The minimum speed of the particle when
(c) potential energy (d) none of these. the string is horizontal for which the particle will
6. The work done by all the forces (external and internal) complete the circle is
on a system equals the change in (a) gl (b) (c) g (d)

OBJECTIVE II

1. A heavy stone is thrown from a cliff of height h in a (c) must be independent of the speed of projection
given direction. The speed with which it hits the ground (d) may be smaller than the speed of projection.
(a) must depend on the speed of projection 2. The total work done on a particle is equal to the change
(b) must be larger than the speed of projection in its kinetic energy
(a) always
132 Concepts of Physics

(b) only if the forces acting on it are conservative its highest point.
(c) only if gravitational force alone acts on it (b) The velocity of the particle becomes zero at the
(d) only if elastic force alone acts on it. highest point.
3. A particle is acted upon by a force of constant magnitude (c) The kinetic energy of the ball in initial position was
which is always perpendicular to the velocity of the 2
2 my = mgl .
particle. The motion of the particle takes place in a
plane. It follows that (d) The particle again passes through the initial position.
(a) its velocity is constant 8. The kinetic energy of a particle continuously increases
(b) its acceleration is constant with time.
(c) its kinetic energy is constant (a) The resultant force on the particle must be parallel
(d) it moves in a circular path. to the velocity at all instants.
4. Consider two observers moving with respect to each (b) The resultant force on the particle must be at an
other at a speed v along a straight line. They observe a angle less than 90 all the time.
block of mass m moving a distance 1 on a rough surface. (c) Its height above the ground level must continuously
The following quantities will be same as observed by the decrease.
two observers (d) The magnitude of its linear momentum is increasing
(a) kinetic energy of the block at time t continuously.
(b) work done by friction 9. One end of a light spring of spring constant k is fixed
(c) total work done on the block to a wall and the other end is tied to a block placed on
(d) acceleration of the block. a smooth horizontal surface. In a displacement, the work
5. You lift a suitcase from the floor and keep it on a table. 1 2
done by the spring is kx . The possible cases are
The work done by you on the suitcase does not depend 2
on (a) the spring was initially compressed by a distance x
(a) the path taken by the suitcase and was finally in its natural length
(b) the time taken by you in doing so (b) it was initially streched by a distance x and finally
(c) the weight of the suitcase was in its natural length
(d) your weight. (c) it was initially in its natural length and finally in a
6. No work is done by a force on an object if compressed position
(a) the force is always perpendicular to its velocity (d) it was initially in its natural length and finally in a
(b) the force is always perpendicular to its acceleration stretched position.
(c) the object is stationary but the point of application 10. A block of mass M is hanging over a smooth and light
of the force moves on the object pulley through a light string. The other end of the string
(d) the object moves in such a way that the point of is pulled by a constant force F. The kinetic energy of
application of the force remains fixed. the block increases by 20 J in 1 s.
7. A particle of mass m is attached to a light string of (a) The tension in the string is Mg.
length 1, the other end of which is fixed. Initially the (b) The tension in the string is F.
string is kept horizontal and the particle is given an (c) The work done by the tension on the block is 20 J
upward velocity u. The particle is just able to complete in the above 1 s.
a circle. (d) The work done by the force of gravity is 20 J in the
(a) The string becomes slack when the particle reaches above 1 s.

EXERCISES

1. The mass of cyclist together with the bike is 90 kg. 5. A constant force of 2.50 N accelerates a stationary
Calculate the increase in kinetic energy if the speed particle of mass 15 g through a displacement of 2.50 m.
increases from 6'0 km/h to 12 km/h. Find the work done and the average power delivered.
2. A block of mass 2.00 kg moving at a speed of 10.0 m/s 7> 7>
6. A particle moves from a point r1 = (2 m) + (3 m)j to
accelerates at 3.00 m/s2 for 5.00 s. Compute its final -4 7>
kinetic energy. another point r2= (3 m) t + (2 m)rduring which a certain
force F = (5 N) i + (5 N)j acts on it. Find the work done
3. A box is pushed through 4.0 m across a floor offering
by the force on the particle during the displacement.
100 N resistance. How much work is done by the
resisting force ? 7. A man moves on a straight horizontal road with a block
4. A block of mass 5.0 kg slides down an incline of of mass 2 kg in his hand. If he covers a distance of 40 in
inclination 30 and length 10 m. Find the work done by with an acceleration of 0.5 m/s 2, find the work done by
the force of gravity. the man on the block during the motion.
Work and Energy 133

