[PART 1]
H C VERMA, PhD
Department of Physics
IIT, Kanpur
Bharati Bhawan
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RHA AN PUBLISHERS & DISTRIBUTORS
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Concepts of Physics 1
Printed at B B Printers, Patna800 006
Dedicated to
Indian Philosophy & Way of Life
of which
my parents were
an integral part
FOREWORD
A few years ago I had an occasion to go through the book Calculus by L.V.Terasov. It unravels intricacies
of the subject through a dialogue between Teacher and Student. I thoroughly enjoyed reading it. For me this
seemed to be one of the few books which teach a difficult subject through inquisition, and using programmed
concept for learning. After that book, Dr. Harish Chandra Verma's book on physics, CONCEPTS OF PHYSICS is
another such attempt, even though it is not directly in the dialogue form. I have thoroughly appreciated it. It
is clear that Dr. Verma has spent considerable time in formulating the structure of the book, besides its contents.
I think he has been successful in this attempt. Dr. Verma's book has been divided into two parts because of the
size of the total manuscript. There have been several books on this subject, each one having its own flavour.
However, the present book is a totally different attempt to teach physics, and I am sure it will be extremely
useful to the undergraduate students. The exposition of each concept is extremely lucid. In carefully formatted
chapters, besides problems and short questions, a number of objective questions have also been included. This
book can certainly be extremely useful not only as a textbook, but also for preparation of various competitive
examinations.
Those who have followed Dr. Verma's scientific work always enjoyed the outstanding contributions he has
made in various research areas. He was an outstanding student of Physics Department of IIT Kanpur during
his academic career. An extremely methodical, sincere person as a student, he has devoted himself to the task
of educating young minds and inculcating scientific temper amongst them. The present venture in the form of
these two volumes is another attempt in that direction. I am sure that young minds who would like to learn
physics in an appropriate manner will find these volumes extremely useful.
I must heartily congratulate Dr. Harish Chandra Verma for the magnificent job he has done.
Y. R Waghmare
Professor of Physics
IIT Kanpur.
PREFACE
Prerequisites
The book presents a calculusbased physics course which makes free use of algebra, trigonometry and
coordinate geometry. The level of the latter three topics is quite simple and high school mathematics is sufficient.
Calculus is generally done at the introductory college level and I have assumed that the student is enrolled in
a concurrent first calculus course. The relevant portions of calculus have been discussed in Chapter2 so that
the student may start using it from the beginning.
Almost no knowledge of physics is a prerequisite. I have attempted to start each topic from the zero level.
A receptive mind is all that is needed to use this book.
H. C. Verma
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The work on this book started in 1984. Since then, a large number of teachers, students and physics lovers
have made valuable suggestions which I have incorporated in this work. It is not possible for me to acknowledge
all of them individually. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to them. However, to Dr. S. B. Mathur,
who took great pains in going through the entire manuscript and made valuable comments, I am specially
indebted. I am also beholden to my colleagues Dr. A. Yadav, Dr. Deb Mukherjee, Mr. M. M. R. Akhtar,
Dr. Arjun Prasad, Dr. S. K. Sinha and others who gave me valuable advice and were good enough to find time
for fruitful discussions. To Dr. T. K. Dutta of B. E. College, Sibpur I am grateful for having taken time to go
through portions of the book and making valuable comments.
I thank my student Mr. Shailendra Kumar who helped me in checking the answers. I am grateful to
Dr. B. C. Rai, Mr. Sunil Khijwania & Mr. Tejaswi Khijwania for helping me in the preparation of rough sketches
for the book.
Finally, I thank the members of my family for their support and encouragement.
H. C. Verma
TO THE STUDENTS
Here is a brief discussion on the organisation of the book which will help you in using the book most
effectively. The book contains 47 chapters divided in two volumes. Though I strongly believe in the underlying
unity of physics, a broad division may be made in the book as follows :
Chapters 114 : Mechanics
1517 : Waves including wave optics
1822 : Optics
2328 : Heat and thermodynamics
2940 : Electric and magnetic phenomena
4147 : Modern physics
Each chapter contains a description of the physical principles related to that chapter. It is wellsupported
by mathematical derivations of equations, descriptions of laboratory experiments, historical background etc. There
are "intext" solved examples. These examples explain the equation just derived or the concept just discussed.
These will help you in fixing the Ideas firmly in your mind. Your teachers may use these intext examples in
the classroom to encourage students to participate in discussions.
After the theory section, there is a section on Worked Out Examples. These numerical examples correspond
to various thinking levels and often use several concepts introduced in that chapter or even in previous chapters.
You should read the statement of a problem and try to solve it yourself. In case of difficulty, look at the solution
given in the book. Even if you solve the problem successfully, you should look into the solution to compare it
with your method of solution. You might have thought of a better method, but knowing more than one method
is always beneficial.
Then comes the part which tests your understanding as well as develops it further. Questions for Short
Answer generally touch very minute points of your understanding. It is not necessary that you answer these
questions in a single sitting. They have great potential to initiate very fruitful dicussions. So, freely discuss
these questions with your friends and see if they agree with your answer. Answers to these questions are not
given for the simple reason that the answers could have cut down the span of such discussions and that would
have sharply reduced the utility of these questions.
There are two sections on multiple choice questions namely OBJECTIVE I and OBJECTIVE II. There are four
options following each of these questions. Only one option is correct for OBJECTIVE I questions. Any number of
options, zero to four, may be correct for OBJECTIVE II questions. Answers to all these questions are provided.
Finally, a set of numerical problems are given for your practice. Answers to these problems are also provided.
The problems are generally arranged according to the sequence of the concepts developed in the chapter but
they are not grouped under sectionheadings. I don't want to bias your ideas beforehand by telling you that this
problem belongs to that section and hence use that particular equation. You should yourself look into the problem
and decide which equations or which methods should be used to solve it. Many of the problems use several
concepts developed in different sections of the chapter. Many of them even use the concepts from the previous
chapters. Hence, you have to plan out the strategy after understanding the problem.
Remember, no problem is difficult. Once you understand the theory, each problem will become easy. So, don't
jump to exercise problems before you have gone through the theory, the worked out problems and the objectives.
Once you feel confident in theory, do the exercise problems. The exercise problems are so arranged that they
gradually require more thinking.
I hope you will enjoy Concepts of Physics.
H. C. Verma
Table of Contents
Objective II 50
Chapter 1
Exercises 51
Introduction to Physics 1
1.1 What Is Physics ? 1 Chapter 4
1.2 Physics and Mathematics 1 The Forces 56
1.3 Units 2 4.1 Introduction 56
1.4 Definitions of Base Units 3 4.2 Gravitational Force 56
1.5 Dimension 4 4.3 Electromagnetic (EM) Force 57
1.6 Uses of Dimension 4 4.4 Nuclear Forces 59
1.7 Order of Magnitude 6 4.5 Weak Forces 59
1.8 The Structure of World 6 59
4.6 Scope of Classical Physics
Worked Out Examples 7
Worked Out Examples 60
Questions for Short Answer 8
Questions for Short Answer 61
Objective I 9
Objective I 62
Objective II 9
Objective II 62
Exercises 9
Exercises 63
Chapter 2 Chapter 5
Physics and Mathematics 12
Newton's Laws of Motion 64
2.1 Vectors and Scalars 12
5.1 First Law of Motion 64
2.2 Equality of Vectors 13
5.2 Second Law of Motion 65
2.3 Addition of Vectors 13
5.3 Working with Newton's First and Second Law 66
2.4 Multiplication of a Vector by a Number 14
5.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion 68
2.5 Subtraction of Vectors 14
5.5 Pseudo Forces 69
2.6 Resolution of Vectors 14
5.6 The Horse and the Cart 71
2.7 Dot Product or Scalar Proudct of Two Vectors 15
5.7 Inertia 71
2.8 Cross Product or Vector Product of Two Vectors 16
Worked Out Examples 72
dy
2.9 Differential Calculus dx as Rate Measurer 17 Questions for Short Answer 76
Objective I 77
2.10 Maxima and Minima 18
Objective II 78
2.11 Integral Calculus 19
Exercises 79
2.12 Significant Digits 21
2.13 Significant Digits in Calculations 22 Chapter 6
2.14 Errors in Measurement 23
Worked Out Examples 24 Friction 85
Questions for Short Answer 27 6.1 Friction as the Component of Contact Force 85
Objective I 28 6.2 Kinetic Friction 86
Objective II 28 6.3 Static Friction 87
Exercises 29 6.4 Laws of Friction 88
6.5 Understanding Friction at Atomic Level 88
Chapter 3 6.6 A Laboratory Method to Measure
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 31 Friction Coefficient 89
3.1 Rest and Motion 31 Worked Out Examples 91
3.2 Distance and Displacement 31 Questions for Short Answer 95
3.3 Average Speed and Instantaneous Speed 32 Objective I 96
3.4 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity 33 Objective II 97
3.5 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration 34 Exercises 97
3.6 Motion in a Straight Line 34 Chapter 7
3.7 Motion in a Plana 37
3.8 Projectile Motion
. 38 Circular Motion 101
3.9 Change of Frame 39 7.1 Angular Variables 101
Worked Out Examples 41 7.2 Unit Vectors along the Radius and the Tangent 102
Questions for Short Answer 48 7.3 Acceleration in Circular Motion 102
Objective I 49 7.4 Dynamics of Circular Motion 103
7.5 Circular Turnings and Banking of Roads 104 10.6 Bodies in Equilibrium 172
7.6 Centrifugal Force 105 10.7 Bending of a Cyclist on a Horizontal Turn 172
7.7 Effect of Earth's Rotation on Apparent Weight 106 10.8 Angular Momentum 173
Worked Out Examples 107 10.9 L= 10 173
Questions for Short Answer 111 10.10 Conservation of Angular Momentum 173
Objective I 112 10.11 Angular Impulse 174
Objective II 113 10.12 Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body
Exercises 114 Rotating About a Given Axis 174
10.13 Power Delivered and Work Done by a Torque 175
Chapter 8 10.14 Calculation of Moment of Inertia 175
Work and Energy 118 10.15 Two Important Theorems on Moment of Inertia 178
118 10.16 Combined Rotation and Translation 180
8.1 Kinetic Energy
8.2 Work and Workenergy Theorem 118 10.17 Rolling 180
8.3 Calculation of Work Done 119 10.18 Kinetic Energy of a Body in Combined
Rotation and Translation 182
8.4 Workenergy Theorem for a System of Particles 120
10.19 Angular Momentum of a Body
8.5 Potential Energy 121 in Combined Rotation and Translation 182
8.6 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces 121 183
10.20 Why Does a Rolling Sphere Slow Down ?
8.7 Definition of Potential Energy and Worked Out Examples 183
Conservation of Mechanical Energy 122
Questions for Short Answer 192
8.8 Change in the Potential Energy
in a Rigidbodymotion 123 Objective I 193
8.9 Gravitational Potential Energy 124 Objective II 194
8.10 Potential Energy of a Compressed or Exercises 195
Extended Spring 124 Chapter 11
8.11 Different Forms of Energy : Mass Energy
Equivalence 126 Gravitation 203
Worked Out Examples 126 11.1 Historical Introduction 203
Questions for Short Answer 130 11.2 Measurement of Gravitational Constant G 204
Objective I 131 11.3 Gravitational Potential Energy 206
Objective II 131 11.4 Gravitational Potential 207
Exercises 132 11.5 Calculation of Gravitational Potential 207
11.6 Gravitational Field 210
Chapter 9 11.7 Relation between Gravitational Field and Potential 210
Centre of Mass, Linear Momentum, Collision 139 11.8 Calculation of Gravitational Field 211
9.1 Centre of Mass 139 11.9 Variation in the Value of g 214
9.2 Centre of Mass of Continuous Bodies 141 11.10 Planets and Satellites 216
9.3 Motion of the Centre of Mass 142 11.11 Kepler's Laws 217
9.4 Linear Momentum and its Conservation Principle 144 11.12 Weightlessness in a Satellite 217
9.5 Rocket Propulsion 144 11.13 Escape Velocity 217
9.6 Collision 145 11.14 Gravitational Binding Energy 218
9.7 Elastic Collision in One Dimension 147 11.15 Black Holes 218
9.8 Perfectly Inelastic Collision in One Dimension 148 11.16 Inertial and Gravitational Mass 218
9.9 Coefficient of Restitution 148 11.17 Possible Changes in the Law of Gravitation 219
9.10 Elastic Collision in Two Dimensions 148 Worked Out Examples 219
9.11 Impulse and Impulsive Force 149 Questions for Short Answer 223
Worked Out Examples 149 Objective I 224
.
INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS
1.1 WHAT IS PHYSICS ? Physics goes the same way. The nature around us
is like a big chess game played by Nature. The events
The nature around us is colourful and diverse. It in the nature are like the moves of the great game.
contains phenomena of large varieties. The winds, the We are allowed to watch the events of nature and
sands, the waters, the planets, the rainbow, heating of guess at the basic rules according to which the events
objects on rubbing, the function of a human body, the take place. We may come across new events which do
energy coming from the sun and the nucleus there not follow the rules guessed earlier and we may have
are a large number of objects and events taking place to declare the old rules inapplicable or wrong and
around us. discover new rules.
Physics is the study of nature and its laws. We Since physics is the study of nature, it is real. No
expect that all these different events in nature take one has been given the authority to frame the rules of
place according to some basic laws and revealing these physics. We only discover the rules that are operating
laws of nature from the observed events is physics. For in nature. Aryabhat, Newton, Einstein or Feynman are
example, the orbiting of the moon around the earth, great physicists because from the observations
falling of an apple from a tree and tides in a sea on a available at that time, they could guess and frame the
full moon night can all be explained if we know the laws of physics which explained these observations in
Newton's law of gravitation and Newton's laws of a convincing way. But there can be a new phenomenon
motion. Physics is concerned with the basic rules any day and if the rules discovered by the great
which are applicable to all domains of life. scientists are not able to explain this phenomenon, no
Understanding of physics, therefore, leads to one will hesitate to change these rules.
applications in many fields including bio and medical
sciences. 1.2 PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS
The great physicist Dr R. P. Feynman has given a The description of nature becomes easy if we have
wonderful description of what is "understanding the the freedom to use mathematics. To say that the
nature". Suppose we do not know the rules of chess gravitational force between two masses is proportional
but are allowed to watch the moves of the players. If to the product of the masses and is inversely
we watch the game for a long time, we may make out proportional to the square of the distance apart, is
some of the rules. With the knowledge of these rules more difficult than to write
we may try to understand why a player played a
particular move. However, this may be a very difficult m1m2
F cc 2 ... (1.1)
task. Even if we know all the rules of chess, it is not r
so simple to understand all the complications of a game Further, the techniques of mathematics such as
in a given situation and predict the correct move. algebra, trigonometry and calculus can be used to
Knowing the basic rules is, however, the minimum make predictions from the basic equations. Thus, if we
requirement if any progress is to be made. know the basic rule (1.1) about the force between two
One may guess at a wrong rule by partially particles, we can use the technique of integral calculus
watching the game. The experienced player may make to find what will be the force exerted by a uniform rod
use of a rule for the first time and the observer of the on a particle placed on its perpendicular bisector.
game may get surprised. Because of the new move Thus, mathematics is the language of physics.
some of the rules guessed at may prove to be wrong Without knowledge of mathematics it would be much
and the observer will frame new rules. more difficult to discover, understand and explain the
2 Concepts of Physics
laws of nature. The importance of mathematics in and any changes in standard units are communicated
today's world cannot be disputed. However, through the publications of the Conference.
mathematics itself is not physics. We use a language
to express our ideas. But the idea that we want to Fundamental and Derived Quantities
express has the main attention. If we are poor at There are a large number of physical quantities
grammar and vocabulary, it would be difficult for us which are measured and every quantity needs a
to communicate our feelings but while doing so our definition of unit. However, not all the quantities are
basic interest is in the feeling that we want to express. independent of each other. As a simple example, if a
It is nice to board a deluxe coach to go from Delhi to unit of length is defined, a unit of area is automatically
Agra, but the sweet memories of the deluxe coach and obtained. If we make a square with its length equal
the video film shown on way are next to the prime to its breadth equal to the unit length, its area can be
goal of reaching Agra. "To understand nature" is called the unit area. All areas can then be compared
physics, and mathematics is the deluxe coach to take to this standard unit of area. Similarly, if a unit of
us there comfortably. This relationship of physics and length and a unit of time interval are defined, a unit
mathematics must be clearly understood and kept in of speed is automatically obtained. If a particle covers
mind while doing a physics course. a unit length in unit time interval, we say that it has
a unit speed. We can define a set of fundamental
1.3 UNITS quantities as follows :
(a) the fundamental quantities should be indepen
Physics describes the laws of nature. This dent of each other, and
description is quantitative and involves measurement (b) all other quantities may be expressed in terms
and comparison of physical quantities. To measure a of the fundamental quantities.
physical quantity we need some standard unit of that It turns out that the number of fundamental quantities
quantity. An elephant is heavier than a goat but is only seven. All the rest may be derived from these
exactly how many times ? This question can be easily
quantities by multiplication and division. Many
answered if we have chosen a standard mass calling different choices can be made for the fundamental
it a unit mass. If the elephant is 200 times the unit quantities. For example, one can take speed and time
mass and the goat is 20 times we know that the
as fundamental quantities. Length is then a derived
elephant is 10 times heavier than the goat. If I have
quantity. If something travels at unit speed, the
the knowledge of the unit length and some one says
distance it covers in unit time interval will be called
that Gandhi Maidan is 5 times the unit length from a unit distance. One may also take length and time
here, I will have the idea whether I should walk down
interval as the fundamental quantities and then speed
to Gandhi Maidan or I should ride a rickshaw or I
will be a derived quantity. Several systems are in use
should go by a bus. Thus, the physical quantities are
over the world and in each system the fundamental
quantitatively expressed in terms of a unit of that
quantities are selected in a particular way. The units
quantity. The measurement of the quantity is defined for the fundamental quantities are called
mentioned in two parts, the first part gives how many
fundamental units and those obtained for the derived
times of the standard unit and the second part gives quantities are called the derived units.
the name of the unit. Thus, suppose I have to study
for 2 hours. The numeric part 2 says that it is 2 times Fundamental quantities are also called base
of the unit of time and the second part hour says that quantities.
the unit chosen here is an hour. SI Units
Who Decides the Units ? In 1971 CGPM held its meeting and decided a
system of units which is known as the International
How is a standard unit chosen for a physical System of Units. It is abbreviated as SI from the
quantity ? The first thing is that it should have French name Le Systeme International d'Unites. This
international acceptance. Otherwise, everyone will system is widely used throughout the world.
choose his or her own unit for the quantity and it will Table (1.1) gives the fundamental quantities and
be difficult to communicate freely among the persons their units in SI.
distributed over the world. A body named Conference
Generale des Poids et Mesures or CGPM also known
as General Conference on Weight and Measures in
English has been given the authority to decide the
units by international agreement. It holds its meetings
Introduction to Physics 3
Table 1.1 : Fundamental or Base Quantities (a) Invariability : The standard unit must be
Quantity Name of the Unit Symbol invariable. Thus, defining distance between the tip of
the middle finger and the elbow as a unit of length is
Length metre
not invariable.
Mass kilogram kg
(b) Availability : The standard unit should be
Time second easily made available for comparing with other
Electric Current ampere A quantities.
Thermodynamic Temperature kelvin The procedures to define a standard value as a
Amount of Substance mole mol unit are quite often not very simple and use modern
Luminous Intensity candela cd equipments. Thus, a complete understanding of these
procedures cannot be given in the first chapter. We
briefly mention the definitions of the base units which
Besides the seven fundamental units two
may serve as a reference if needed.
supplementary units are defined. They are for plane
angle and solid angle. The unit for plane angle is Metre
radian with the symbol rad and the unit for the solid
angle is steradian with the symbol sr. It is the unit of length. The distance travelled by
1
light in vacuum in second is called 1 m.
SI Prefixes
299,792,458
Mole
1.4 DEFINITIONS OF BASE UNITS
The amount of a substance that contains as many
Any standard unit should have the following two elementary entities (molecules or atoms if the
properties : substance is monatomic) as there are number of atoms
4 Concepts of Physics
in 0.012 kg of carbon12 is called a mole. This number Such an expression for a physical quantity in terms
(number of atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon12) is called of the base quantities is called the dimensional
Avogadro constant and its best value available is formula. Thus, the dimensional formula of force is
6'022045 x 10 23 with an uncertainty of about MLT 2. The two versions given below are equivalent
0'000031 x 10 23. and are used interchangeably.
(a) The dimensional formula of force is MLT 2.
Candela
(b) The dimensions of force are 1 in mass, 1 in
The SI unit of luminous intensity is 1 cd which is length and 2 in time.
the luminous intensity of a blackbody of surface area
2 Example 1.1
m placed at the temperature of freezing
600,000
platinum and at a pressure of 101,325 N/m 2, in the Calculate the dimensional formula of energy from the
direction perpendicular to its surface. 1
equation E = my 2.
2
1.5 DIMENSION 1 is
Solution : Dimensionally, E = mass x (velocity)2, since
2
All the physical quantities of interest can be a number and has no dimension.
2
derived from the base quantities. When a quantity is
expressed in terms of the base quantities, it is written Or, [E] =M 4) = ML2 T 2.
as a product of different powers of the base quantities.
The exponent of a base quantity that enters into the
expression, is called the dimension of the quantity in
that base. To make it clear, consider the physical 1.6 USES OF DIMENSION
quantity force. As we shall learn later, force is equal
to mass times acceleration. Acceleration is change in A. Homogeneity of Dimensions in an Equation
velocity divided by time interval. Velocity is length
divided by time interval. Thus, An equation contains several terms which are
separated from each other by the symbols of equality,
force = mass x acceleration plus or minus. The dimensions of all the terms in an
vel city equation must be identical. This is another way of
= mass x saying that one can add or subtract similar physical
time
length/time quantities. Thus, a velocity cannot be added to a force
= mass x or an electric current cannot be subtracted from the
time
thermodynamic temperature. This simple principle is
mass x length x (time)  2. ... (1.2) called the principle of homogeneity of dimensions in an
equation and is an extremely useful method to check
Thus, the dimensions of force are 1 in mass, 1 in whether an equation may be correct or not. If the
length and 2 in time. The dimensions in all other dimensions of all the terms are not same, the equation
base quantities are zero. Note that in this type of must be wrong. Let us check the equation
calculation the magnitudes are not considered. It is 2
x = + at
equality of the type of quantity that enters. Thus, 2
change in velocity, initial velocity, average velocity, for the dimensional homogeneity. Here x is the distance
final velocity all are equivalent in this discussion, each travelled by a particle in time t which starts at a speed
one is length/time. u and has an acceleration a along the direction of
For convenience the base quantities are motion.
represented by one letter symbols. Generally, mass is [x] = L
denoted by M, length by L, time by T and electric length
current by I. The thermodynamic temperature, the [ut] = velocity x time = x time = L
time
amount of substance and the luminous intensity are
[I 21 2 2
denoted by the symbols of their units K, mol and cd
L 2 at 1 = [at ] = acceleration x (time)
respectively. The physical quantity that is expressed
in terms of the base quantities is enclosed in square velocity 2 length/time
x (time) = x (time) 2 = L
brackets to remind that the equation is among the time time
dimensions and not among the magnitudes. Thus Thus the equation is correct as far as the dimensions
equation (1.2) may be written as [force] = MLT 2. are concerned.
Introduction to Physics 5
Limitation of the Method Thus, knowing the conversion factors for the base
1 2 quantities, one can work out the conversion factor for
Note that the dimension of 2 at is same as that
any derived quantity if the dimensional formula of the
of at 2. Pure numbers are dimensionless. Dimension derived quantity is known.
does not depend on the magnitude. Due to this reason
C. Deducing Relation among the Physical Quantities
the equation x = ut + at 2 is also dimensionally correct.
Thus, a dimensionally correct equation need not be Sometimes dimensions can be used to deduce a
actually correct but a dimensionally wrong equation relation between the physical quantities. If one knows
must be wrong. the quantities on which a particular physical quantity
depends and if one guesses that this dependence is of
Example 1.2 product type, method of dimension may be helpful in
the derivation of the relation. Taking an example,
Test dimensionally if the formula t = 2 7C  may be suppose we have to derive the expression for the time
F 1x
period of a simple pendulum. The simple pendulum
correct, where t is time period, m is mass, F is force and has a bob, attached to a string, which oscillates under
x is distance. the action of the force of gravity. Thus, the time period
Solution : The dimension of force is MLT2. Thus, the may depend on the length of the string, the mass of
dimension of the righthand side is the bob and the acceleration due to gravity. We assume
that the dependence of time period on these quantities
r1 1 T is of product type, that is,
M
MLT2/L A T2
The lefthand side is time period and hence the t=k/ a m b g c ... (1.3)
dimension is T. The dimensions of both sides are equal where k is a dimensionless constant and a, b and c
and hence the formula may be correct. are exponents which we want to evaluate. Taking the
dimensions of both sides,
(LT 2)c=La+cmbT2c.
B. Conversion of Units T = La M b
When we choose to work with a different set of Since the dimensions on both sides must be identical,
units for the base quantities, the units of all the we have
derived quantities must be changed. Dimensions can a +c=0
be useful in finding the conversion factor for the unit b =0
of a derived physical quantity from one system to and 2c = 1
other. Consider an example. When SI units are used, giving a = b = 0 and c =
2
the unit of pressure is 1 pascal. Suppose we choose
1 cm as the unit of length, 1 g as the unit of mass and Putting these values in equation (1.3)
1 s as the unit of time (this system is still in wide use
and is called CGS system). The unit of pressure will t=k ... (1.4)
be different in this system. Let us call it for the time
being 1 CGS pressure. Now, how many CGS pressure Thus, by dimensional analysis we can deduce that
is equal to 1 pascal ? the time period of a simple pendulum is independent
Let us first write the dimensional formula of of its mass, is proportional to the square root of the
pressure. length of the pendulum and is inversely proportional
to the square root of the acceleration due to gravity at
We have P= the place of observation.
A
Epi [F] MLT 2 z Limitations of the Dimensional Method
Thus, 1T
[Al L2 Although dimensional analysis is very useful in
deducing certain relations, it cannot lead us too far.
so, 1 pascal = (1 kg) (1 m) 1 (1 s)2 First of all we have to know the quantities on which
and 1 CGS pressure = (1 g) (1 cm)1 (1 s) 2 a particular physical quantity depends. Even then the
method works only if the dependence is of the product
1 pascal 1 kg][1 m 2 type. For example, the distance travelled by a
Thus,
1 CGS pressure ( 1 g 1 cm 1s uniformly accelerated particle depends on the initial
velocity u, the acceleration a and the time t. But the
= (10 3) (10 2)  1= 10 method of dimensions cannot lead us to the correct
or, 1 pascal = 10 CGS pressure. expression for x because the expression is not of
6 Concepts of Physics
product type. It is equal to the sum of two terms as of magnitude calculation. In this all numbers are
x = ut + at 2. approximated to 10 bform and the calculation is made.
2
Secondly, the numerical constants having no Let us estimate the number of persons that may
dimensions cannot be deduced by the method of sit in a circular field of radius 800 m. The area of the
dimensions. In the example of time period of a simple field is
pendulum, an unknown constant k remains in equation
A = itr 2= 3.14 x (800 m) 2 = 10 6 m 2.
(1.4). One has to know from somewhere else that this
constant is 27.c. The average area one person occupies in sitting
1m2
Thirdly, the method works only if there are as = 50 cm x 50 cm = 0.25 m 2 = 2.5 x 10 101m 2.
many equations available as there are unknowns. In The number of persons who can sit in the field is
mechanical quantities, only three base quantities 10 m 2
length, mass and time enter. So, dimensions of these N 10 7.
three may be equated in the guessed relation giving 10 1111 2
at most three equations in the exponents. If a Thus of the order of 10 'persons may sit in the
particular quantity (in mechanics) depends on more field.
than three quantities we shall have more unknowns
and less equations. The exponents cannot be 1.8 THE STRUCTURE OF WORLD
determined uniquely in such a case. Similar
constraints are present for electrical or other Man has always been interested to find how the
nonmechanical quantities. world is structured. Long long ago scientists suggested
that the world is made up of certain indivisible small
1.7 ORDER OF MAGNITUDE particles. The number of particles in the world is large
but the varieties of particles are not many. Old Indian
In physics, we coma across quantities which vary philosopher Kanadi derives his name from this
over a wide range. We talk of the size of a mountain proposition (In Sanskrit or Hindi Kana means a small
and the size of the tip of a pin. We talk of the mass particle). After extensive experimental work people
of our galaxy and the mass of a hydrogen atom. We arrived at the conclusion that the world is made up of
talk of the age of the universe and the time taken by just three types of ultimate particles, the proton, the
an electron to complete a circle around the proton in neutron and the electron. All objects which we have
a hydrogen atom. It becomes quite difficult to get a around us, are aggregation of atoms and molecules.
feel of largeness or smallness of such quantities. To The molecules are composed of atoms and the atoms
express such widely varying numbers, one uses the have at their heart a nucleus containing protons and
powers of ten method. neutrons. Electrons move around this nucleus in
In this method, each number is expressed as special arrangements. It is the number of protons,
a x 10 b where 1 a < 10 and b is a positive or negative neutrons and electrons in an atom that decides all the
integer. Thus the diameter of the sun is expressed as properties and behaviour of a material. Large number
1.39 x 10 9m and the diameter of a hydrogen atom as of atoms combine to form an object of moderate or large
size. However, the laws that we generally deduce for
1.06 x 101m. To get an approximate idea of the these macroscopic objects are not always applicable to
number, one may round the number a to 1 if it is less atoms, molecules, nuclei or the elementary particles.
than or equal to 5 and to 10 if it is greater than 5.
These laws known as classical physics deal with large
The number can then be expressed approximately as
b size objects only. When we say a particle in classical
10 . We then get the order of magnitude of that physics we mean an object which is small as compared
number. Thus, the diameter of the sun is of the order to other moderate or large size objects and for which
of 10 9 m and that of a hydrogen atom is of the order the classical physics is valid. It may still contain
of 1010m. More precisely, the exponent of 10 in such millions and millions of atoms in it. Thus, a particle
a representation is called the order of magnitude of of dust
i8 dealt in classical physics may contain about
that quantity. Thus, the diameter of the sun is 19 10 atoms.
orders of magnitude larger than the diameter of a Twentieth century experiments have revealed
hydrogen atom. This is because the order of magnitude another aspect of the construction of world. There are
of 10 9 is 9 and of 10 16 is 10. The difference is perhaps no ultimate indivisible particles. Hundreds of
9 ( 10) = 19. elementary particles have been discovered and there
To quickly get an approximate value of a quantity are free transformations from one such particle to the
in a given physical situation, one can make an order other. Nature is seen to be a wellconnected entity.
Introduction to Physics 7
M L 2 = m,r _2.
Or, [S] = [p] [g]L2 = 1,
l 3
T 4. Young's modulus of steel is 19 x 1010 N/m 2. Express it
A (0,  0,) t in dyne/cm 2. Here dyne is the CGS unit of force.
(c) Q k
d Solution : The unit of Young's modulus is N/m 2.
Qd Force
or, k  This suggests that it has dimensions of
A(92  01) t 2
(distance)
Here, Q is the heat energy having dimension [F] MLT 2 2
Thus, [Y] = 2 2 ML 1 T .
ML2 T2, 02  01 is temperature, A is area, d is L L
thickness and t is time. Thus, N/m 2 is in SI units.
ML2 T 2 1d _
[K] MLT 3 K 1. So, 1 N/m 2 = (1 kg)(1 m) 1 (1 s) 2
L2 KT
v2 V I and 1 dyne/cm 2 = (1 g)(1 cm) 1(1 s) 2
(d) F = 11 A 1 2
x,  1 N/m 2 (1 kgpm) (1 s)
SO,
2 2 L2 1 dyne/cm 2 g 1cm) s
Or, MLT = [ri]L = [r
]
6. Test dimensionally if the equation v 2 =u 2 2ax may be Assuming that F is proportional to different powers of
correct. these quantities, guess a formula for F using the method
of dimensions.
Solution : There are three terms in this equation v 2, u 2
and 2ax. The equation may be correct if the dimensions Solution : Suppose the formula is F= k ar bV c.
and H L = L2 T 2.
[2ax] = [a] [x] =T%) a+b+c=1
ac= 2
Thus, the equation may be correct.
Solving these, a = 1, b = 1, and c = 1.
Thus, the formula for F is F =
7. The distance covered by a particle in time t is given by
x = a + bt + ct 2 dt3;find the dimensions of a, b, c and d.
Solution : The equation contains five terms. All of them 10. The heat produced in a wire carrying an electric current
should have the same dimensions. Since [x] = length, depends on the current, the resistance and the time.
each of the remaining four must have the dimension of Assuming that the dependence is of the product of powers
length. type, guess an equation between these quantities using
dimensional analysis. The dimensional formula of
Thus, [a] = length = L
resistance is ML2 I2T 3and heat is a form of energy.
[bt] = L, or, [b] =LT 1
Solution : Let the heat produced be H, the current through
[ct 2] = L, or, [c] = LT 2
the wire be I, the resistance be R and the time be t.
and [dt 3] = L, or, [d] = LT 3. Since heat is a form of energy, its dimensional formula
is ML2 T2.
8. If the centripetal force is of the form m a v b rc, find the Let us assume that the required equation is
values of a, b and c.
H = kI a Rb tc,
Solution : Dimensionally, where k is a dimensionless constant.
Force = (Mass) a x (velocity) b x (length) Writing dimensions of both sides,
2 = m a(Lb T b) = m a Lb + T b
or, MLT ML2 T 2 = Ia(IVIL2 I
2 T 3) b T
Equating the exponents of similar quantities, = m b L2h T3b + c l a  2h
a = 1, b + c =1, b = 2 Equating the exponents,
my 2 b=1
or, a =1, b = 2, c = 1 or, F
r 2b = 2
3b + c = 2
9. When a solid sphere moves through a liquid, the liquid a 2b = 0
opposes the motion with a force F. The magnitude of F
depends on the coefficient of viscosity 11 of the liquid, the Solving these, we get, a = 2, b = 1 and c = 1.
radius r of the sphere and the speed v of the sphere. Thus, the required equation is H = kI 2 Rt.
1. The metre is defined as the distance travelled by light 2. What are the dimensions of :
second. Why didn't people choose some (a) volume of a cube of edge a,
in
299,792,458 (b) volume of a sphere of radius a,
1 (c) the ratio of the volume of a cube of edge a to the
easier number such as second ? Why not 1
300,000,000 volume of a sphere of radius a ?
second ?
Introduction to Physics 9
3. Suppose you are told that the linear size of everything 5. If two quantities have same dimensions, do they
in the universe has been doubled overnight. Can you represent same physical content ?
test this statement by measuring sizes with a metre
stick ? Can you test it by using the fact that the speed 6. It is desirable that the standards of units be easily
of light is a universal constant and has not changed ? available, invariable, indestructible and easily
What will happen if all the clocks in the universe also reproducible. If we use foot of a person as a standard
start running at half the speed ? unit of length, which of the above features are present
and which are not ?
4. If all the terms in an equation have same units, is it
necessary that they have same dimensions ? If all the 7. Suggest a way to measure :
terms in an equation have same dimensions, is it (a) the thickness of a sheet of paper,
necessary that they have same units ? (b) the distance between the sun and the moon.
OBJECTIVE I
1. Which of the following sets cannot enter into the list of L, T and x,
fundamental quantities in any system of units ? (c) may be represented in terms of L, T and x if a = 0,
(a) length, mass and velocity, (d) may be represented in terms of L, T and x if a 0.
(b) length, time and velocity,
4. A dimensionless quantity
(c) mass, time and velocity,
(a) never has a unit, (b) always has a unit,
(d) length, time and mass.
(c) may have a unit, (d) does not exist.
2. A physical quantity is measured and the result is
expressed as nu where u is the unit used and n is the 5. A unitless quantity
numerical value. If the result is expressed in various (a) never has a nonzero dimension,
units then (b) always has a nonzero dimension,
(a) n c< size of u (b) n u 2 (c) may have a nonzero dimension,
1 (d) does not exist.
(c) n qu (d) n
dx n X
1[
3. Suppose a quantity x can be dimensionally represented 6. a sin 11
m a Lb '\/2ax x 2 a
in terms of M, L and T, that is, [x] = . The
c
OBJECTIVE II
EXERCISES
e2 91 , a  (02  01 F=F.r and / = mr 2 12. The normal duration of I.Sc. Physics practical period in

t2  tl t2
.
Indian colleges is 100 minutes. Express this period in
The symbols have standard meanings. microcenturies. 1 microcentury = 106x 100 years. How
many microcenturies did you sleep yesterday ?
3. Find the dimensions of
(a) electric field E, (b) magnetic field B and 13. The surface tension of water is 72 dyne/cm. Convert it
(c) magnetic permeability g 0. in SI unit.
The relevant equations are 14. The kinetic energy K of a rotating body depends on its
goI moment of inertia I and its angular speed w. Assuming
F =qE, F = qvB, and B 
2na' the relation to be K= knob where k is a dimensionless
where F is force, q is charge, v is speed, I is current, constant, find a and b. Moment of inertia of a sphere
and a is distance. 2
about its diameter is  Mr 2.
4. Find the dimensions of 5
(a) electric dipole moment p and
15. Theory of relativity reveals that mass can be converted
(b) magnetic dipole moment M.
into energy. The energy E so obtained is proportional to
The defining equations are p = q.d and M = IA; certain powers of mass m and the speed c of light. Guess
where d is distance, A is area, q is charge and I is a relation among the quantities using the method of
current. dimensions.
5. Find the dimensions of Planck's constant h from the
equation E = hv where E is the energy and v is the 16. Let I = current through a conductor, R = its resistance
and V = potential difference across its ends. According
frequency.
to Ohm's law, product of two of these quantities equals
6. Find the dimensions of the third. Obtain Ohm's law from dimensional analysis.
(a) the specific heat capacity c,
Dimensional formulae for R and V are ML2 I2 T3 and
(b) the coefficient of linear expansion a and
ML2 T 3 I 1respectively.
(c) the gas constant R.
Some of the equations involving these quantities are 17. The frequency of vibration of a string depends on the
Q = mc(T2  T1), 4=10[1+ a(T2  T3)] and PV = nRT. length L between the nodes, the tension F in the string
7. Taking force, length and time to be the fundamental and its mass per unit length m. Guess the expression
quantities find the dimensions of for its frequency from dimensional analysis.