8. A force F = a + bx acts on a particle in the x-direction, started from rest, find the work done (a) by the applied
where a and b are constants. Find the work done by this force in the first second, (b) by the weight of the block
force during a displacement from x = 0 to x = d. in the first second and (c) by the frictional force acting
9. A block of mass 250 g slides down an incline of on the block in the first second. Take g = 10 m/s 2.
inclination 37 with a uniform speed. Find the work done 18. A 250 g block slides on a rough horizontal table. Find
against the friction as the block slides through 1.0 m. the work done by the frictional force in bringing the
10. A block of mass m is kept over another block of mass block to rest if it is initially moving at a speed of 40
M and the system rests on a horizontal surface cm/s. If the friction coefficient between the table and the
(figure 8-E1). A constant horizontal force F acting on the block is 0.1, how far does the block move before coming
to rest ?
lower block produces an acceleration2 (m + in the
19. Water falling from a 50 m high fall is to be used for
system, the two blocks always move together. (a) Find generating electric energy. If 1.8 x 10 6 kg of water falls
the coefficient of kinetic friction between the bigger block per hour and half the gravitational potential energy can
and the horizontal surface. (b) Find the frictional force be converted into electric energy, how many 100 W
acting on the smaller block. (c) Find the work done by lamps can be lit ?
the force of friction on the smaller block by the bigger 20. A person is painting his house walls. He stands on a
block during a displacement d of the system. ladder with a bucket containing paint in one hand and
a brush in other. Suddenly the bucket slips from his
hand and falls down on the floor. If the bucket with the
paint had a mass of 6.0 kg and was at a height of 2.0 m
at the time it slipped, how much gravitational potential
Figure 8-El energy is lost together with the paint ?
21. A projectile is fired from the top of a 40 m high cliff
11. A box weighing 2000 N is to be slowly slid through 20 m with an initial speed of 50 m/s at an unknown angle.
on a straight track having friction coefficient 0.2 with Find its speed when it hits the ground.
the box. (a) Find the work done by the person pulling 22. The 200 m free style women's swimming gold medal at
the box with a chain at an angle 9 with the horizontal. Seol Olympic 1988 went to Heike Friendrich of East
(b) Find the work when the person has chosen a value Germany when she set a new Olympic record of 1 minute
of 0 which ensures him the minimum magnitUde of the and 57.56 seconds. Assume that she covered most of the
force. distance with a uniform speed and had to exert 460 W
12. A block of weight 100 N is slowly slid up on a smooth to maintain her speed. Calculate the average force of
incline of inclination 37 by a person. Calculate the work resistance offered by the water during the swim.
done by the person in moving the block through a 23. The US athlete Florence Griffith-Joyner won the 100 m
distance of 2.0 m, if the driving force is (a) parallel to sprint gold medal at Seol Olympic 1988 setting a new
the incline and (b) in the horizontal direction. Olympic record of 10.54 s. Assume that she achieved her
13. Find the average frictional force needed to stop a car maximum speed in a very short-time and then ran the
weighing 500 kg in a distance of 25 m if the initial speed race with that speed till she crossed the line. Take her
is 72 km/h. mass to be 50 kg. (a) Calculate the kinetic energy of
14. Find the average force needed to accelerate a car Griffith-Joyner at her full speed. (b) Assuming that the
weighing 500 kg from rest to 72 km/h in a distance of track, the wind etc. offered an average resistance of one
25 m. tenth of her weight, calculate the work done by the
15. A particle of mass m moves on a straight line with its resistance during the run. (c) What power Griffith-
velocity varying with the distance travelled according to Joyner had to exert to maintain uniform speed ?
the equation v = aIx, where a is a constant. Find the 24. A water pump lifts water from a level 10 m below the
total work done by all the forces during a displacement ground. Water is pumped at a rate of 30 kg/minute with
from x = 0 to x = d. negligible velocity. Calculate the minimum horsepower
16. A block of mass 2.0 kg kept at rest on an inclined plane the engine should have to do this.
of inclination 37 is pulled up the plane by applying a 25. An unruly demonstrator lifts a stone of mass 200 g from
constant force of 20 N parallel to the incline. The force the ground and throws it at his opponent. At the time
acts for one second. (a) Show that the work done by the of projection, the stone is 150 cm above the ground and
applied force does not exceed 40 J. (b) Find the work has a speed of 3.00 m/s. Calculate the work done by the
done by the force of gravity in that one second if the demonstrator during the process. If it takes one second
work done by the applied force is 40 J. (c) Find the for the demonstrator to lift the stone and throw, what
kinetic energy of the block at the instant the force ceases horsepower does he use ?
to act. Take g = 10 m/s 2. 26. In a factory it is desired to lift 2000 kg of metal through
17. A block of mass 2.0 kg is pushed down an inclined plane a distance of 12 m in 1 minute. Find the minimum
of inclination 37 with a force of 20 N acting parallel to horsepower of the engine to be used.
the incline. It is found that the block moves on the 27. A scooter company gives the following specifications
incline with an acceleration of 10 m/s2. If the block about its product.
134 Concepts of Physics