(a) density, (b) pressure, 18. Test if the following equations are dimensionally
(c) momentum and (d) energy. correct :
8. Suppose the acceleration due to gravity at a place is 2 S cose
10 m/s 2. Find its value in cm/(minute)2. (a) h = pr (b) v = A[11,
9. The average speed of a snail is 0.020 miles/hour and
7c13 r4 t 1 g
that of a leopard is 7\0 miles/hour. Convert these speeds (c) V (d)v=
v=
in SI units. 8 11 1 2 TC I
where h = height, S = surface tension, p = density, P =
10. The height of mercury column in a barometer in a
pressure, V = volume, i = coefficient of viscosity, v =
Calcutta laboratory was recorded to be 75 cm. Calculate
frequency and I = moment of inertia.
this pressure in SI and CGS units using the following
data : Specific gravity of mercury = 13.6, Density of
19. Let x and a stand for distance. Is
f dx
water = 103 kg/m3, g = 9.8 in/s2 at Calcutta. Pressure
= hpg in usual symbols. J \/a 2  x 2
1 a
11. Express the power of a 100 watt bulb in CGS unit. = asin1
x dimensionally correct ?
ANSWERS
OBJECTIVE I EXERCISES
1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (a) 1. (a) MLT 1 (b) (c) ML 2
2
2. (a) T 1 (b) T (c)ML2 T 2 (d) ML2
OBJECTIVE II 3. (a) MLT 3 I 1 (b) MT2I 1 (c) MLT 2 I 2
4. (a) LTI (b) L2 I
1. (c), (d) 2. (a), (b), (d) 3. (a), (b), (c)
5. ML2 T 1
6. (a) L2 T 2 K1 (b) K1(c) ML2 T 2 K1(mol)1
Introduction to Physics 11
0
CHAPTER 2
Mathematics is the language of physics. It becomes length. Figure (2.1) shows representations of several
easier to describe, understand and apply the physical velocities in this scheme. The front end (carrying the
principles, if one has a good knowledge of mathematics. arrow) is called the head and the rear end is called
In the present course we shall constantly be using the the tail.
techniques of algebra, trigonometry and geometry as Further, if a particle is given two velocities
well as vector algebra, differential calculus and simultaneously its resultant velocity is different from
integral calculus. In this chapter we shall discuss the the two velocities and is obtained by using a special
latter three topics. Errors in measurement and the rule. Suppose a small ball is moving inside a long tube
concept of significant digits are also introduced. at a speed 3 m/s and the tube itself is moving in the
room at a speed 4 m/s along a direction perpendicular
2.1 VECTORS AND SCALARS to its length. In which direction and how fast is the
ball moving as seen from the room ?
Certain physical quantities are completely
described by a numerical value alone (with units
specified) and are added according to the ordinary
rules of algebra. As an example the mass of a system t=1s
is described by saying that it is 5 kg. If two bodies one
having a mass of 5 kg and other having a mass of 2 kg
are added together to make a composite system, the
total mass of the system becomes 5 kg + 2 kg = 7 kg. t=o
Such quantities are called scalars.
The complete description of certain physical
quantities requires a numerical value (with units Figure 2.2
specified) as well as a direction in space. Velocity of a
particle is an example of this kind. The magnitude of
velocity is represented by a number such as 5 m/s and Figure (2.2) shows the positions of the tube and
tells us how fast a particle is moving. But the the ball at t = 0 and t = 1 s. Simple geometry shows
description of velocity becomes complete only when the that the ball has moved 5 m in a direction 0 = 53 from
direction of velocity is also specified. We can represent the tube. So the resultant velocity of the ball is 5 m/s
this velocity by drawing a line parallel to the velocity along this direction. The general rule for finding the
and putting an arrow showing the direction of velocity. resultant of two velocities may be stated as follows.
We can decide beforehand a particular length to Draw a line AB representing the first velocity with
represent 1 m/s and the length of the line representing B as the head. Draw another line BC representing the
a velocity of 5 m/s may be taken as 5 times this unit second velocity with its tail B coinciding with the head
of the first line. The line AC with A as the tail and C
3 ms 1
as the head represents the resultant velocity.
Figure (2.3) shows the construction.
1 ms1
ms1 The resultant is also called the sum of the two
2.5 ms1 velocities. We have added the two velocities AB and
BC and have obtained the sum AC. This rule of
Figure 2.1 addition is called the "triangle rule of addition".
Physics and Mathematics 13
2.4 MULTIPLICATION OF A VECTOR BY A NUMBER B> is the sum of A* and ( B ). As shown in the
(b) :=1>  .
>
Suppose a is a vector of magnitude a and k is a figure, the angle between A and (B ) is 120. The
number. We define the vector b = k a as a vector of magnitudes of both A and (B) is 5 unit. So,
magnitude I leak If k is positive the direction of 1:4T41=A/5 2 +5 2 +2 x 5 x 5 coslar
> >
the vector b = k a is same as that of a. If k is negative,
> > = 2 x 5 cos60 = 5 unit.
the direction of b is opposite to a. In particular,
multiplication by (1) just inverts the direction of the
> )
vector. The vectors a and  ahave equal magnitudes
but opposite directions. 2.6 RESOLUTION OF VECTORS
> > =
If a is a vector of magnitude a and uis a vector Figure (2.8) shows a vector a OA in the XY
>
of unit magnitude in the direction of a, we can write plane drawn from the origin 0. The vector makes an
4 4
a = au. angle a with the Xaxis and 13 with the Yaxis. Draw
perpendiculars AB and AC from A to the X and Y axes
2.5 SUBTRACTION OF VECTORS respectively. The length OB is scalled the projection of
4 )
> > ) ) OA on Xaxis. Similarly OC is the projection of OA
Let a and b be two vectors. We define a  b as the
> on Yaxis. According to the rules of vector addition
sum of the vector >
a and the vector ( b ) . To subtract
> > > > >
b from a, invert the direction of b and add to a. a = OA = OB + OC .
Figure (2.6) shows the process.
Thus, we have resolved the vector a into two parts,
one along OX and the other along OY. The magnitude
of the part along OX is OB = a cosa and the magnitude
a
/ of the part along OY is OC = a cos13. If t and j denote
vectors of unit magnitude along OX and OY
respectively, we get
Figure 2.6
> >
OB= a cosa i and OC = a cost j
so that a = a cosa + a cos13 j 7>
Example 2.2
i'a i
0 B X
1
Figure 2.8
..
...., ..
/ 120 //
1
7/
...
, .....
,
'
, 3 / ,
/
ET,' \7\
\ ,\\ 5A/ //
:
If the vector a is not in the XY plane, it may have
//
V nonzero projections along X,Y,Z axes and we can
A
resolve it into three parts i.e., along the X, Y and Z
Figure 2.7 axes. If a, 13, y be the angles made by the vector a with
the three axes respectively, we get
Solution : Figure (2.7) shows the construction of the sum >
a = a cosa + a cos13 j + a cosy k ... (2.3)
A +B and the difference A  B.
where / j and k are the unit vectors along X, Y and
(a) A +13 is the sum of A> and B. Both have a magnitude
Z axes respectively. The magnitude (a cosa) is called
of 5 unit and the angle between them is 60. Thus, the
the component of a along Xaxis, (a cos(3) is called the
magnitude of the sum is
component along Yaxis and (a cosy) is called the
IA +B I = A/5 2 + 5 2 +2 x 5 x 5 cos60 component along Zaxis. In general, the component of
= 2 x 5 cos30 = 543 unit. a vector a along a direction making an angle 0 with it
Physics and Mathematics 15
> >
is a cos() (figure 2.9) which is the projection of ct>along a b = ab cos() ... (2.4)
the given direction.
where a and b are the magnitudes of ct>and r>>
respectively and 0 is the angle between them. The dot
product between two mutually perpendicular vectors
a cose is zero as cos90 = 0.
Figure 2.9
Example 2.3
The dot product is commutative and distributive.
A force of 10.5 N acts on a particle along a direction
making an angle of 37 with the vertical. Find the
> > >
a b=ba
component of the force in the vertical direction.
3 > > > 4
Solution : The component of the force in the vertical a (b+c)=a b + a c.
direction will be
Example 2.4
F1= F cose = (10.5 N) (cos37)
The work done by a force P> during a displacement r is
= (10.5 N)1 = 8.40 N. given by F r. Suppose a force of 12 N acts on a particle
in vertically upward direction and the particle is
displaced through 2.0 m in vertically downward
We can easily add two or more vectors if we know direction. Find the work done by the force during this
their components along the rectangular coordinate displacement.
axes. Let us have
Solution : The angle between the force F and the
4 > > 3
a = ax i+ ay j+ az k displacement r iis 180. Thus, the work done is
W=Fr
b= b, i + by + k
= Fr cos
> >
and c = c t + cy j + cz k = (12 N)(2.0 m)(cos180)
then = 24 Nm= 24J.
> > >
a + b + c = (a, + bx + cx)t + (ay + by + cy)j + (az+ bz + cz)17.
If all the vectors are in the XY plane then all the z
Dot Product of Two Vectors in terms of the
components are zero and the resultant is simply Components along the Coordinate Axes
> > >
a + b + c = (a, + bx + c)1 + (ay+ by + cy)j. Consider two vectors a and brepresented in terms
7> 7>
This is the sum of two mutually perpendicular vectors of the unit vectors t, j, k along the coordinate axes
of magnitude (ax + b + cx) and (ay + by +cy). The as
7> 7> 7> 7>
resultant can easily be found to have a magnitude a = ax + ay j + az k
4 4
.\/(a + b, + c) 2 + (ay by + cy) 2 and b = b, i + by j bz k.
making an angle a with the Xaxis where Then
a +b + c > > .> 7> 4
tana Y Y Y a b = (a, t + ayj + azk) (br+ by.74+ 4, iej
ax + bx +cx
=abt I+ ax by t j+a,bz t k
2.7 DOT PRODUCT OR SCALAR PROUDCT 7> 7>
+ ay bx j / ay by j j + ay by j k
OF TWO VECTORS
> 4 .> 4 )
+ azb k i + a, byk j + a, bz k k ... (i)
The dot product (also called scalar product) of two
> > >
vectors a and bis defined as Since, t, j and k are mutually orthogonal,
16 Concepts of Physics
, ax(b+c)=axb+axc.
laxbl=ab sine ... (2.5) It does not follow the associative law
where a and b are the magnitudes of a) and r ) > 4
ax(bxc)# (axb)xc.
respectively and 9 is the smaller angle between the
When we choose a coordinate system any two
two. When two vectors are drawn with both the tails
perpendicular lines may be chosen as X and Y axes.
coinciding, two angles are formed between them
However, once X and Y axes are chosen, there are two
(figure 2.11). One of the angles is smaller than 180
possible choices of Zaxis. The Zaxis must be
perpendicular to the XY plane. But the positive
direction of Zaxis may be defined in two ways. We
choose the positive direction of Zaxis in such a way
that
X =k
Figure 2.11 Such a coordinate system is called a right handed
system. In such a system
and the other is greater than 180 unless both are
equal to 180. The angle 0 used in equation (2.5) is the jx k= i and kx1=j.
smaller one. If both the angles are equal to 180, 7> 7> 7> 74 4
Of course z x =j x j=k xk = O.
sin 0 = sin 180 = 0 and hence I a xbI = 0. Similarly
if 0 = 0, sin 0 = 0 and I a x bl = 0. The cross product Example 2.5
of two parallel vectors is zero.
> 4 The vector A> has a magnitude of 5 unit, /3> has a
The direction of a x b is perpendicular to both
magnitude of 6 unit and the cross product of A> and
a and r)). Thus, it is perpendicular to the plane formed
has a magnitude of 15 unit. Find the angle between A
by a>and E.). To determine the direction of arrow on
and B.
this perpendicular several rules are in use. In order to
avoid confusion we here describe just one rule. Solution : If the angle between A
 and T3> is 9, the cross
product will have a magnitude
I A x 14 I= AB sine
Or, 15 = 5 x 6 sin
1
or, sine =
2
Thus, 0 = 30 or, 150.
Figure 2.12
Cross Product of Two Vectors in terms of
the Components along the Coordinate Axes
r,
Draw the two vectors a) and with both the tails
coinciding (figure 2.12). Now place your stretched right
Let
> 74 7> >
a = ax + ay j + a, k
palm perpendicular to the plane of a and b in such a and bx byr+ kr.
Physics and Mathematics 17
> > :4 :
4
Then a x b = (axi + ayj + az k) x (bx i+ byj + bz14 way. When x changes by Ax, y changes by Ay so that
7> 7> 7) 7>
= axbxI x i + axby z. x+
7> >
+ axbz I x k the rate of change seems to be equal to 
AY If A be the
Ax
Thus,
vector as 0. The concept of zero vector is also helpful
when we consider vector product of parallel vectors. If dy lam Ay
>
A I I B, the vector A x B is zero vector. For any vector A, dx  o Ax
4 4 For small changes Ax we can approximately write
A+0=A
dy
4 9 Ay = Az.
Ax0=0 dx
and for any number X, Note that if the function y increases with an increase
dy
(1.= in x at a point, dx is positive there, because both Ay
and Ax are positive. If the function y decreases with
dy an increase in x, Ay is negative when Ax is positive.
2.9 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS : dx AS
Ay dy
Then and hence is negative.
RATE MEASURER dx
Consider two quantities y and x interrelated in Example 2.6
such a way that for each value of x there is one and dy
only one value of y. Figure (2.13) represents the graph From the curve given in figure (2.14) find Tx at x = 2,
6 and 10.
2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Figure 2.13
Figure 2.14
of y versus x. The value of y at a particular x is
obtained by the height of the ordinate at that x. Let x
be changed by a small amount Ax, and the Solution : The tangent to the curve at x = 2 is AC. Its
AB 5
corresponding change in y be Ay. We can define the slope is tang,
"rate of change" of y with respect to x in the following =BC i
18 Concepts of Physics
dy 5 dy
Thus, Table 2.1 : for some common functions
dx = at x = 2' dx
The tangent to the curve at x = 6 is parallel to the Xaxis.
dy y dy y dy
Thus, dx = tan = 0 at x = 6.
dx dx
The tangent to the curve at x = 10 is DF. Its slope is Xn
nx n 1
sec x sec x tan x
DE 5
tanO, = = sin x cos x cosec x cosec x cot x
1
dy 5 cos x sin x In x
Thus, 7 at x = 10 x
dx tan x sec 2 x ex ex
cot x cosec 2 X
If we are given the graph of y versus x, we can
dy Besides, there are certain rules for finding the
find at any point of the curve by drawing the
dx derivatives of composite functions.
tangent at that point and finding its slope. Even if the dy
graph is not drawn and the algebraic relation between (a) yr (cy) = c cTx
 (c is a constant)
y and x is given in the form of an equation, we can du dv
dy (b) (u + v) = +
dx
find dx algebraically. Let us take an example.
dv du
The area A of a square of length L is A = L2. (c)  (uv) = u 7
dx + v T
If we change L to L + AL, the area will change
v du u dv
from A to A + AA (figure 2.15).
d dx dx
2
AL dx v V
dy dy du
L (e)dx = du dx
With these rules and table 2.1 derivatives of almost
L AL
all the functions of practical interest may be evaluated.
Figure 2.15
Example 2.7
A + AA = (L + Ara) 2
= 2L AL +
y
T x
Find Txif y = e sin x.
Solution : y =e x sinx.
or, AA = 2L(AL) + (AL) 2
dy x xd
So = (e sin x)= e crx (sin x) + sin x (ex)
or, AA = 2L + AL.
x x
= e cos x + e sin x = e' (cos x + sin x).
Now if AL is made smaller and smaller, 2L + AL will
approach 2L.
dA = ainA A =
Thus, 2L. 2.10 MAXIMA AND MINIMA
di, A , AL
Table (2.1) gives the formulae for for some of Suppose a quantity y depends on another quantity
x in a manner shown in figure (2.16). It becomes
dy
the important functions. Txis called the differential maximum at x1and minimum at x2 .
coefficient or derivative of y with respect to x.
Figure 2.16
Physics and Mathematics 19
dy 1
slope of the curve yx equals the rate of change =it g(2t) = u  gt.
dx
Thus, at a maximum or a minimum, For maximum h,
dy dh 
= u. dt
dx
Just before the maximum the slope is positive, at Or, u gt=0
 or, t =
the maximum it is zero and just after the maximum
dy
it is negative. Thus, decreases at a maximum and
dx
dy
ba ba
because Ax = ) the vertices of the bars touch the where Ax and xi= a, a + Ax, b
curve at infinite number of points and the total area As 6..x > 0 the total area of the bars becomes the
of the triangles tends to zero. In such a limit the sum area of the shaded part PABQ.
(2.8) becomes the area I of PABQ. Thus, we may write,
N
Thus, the required area is
N
I = lim If(xj)dx
As 0 . , I = lim xi Ax
=1 6x 30.
I= lim[b al[a + b 
ex 0 2
b a
 (a + b)
2
=1(b s a 2). (ii)
3 2
Thus, f x dx = 1 x 2
2 a = 126 + 40.5 + 15 = 181.5.
a
_ b 2) (2
1 a 2)
There may be some confusion if there are zeroes decimal point. The least significant digit is rounded
at the right end of the number. For example, if a according to the rules given below.
measurement is quoted as 600 mm and we know If the digit next to the one rounded is more than
nothing about the least count of the scale we cannot 5, the digit to be rounded is increased by 1. If the digit
be sure whether the last zeros are significant or not. next to the one rounded is less than 5, the digit to be
If the scale had marking only at each metre then the rounded is left unchanged. If the digit next to the one
edge must be between the marks 0 m and 1 m and the rounded is 5, then the digit to be rounded is increased
digit 6 is obtained only through the eye estimation. by 1 if it is odd and is left unchanged if it is even.
Thus, 6 is the doubtful digit and the zeros after that
2. For addition or subtraction write the numbers
are insignificant. But if the scale had markings at
one below the other with all the decimal points in one
centimetres, the number read is 60 and these two
digits are significant, the last zero is insignificant. If line. Now locate the first column from left that has a
the scale used had markings at millimetres, all the doubtful digit. All digits right to this column are
dropped from all the numbers and rounding is done to
three digits 6, 0, 0 are significant. To avoid confusion
this column. The addition or subtraction is now
one may report only the significant digits and the
magnitude may be correctly described by proper performed to get the answer.
powers of 10. For example, if only 6 is significant in
Example 2.10
600 mm we may write it as 6 x 10 2 mm. If 6 and the
first zero are significant we may write it as Round off the following numbers to three significant
6.0 x 10 2 mm and if all the three digits are significant digits (a) 15462, (b) 14.745, (c) 14750 and (d) 14'650
we may write it as 6.00 x 10 2 mm. x 1012.
If the integer part is zero, any number of Solution : (a) The third significant digit is 4. This digit is
continuous zeros just after the decimal part is to be rounded. The digit next to it is 6 which is greater
insignificant. Thus, the number of significant digits in than 5. The third digit should, therefore, be increased
0.0023 is two and in 1.0023 is five. by 1. The digits to be dropped should be replaced by
zeros because they appear to the left of the decimal.
2.13 SIGNIFICANT DIGITS IN CALCULATIONS Thus, 15462 becomes 15500 on rounding to three
significant digits.
When two or more numbers are added, subtracted, (b) The third significant digit in 14.745 is 7. The number
multiplied or divided, how to decide about the number next to it is less than 5. So 14.745 becomes 14.7 on
of significant digits in the answer ? For example, rounding to three significant digits.
suppose the mass of a body A is measured to be 12.0 kg (c) 14.750 will become 14.8 because the digit to be
and of another body B to be 7.0 kg. What is the ratio rounded is odd and the digit next to it is 5.
of the mass of A to the mass of B? Arithmetic will
give this ratio as (d) 14.650 x 10 12 will become 14.6 x 10 12 because the
digit to be rounded is even and the digit next to it is 5.
12.0
 1 714285...
The insignificant digits are dropped from the result 25.2 x 1374
 1040.
if they appear after the decimal point. They are 33.3
replaced by zeros if they appear to the left of the

Example 2.12 true value. The chances that the true value will be
within x 3 a is more that 99%.
Evaluate 24.36 + 0.0623 + 256.2.
All this is true if the number of observations N is
Solution : large. In practice if N is greater than 8, the results
24.36 are reasonably correct.
0.0623
256.2 Example 2.13
Now the first column where a doubtful digit occurs is
the one just next to the decimal point (256.2). All digits The focal length of a concave mirror obtained by a
right to this column must be dropped after proper student in repeated experiments are given below. Find
rounding. The table is rewritten and added below the average focal length with uncertainty in a limit.
24.4
0.1 No. of observation focal length in cm
256.2 1 25.4
280.7
2 25.2
The sum is 2807. 3 25.6
4 25.1
5 25.3
2.14 ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT 6 25.2
While doing an experiment several errors can enter 7 25.5
into the results. Errors may be due to faulty 8 25.4
equipment, carelessness of the experimenter or 9 25.3
random causes. The first two types of errors can be 10 25.7
removed after detecting their cause but the random 10
7
errors still remain. No specific cause can be assigned Solution : The average focal length 1= 5
to such errors. 10 
i.1
When an experiment is repeated many times, the = 25.37 25.4.
random errors are sometimes positive and sometimes
negative. Thus, the average of a large number of the The calculation of a is shown in the table below:
results of repeated experiments is close to the true i
f f,f (ft) 2 E(f p 2
value. However, there is still some uncertainty about cm cm cm cm
the truth of this average. The uncertainty is estimated 1 25.4 0.0 0.00
by calculating the standard deviation described below.
2 25.2  0.2 0.04
Let x1, x2, x3, ...xN are the, results of an
3 25.6 0.2 0.04
experiment repeated N times. The standard deviation
4 25.1 0.3 0.09
a is defined as
5 25.3 0.1 0.01 0.33
2 6 25.2  0.2 0.04
a= \ y(x j x)
Kr i1 7 25.5 0.1 0.01
8 25.4 0.0 0.00
1
where x  xi is the average of all the values of x. 9 25.3  0.1 0.01
N
10 25.7 0.3 0.09
The best value of x derived from these experiments is
x and the uncertainty is of the order of a. In fact
x 1.96 a is quite often taken as the interval in which (5=/1 7 i (f 7) 2="\10033 cm 2 =018 cm
13 /
the true value should lie. It can be shown that there
is a 95% chance that the true value lies within a 0.2 cm.
24 Concepts of Physics
1. A vector has component along the Xaxis equal to 25 unit 3. The sum of the three vectors shown in figure (2W2) is
and along the Yaxis equal to 60 unit. Find the zero. Find the magnitudes of the vectors OB and OC .
magnitude and direction of the vector. Solution : Take the axes as shown in the figure
Solution : The given vector is the resultant of two
perpendicular vectors, one along the Xaxis of magnitude
25 unit and the other along the Yaxis of magnitude
60 units. The resultant has a magnitude A given by 45
X
A = 11(25) 2 + (60) 2 + 2 x 25 x 60 cos90 O
and the xcomponent of the 2.0 m vector = 2.0 m cos90 Hence, the ycomponent of the resultant
= 0. = OC  OA (iii)
Hence, the xcomponent of the resultant
= 4.0 m + 3.0 m + 0 = 7.0 m. As the resultant is zero, so is its ycomponent. From (iii),
The ycomponent of the 5.0 m vector = 5.0 m sin37 OC = OA, or, OC = 42 OA = 542 m.
= 3.0 m,
1
the ycomponent of the 3.0 m vector = 0 From (ii), OB =  OC = 5 m
q2
and the ycomponent of the 2.0 m vector = 2.0 m.
>
Hence, the ycomponent of the resultant 4. The magnitudes of vectors OA, OB and OC in figure
= 3.0 m + 0 + 2'0 m = 5.0 m. 4 4 4
(2W3) are equal. Find the direction of OA + OB  OC .
The magnitude of the resultant vector
= '4(7.0 m) 2 + (50 m) 2 A
= 8.6 m. 45 30
 X
If the angle made by the resultant with the Xaxis is 0, O
60
then
ycomponent 5.0
tan =  or, 0 = 35.5.
xcomponent 70
Figure 2W3


Solution : Let OA = OB = OC = F.
xcomponent of OA = F cos30 =
2
xcomponent of OB= F cos60 = x
xcomponent of OC = F cos135 = 
 > >
xcomponent of OA + OB  OC
Solution : Take dotted lines as X, Y axes.
the>
(F) xcomponent of OA = 4 m, xcomponent of
=( 42)
OB = 6 m cos0.
F
= (43 + 1 + 42). xcomponent of the resultant = (4 + 6 cos0) m.
But it is given that the resultant is along Yaxis. Thus,
ycomponent of OA= F cos60 = the xcomponent of the resultant = 0
> 4 + 6 cog) = 0 or, cos0 =  2/3.
ycomponent of OB = F cos150 =  F43
2 > 74 7* 4
7. Write the unit vector in the direction of A = 5 +  2 k.
ycomponent of OC = F cos45 =
Solution : IA7 1 = .\/5 2 +1 2 ( 2) 2 =.
4 4 3
ycomponent of OA + OB  OC The required unit vector is
IA I
= P + E 23 ) (. 12)
F =
5 7>
7 17>
7 2: j
F
=  (1   42).
2
> > 8. If t> +1;1 =1;1;1 show that al b
Angle of OA + OB  OC with the Xaxis ) 2 )
Solution : We have Ia ) +bI = (a + b) (a + b)
F
 (1  43  42) 4
2 (1  43 .42) =aa+ab+ba+bb
=tan   tan , .
(1 + 43+ 2)
(1 + + 42) =a 2 +b 2 +2ab.
2
Similarly,
> la I2 = ( t ( 1> F)>)
5. Find the resultant of the three vectors OA , OB and
> 2 2 *
OC shown in figure (2W4). Radius of the circle is R. =a +b
If ,
a 2 +b 2 + 2 tr,=a
' 2 +b 2 21 > e
or, a3. =
Or, t>J_ b.
) ) )
9. If a =2i+3j+4k and b=4i+ 3j+2k, find the angle
4
Figure 2W4 between >
a and b.
)
Solution : We have a b = ab cose
>
a
Solution : OA = OC. or, cos() =
> abb
OA + OC is along OB (bisector) and its magnitude is )
sin x
Thus, cos0 = 25 (b) 
_i(25). d . do/
or, 0 = cos x dx (sin x)  sin x
29 dx
dy
_ 2
> 7.> 7) 4 4 ) 4 > 4 . dx x
10. If A=2i3j+7k, B=i+2k and C=jk find
_xcosx_ sin x
ii>. ( .
ii x 6 ). 2
x
Solution : BxC=(1+2k)x(jk) dy d , d(x 2)
= 4 ) > + > > (c) (sm x )
(jk)+2k x ( j  k ) dx = dx dx
4 ) > )
Xi t xk+2k xj2k xk = cos x 2(2x)
= iz>+,r 2 r  =  2 r+.1)+17. = 2x cos x 2.
12. Find the derivative of the following functions with respect 14. Figure (2W6) shows the curve y = x 2. Find the area of
sin x the shaded part between x = 0 and x = 6.
to x. (a) y = x 2 sin x, (b) y and (c) y=sin (x 2).
Solution :
(a) y = x 2 sin x
dy _ x 2 d . d 2
(sm x) + (sin x) (x )
dx dx
= x 2 cos x + (sin x) (2x)
= x(2sin x + xcos x). Figure 2W6
Physics and Mathematics 27
Solution : The area can be divided into strips by drawing velocity varies from vo to v. Therefore, on the left the
ordinates between x = 0 and x = 6 at a regular interval limits of integration are from vo to v and on the right
of dx. Consider the strip between the ordinates at x and they are from 0 to x. Simiplifying (i),
x + dx. The height of this strip is y = x 2. The area of this
strip is dA = y dx = x 2dx. [1. 21 = co 2 [X 2
2 v vo 2 10
The total area of the shaded part is obtained by
summing up these stripareas with x varying from 0 to 1 2 2 2 2
Or,  (v  v 0) =  co
6. Thus 2 2
6 2 2 2 2
or, v =V0  0) X
A = fx2dx
2 2
0 or, v = Aiv 20  x
6
[X 31  2160
72. 17. The charge flown through a circuit in the time interval
3o 3
between t and t + dt is given by dq = tit dt, where ti is
a constant. Find the total charge flown through the
15. Evaluate A sin cot dt where A and co are constants. circuit between t = 0 to t =
0 Solution : The total charge flown is the sum of all the dq's
for t varying from t = 0 to t = to. Thus, the total charge
Solution : J A sin cut dt flown is
Q=fe tl dt
[cos col A
A
0) 0 0)
[e
t Pt] 1
16. The velocity v and displacement x of a particle executing (1
e
o
simple harmonic motion are related as
du 2
v = w x. 18. Evaluate (21.6002 + 234 + 2732.10) x 13.
dx
At x = 0, v = vo . Find the velccity v when the Solution :
displacement becomes x. 21.6002 22
Solution : We have 234 234
dv 2732.10 2732
2
vdx=w x 2988
The three numbers are arranged with their decimal
or, v du =  2 x dx
points aligned (shown on the left part above). The
column just left to the decimals has 4 as the doubtful
or, Ivdu=fco 2 xdx (i) digit. Thus, all the numbers are rounded to this column.
V0 0
The rounded numbers are shown on the right part above.
When summation is made on  w 2 x dx the quantity to The required expression is 2988 x 13 = 38844. As 13 has
be varied is x. When summation is made on v dv the only two significant digits the product should be rounded
quantity to be varied is v. As x varies from 0 to x the off after two significant digits. Thus the result is 39000.
1. Is a vector necessarily changed if it is rotated through 3. Does the phrase "direction of zero vector" have physical
an angle ? significance ? Discuss in terms of velocity, force etc.
2. Is it possible to add two vectors of unequal magnitudes 4. Can you add three unit vectors to get a unit vector ?
and get zero ? Is it possible to add three vectors of equal Does your answer change if two unit vectors are along
magnitudes and get zero ? the coordinate axes ?
28 Concepts of Physics
5. Can we have physical quantities having magnitude and 9. Let eland e, be the angles made by A and i=1)with the
direction which are not vectors ? positive Xaxis. Show that tam, = tam,. Thus, giving
6. Which of the following two statements is more tane does not uniquely determine the direction of A.
A
appropriate ? 10. Is the vector sum of the unit vectors T> and f> a unit
vector ? If no, can you multiply this sum by a scalar
(a) Two forces are added using triangle rule because
number to get a unit vector ?
force is a vector quantity. 7> 7>
(b) Force is a vector quantity because two forces are 11. Let A = 3 z + 4 j. Write four vector B such that A *B but
added using triangle rule. A = B.
>  .4 4
12. Can you have A xB=AB with A *0 and B*0 ? What
7. Can you add two vectors representing physical
quantities having different dimensions ? Can you if one of the two vectors is zero ?
multiply two vectors representing physical quantities 13. If ;1> xi3> = 0, can you say that (a) A> = (b) ?
having different dimensions ?
8. Can a vector have zero component along a line and still
14. Let A=5i 4.7 and i3>= 7.5 +6j Do we have
have nonzero magnitude ? /3> =k A>? Can we say #), = k ?
A
OBJECTIVE I
(a) 2, 4, 8 (b) 4, 8, 16 (c) 1, 2, 1 (d) 0.5, 1, 2. towards north. The vector product A x B is
(a) along west (b) along east
3. The resultant of ;1>and 73>makes an angle a with A> and (c) zero (d) vertically downward.
13 with 6. The radius of a circle is stated as 2.12 cm. Its area should
(a) a <13 (b) a <13 if A<B be written as
(c) a<(3 if A>B (d) a <13 if A=B. (a) 14 cm' (b) 14.1 cm' (c) 14.11 cm' (d) 14.1124 cm'.
OBJECTIVE II
EXERCISES
1. A vector A makes an angle of 20 and B makes an angle 12. Let A, A2213 214 215 As Albe a regular hexagon. Write the
of 110 with the Xaxis. The magnitudes of these vectors xcomponents of the vectors represented by the six sides
are 3 m and 4 m respectively. Find the resultant. taken in order. Use the fact that the resultant of these
4 six vectors is zero, to prove that
2. Let A and B be the two vectors of magnitude 10 unit cos0 + cosn/3 + cos2n/3 + cos3n/3 + cos4n/3 + cos5n/3 = 0.
each. If they are inclined to the Xaxis at angles 30 and
Use the known cosine values to verify the result.
60 respectively, find the resultant.
> >
3. Add vectors A, B and C each having magnitude of 100
unit and inclined to the Xaxis at angles 45, 135 and
315 respectively.
>
4. Let a = 4 i + 3j and b= 3 i + 4 j (a) Find the magnitudes
 /
of (a) a , (b) b, (c)a +b and (d) a  b.
5. Refer to figure (2E1). Find (a) the magnitude, (b) x and
y components and (c) the angle with the Xaxis of the
> , Figure 2 E2

edge, rebounds and goes in the hole behind the striking 20. Draw a graph from the following data. Draw tangents
line. Find the magnitude of displacement of the queen at x = 2, 4, 6 and 8. Find the slopes of these tangents.
(a) from the centre to the front edge, (b) from the front Verify that the curve drawn is y = 2x 2 and the slope of
edge to the hole and (c) from the centre to the hole. dy
tangent is tang = T
c x= 4x.
9. A mosquito net over a 7 ft x 4 ft bed is 3 ft high. The
net has a hole at one corner of the bed through which x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
a mosquito enters the net. It flies and sits at the y 2 8 18 32 50 72 98 128 162 200
diagonally opposite upper corner of the net. (a) Find the 21. A curve is represented by y = sin x. If x is changed from
magnitude of the displacement of the mosquito. (b) TC TC
Taking the hole as the origin, the length of the bed as to  + find approximately the change in y.
3 3
the Xaxis, its width as the Yaxis, and vertically up as
the Zaxis, write the components of the displacement 22. The electric current in a charging RC circuit is given
tIRC
vector. by i =i,e where io , R and C are constant
10. Suppose a is a vector of magnitude 4.5 unit due north. parameters of the circuit and t is time. Find the rate of
What is the vector (a) 3 a, (b)  4 (7? change of current at (a) t = 0, (b) t = RC, (c) t = 10 RC.
11. Two vectors have magnitudes 2 m and 3 m. The angle 23. The electric current in a discharging RC circuit is given
tIRC
between them is 60. Find (a) the scalar product of the by i = ioe where io ,R and C are constant parameters
two vectors, (b) the magnitude of their vector product. and t is time. Let io = 2.00 A, R=600 x 10 512
30 Concepts of Physics
and C = 0.500 (a) Find the current at t = 01 s. 30. Write the number of significant digits in (a) 1001,
(b) Find the rate of change of current at t = 0.3 s. (b) 100.1, (c) 100.10, (d) 0.001001.
(c) Find approximately the current at t = 011 s. 31. A metre scale is graduated at every millimetre. How
24. Find the area bounded under the curve y = 3x 2 + 6x + 7 many significant digits will be there in a length
and the Xaxis with the ordinates at x = 5 and x = 10. measurement with this scale ?
25. Find the area enclosed by the curve y = sin x and the 32. Round the following numbers to 2 significant digits.
Xaxis between x = 0 and x = n.
(a) 3472, (b) 84.16, (c) 2.55 and (d) 28.5.
26. Find the area bounded by the curve y = e', the Xaxis
33. The length and the radius of a cylinder measured with
and the Yaxis.
a slide callipers are found to be 4.54 cm and 1.75 cm
27. A rod of length L is placed along the Xaxis between
respectively. Calculate the volume of the cylinder.
x = 0 and x = L. The linear density (mass/length) p of
the rod varies with the distance x from the origin as 34. The thickness of a glass plate is measured to be
p = a + bx. (a) Find the SI units of a and b. (b) Find the 2.17 mm, 2.17 mm and 2.18 mm at three different
mass of the rod in terms of a, b and L. places. Find the average thickness of the plate from this
28. The momentum p of a particle changes with time t data.
dp
according to the relation = (10 N) + (2 N/s)t. If the 35. The length of the string of a simple pendulum is
dt
momentum is zero at t = 0, what will the momentum be measured with a metre scale to be 90.0 cm. The radius
at t = 10 s ? of the bob plus the length of the hook is calculated to
29. The changes in a function y and the independent be 2.13 cm using measurements with a slide callipers.
dy 2 What is the effective length of the pendulum ? (The
variable x are related as = x . Find y as a function effective length is defined as the distance between the
dx
of x. point of suspension and the centre of the bob.)
ANSWERS
2.00  20
EXERCISES 23. (a) A (b)A/s (c) .8 A
3e
1. 5 m at 73 with Xaxis 24. 1135
2. 20 cos15 unit at 45 with Xaxis 25. 2
3. 100 unit at 45 with Xaxis 26. 1
4. (a) 5 (b) 5 (c) 742 (d) i2 27. (a) kg/m, kg/m 2 (b) aL + bL2/2
5. (a) 1.6 m (b) 098 m and 1.3 m respectively 28. 200 kgm/s
(c) tan1(1.32) x3
29. y =  + C
3
6. (a) 180 (b) 90 (c) 0
30. (a) 4 (b) 4 (c) 5 (d) 4
7. 6.02 km, tan1 1
12
 31. 1, 2, 3 or 4
2 4 32. (a) 3500 (b) 84 (c) 2.6 (d) 28
8. (a)  loft (b)  oft (c) 242 ft
3 3 33. 43.7 cm'
9. (a) ft (b) 7 ft, 4 ft, 3 ft 34. 2.17 mm
10. (a) 13.5 unit due north (b) 18 unit due south 35. 92.1 cm
CHAPTER 3
3.1 REST AND MOTION particle with respect to that frame. Add a clock into
the frame of reference to measure the time. If all the
When do we say that a body is at rest and when three coordinates x, y and z of the particle remain
do we say that it is in motion ? You may say that if a unchanged as time passes, we say that the particle is
body does not change its position as time passes it is at rest with respect to this frame. If any one or more
at rest. If a body changes its position with time, it is coordinates change with time, we say that the body is
said to be moving. But when do we say that it is not moving with respect to this frame.
changing its position ? A book placed on the table There is no rule or restriction on the choice of a
remains on the table and we say that the book is at frame. We can choose a frame of reference according
rest. However, if we station ourselves on the moon (the to our convenience to describe the situation under
Appollo missions have made it possible), the whole
study. Thus, when we are in a train it is convenient
earth is found to be changing its position and so the to choose a frame attached to our compartment. The
room, the table and the book are all continuously coordinates of a suitcase placed on the upper berth do
changing their positions. The book is at rest if it is not change with time (unless the train gives a jerk)
viewed from the room, it is moving if it is viewed from and we say that the suitcase is at rest in the train
the moon. frame. The different stations, electric poles, trees etc.
Motion is a combined property of the object under change their coordinates and we say that they are
study and the observer. There is no meaning of rest moving in the trainframe. Thus, we say that "Bombay
or motion without the viewer. Nothing is in absolute is coming" and "Pune has already passed".
rest or in absolute motion. The moon is moving with In the following sections we shall assume that the
respect to the book and the book moves with respect frame of reference is already chosen and we are
to the moon. Take another example. A robber enters describing the motion of the objects in the chosen
a train moving at great speed with respect to the frame. Sometimes the choice of the frame is clear from
ground, brings out his pistol and says "Don't move, the context and we do not mention it. Thus, when one
stand still". The passengers stand still. The passengers says the car is travelling and the rickshaw is not, it
are at rest with respect to the robber but are moving is clear that all positions are measured from a frame
with respect to the rail track. attached to the road.