Weight of the scooter - 95 kg offered by the slide is three tenth of his weight. Find
Maximum speed - 60 km/h (a) the work done by the ladder on the boy as he goes
Maximum engine power - 3.5 hp up, (b) the work done by the slide on the boy as he comes
Pick up time to get the maximum speed - 5 s down. Neglect any work done by forces inside the body
Check the validity of these specifications. of the boy.
28. A block of mass 30.0 kg is being brought down by a
chain. If the block acquires a speed of 40.0 cm/s in
dropping down 2.00 m, find the work done by the chain
during the process.
29. The heavier block in an Atwood machine has a mass
twice that of the lighter one. The tension in the string
is 16.0 N when the system is set into motion. Find the Figure 8 E3
-

decrease in the gravitational potential energy during the


first second after the system is released from rest.
36. Figure (8-E4) shows a particle sliding on a frictionless
30. The two blocks in an Atwood machine have masses track which terminates in a straight horizontal section.
2.0 kg and 3.0 kg. Find the work done by gravity during If the particle starts slipping from the point A, how far
the fourth second after the system is released from rest. away from the track will the particle hit the ground ?
31. Consider the situation shown in figure (8-E2). The system
is released from rest and the block of mass 1.0 kg is
found to have a speed 0.3 m/s after it has descended
through a distance of 1 m. Find the coefficient of kinetic
friction between the block and the table.
T
1.0 m
T
0.5 m

Figure 8-E4

37. A block weighing 10 N travels down a smooth curved


track AB joined to a rough horizontal surface
(figure 8-E5). The rough surface has a friction coefficient
of 0.20 with the block. If the block starts slipping on the
track from a point 1.0 m above the horizontal surface,
Figure 8 E2- how far will it move on the rough surface ?