Figure 3.1
the tangent to the curve at the time t. The average Example 3.3
speed in a time interval t to t + At equals the slope of
the chord AB where A and B are the points on the Figure (3.6) shows the speed versus time graph for a
particle. Find the distance travelled by the particle
during the time t = 0 to t = 3 s.
Figure 3.6
Figure 3.4
t1 to t2 is
t2 x
s = f v dt. ... (3.3)
Z//
ti
Figure 3.7
If we plot a graph of the speed v versus time t, the
distance travelled by the particle can be obtained by
finding the area under the curve. Figure (3.5) shows Like displacement, it is a vector quantity.
such a speedtime graph. To find the distance travelled Position vector : If we join the origin to the position
in the time interval t1 to t2 we draw ordinates from of the particle by a straight line and put an arrow
t = t1 and t = t2. The area bounded by the curve v t, towards the position of the particle, we get the position
the Xaxis and the two ordinates at t = t1 and t = t2 vector of the particle. Thus, the position vector:of the
(shown shaded in the figure) gives the total distance particle shown in figure (3.7) at time t = t1is OA and
covered. that at t = t2is OB . The displacement of the particle
The dimension of velocity is LT 1and its SI unit in the time interval t1 to t2 is
+ > > > >
is metre/second abbreviated as m/s. AB = AO + OB = OB OA = r2 r1.
34 Concepts of Physics
The average velocity of a particle in the time interval Ar equals the distance As travelled in that interval. So
t1 to t2 can be written as the magnitude of the velocity is
> >
> r2 r1 dr I dr 1 ds
vat, ... (3.4) v ... (3.6)
t2  t1 dt dt dt
Note that only the positions of the particle at time which is the instantaneous speed at time t.
t = t1 and t = t2 are used in calculating the average Instantaneous velocity is also called the "velocity".
velocity. The positions in between t1 and t2 are not
needed, hence the actual path taken in going from A 3.5 AVERAGE ACCELERATION AND
to B is not important in calculating the average INSTANTANEOUS ACCELERATION
velocity. If the velocity of a particle remains constant as
Example 3.4
time passes, we say that it is moving with uniform
velocity. If the velocity changes with time, it is said to
A table clock has its minute hand 4.0 cm long. Find the be accelerated. The acceleration is the rate of change
average velocity of the tip of the minute hand (a) between of velocity. Velocity is a vector quantity hence a change
6.00 a.m. to 6.30 a.m. and (b) between 6.00 a.m. to in its magnitude or direction or both will change the
6.30 p.m. velocity.
>
Solution : At 6.00 a.m. the tip of the minute hand is at Suppose the velocity of a particle at time t1 is v1
12 mark and at 6.30 a.m. or 6.30 p.m. it is 180 away. and at time t2 it is v2. The change produced in time
Thus, the straight line distance between the initial and > >
interval t1 to t2 is v2  vi. We define the average
final position of the tip is equal to the diameter of the
clock. acceleration am, as the change in velocity divided by
Displacement = 2 fc = 2 x 4.0 cm = 8.0 cm. the time interval. Thus,
> >
The displacement is from the 12 mark to the 6 mark on > V2  Vi
aaa  ... (3.7)
the clock panel. This is also the direction of the average t2  ti
velocity in both cases. Again the average acceleration depends only on the
(a) The time taken from 6.00 a.m. to 6.30 a.m. is 30 velocities at time t1 and t2 . How the velocity changed
minutes = 1800 s. The average velocity is in between t1 and t2 is not important in defining the
Displacement 8.0 cm average acceleration.
Vat,   4.4 x 10 3 cm/s.
time 1800 s Instantaneous acceleration of a particle at time t
(b) The time taken from 6.00 a.m. to 6.30 p.m. is 12 is defined as
>
hours and 30 minutes = 45000 s. The average velocity > 1.m Av dv
a =  = ... (3.8)
is et> o At dt
Displacement 8.0 cm where Av is the change in velocity between the time t
 1 8 x 10 4cm/s.
Vav  time  45000 s and t + At. At time t the velocity is v and at time
> > AU
The instantaneous velocity of a particle at a time t + At it becomes v + Av. is the average acceleration
At
t is defined as follows. Let the average velocity of the of the particle in the interval At. As At approaches zero,
particle in a short time interval t to t + At be vau. This this average acceleration becomes the instantaneous
average velocity can be written as acceleration. Instantaneous acceleration is also called
,6,77>
> "acceleration".
V av = At
The dimension of acceleration is LT 2 and its SI
> unit is metre/second 2 abbreviated as m/s 2.
where Ar is the displacement in the time interval At.
We now make At vanishingly small and find the
3.6 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE
Ar
limiting value of  . This value is instantaneous
At When a particle is constrained to move on a
> straight line, the description becomes fairly simple. We
velocity v of the particle at time t.
choose the line as the Xaxis and a suitable time
> Ar dr
v = m  = ... (3.5) instant as t = 0. Generally the origin is taken at the
et o At dt
point where the particle is situated at t = 0. The
For very small intervals the displacement 67 is along position of the particle at time t is given by its
the line of motion of the particle. Thus, the length coordinate x at that time. The velocity is
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 35
dv = a or, dv = a dt v = u + at
dt '
1
at 2
X = Ut +
or, dv = a dt.
2 2
2
v = u + 2ax
As time changes from 0 to t the velocity changes from
u to v. So on the left hand side the summation is made Remember that x represents the position of the
over v from u to v whereas on the right hand side the particle at time t and not (in general) the distance
summation is made on time from 0 to t. Evaluating travelled by it in time 0 to t. For example, if the
the integrals we get, particle starts from the origin and goes upto x = 4 m,
then turns and is at x = 2 m at time t, the distance
[v]. = a[t] 0
travelled is 6 m but the position is still given by
or, v u = at x = 2 m.
or, v = u + at. ... (3.12) The quantities u, v and a may take positive or
Equation (3.12) may be written as negative values depending on whether they are
directed along the positive or negative direction.
dx
= u + at Similarly x may be positive or negative.
dt
or, dx = (u + at)dt Example 3.5
x t A particle starts with an initial velocity 2.5 m/s along
or, J dx = f (u + at)dt. the positive x direction and it accelerates uniformly at
the rate 0.50 m/s 2. (a) Find the distance travelled by it
At t = 0 the particle is at x = 0. As time changes in the first two seconds. (b) How much time does it take
from 0 to t the position changes from 0 to x. So on the to reach the velocity 7.5 m/s ? (c) How much distance will
left hand side the summation is made on position from it cover in reaching the velocity 7.5 m/s ?
36 Concepts of Physics
2= 2
V 2ay , dv
and a 1 ... (3.19)
0 = (4.0 m/s) 2 2( 10 m/s 2 )y Y dt
Solution : a= (1.5 m/s 2) (cos37) constant. It is in the vertically downward direction and
its magnitude is g which is about 9.8 m/s 2.
= (1.5 m/s 2) x = 1.2 in/s 2 Let us first make ourselves familiar with certain
terms used in discussing projectile motion. Figure
and ay= (1.5 m/s 2) (sin37)
(3.10) shows a particle projected from the point 0 with
= (1.5 m/s 2) = 0.90 in/s 2. an initial velocity u at an angle 0 with the horizontal.
It goes through the highest point A and falls at B on
The initial velocity has components the horizontal surface through 0. The point 0 is called
ux= 8.0 m/s the point of projection, the angle 0 is called the angle
of projection and the distance OB is called the
and uy =
horizontal range or simply range. The total time taken
At t = 0, x = 0 and y = 0. by the particle in describing the path OAB is called
The xcomponent of the velocity at time t = 4.0 s is given the time of flight.
by The motion of the projectile can be discussed
vx = ux + axt separately for the horizontal and vertical parts. We
= 8.0 m/s + (1.2 m/s 2) (4.0 s) take the origin at the point of projection. The instant
= 8.0 m/s + 4.8 m/s = 12.8 m/s. Y
The ycomponent of velocity at t = 4.0 s is given by .........
A
vY =uY +aY t
z
= 0 + (0.90 m/s 2) (4.0 s) = 3.6 m/s.
The velocity of the particle at t = 4.0 s is x
u cosh
V =1/vx Vy2 =1A/(12.8 m/s) 2+ (3.6 m/s) 2
Figure 3.10
= 13.3 m/s.
when the particle is projected is taken as t = 0. The
The velocity makes an angle 0 with the Xaxis where
plane of motion is taken as the XY plane. The
3.6 m/s 9 horizontal line OX is taken as the Xaxis and the
tang  
vx 12.8 m/s 32 vertical line OY as the Yaxis. Vertically upward
The xcoordinate at t = 4.0 s is direction is taken as the positive direction of the
x = ux t + ax t
2
2 Yaxis.
We have ux = u cogs ; ax = 0
= (8.0 m/s) (4.0 s) + 12L (1.2 m/s 2) (4.0 s) 2 uy = u sin0 ; ay =  g.
=32 m+ 9.6 m=41.6 m.
Horizontal Motion
The ycoordinate at t = 4.0 s is
As ax = 0, we have
y=uy t+2ay t 2
vx = ux + axt = ux= u cog)
= (0.90 m/s 2) (40 s) 2
and x = ux t + ax t 2 = t = /it cose.
= 7.2 m.
As indicated in figure (3.10), the xcomponent of
Thus, the particle is at (41.6 m, 7.2 m) at 4.0 s. the velocity remains constant as the particle moves.
Vertical Motion
3.8 PROJECTILE MOTION The acceleration of the particle is g in the
downward direction. Thus, a, =  g. The ycomponent
An important example of motion in a plane with
constant acceleration is the projectile motion. When a of the initial velocity is uy. Thus,
particle is thrown obliquely near the earth's surface, vy = uy gt
it moves along a curved path. Such a particle is called 1
a projectile and its motion is called projectile motion. and y = uy t 2
gt 2.
We shall assume that the particle remains close to the
surface of the earth and the air resistance is negligible. Also we have,
2 2
The acceleration of the particle is then almost VY = uy  2gY
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 39
same meaning in both the frames. These assumptions V s, G = "q(4.0 km/h) 2+ (3.0 km/h) 2
are not correct if the velocity of one frame with respect
to the other is so large that it is comparable to = 5.0 km/h
3 x 10 8m/s, or if one frame rotates with respect to the The angle 0 made with the direction of flow is
other. If the frames only translate with respect to each
4 km/h 4
other with small velocity, the above assumptions are tan0
3.0 km/h 3
correct.
Equation (3.27) may be rewritten as
>
Up, = V p, s V s ... (3.28)
Example 3.11
Thus, if the velocities of two bodies (here the particle
and the frame S') are known with respect to a common A man is walking on a level road at a speed of 3.0 km/h.
frame (here S) we can find the velocity of one body Rain drops fall vertically with a speed of 4.0 km/h. Find
with respect to the other body. The velocity of body 1 the velocity of the raindrops with respect to the man.
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 41
Figure 3.13
or,  s% .
ap, s= ap a s ... (3.29)
If S' moves with respect to S at a uniform velocity,
as., s = 0 and so
It is clear from the figure that
ap, s = ap .
vram, man = \1(4.0 km/h) 2 +(3.0 km/h) 2
If two frames are moving with respect to each
= 5.0 km/h. other with uniform velocity, acceleration of a body is
The angle with the vertical is 0, where same in both the frames.
1. A man walks at a speed of 6 km/hr for 1 km and 8 km/hr respectively and SI units are used. Find (a) the
for the next 1 km. What is his average speed for the walk dimensions of A, B, C and D, (b) the velocity of the
of 2 km ? particle at t = 4 s, (c) the acceleration of the particle at
Solution : Distance travelled is 2 km. t = 4 s, (d) the average velocity during the interval t = 0
1 km 1 km to t = 4 s, (e) the average acceleration during the interval
Time taken +
 6 km/hr 8 km/hr t = 0 to t = 4 s.
= (1.+ hr = 24
7 hr. Solution : (a) Dimensions of x, At 3, Bt 2, Ct and D must
8 r.
be identical and in this case each is length. Thus,
2 km x 24 48
Average speed 7 km/hr [At 3] = L, or, [A] = LT3
7 hr
7 km/hr. [Bt 2] = L, or, [B] =LT 2
[Ct] =L, or, [C] = LT1
2. The I.Sc. lecture theatre of a college is 40 ft wide and and [D] =L.
has a door at a corner. A teacher enters at 12.00 noon (b) x = At 3 + Bt 2 + Ct + D
through the door and makes 10 rounds along the 40 ft dx
wall back and forth during the period and finally leaves or v = = 3At 2 + 2Bt + C.
dt
the classroom at 12.50 p.m. through the same door. Thus, at t = 4 s, the velocity
Compute his average speed and average velocity. = 3(1 m/s 3) (16 s 2) + 2(4 m/s 2) (4 s) + ( 2 m/s)
Solution : Total distance travelled in 50 minutes = 800 ft. = (48 + 32 2) m/s = 78 m/s.
800 (c) v = 3At 2 + 2Bt + C
Average speed = ft/min = 16 ft/min.
50
dv
At 12.00 noon he is at the door and at 12.50 pm he is or, a =
dt = 6 At + 2 B.
again at the same door.
The displacement during the 50 min interval is zero. At t = 4 s, a = 6(1 m/s 3) (4 s) + 2(4 m/s 2) = 32 m/s 2.
Average velocity = zero. (d) x = At 3 +Bt 2 + Ct +D.
Position at t = 0 is x = D = 5 m.
3. The position of a particle moving on Xaxis is given by Position at t = 4 s is
x = At 3 +Bt 2 +Ct + D. (1 m/s 3) (64 s 3) + (4 in/s 2) (16 s 2) (2 m/s) (4 s) + 5 m
The numerical values of A, B, C, D are 1, 4, 2 and 5 = (64 + 64 8 + 5) m = 125 m.
42 Concepts of Physics
Thus, the displacement during 0 to 4 s is 5. A particle starts from rest with a constant acceleration.
125 m 5 m = 120 m. At a time t second, the speed is found to be 100 m/s and
120 m one second later the speed becomes 150 m/s. Find (a) the
Average velocity = 30 m/s. acceleration and (b) the distance travelled during the
4s
(t+l)th second.
(e) v = 3At 2 2Bt + C.
Solution : (a) Velocity at time t is
Velocity at t = 0 is C = 2 m/s.
100 m/s = a.(t second) ... (1)
Velocity at t = 4 s is = 78 m/s.
and velocity at time (t + 1) second is
V2
Average acceleration = 20 m/s 2 . 150 m/s = a. (t + 1). ... (2)
t2
Subtracting (1) from (2), a = 50 m/s 2
4. From the velocitytime graph of a particle given in figure (b) Consider the interval t second to (t + 1) second,
(3W1), describe the motion of the particle qualitatively time elapsed = 1 s
in the interval 0 to 4 s. Find (a) the distance travelled initial velocity = 100 m/s
during first two seconds, (b) during the time 2 s to 4 s,
final velocity = 150 m/s.
(c) during the time 0 to 4 s, (d) displacement during
0 to 4 s, (e) acceleration at t = 1/2 s and (f) acceleration Thus, (150 m/s) 2 = (100 m/s) 2 + 2(50 m/s 2) x
at t = 2 s. or, x =125 m.
201un1 Trips will go on till the car reaches the turn that is the
before the turn is h. The fly moves at a
40 km/h  2 distance reduces to zero. This will be the case when n
constant speed of 100 km/h during this time. Hence the becomes infinity. Hence the fly makes an infinite
total distance coverd by it is 100 x h = 50 km.
kh
m number of trips before the car takes the turn.
(b) Suppose the car is at a distance x away (at A) when
the fly is at the wall (at 0). The fly hits the glasspane 9. A ball is dropped from a height of 19.6 m above the
at B, taking a time t. Then ground. It rebounds from the ground and raises itself up
AB = (40 km/h)t, to the same height. Take the starting point as the origin
and OB = (100 km/h)t. and vertically downward as the positive Xaxis. Draw
approximate plots of x versus t, v versus t and a versus
Thus, x =AB + OB
t. Neglect the small interval during which the ball was
= (140 km/h)t in contact with the ground.
5
or, t Solution : Since the acceleration of the ball during the
 140 km/h B= 7 x.
contact is different from 'g', we have to treat the
downward motion and the upward motion separately.
For the downward motion : a =g = 9.8 m/s 2,
2
0 X = Ut + at = (4.9 m/s 2)t 2.
A 2
The ball reaches the ground when x = 19.6 m. This gives
t = 2 s. After that it moves up, x decreases and at
Figure 3W3
t = 4 s, x becomes zero, the ball reaching the initial point.
We have at t = 0, x=0
The fly returns to the wall and during this period the
car moves the distance BC. The time taken by the fly t = 1 s, x = 4.9 m
in this return path is t = 2 s, x = 19.6 m
t = 3 s, x = 4.9 m
t=4s, x = 0.
44 Concepts of Physics
Solution : The velocity of the food packet at the time of Eliminating t from (i) and (ii)
release is u and is horizontal. The vertical velocity at 1 x2
y
the time of release is zero. = g
Also y = x tan.
2
2u 2tanO
Thus, = x tan() giving x = 0, or,
2u
H 2u 2 tan()
Clearly the point P corresponds to x ,
g
2u 2 tan20
then y = x tan
D g
Figure 3 W7  The distance AP =1=11x 2 +y 2
Vertical motion : If t be the time taken by the packet 2u 2
to reach the victim, we have for vertical motion, = tan9 + tan 20
g
2
1 2 F
H 2u
H = gt or, t= (i) = tam seam
g
Horizontal motion : If D be the horizontal distance Alternatively : Take the axes as shown in
travelled by the packet, we have D = ut. Putting t from figure 3W9. Consider the motion between A and P.
(i),
D= I
6 2 +H 2 = 112u 21114,2 .
Figure 3 W9 
13. A particle is projected horizontally with a speed u from Motion along the Xaxis :
the top of a plane inclined at an angle 0 with the Initial velocity = u cose
horizontal. How far from the point of projection will the Acceleration =g sine
particle strike the plane?
Displacement = AP.
Solution : Take X,Yaxes as shown in figure (3W8).
Suppose that the particle strikes the plane at a point P Thus, AP = (u cos 0) t (g sin 0) t 2. (i)
with coordinates (x, y). Consider the motion between A Motion along the Yaxis :
and P. Initial velocity = u sine
Acceleration =g cos0
Displacement = 0.
1 2
Thus, 0 = ut sine + gt cos0
2
2u sine
or, t = 0,
g cose
Figure 3 W8  2u sin
Clearly, the point P corresponds to t
Motion in xdirection : g cos0
Initial velocity = u Putting this value of t in (i),
Acceleration = 0
2u g sin() (2u sin0)2
x = ut. (i) AP = (u cose)
g co s0 2 g cos()
Motion in ydirection :
Initial velocity = 0 2u 2 sine 2u 2 sine tang
Acceleration =g g g
2
1 2 2u 2 2u 2
y = gt . (ii) = sine sec 0 = tan0 sec0.
2
46 Concepts of Physics
and vr, = velocity of the rain with respect to the man. ,1 43
> or, a=
2
We have, Vg= V m, g (i)
Taking horizontal components, equation (i) gives 8 km/h
From (ii), V rain, road = sina  447 km/h.
vr,gsin30 = vm,g= 10 km/h
g 10 km/h
km/h
Or, Ur, 20 km/h, 20. Three particles A, B and C are situated at the vertices
sin30
of an equilateral triangle ABC of side d at t = 0. Each
48 Concepts of Physics
of the particles moves with constant speed v. A always particle, say A. At any instant its velocity makes angle
has its velocity along AB, B along BC and C along CA. 30 with AO.
At what time will the particles meet each other ? The component of this velocity along AO is v cos30. This
Solution : The motion of the particles is roughly sketched component is the rate of decrease of the distance AO.
in figure (3W15). By symmetry they will meet at the Initially,
2
Ao 2#\id 2 ()
3 2 43
d 2d
centroid 0 of the triangle. At any instant the particles '= 3v = 3v
will form an equilateral triangle ABC with the same 2
centriod 0. Concentrate on the motion of any one
1. Galileo was punished by the Church for teaching that 2a for the first half and a for the second half. Which
the sun is stationary and the earth moves around it. His particle has covered larger distance ?
opponents held the view that the earth is stationary and 8. If a particle is accelerating, it is either speeding up or
the sun moves around it. If the absolute motion has no speeding down. Do you agree with this statement ?
meaning, are the two, viewpoints not equally correct or
equally wrong ? 9. A food packet is dropped from a plane going at an
altitude of 100 m. What is the path of the packet as
2. When a particle moves with constant velocity, its
seen from the plane ? What is the path as seen from the
average velocity, its instantaneous velocity and its speed
ground ? If someone asks "what is the actual path", what
are all equal. Comment on this statement.
will you answer ?
3. A car travels at a speed of 60 km/hr due north and the
other at a speed of 60 km/hr due east. Are the velocities 10. Give examples where (a) the velocity of a particle is zero
equal ? If no, which one is greater ? If you find any of but its acceleration is not zero, (b) the velocity is opposite
the questions irrelevant, explain. in direction to the acceleration, (c) the velocity is
perpendicular to the acceleration.
4. A ball is thrown vertically upward with a speed of 20
m/s. Draw a graph showing the velocity of the ball as a 11. Figure (3Q1) shows the x coordinate of a particle as a
function of time as it goes up and then comes back. function of time. Find the signs of vx and ax at t =
5. The velocity of a particle is towards west at an instant. t = t2 and t = t3.
Its acceleration is not towards west, not towards east,
not towards north and not towards south. Give an x
example of this type of motion.
6. At which point on its path a projectile has the smallest
speed ?
7. Two particles A and B start from rest and move for equal
time on a straight line. The particle A has an
acceleration a for the first half of the total time and 2a
for the second half. The particle B has an acceleration Figure 3Q1
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 49
12. A player hits a baseball at some angle. The ball goes accelerate a car without putting more petrol or less
high up in space. The player runs and catches the ball petrol into the engine ?
before it hits the ground. Which of the two (the player 14. Rain is falling vertically. A man running on the road
or the ball) has greater displacement ? keeps his umbrella tilted but a man standing on the
13. The increase in the speed of a car is proportional to the street keeps his umbrella vertical to protect himself from
additional petrol put into the engine. Is it possible to the rain. But both of them keep their umbrella vertical
to avoid the vertical sunrays. Explain.
OBJECTIVE I
OBJECTIVE II
1. Consider the motion of the tip of the minute hand of a 6. The velocity of a particle is zero at t = 0.
clock. In one hour (a) The acceleration at t = 0 must be zero.
(a) the displacement is zero (b) The acceleration at t = 0 may be zero.
(b) the distance covered is zero (c) If the acceleration is zero from t = 0 to t = 10 s, the
(c) the average speed is zero speed is also zero in this interval.
(d) the average velocity is zero (d) If the speed is zero from t = 0 to t = 10 s the
2. A particle moves along the Xaxis as acceleration is also zero in this interval.
x = u(t 2 s)+ a(t 2 s) 2. 7. Mark the correct statements :
(a) the initial velocity of the particle is u (a) The magnitude of the velocity of a particle is equal
(b) the accelerati?n of the particle is a to its speed.
(c) the acceleration of the particle is 2a (b) The magnitude of average velocity in an interval is
(d) at t = 2 s particle is at the origin.
equal to its average speed in that interval.
3. Pick the correct statements : (c) It is possible to have a situation in which the speed
(a) Average speed of a particle in a given time is never of a particle is always zero but the average speed is not
less than the magnitude of the average velocity. zero.
dv (d) It is possible to have a situation in which the speed
(b) It is possible to have a situation in which T # 0
it of the particle is never zero but the average speed in an
d
but
dt
I = O. interval is zero.
8. The velocitytime plot for a particle moving on a straight
(c) The average velocity of a particle is zero in a time line is shown in the figure (3Q4).
interval. It is possible that the instantaneous velocity is
never zero in the interval.
(d) The average velocity of a particle moving on a
straight line is zero in a time interval. It is possible that
the instantaneous velocity is never zero in the interval.
(Infinite accelerations are not allowed.)
4. An object may have
(a) varying speed without having varying velocity
(b) varying velocity without having varying speed Figure 3 Q4

EXERCISES
10 . 20 30 Time in second
2. A particle starts from the origin, goes along the Xaxis
to the point (20 m, 0) and then returns along the same 8
45.0
line to the point (20 m, 0). Find the distance and
displacement of the particle during the trip.
3. It is 260 km from Patna to Ranchi by air and 320 km Figure 3E2
by road. An aeroplane takes 30 minutes to go from Patna
to Ranchi whereas a delux bus takes 8 hours. (a) Find acceleration, (b) the distance travelled in 0 to 10 s and
the average speed of the plane. (b) Find the average (c) the displacement in 0 to 10 s.
speed of the bus. (c) Find the average velocity of the v (in m/s)
plane. (d) Find the average velocity of the bus.
8
4. When a person leaves his home for sightseeing by his 6
car, the meter reads 12352 km. When he returns home
after two hours the reading is 12416 km. (a) What is the 4
average speed of the car during this period ? (b) What
is the average velocity ?
0 5 10 t (second)
5. An athelete takes 2.0 s to reach his maximum speed of
18.0 km/h. What is the magnitude of his average
Figure 3E3
acceleration ?
6. The speed of a car as a function of time is shown in
figure (3E1). Find the distance travelled by the car in 9. Figure (3E4) shows the graph of the xcoordinate of a
8 seconds and its acceleration. particle going along the Xaxis as a function of time.
Find (a) the average velocity during 0 to 10 s,
"h 20 (b) instantaneous velocity at 2, 5, 8 and 12s.
10
0.
CO
2 4 6 8 10
Time in second
Figure 3E1
2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0
Figure 3E4
7. The acceleration of a cart started at t = 0, varies with
time as shown in figure (3E2). Find the distance
travelled in 30 seconds and draw the positiontime graph.
8. Figure (3E3) shows the graph of velocity versus time 10. From the velocitytime plot shown in figure (3E5), find
for a particle going along the Xaxis. Find (a) the the distance travelled by the particle during the first 40
52 Concepts of Physics
seconds. Also find the average velocity during this 17. A bullet going with speed 350 m/s enters a concrete wall
period. and penetrates a distance of 5.0 cm before coming to
rest. Find the deceleration.
18. A particle starting from rest moves with constant
acceleration. If it takes 5.0 s to reach the speed 18.0
km/h find (a) the average velocity during this period,
and (b) the distance travelled by the particle during this
period.
19. A driver takes 0.20 s to apply the brakes after he sees
a need for it. This is called the reaction time of the
Figure 3E5 driver. If he is driving a car at a speed of 54 km/h and
the brakes cause a deceleration of 6.0 m/s2, find the
distance travelled by the car after he sees the need to
11. Figure (3E6) shows xt graph of a particle. Find the
time t such that the average velocity of the particle put the brakes on.
during the period 0 to t is zero. 20. Complete the following table :
x in m
Driver X Driver Y
20 Car Model Reaction time 0'20 s Reaction time 0'30 s
A (deceleration Speed = 54 km/h Speed = 72 km/h
10 on hard braking Braking distance Braking distance
= 6'0 m/s 2) a= c =
Total stopping Total stopping
0 10 20 distance distance
t in second b= d=
27. A healthy youngman standing at a distance of 7 m from Assume that the length of the bike is 5 ft, and it leaves
a 11.8 m high building sees a kid slipping from the top the road when the front part runs out of the approach
floor. With what speed (assumed uniform) should he run road.
to catch the kid at the arms height (1.8 m) ? 37. A person standing on the top of a cliff 171 ft high has
28. An NCC parade is going at a uniform speed of 6 km/h to throw a packet to his friend standing on the ground
through a place under a berry tree on which a bird is 228 ft horizontally away. If he throws the packet directly
sitting at a height of 12.1 m. At a particular instant the aiming at the friend with a speed of 15.0 ft/s, how short
bird drops a berry. Which cadet (give the distance from will the packet fall ?
the tree at the instant) will receive the berry on his 38. A ball is projected from a point on the floor with a speed
uniform ? of 15 m/s at an angle of 60 with the horizontal. Will it
29. A ball is dropped from a height. If it takes 0.200 s to hit a vertical wall 5 m away from the point of projection
cross the last 6.00 m before hitting the ground, find the and perpendicular to the plane of projection without
height from which it was dropped. Take g = 10 m/s 2. hitting the floor ? Will the answer differ if the wall is
30. A ball is dropped from a height of 5 m onto a sandy floor 22 m away ?
and penetrates the sand up to 10 cm before coming to 39. Find the average velocity of a projectile between the
rest. Find the retardation of the ball in sand assuming instants it crosses half the maximum height. It is
it to be uniform. projected with a speed u at an angle 0 with the
31. An elevator is descending with uniform acceleration. To horizontal.
measure the acceleration, a person in the elevator drops 40. A bomb is dropped from a plane flying horizontally with
a coin at the moment the elevator starts. The coin is 6 uniform speed. Show that the bomb will explode
ft above the floor of the elevator at the time it is dropped. vertically below the plane. Is the statement true if the
The person observes that the coin strikes the floor in 1 plane flies with uniform speed but not horizontally ?
second. Calculate from these data the acceleration of the
41. A boy standing on a long railroad car throws a ball
elevator.
straight upwards. The car is moving on the horizontal
32. A ball is thrown horizontally from a point 100 m above road with an acceleration of 1 m/s 2 and the projection
the ground with a speed of 20 m/s. Find (a) the time it velocity in the vertical direction is 9.8 m/s. How far
takes to reach the ground, (b) the horizontal distance it behind the boy will the ball fall on the car ?
travels before reaching the ground, (c) the velocity
(direction and magnitude) with which it strikes the 42. A staircase contains three steps each 10 cm high and
ground. 20 cm wide (figure 3E9). What should be the minimum
horizontal velocity of a ball rolling off the uppermost
33. A ball is thrown at a speed of 40 m/s at an angle of 60 plane so as to hit directly the lowest plane ?
with the horizontal. Find (a) the maximum height
reached and (b) the range of the ball. Take g = 10 m/s 2 . 
projection and the edge of the boat are in the same pilot should head the plane to reach the point B. (b) Find
horizontal level. the time taken by the plane to go from A to B.
46. A river 400 m wide is flowing at a rate of 2.0 m/s. A 50. Two friends A and B are standing a distance x apart in
boat is sailing at a velocity of 10 m/s with respect to the an open field and wind is blowing from A to B. A beats
water, in a direction perpendicular to the river. (a) Find a drum and B hears the sound t1time after he sees the
the time taken by the boat to reach the opposite bank. event. A and B interchange their positions and the
(b) How far from the point directly opposite to the experiment is repeated. This time B hears the drum t2
starting point does the boat reach the opposite bank ? time after he sees the event. Calculate the velocity of
47. A swimmer wishes to cross a 500 m wide river flowing sound in still air v and the velocity of wind u. Neglect
at 5 km/h. His speed with respect to water is 3 km/h. the time light takes in travelling between the friends.
(a) If he heads in a direction making an angle 0 with
the flow, find the time he takes to cross the river. 51. Suppose A and B in the previous problem change their
(b) Find the shortest possible time to cross the river. positions in such a way that the line joining them
becomes perpendicular to the direction of wind while
48. Consider the situation of the previous problem. The man
maintaining the separation x. What will be the time lag
has to reach the other shore at the point directly
opposite to his starting point. If he reaches the other B finds between seeing and hearing the drum beating
shore somewhere else, he has to walk down to this point. by A?
Find the minimum distance that he has to walk. 52. Six particles situated at the corners of a regular hexagon
49. An aeroplane has to go from a point A to another point of side a move at a constant speed v. Each particle
B, 500 km away due 30 east of north. A wind is blowing maintains a direction towards the particle at the next
due north at a speed of 20 m/s. The airspeed of the corner. Calculate the time the particles will take to meet
plane is 150 m/s. (a) Find the direction in which the each other.
ANSWERS
OBJECTIVE I 13. 35 m
14. 12 m
1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (d) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (d)
15. (a) 2.7 km (b) 60 m/s (c) 225 m and 2.25 kin
7. (c) 8. (c) 9. (c) 10, (d) 11. (d) 12. (a)
16. 0.05 s
13. (b)
17. 12.2 x 10 5 m/s2
OBJECTIVE II
18. (a) 2.5 m/s (b) 12.5 m
1. (a), (d) 2. (c), (d) 3. (a), (b), (c) 19. 22 m
4. (b), (d) 5. (a), (b), (d) 6. (b), (c), (d) 20. (a) 19 m (b) 22 m (c) 33 m (d) 39 m
7. (a) 8. (a), (d) 9. (a) (e) 15 m (f) 18 m (g) 27 m (h) 33 m
10. (d) 21. 1.0 km
EXERCISES 22. 2 s, 38 m
23. (a) 125 m (b) 5 s (c) 35 m/s
1. (a) 110 m (b) 50 m, tan 13/4 north to east 24. 4.3 s
2. 60 m, 20 m in the negative direction 25. (a) 40 m (b) 9.8 m/s (c) No
3. (a) 520 km/h (b) 40 km/h
26. 44.1 m, 19.6 m and 4.9 m below the top
(c) 520 km/h Patna to Ranchi
(d) 32.5 km/h Patna to Ranchi 27. 4.9 m/s
4. 32 km/h (b) zero 28. 2.62 m
5. 2.5 m/s2 29. 48 m
6. 80 m, 2.5 m/s 2 30. 490 m/s 2
7. 1000 ft 31. 20 ft/s 2
8. (a) 0.6 m/s 2 (b) 50 m 50 m 32. (a) 4.5 s (b) 90 m (c) 49 m/s, 0 = 66 with horizontal
9. (a) 10 m/s (b) 20 m/s, zero, 20 m/s,  20 m/s
(b) 33. (a) 60 m (b) 801.13 m
10. 100 m, zero 34. Yes
11. 12 s 35. 10 m/s
12. x= 5m,y= 3m 36. 32 ft/s
Rest and Motion : Kinematics 55
0
CHAPTER 4
THE FORCES
4.1 INTRODUCTION force on the block to hold it and the block exerts a
force on the rope to make it tight and stretched. In
Force is a word which we have all heard about. fact these are a few examples of Newton's third law of
When you push or pull some object you exert a force motion which may be stated as follows.
on it. If you push a body you exert a force away from
yourself; when you pull, you exert a force toward Newton's Third Law of Motion
yourself. When you hold a heavy block in your hand
you exert a large force; when you hold a light block, If a body A exerts a force Pon another body B,
you exert a small force. then B exerts a force F on A, the two forces acting
Can nonliving bOdies exert a force ? Yes, they can. along the line joining the bodies.
If we stand in a great storm, we feel that the wind is
The two forces F and connected by Newton's
exerting a force on us. When we suspend a heavy block
third law are called actionreaction pair. Any one may
from a rope, the rope holds the block just as a man
be called 'action' and the other 'reaction'.
can hold it in air. When we comb our dry hair and
bring the comb close to small pieces of paper, the We shall discuss this law in greater detail in the
pieces jump to the comb. The comb has attracted the next chapter.
paper pieces i.e. the comb has exerted force on the The various types of forces in nature can be
pieces. When a cork is dipped in water it comes to the grouped in four categories :
surface; if we want to keep it inside water, we have (a) Gravitational, (b) Electromagnetic,
to push it downward. We say that water exerts a force (c) Nuclear and (d) Weak.
on the cork in the upward direction.
The SI unit for measuring the force is called a 4.2 GRAVITATIONAL FORCE
newton. Approximately, it is the force needed to hold
a body of mass 102 g near the earth's surface. An Any two bodies attract each other by virtue of their
accurate quantitative definition can be framed using masses. The force of attraction between two point
Newton's laws of motion to be studied in the next masses is F =G mi72,where m1and m2 are the masses
chapter.
of the particles and r is the distance between them. G
Force is an interaction between two objects. Force
is exerted by an object A on another object B. For any is a universal constant having the value
force you may ask two questions, (i) who exerted this 6.67 x 10 11Nm 2/kg 2. To find the gravitational force
force and (ii) on which object was this force exerted ? on an extended body by another such body, we have
Thus, when a block is kept on a table, the table exerts to write the force on each particle of the 1st body by
a force on the block to hold it. all the particles of the second body and then we have
Force is a vector quantity and if more than one to sum up vectorially all the forces acting on the first
forces act on a particle we can find the resultant force body. For example, suppose each body contains just
using the laws of vector addition. Note that in all the three particles, and let Fib denote the force on the i th
examples quoted above, if a body A exerts a force on particle of the first body due to the j th particle of the
B, the body B also exerts a force on A. Thus, the table second body. To find the resultant force on the first
exerts a force on the block to hold it and the block body (figure 4.1), we have to add the following 9 forces :
exerts a force on the table to press it down. When a
heavy block is suspended by a rope, the rope exerts a F11, F12, F13, F21, F22, F23, F31, F32, F33
The Forces 57
daily experience. Some examples having practical (b) Tension in a String or a Rope
importance given below.
In a tug of war, two persons hold the two ends of
a rope and try to pull the rope on their respective sides.
(a) Forces between Two Surfaces in Contact The rope becomes tight and its length is slightly
increased. In many situations this increase is very
When we put two bodies in contact with each other,
small and goes undetected. Such a stretched rope is
the atoms at the two surfaces come close to each other.
said to be in a state of tension.
The charged constituents of the atoms of the two
bodies exert great forces on each other and a Similarly, if a heavy block hangs from a ceiling by
measurable force results out of it. We say that the two a string, the string is in a state of tension. The
bodies in contact exert forces on each other. When you electrons and protons of the string near the lower end
place a book on a table, the table exerts an upward exert forces on the electrons and protons of the block
force on the book to hold it. This force comes from the and the resultant of these forces is the force exerted
electromagnetic forces acting between the atoms and by the string on the block. It is the resultant of these
molecules of the surface of the book and of the table. electromagnetic forces which supports the block and
prevents it from falling. A string or rope under tension
exerts electromagnetic forces on the bodies attached at
the two ends to pull them.
block kept 100 m above the earth's surface is about attraction will turn out to be totally negligible as
9.8 N whereas the electromagnetic force between the compared to the Coulomb repulsion.
earth and this block is almost zero even though both In fact, a third kind of force, altogether different
these bodies contain a very large number of charged and over and above the gravitational and
particles, the electrons and the protons. electromagnetic force, is operating here. These forces
are called Nuclear forces and are exerted only if the
Example 4.1
interacting particles are protons or neutrons or both.
Suppose the exact charge neutrality does not hold in a (There are some more cases where this force operates
world and the electron has a charge 1% less in magnitude but we shall not deal with them.) These forces are
than the proton. Calculate the Coulomb force acting largely attractive, but are short ranged. The forces are
between two blocks of iron each of mass 1 kg separated much weaker than the Coulomb force if the separation
by a distance of 1 m. Number of protons in an iron atom between the particles is more than say 10 14 m. But
= 26 and 58 kg of iron contains 6 x 10 26 atoms. for smaller separation 10 15 m) the nuclear force is
Solution : Each atom of iron will have a net positive charge much stronger than the Coulomb force and being
26 x 0'01 x 1'6 x 10 19C on it in the assumed world. The attractive it holds the nucleus stable.
total positive charge on a 1 kg block would be Being short ranged, these forces come into picture
6 x 10 26
only if the changes within the nucleus are discussed.