32. A block of mass 100 g is moved with a speed of 5.0 m/s


at the highest point in a closed circular tube of radius
10 cm kept in a vertical plane. The cross-section of the
tube is such that the block just fits in it. The block
makes several oscillations inside the tube and finally
stops at the lowest point. Find the work done by the
tube on the block during the process.
33. A car weighing 1400 kg is moving at a speed of 54 km/h
up a hill when the motor stops. If it is just able to reach Figure 8 E5
-

the destination which is at a height of 10 m above the


point, calculate the work done against friction (negative
38. A uniform chain of mass in and length 1 overhangs a
of the work done by the friction).
table with its two third part on the table. Find the work
34. A small block of mass 200 g is kept at the top of a to be done by a person to put the hanging part back on
frictionless incline which is 10 m long and 3.2 m high. the table.
How much work was required (a) to lift the block from
the ground and put it at the top, (b) to slide the block 39. A uniform chain of length L and mass M overhangs a
up the incline ? What will be the speed of the block when horizontal table with its two third part on the table. The
it reaches the ground, if (c) it falls off the incline and friction coefficient between the table and the chain is 11.
drops vertically on the ground (d) it slides down the Find the work done by the friction during the period the
incline ? Take g = 10 m/s 2 .
chain slips off the table.
35. In a children's park, there is a slide which has a total 40. A block of mass 1 kg is placed at the point A of a rough
length of 10 m and a height of 8.0 m (figure 8-E3). track shown in figure (8-E6). If slightly pushed towards
Vertical ladder are provided to reach the top. A boy right, it stops at the point B of the track. Calculate the
weighing 200 N climbs up the ladder to the top of the work done by the frictional force on the block during its
slide and slides down to the ground. The average friction transit from A to B.
Work and Energy 135

x and is released. Find the speed of the block as it passes


through the mean position shown.

k2

-(001)0 0 (50'-
Figure 8-E6
Figure 8-E9
41. A block of mass 5.0 kg is suspended from the end of a
vertical spring which is stretched by 10 cm under the 47. A block of massip, sliding on a smooth horizontal surface
load of the block. The block is given a sharp impulse with a velocity v meets a long horizontal spring fixed at
from below so that it acquires an upward speed of 2.0 one end and having spring constant k as shown in figure
m/s. How high will it rise ? Take g = 10 m/s 2 .
(8-E10). Find the maximum compression of tin spring.
42. A block of mass 250 g is kept on a vertical spring of Will the velocity of the block be the same as v when it
spring constant 100 N/m fixed from below. The spring comes back to the original position shown ?
is now compressed to have a length 10 cm shorter than
its natural length and the system is released from this k
position. How high does the block rise ? Take m
g =10 mls 2 .

43. Figure (8-E7) shows a spring fixed at the bottom end of Figure 8-E10
an incline of inclination 37. A small block of mass 2 kg
starts slipping down the incline from a point 4.8 m away
from the spring. The block compresses the spring by 48. A small block of mass 100 g is pressed against a
20 cm, stops momentarily and then rebounds through a horizontal spring fixed at one end to compress the spring
distance of 1 m up the incline. Find (a) the friction through 5.0 cm (figure 8-E11). The spring constant is
coefficient between the plane and the block and (b) the 100 N/m. When released, the block moves horizontally
spring constant of the spring. Take g = 10 m/s 2. till it leaves the spring. Where will it hit the ground 2 m
below the spring ?

Figure 8 E7
-

Figure 8 Ell
-

44. A block of mass m moving at a speed v compresses a


spring through a distance x before its speed is halved. 49. A small heavy block is attached to the lower end of a
Find the spring constant of the spring. light rod of length 1 which can be rotated about its
45. Consider the situation shown in figure (8-E8). Initially clamped upper end. What minimum horizontal velocity
the spring is unstretched when the system is released should the block be given so that it moves in a complete
from rest. Assuming no friction in the pulley, find the vertical circle ?
maximum elongation of the spring.