X 26 x 1.6 x 10 21 C As bare nuclei are less frequently encountered in daily
58
life, one is generally unaware of these forces.
= 4.3 x 10 5 C. Radioactivity, nuclear energy (fission, fusion) etc.
The Coulomb force between the two blocks is result from nuclear forces.
q 1q2 9.0 x 10 9Nm 2/C 2X (4.3 x 10 5 C) 2
(1 M) 2 4.5 WEAK FORCES
411e0 r2
= 9 x 10 9 X 18.49 x 10 1 N Yet another kind of forces is encountered when
reactions involving protons, electrons and neutrons
= 1.7 x 10 21 N. take place. A neutron can change itself into a proton
A tremendous force indeed ! and simultaneously emit an electron and a particle
called antinutrino. This is called p decay. Never think
that a neutron is made up of a proton, an electron and
4.4 NUCLEAR FORCES an antineutrino. A proton can also change into neutron
and simultaneously emit a positron (and a neutrino).
Each atom contains a certain number of protons This is called 0+decay. The forces responsible for these
and neutrons in its nucleus. The nucleus occupies a changes are different from gravitational, electro
volume of about 10 in 2 3 whe
reas the atom itself has magnetic or nuclear forces. Such forces are called weak
a volume of about 10m . Thus, the nucleus occupies forces. The range of weak forces is very small, in fact
only 1/10 21of the volume of the atom. Yet it contains much smaller than the size of a proton or a neutron.
about 99.98% of the mass of the atom. The atomic Thus, its effect is experienced inside such particles
nucleus of a nonradioactive element is a stable only.
particle. For example, if both the electrons are removed
from a helium atom, we get the bare nucleus of helium
4.6 SCOPE OF CLASSICAL PHYSICS
which is called an alpha particle. The alpha particle
is a stable object and once created it can remain intact The behaviour of all the bodies of linear sizes
until it is not made to interact with other objects. greater than 10 6 m are adequately described on the
An alpha particle contains two protons and two basis of relatively a small number of very simple laws
neutrons. The protons will repel each other due to the of nature. These laws are the Newton's laws of motion,
Coulomb force and will try to break the nucleus. Newton's law of gravitation, Maxwell's electro
Neutrons will be silent spectators in this electro magnetism, Laws of thermodynamics and the Lorentz
magnetic drama (Remember, neutron is an uncharged force. The principles of physics based on them is called
particle). Then, why does the Coulomb force fail to the classical physics. The formulation of classical
break the nucleus ? Can it be the gravitational physics is quite accurate for heavenly bodies like the
attractive force which keeps the nucleus bound ? All sun, the earth, the moon etc. and is equally good for
the protons and the neutrons will take part in this the behaviour of grains of sand and the raindrops.
attraction, but if calculated, the gravitational However, for the subatomic particles much smaller
60 Concepts of Physics
6
than 10 m (such as atoms, nuclei etc.) these rules do size > 10 6 m moving with velocities < 10 8 m/s. In a
not work well. The behaviour of such particles is major part of this book, we shall work within these
governed by quantum physics. In fact, at such short restrictions and hence learn the techniques of classical
dimensions the very concept of "particle" breaks down. physics. The size restriction automatically excludes
The perception of the nature is altogether different at any appreciable effects of nuclear or weak forces and
this scale. The validity of classical physics also depends we need to consider only the gravitational and electro
on the velocities involved. The classical mechanics as magnetic forces. We might consider the subatomic
formulated by Newton has to be considerably changed particles here and there but shall assume the existence
when velocities comparable to 3 x 10 8 m/s are of gravitational and electromagnetic forces only and
involved. This is the speed of light in vacuum and is that classical physics is valid for these particles. The
the upper limit of speed which material particle can results arrived at by our analysis may only be
ever reach. No matter how great and how long you approximately true because we shall be applying the
apply a force, you can never get a particle going with laws which are not correct in that domain. But even
a speed greater than 3 x 10 8 m/s. The mechanics of that may play an important role in the understanding
particles moving with these large velocities is known of nature. We shall also assume that the Newton's
as relativistic mechanics and was formulated by third law is valid for the forces which we shall be
Einstein in 1905. dealing with. In the final chapters we shall briefly
Thus, classical physics is a good description of the discuss quantum physics and some of its important
nature if we are concerned with the particles of linear consequences.
Figure 4W3
Solution : Each particle exerts electric forces on the towards right. The force on this rod due to the
remaining three particles. Thus there exist 4 x 3 = 12 charge q
2 2
forces in all. Figure (4W2) shows them. q q
, .......... 4 TC 8 0(2/ + a)2 4it eo(1 + a) 2
....'"  .,
\ ...
towards right.
The resultant force on the rod is
I I I I 2
1 2 1
F 4 q [
towards right.
, ..... ,........_,..... rce a (/ + a)2 (2/ + a) 2
Figure 4W2 If 1 a, the last two terms in the square bracket are
negligible as compared to the first term. Then,
2
F 2.
2. Figure (4W3) shows two rods each of length I placed 4 ic co a
side by side, with their facing ends separated by a If a 1
distance a. Charges + q, q reside on the rods as shown. 2
q 1 2 [1
Calculate the electric force on the rod A due to the rod F
4 n Ea a 2 a 2+ a
21 0
B. Discuss the cases when 1a, a1.
The Forces 61
Two neutral objects placed far away exert only negligible G(m e) 2
force on each other but when they are placed closer they and
an the gravitational
it ti lforce
f 2
r
may exert appreciable force. e
2
The ratio is
4 IC co G (in e) 2
3. Calculate the ratio of electric to gravitational force
m2
between two electrons. 9x 10 9N x
2 (1.6 x 10 19 C) 2
e
2 4'17 x 10 42 .
Solution : The electric force = Ngm 2
4 IC co r
2
6.67 x 101 x (9.1 x 1031kg)2
k
104
IIIIIi1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
x in fermi
Figure 4Q1
Figure 4 Q4

Horse 1
2
3
Driver 1
Figure 4Q5
2
3
OBJECTIVE I
1. When Neils Bohr shook hand with Werner Heisenberg, (a) only if all the particles are positively charged
what kind of force they exerted ? (b) only if all the particles are negatively charged
(a) Gravitational (b) Electromagnetic (c) only if half the particles are positively charged and
(c) Nuclear (d) Weak. half are negatively charged
2. Let E, G and N represent the magnitudes of (d) irrespective of the signs of the charges.
electromagnetic, gravitational and nuclear forces 4. A 60 kg man pushes a 40 kg man by a force of 60 N.
between two electrons at a given separation. Then The 40 kg man has pushed the other man with a force
(a) N>E>G (b) E>N>G (c) G>N>E (d) E>G>N. of
3. The sum of all electromagnetic forces between different (a) 40 N (b) 0 (c) 60 N (d) 20 N.
particles of a system of charged particles is zero
OBJECTIVE II
1. A neutron exerts a force on a proton which is 5. Which of the following systems may be adequately
(a) gravitational (b) electromagnetic described by classical physics ?
(c) nuclear (d) weak. (a) motion of a cricket ball
2. A proton exerts a force on a proton which is (b) motion of a dust particle
(a) gravitational (b) electromagnetic (c) a hydrogen atom
(c) nuclear (d) weak. (d) a neutron changing to a proton.
3. Mark the correct statements : 6. The two ends of a spring are displaced along the length
(a) The nuclear force between two protons is always of the spring. All displacements have equal
greater than the electromagnetic force between them. mangnitudes. In which case or cases the tension or
(b) The electromagnetic force between two protons is compression in the spring will have a maximum
always greater than the gravitational force between magnitude ?
them. (a) the right end is displaced towards right and the left
(c) The gravitational force between two protons may be end towards left
greater than the nuclear force between them. (b) both ends are displaced towards right
(d) Electromagnetic force between two protons may be (c) both ends are displaced towards left
greater than the nuclear force acting between them. (d) the right end is displaced towards left and the left
4. If all matter were made of electrically neutral particles end towards right.
such as neutrons, 7. Action and reaction
(a) there would be no force of friction (a) act on two different objects
(b) there would be no tension in the string (b) have equal magnitude
(c) it would not be possible to sit on a chair (c) have opposite directions
(d) the earth could not move around the sun. (d) have resultant zero.
The Forces 63
EXERCISES
1. The gravitational force acting on a particle of 1 g due 8. Two charged particles placed at a separation of 20 cm
to a similar particle is equal to 6.67 x 10 17N. Calculate exert 20 N of Coulomb force on each other. What will
the separation between the particles. be the force if the separation is increased to 25 cm ?
2. Calculate the force with which you attract the earth. 9. The force with which the earth attracts an object is
called the weight of the object. Calculate the weight of
3. At what distance should two charges, each equal to 1 C, the moon from the following data : The universal
be placed so that the force between them equals your
weight ? constant of gravitation G = 6.67 x 1011Nm 2/kg 2 mass
,
4. Two spherical bodies, each of mass 50 kg, are placed at of the moon = 7.36 x 10 22 kg, mass of the earth
a separation of 20 cm. Equal charges are placed on the = 6 x 10 24 kg and the distance between the earth and the
bodies and it is found that the force of Coulomb repulsion moon = 3.8 x 10 5 km.
equals the gravitational attraction in magnitude. Find
10. Find the ratio of the magnitude of the electric force to
the magnitude of the charge placed on either body. the gravitational force acting between two protons.
5. A monkey is sitting on a tree limb. The limb exerts a 11. The average separation between the proton and the
normal force of 48 N and a frictional force of 20 N. Find electron in a hydrogen atom in ground state is
the magnitude of the total force exerted by the limb on
5.3 x 10  11in. (a) Calculate the Coulomb force between
the monkey.
them at this separation. (b) When the atom goes into its
6. A body builder exerts a force of 150 N against a first excited state the average separation between the
bullworker and compresses it by 20 cm. Calculate the proton and the electron increases to four times its value
spring constant of the spring in the bullworker. in the ground state. What is the Coulomb force in this
7. A satellite is projected vertically upwards from an earth state ?
station. At what height above the earth's surface will 12. The geostationary orbit of the earth is at a distance of
the force on the satellite due to the earth be reduced to about 36000 km from the earth's surface. Find the
half its value at the earth station ? (Radius of the earth weight of a 120kg equipment placed in a geostationary
is 6400 km.) satellite. The radius of the earth is 6400 km.
ANSWERS
OBJECTIVE I EXERCISES
0
CHAPTER 5
Newton's laws of motion are of central importance particle is, in general, different when measured from
in classical physics. A large number of principles and different frames. Is it possible then, that the first law
results may be derived from Newton's laws. The first is valid in all frames of reference ?
two laws relate to the type of motion of a system that Let us consider the situation shown in figure (5.1).
results from a given set of forces. These laws may be An elevator cabin falls down after the cable breaks.
interpreted in a variety of ways and it is slightly The cabin and all the bodies fixed in the cabin are
uninteresting and annoying at the outset to go into the accelerated with respect to the earth and the
technical details of the interpretation. The precise acceleration is about 9.8 m/s 2 in the downward
definitions of mass, force and acceleration should be direction.
given before we relate) them. And these definitions
themselves need use of Newton's laws. Thus, these
laws turn out to be definitions to some extent. We shall
assume that we know how to assign mass to a body,
how to assign the magnitude and direction to a force
and how to measure the acceleration with respect to
a given frame of reference. Some discussions of these
aspects were given in the previous chapters. The
development here does not follow the historical track
these laws have gone through, but are explained to
make them simple to apply.
Figure 5.1
forces acting on the particle is zero. a 0 and hence the person B who measured this
However, the concept of rest, motion or acceleration, concludes from Newton's first law that
acceleration is meaningful only when a frame of the sum of the forces is not zero. Thus, W T # 0 or
reference is specified. Also the acceleration of the W T. If A measures acceleration and applies the first
Newton's Laws of Motion 65
a p, s = ap, s .
as', s = O.
The book is at rest with respect to the earth. The ) )
acceleration of the book with respect to the earth is Thus, ap, s = aps, (i)
zero. The forces on the book are (a) the gravitational Now S is an inertial frame. So from definition,
force W exerted by the earth and (b) the cojitact force ap, s = 0 , if and only if F = 0 and hence, from (i),
sV by the table. Is the sum of W and dV zero ? A ap, s, = 0 if and only if F = O.
very accurate measurement will give the answer "No".
The sum of the forces is not zero although the book is Thus, S' is also an inertial frame. We arrive at an
at rest. The earth is not strictly an inertial frame. important result : All frames moving uniformly with
However, the sum is not too different from zero and respect to an inertial frame are themselves inertial.
we can say that the earth is an inertial frame of Thus, a train moving with uniform velocity with
reference to a good approximation. Thus, for routine respect to the ground, a plane flying with uniform
velocity with respect to a highway, etc., are examples
affairs, "a = 0 if and only if F = 0" is true in the earth
of inertial frames. The sum of the forces acting on a
frame of reference. This fact was identified and
suitcase kept on the shelf of a ship sailing smoothly
formulated by Newton and is known as Newton's first and uniformly on a calm sea is zero.
law. If we restrict that all measurements will be made
from the earth frame, indeed it becomes a law. If we 5.2 SECOND LAW OF MOTION
try to universalise this to different frames, it becomes
a definition. We shall assume that unless stated The acceleration of a particle as measured from an
otherwise, we are working from an inertial frame of inertial frame is given by the (vector) sum of all the
reference. forces acting on the particle divided by its mass.
66 Concepts of Physics
4
)
... (5.2) time interval is same as that by A. The same is true
In symbols : a =Flm or, F = m a.
for G. The distance moved by G in any time interval
The inertial frame is already defined by the is same as that by A, B or C. The direction of motion
first law of motion. A force F acting on a particle of is also the same for A, B, C and G. They have identical
4
mass m produces an acceleration F I m in it with accelerations. We can take any of these blocks as a
respect to an inertial frame. This is a law of nature. system or any combination of the blocks from these as
If the force ceases to act at some instant, the a system. Some of the examples are (A), (B), (A + B),
acceleration becomes zero at the same instant. In (B + C), (A + B + C), (C + G), (A + C + G), (A + B +
equation (5.2) a and F are measured at the same C + G) etc. The distance covered by E is also the same
instant of time. as the distance covered by G but their directions are
different. E moves in a vertical line whereas G in a
horizontal line. (E + G) should not be taken as a
5.3 WORKING WITH NEWTON'S
system. At least at this stage we are unable to apply
FIRST AND SECOND LAW
Newton's law treating E + G as a single particle. As
Newton's laws refer to a particle and relate the the disc D slides over the string the distance covered
forces acting on the particle with its acceleration and by D is not equal to that by E in the same time
its mass. Before attempting to write an equation from interval. We should not treat D + E as a system. Think
Newton's law, we should very clearly understand carefully.
which particle we are considering. In any practical
situation, we deal with extended bodies which are Step 2 : Identify the Forces
collection of a large number of particles. The laws as Once the system is decided, make a list of the
stated above may be used even if the object under forces acting on the system due to all the objects other
consideration is an extended body, provided each part than the system. 'Any force applied by the system
of this body has the same acceleration (in magnitude should not be included in the list of the forces.
and direction). A systematic algorithm for writing
equations from Newton's laws is as follows : Consider the situation shown in figure (5.5). The
boy stands on the floor balancing a heavy load on his
Step 1 : Decide the System head. The load presses the boy, the boy pushes the
load upward the boy presses the floor downward, the
The first step is to decide the system on which the floor pushes the boy upward, the earth attracts the
laws of motion are to be applied. The system may be load downward, the load attracts the earth upward,
a single particle, a block, a combination of two blocks the boy attracts the earth upward and the earth
one kept over the other, two blocks connected by a attracts the boy downward. There are many forces
string, a piece of string etc. The only restriction is that operating in this world. Which of these forces should
all parts of the system should have identical we include in the list of forces ?
acceleration.
Consider the situation shown in figure (5.4). The
block B does not slip over A, the disc D slides over the
string and all parts of the string are tight.
Figure 5.5
the list of the forces will be different. These forces If the forces are coplanar, only two axes, say X and
appear in the lower half of table (5.1). Y, taken in the plane of forces are needed. Choose the
Xaxis along the direction in which the system is
Table 5.1 known to have or is likely to have the acceleration. A
direction perpendicular to it may be chosen as the
System Force Magnitude Direction Nature of the
exerted by of the of the force force Yaxis. If the system is in equilibrium, any mutually
force perpendicular directions in the plane of the diagram
Earth W Downward Gravitational may be chosen as the axes. Write the components of
Boy Floor dV Upward Electro all the forces along the Xaxis and equate their sum
magnetic to the product of the mass of the system and its
Load dVl Downward acceleration. This gives you one equation. Write the
Earth W' Downward Gravitational
components of the forces along the Yaxis and equate
the sum to zero. This gives you another equation. If
Load
the forces are collinear, this second equation is not
Boy Upward Electro needed.
magnetic
If necessary you can go to step 1, choose another
One may furnish as much information as one has object as the system, repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 to get
about the magnitude and direction of the forces. The more equations. These are called equations of motion.
contact forces may have directions other than normal Use mathematical techniques to get the unknown
to the contact surface if the surfaces are rough. We quantities out of these equations. This completes the
shall discuss more about it under the heading of algorithm.
friction. The magnitudes of acceleration of different objects
in a given situation are often related through
Step 3 : Make a Free Body Diagram kinematics. This should be properly foreseen and used
Now, represent the system by a point in a separate together with the equations of motion. For example in
diagram and draw vectors representing the forces figure (5.4) the accelerations of C and E have same
acting on the system with this point as the common magnitudes. Equations of motion for C and for E
origin. The forces may lie along a line, may be should use the same variable a for acceleration.
distributed in a plane (coplanar) or may be distributed
Example 5.2
in the space (nonplanar). We shall rarely encounter
situations dealing with nonplanar forces. For coplanar A block of mass M is pulled on a smooth horizontal table
forces the plane of diagram represents the plane of the by a string making an angle 9 with the horizontal as
forces acting on the system. Indicate the magnitudes shown in figure (5.7). If the acceleration of the block is
and directions of the forces in this diagram. This is a, find the force applied by the string and by the table
called a free body diagram. The free body diagram for on the block.
the example discussed above with the boy as the
system and with the load as the system are shown in
figure (5.6).
dv
St(
Figure 5.7
A
Newton's third law of motion is not strictly correct
when interaction between two bodies separated by a
large distance is considered. We come across such
deviations when we study electric and magnetic forces.
Example 5.4
Solution : Consider "the block + the part of the string In this section we discuss the techniques of solving
below A" as the system. Let the tension at A be T. The the motion of a body with respect to a noninertial
forces acting on this system are frame of reference.
(a) (M + m)g, downward, by the earth Consider the situation shown in figure (5.13).
(b) T, upward, by the upper part of the string. Suppose the frame of reference S' moves with a

70 Concepts of Physics
constant acceleration 4 with respect to an inertial force m ao. Applying Newton's second law will then
frame S. The acceleration of a particle P measured lead to equation (5.3). Such correction terms m ao in
with respect to S' is ap, s, =a and that with respect to the list of forces are called pseudo forces. This socalled
S is ap, s . The acceleration of S' with respect to S is force is to be included in the list only because we are
discussing the motion from a noninertial frame and
ag,s= ao still want to use Newton's second law as "total force
a0 equals mass times acceleration". If we work from an
p inertial frame, the acceleration 4 of the frame is zero
and no pseudo force is needed. The pseudo forces are
S S '
also called inertial forces although their need arises
because of the use of noninertial frames.