Figure. 8 E12
-

Figure 8 E8
-

50. Figure (8-E12) shows two blocks A and B, each having


46. A block of mass m. is attached to two unstretched springs a mass of 320 g connected by a light string passing over
of spring constants k, and k2 as shown in figure (8-E9). a smooth light pulley. The horizontal surface on which
The block is displaced towards right through a distance the block A can slide is smooth. The block A is attached
136 Concepts of Physics

to a spring of spring constant 40 N/m whose other end is then released. Find the initial compression of the
is fixed to a support 40 cm above the horizontal surface. spring so that the block presses the track with a force
Initially, the spring is vertical and unstretched when the mg when it reaches the point P, where the radius of the
system is released to move. Find the velocity of the block track is horizontal.
A at the instant it breaks off the surface below it. Take 56. The bob of a stationary pendulum is given a sharp hit
g = 10 m/s 2. to impart it a horizontal speed of .4T
gr. Find the angle
51. One end of a spring of natural length h and spring rotated by the string before it becomes slack.
constant k is fixed at the ground and the other is fitted
with a smooth ring of mass m which is allowed to slide 57. A heavy particle is suspended by a 1.5 m long string. It
on a horizontal rod fixed at a height h (figure 8-E13).
is given a horizontal velocity of m/s. (a) Find the
Initially, the spring makes an angle of 37 with the angle made by the string with the upward vertical, when
vertical when the system is released from rest. Find the it becomes slack. (b) Find the speed of the particle at
speed of the ring when the spring becomes vertical. this instant. (c) Find the maximum height reached
by the particle over the point of suspension. Take
g =10 m/s 2.
1
58. A simple pendulum of length L having a bob of mass m
is deflected from its rest position by an angle 9 and
released (figure 8-E16). The string hits a peg which is
fixed at a distance x below the point of suspension and
Figure 8-E13
the bob starts going in a circle centred at the peg. (a)
Assuming that initially the bob has a height less than
52. Figure (8-E14) shows a light rod of length 1 rigidly the peg, show that the maximum height reached by the
attached to a small heavy block at one end and a hook bob equals its initial height. (b) If the pendulum is
at the other end. The system is released from rest with released with 9 = 90 and x=LI2 find the maximum
the rod in a horizontal position. There is a fixed smooth height reached by the bob above its lowest position
ring at a depth h below the initial position of the hook before the string becomes slack. (c) Find the minimum
and the hook gets into the ring as it reaches there. What value of x/L for which the bob goes in a complete circle
should be the minimum value of h so that the block about the peg when the pendulum is released from
moves in a complete circle about the ring ? 9 = 90.

n
n rCD
Figure 8 E14
-

53. The bob of a pendulum at rest is given a sharp hit to Figure 8 E16
-

impart a horizontal velocity .V10 gl, where 1 is the length


of the pendulum. Find the tension in the string when 59. A particle slides on the surface of a fixed smooth sphere
(a) the string is horizontal, (b) the bob is at its highest starting from the topmost point. Find the angle rotated
point and (c) the string makes an angle of 60 with the by the radius through the particle, when it leaves contact
upward vertical. with the sphere.
54. A simple pendulum consists of a 50 cm long string 60. A particle of mass m is kept on a fixed, smooth sphere
connected to a 100 g ball. The ball is pulled aside so of radius R at a position, where the radius through the
that the string makes an angle of 37 with the vertical particle makes an angle of 30 with the vertical. The
and is then released. Find the tension in the string when particle is released from this position. (a) What is the
the bob is at its lowest position. force exerted by the sphere on the particle just after the
release ? (b) Find the distance travelled by the particle
before it leaves contact with the sphere.
k m 61. A particle of mass m is kept on the top of a smooth
-( F
0000000)- sphere of radius R. It is given a sharp impulse which
imparts it a horizontal speed v. (a) Find the normal force
Figure 8-E15
between the sphere and the particle just after the
impulse. (b) What should be the minimum value of v for
55. Figure (8-E15) shows a smooth track, a part of which is which the particle does not slip on the sphere ?
a circle of radius R. A block of mass m is pushed against (c) Assuming the velocity v to be half the minimum
a spring of spring constant k fixed at the left end and calculated in part, (d) find the angle made by the radius
Work and Energy 137

through the particle with the vertical when it leaves the when it reaches the top. (c) Assuming that the
sphere. projection-speed is only slightly greater than v0, where
will the block lose contact with the track ?
63. A chain of length 1 and mass m lies on the surface of a
smooth sphere of radius R >1 with one end tied to the
top of the sphere. (a) Find the gravitational potential
energy of the chain with reference level at the centre of
the sphere. (b) Suppose the chain is released and slides
down the sphere. Find the kinetic energy of the chain,
when it has slid through an angle 9. (c) Find the
Figure 8-E17
tangential acceleration civt-of the chain when the chain
62. Figure (8-E17) shows a smooth track which consists of starts sliding down.
a straight inclined part of length 1 joining smoothly with
the circular part. A particle of mass m is projected up 64. A smooth sphere of radius R is made to translate in a
the incline from its bottom. (a) Find the minimum straight line with a constant acceleration a. A particle
projection-speed v, for which the particle reaches the top kept on the top of the sphere is released from there at
of the track. (b) Assuming that the projection-speed is zero velocity with respect to the sphere. Find the speed
2v0 and that the block does not lose contact with the of the particle with respect to the sphere as a function
track before reaching its top, find the force acting on it of the angle 0 it slides.

ANSWERS

OBJECTIVE I 12. (a) 120 J (b) 120 J


13. 4000 N
1. (d) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (b)
14. 4000 N
7. (c) 8. (c) 9. (d) 10. (c)
15. ma 2d/2
16. (b) - 24 J (c) 16 J
OBJECTIVE II 17. (a) 100 J (b) 60 J (c) - 60 J
1. (a), (b) 2. (a) 3. (c), (d) 18. - 0.02 J, 8.2 cm
4. (d) 5. (a), (b), (d) 6. (a), (c), (d) 19. 122
7. (a), (d) 8. (b), (d) 9. (a), (b) 20. 118 J
10. (b) 21. 58 m/s
22. 270 N
EXERCISES 23. (a) 2250 J (b) - 4900 J (c) 465 W

1. 375 J 24. 6.6 x 10 -2 hp


2. 625 J 25. 3.84 J, 5.14 x 10 -3 hp
3. 400 J 26. 5.3 hp
4. 245 J 27. Seems to be somewhat overclaimed.
5. 6.25 J, 36.1 W 28. - 586 J
6. zero 29. 19.6 J
7. 40 J 30. 67 J
8. + bd)d 31. 0.12
2
32. - 1.45 J
9. 1.5 J 33. 20300 J
mF mFd 34. (a) 6.4 J (b) 6.4 J (c) 8.0 m/s (d) 8.0 m/s
10. (a) (b) (c)
2 (M + m) g 2 (M+m) 2(M + m) 35. (a) zero (b) - 600 J (c) 1600 J
4 36. At a horizontal distance of 1 m from the end of the track.
11. (a)0000 J (b) 7690 J
5 + tan0
37. 5.0 m
138 Concepts of Physics

38. mg//18
55. -\13mg R
39. -21.1MgL/9
40. - 2 J
56. cos- ' (- 1/3)
41. 20 cm
42. 20 cm 57. (a) 53 (b) 3.0 m/s
43. (a) 0.5 (b) 1000 N/m 58. (b) 5L/6 above the lowest point (c) 0:6
12m
2 59. cos-1(2/3)
AA 3 my

4x 60. 43 mg/2 (b) 0.43 R


45. 2 mg/k my 2
61. (a) mg - (b) /T.- (c) cos -1 (3/4)
x R
46.
62. (a) '12 g [R(1- cose) +1 sine] (b) 6 mg (1- cos() + Rsine
47. v qm/k, No
48. At a horizontal distance of 1 m from the free end of the (c) The radius through the particle makes an angle
spring. cos- i(2/3) with the vertical.
49. 2 .
iV
g 2