Example 5.5
Figure 5.13 A pendulum is hanging from the ceiling of a car having
an acceleration aowith respect to the road. Find the angle
made by the string with the vertical.
Since S' is translating with respect to S we have,
Solution : The situation is shown in figure (5.14a).
ap, s,= ap, s as, =ap, s as% s
Suppose the mass of the bob is m and the string makes
 > 0
or, a = ap, s ao an angle 0 with the vertical. We shall work from the car
frame. This frame is noninertial as it has an acceleration
or, m a = m ap, s m ao
ao with respect to an inertial frame (the road). Hence,
where m is the mass of the particle P. Since S is an if we use Newton's second law we shall have to include
inertial frame m ap , is equal to the sum of all the a pseudo force.
forces acting on P. Writing this sum as F, we get
>
ma=Frn ao
F m ao may
or, a ... (5.3)
m
This equation relates the acceleration of the particle
Mg
and the forces acting on it. Compare it with
equation (5.2) which relates the acceleration and the (a) (b)
force when the acceleration is measured with respect Figure 5.14
to an inertial frame. The acceleration of the frame
(with respect to an inertial frame) comes into the
> Take the bob as the system.
equation of a particle. Newton's second law a =Flm is
not valid in such a noninertial frame. An extra term The forces are :
m ao has to be added to the sum of all the forces (a) T along the string, by the string
acting on the particle before writing the equation (b) mg downward, by the earth
> (c) may towards left (pseudo force).
a =F 1 m. Note that in this extra term, m is the mass
The free body diagram is shown in figure (5.14b). As the
of the particle under consideration and ao is the bob is at rest (remember we are discussing the motion
acceleration of the working frame of reference with with respect to the car) the force in (a), (b) and (c) should
respect to some inertial frame. add to zero. Take Xaxis along the forward horizontal
However, we people spend most of our lifetime on direction and Yaxis along the upward vertical direction.
the earth which is an (approximate) inertial frame. We The components of the forces along the Xaxis give
are so familiar with the Newton's laws that we would T sine m ao = 0 or, T sine = m ao (i)
still like to use the terminology of Newton's laws even
and the components along the Yaxis give
when we use a noninertial frame. This can be done if
T cos mg = 0 or, T cost) = mg. (ii)
we agree to call ( m ao) a force acting on the particle.
Dividing (i) by (ii) tan() = ao 1g.
Then while preparing the list of the forces acting on
the particle P, we include all the (real) forces acting Thus, the string makes an angle tan 1(a, /g) with the
on P by all other objects and also include an imaginary vertical.
Newton's Laws of Motion 71
5.6 THE HORSE AND THE CART road pushes the horse by a force P which has a forward
component. This force acts on the horse and we must
A good example which illustrates the ideas
add this force when we discuss the motion of the horse.
discussed in this chapter is the motion of a cart pulled
The horse accelerates forward if the forward
by a horse. Suppose the cart is at rest when the driver
component f of the force P exceeds F2 (Figure 5.16).
whips the horse. The horse pulls the cart and the cart
The acceleration of the horse is (f F2)1Mh. We should
accelerates forward. The question posed is as follows.
The horse pulls the cart by a force F1in the forward make sure that all the forces acting on the system are
direction. From the third law of motion the cart pulls added. Note that the force of gravity acting on the
horse has no forward component.
the horse by an equal force F2 = F1 in the backward
direction. The sum of these forces is, therefore, zero
(figure 5.15). Why should then the cart accelerate
forward ?
Figure 5.16
: Force on the cart by the horse Going back to the previous paragraph the
F2: Force on the horse by the cart acceleration of the cart may not be F1I Mc. The road
F.1 = F2= F exerts a force Q on the cart which may have a
backward component f'. The total force on the cart is
Figure 5.15
F1 f'. The acceleration of the cart is then
f'
Try to locate the mistake in the argument. a in the forward direction.
Mc
According to our scheme, we should first decide the
system. We can take the horse as the system or the The forces f and f ' are self adjustable and they so
cart as the system or the cart and the horse taken f f F2
'
1. A body of mass m is suspended by two strings making Solution : Figure (5W3) shows the situation with the
angles a and 13 with the horizontal. Find the tensions in forces on m1 and m2 shown. Take the body of mass m2
the strings. as the system. The forces acting on it are
Solution : Take the body of mass m as the system. The
forces acting on the system are
(i) mg downwards (by the earth),
(ii) T1along the first string (by the first string) and
(iii) T2along the second string (by the second string).
Figure 5 W3

(250 m/s) 2  0 2 Solution : Suppose the pulley is displaced to B' and the
giving, a  625000 m/s 2.
2 x 0'05 m block to A' (figure 5W6). The length of the string is
The force on the bullet is F = ma = 6250 N. CB + BA and is also equal to CB + BB' + B'B + BA'.
Hence, CB + BA' + A'A = CB + BB' + B'B + BA'
4. The force on a particle of mass 10 g is ( 10 +/+5) N. If or, A'A = 2 BB'.
it starts from rest what would be its position at time
C
t =5 s ?
B.
B'
Solution : We have Fx= 10 N giving A
Fx
10 N  1000 m/s 2.
a' m 0'01 kg Figure 5W6
As this is a case of constant acceleration in xdirection,
x=ux t+lax t 2 =2x 1000 in/s 2 x(5 s) 2 The displacement of A is, therefore, twice the
= 12500 m displacement of B in any given time interval.
Diffrentiating twice, we find that the acceleration of A
Fy 5N
Similarly, ay =  500 m/s 2 is twice the acceleration of B.
M 0'01kg 
To find the acceleration of the block we will need the
and y = 6250 m.
tension in the string. That can be obtained by
Thus, the position of the particle at t = 5 s is,
considering the pulley as the system.
r = (i 12500 +j 6250) m.
The forces acting on the pulley are
(i) F towards right by the experimenter,
5. With what acceleration 'a' should the box of figure (5W4)
(ii) T towards left by the portion BC of the string and
descend so that the block of mass M exerts a force (iii) T towards left by the portion BA of the string.
Mg 1 4 on the floor of the box ?
The vertical forces, if any, add to zero as there is no
vertical motion.
M
ai As the mass of the pulley is zero, the equation of motion
n is
F  2T = 0 giving T = F/2.
Figure 5W4
Now consider the block as the system. The only
Solution : The block is at rest with respect to the box horizontal force acting on the block is the tension T
which is accelerated with respect to the ground. Hence, towards right. The acceleration of the block is, therefore,
the acceleration of the block with respect to the ground a=TIm= 2F The acceleration of the pulley is
is 'a' downward. The forces on the block are
F
(i) Mg downward (by the earth) and a/2 =
4m
(ii) mil/ upward (by the floor).
The equation of motion of the block is, therefore 7. A smooth ring A of mass m can slide on a fixed horizontal
Mg  .1)1 = Ma. rod. A string tied to the ring passes over a fixed pulley
If dV = Mg 14, the above equation gives a = 3 g/4. The B and carries a block C of mass M ( = 2 m) as shown in
block and hence the box should descend with an figure (5W7). At an instant the string between the ring
acceleration 3 g /4. and the pulley makes an angle 0 with the rod. (a) Show
that, if the ring slides with a speed v, the block descends
6. A block 'A' of mass m is tied to a fixed point C on a with speed v cos 0. (b) With what acceleration will the
horizontal table through a string passing round a ring start moving if the system is released from rest with
massless smooth pulley B (figure 5W5). A force F is 0 = 30 ?
applied by the experimenter to the pulley. Show that if
the pulley is displaced by a distance x, the block will be
displaced by 2x. Find the acceleration of the block and
the pulley.
C B
F
I Al m I
Solution : (a) Suppose in a small time interval At the ring an upward force greater than 360 N is applied to it.
is displaced from A to A' (figure 5W8) and the block Find the maximum acceleration in the upward direction
from C to C'. Drop a perpendicular A'P from A' to AB. with which the man can climb safely. Neglect friction
For small displacement A'B PB. Since the length of the at the tree branch. Take g = 10 m/s 2.
Figure 5 W9
cos0
Mg COS Solution : Suppose the acceleration of m1 is ao towards
or a 9
m+Mcos 0 right. That will also be the downward acceleration of
Putting 0 = 30, M = 2 m and g = 9.8 m/s2; therefore the pulley B because the string connecting m1 and B is
a = 6.78 m/s 2 .
constant in length. Also the string connecting
m2 and m, has a constant length. This implies that the
8. A light rope fixed at one end of a wooden clamp on the decrease in the separation between m2 and B equals
ground passes over a tree branch and hangs on the other the increase in the separation between in, and B. So,
side (figure 5W9). It makes an angle of 30 with the the upward acceleration of m2 with respect to B equals
ground. A man weighing (60 kg) wants to climb up the the downward acceleration of m3with respect to B. Let
rope. The wooden clamp can come out of the ground if this acceleration be a.
Newton's Laws of Motion 75
11. All the surfaces shown in figure (5W14) are assumed to The block slides down the plane. Components of the
be frictionless. The block of mass m slides on the prism forces parallel to the incline give
which in turn slides backward on the horizontal surface.
ma, cos() + mg sine = ma
Find the acceleration of the smaller block with respect to
the prism. Or, a = aocos0 +g sine. (i)
Components of the force perpendicular to the incline give
SV + ma, sine = mg cos0. (ii)
Now consider the motion of the prism from the lab
Figure 5 W14

frame. No pseudo force is needed as the frame used is
inertial. The forces are (figure 5W15b)
Solution : Let the acceleration of the prism be a, in the (i) Mg downward,
backward direction. Consider the motion of the smaller (ii) SV normal to the incline (by the block),
block from the frame of the prism. (iii) 1V" upward (by the horizontal surface).
The forces on the block are (figure 5W15a) Horizontal components give,
(i) N normal force, SV sine = Mao or, dV = Mao /sine.
(ii) mg downward (gravity),
(iii) ma, forward (psuedo). Putting in (ii)
Mao
+m
a, sine = mg cos0
sine
m g sine cose
or, a,
M + m sin 20
m gsine cos 20
From (i), a 2 +gsine
(a) (b)
M + m sin 0
(M + m) g sine
Figure 5W15
M + m sin 20
0
1. The apparent weight of an object increases in an elevator 6. It is sometimes heard that inertial frame of reference is
while accelerating upward. A moongphaliwala sells his only an ideal concept and no such inertial frame actually
moongphali using a beam balance in an elevator. Will exists. Comment.
he gain more if the elevator is accelerating up ? 7. An object is placed far away from all the objects that
can exert force on it. A frame of reference is constructed
2. A boy puts a heavy box of mass M on his head and
by taking the origin and axes fixed in this object. Will
jumps down from the top of a multistoried building to the frame be necessarily inertial ?
the ground. How much is the force exerted by the box 8. Figure (5Q1) shows a light spring balance connected to
on his head during his free fall ? Does the force greatly two blocks of mass 20 kg each. The graduations in the
increase during the period he balances himself after balance measure the tension in the spring. (a) What is
striking the ground ? the reading of the balance? (b) Will the reading change
if the balance is heavy, say 2.0 kg ? (c) What will happen
3. A person drops a coin. Describe the path of the coin as
if the spring is light but the blocks have unequal
seen by the person if he is in (a) a car moving at constant
masses ?
velocity and (b) in a freely falling elevator.
4. Is it possible for a particle to describe a curved path if
no force acts on it ? Does your answer depend on the
frame of reference chosen to view the particle ?
5. You are riding in a car. The driver suddenly applies the
brakes and you are pushed forward. Who pushed you
forward ? Figure 5 Q1

Newton's Laws of Motion 77
9. The acceleration of a particle is zero as measured from system is released on a frictionless horizontal platform.
an inertial frame of reference. Can we conclude that no Are the forces due to the spring on the two blocks equal
force acts on the particle ? and opposite ? If yes, is it an example of Newton's third
10. Suppose you are running fast in a field when you law ?
suddendly find a snake in front of you. You stop quickly. 16. When a train starts, the head of a standing passenger
Which force is responsible for your deceleration ? seems to be pushed backward. Analyse the situation
11. If you jump barefooted on a hard surface, your legs get from the ground frame. Does it really go backward ?
injured. But they are not injured if you jump on a soft Coming back to the train frame, how do you explain the
surface like sand or pillow. Explain. backward movement of the head on the basis of Newton's
12. According to Newton's third law each team pulls the laws ?
opposite team with equal force in a tug of war. Why
then one team wins and the other loses ? 17. A plumb bob is hung from the ceiling of a train
compartment. If the train moves with an acceleration 'a'
13. A spy jumps from an airplane with his parachute. The
along a straight horizontal track, the string supporting
spy accelerates downward for some time when the
parachute opens. The acceleration is suddenly checked the bob makes an angle tan 1(a /g) with the normal to
and the spy slowly falls on the ground. Explain the the ceiling. Suppose the train moves on an inclined
action of parachute in checking the acceleration. straight track with uniform velocity. If the angle of
14. Consider a book lying on a table. The weight of the book incline is tan1(a1 g), the string again makes the same
and the normal force by the table on the book are equal angle with the normal to the ceiling. Can a person sitting
in magnitude and opposite in direction. Is this an inside the compartment tell by looking at the plumb
example of Newton's third law ? line whether the train is accelerated on a horizontal
15. Two blocks of unequal masses are tied by a spring. The straight track or it is going on an incline ? If yes, how ?
blocks are pulled stretching the spring slightly and the If no, suggest a method to do so.
OBJECTIVE I
1. A body of weight w1is suspended from the ceiling of a (a) Both the scales will read 10 kg.
room through a chain of weight w, . The ceiling pulls (b) Both the scales will read 5 kg.
the chain by a force (c) The upper scale will read 10 kg and the lower zero.
w1 w2 (d) The readings may be anything but their sum will he
(a) w1 (b) w2 (c) w1 +w 2 (d) 10 kg.
2
2. When a horse pulls a cart, the force that helps the horse 5. A block of mass m is placed on a smooth inclined plane
to move forward is the force exerted by of inclination 0 with the horizontal. The force exerted
(a) the cart on the horse (b) the ground on the horse by the plane on the block has a magnitude
(c) the ground on the cart (d) the horse on the ground. (a) mg (b) mg I cos (c) mg cosh (d) mg tan0.
3. A car accelerates on a horizontal road due to the force 6. A block of mass m is placed on a smooth wedge of
exerted by inclination 0. The whole system is accelerated
(a) the engine of the car (b) the driver of the car horizontally so that the block does not slip on the wedge.
(c) the earth (d) the road. The force exerted by the wedge on the block has a
magnitude
4. A block of mass 10 kg is suspended through two light
(a) mg (b) mg I cos() (c) mg cos() (d) mg tan0.
spring balances as shown in figure (5Q2).
7. Neglect the effect of rotation of the earth. Suppose the
earth suddenly stops attracting objects placed near its
surface. A person standing on the surface of the earth
will
(a) fly up (b) slip along the surface
(c) fly along a tangent to the earth's surface
(d) remain standing.
8. Three rigid rods are joined to form an equilateral triangle
ABC of side 1 m. Three particles carrying charges
20 p.0 each are attached to the vertices of the triangle.
The whole system is at rest in an inertial frame. The
resultant force on the charged particle at A has the
magnitude
Figure 5 Q2
 (a) zero (b) 3.6 N (c) 3.61/3 N (d) 7.2 N.
78 Concepts of Physics
9. A force F1acts on a particle so as to accelerate it from 12. In an imaginary atmosphere, the air exerts a small force
rest to a velocity v. The force F1is then replaced by F2 F on any particle in the direction of the particle's motion.
which decelerates it to rest. A particle of mass m projected upward takes a time t1
(a) F1must be equal to F2 (b)F1may be equal to F2 in reaching the maximum height and t2 in the return
(c) F1must be unequal to F2(d) none of these. journey to the original point. Then
(a) t1< t2 (b)t1 > t2 (c) t1 = t2 (d) the relation between
10. Two objects A and B are thrown upward simultaneously t1 and t2 depends on the mass of the particle.
with the same speed. The mass of A is greater than the
mass of B. Suppose the air exerts a constant and equal 13. A person standing on the floor of an elevator drops a
force of resistance on the two bodies. coin. The coin reaches the floor of the elevator in a time
(a) The two bodies will reach the same height. t1if the elevator is stationary and in time t2 if it is
(b) A will go higher than B. moving uniformly. Then
(c) B will go higher than A. (a) t1 = t2(b) t1 < t, (c) t1 > t2 (d) t1 < t2 or t1> t2 depending
(d) Any of the above three may happen depending on on whether the lift is going up or down.
the speed with which the objects are thrown.
14. A free 2381/ nucleus kept in a train emits an alpha
11. A smooth wedge A is fitted in a chamber hanging from particle. When the train is stationary, a nucleus decays
a fixed ceiling near the earth's surface. A block B placed and a passenger measures that the separation between
at the top of the wedge takes a time T to slide down the alpha particle and the recoiling nucleus becomes x
the length of the wedge. If the block is placed at the top at time t after the decay. If the decay takes place while
of the wedge and the cable supporting the chamber is the train is moving at a uniform velocity v, the distance
broken at the same instant, the block will between the alpha particle and the recoiling nucleus at
(a) take a time longer than T to slide down the wedge a time t after the decay as measured by the passenger
(b) take a time shorter than T to slide down the wedge is
(c) remain at the top of the wedge (a) x + v t (b) x v t (c) x
(d) jump off the wedge. (d) depends on the direction of the train.
OBJECTIVE II
6. The force exerted by the floor of an elevator on the foot a. Let F, and F2be the pseudo forces on the particle
of a person standing there is more than the weight of when seen from S, and S2respectively. Which of the
the person if the elevator is
following are not possible ?
(a) going up and slowing down
(b) going up and speeding up (a) F1 = 0, F2 # 0 (b) F,# 0, F2 = 0
(c) going down and slowing down (c)F1 0, F,# 0 (d) F1 = 0, F,= 0.
(d) going down and speeding up.
9. A person says that he measured the acceleration of a
7. If the tension in the cable supporting an elevator is equal
particle to be nonzero while no force was acting on the
to the weight of the elevator, the elevator may be
(a) going up with increasing speed particle.
(b) going down with increasing speed (a) He is a liar.
(c) going up with uniform speed (b) His clock might have run slow.
(d) going down with uniform speed. (c) His meter scale might have been longer than the
8. A particle is observed from two frames S1and. S, . The standard.
frame S2moves with respect to S1with an acceleration (d) He might have used noninertial frame.
EXERCISES
1. A block of mass 2 kg placed on a long frictionless the blocks accelerate. If the block A exerts a force F on
horizontal table is pulled horizontally by a constant force the block B, what is the force exerted by the
F. It is found to move 10 m in the first two seconds. experimenter on A ?
Find the magnitude of F. 8. Raindrops of radius 1 mm and mass 4 mg are falling
2. A car moving at 40 km/h is to be stopped by applying with a speed of 30 m/s on the head of a bald person.
brakes in the next 4.0 m. If the car weighs 2000 kg, The drops splash on the head and come to rest.
what average force must be applied on it ? Assuming equivalently that the drops cover a distance
3. In a TV picture tube electrons are ejected from the equal to their radii on the head, estimate the force
cathode with negligible speed and reach a velocity of exerted by each drop on the head.
5 x 10 6 m/s in travelling one centimeter. Assuming 9. A particle of mass 0.3 kg is subjected to a force
straight line motion, find the constant force exerted on F = k x with k = 15 N/m. What will be its initial
the electron. The mass of the electron is 9.1 x 10 31kg. acceleration if it is released from a point x = 20 cm ?
4. A block of mass 0.2 kg is suspended from the ceiling by 10. Both the springs shown in figure (5E2) are unstretched.
a light string. A second block of mass 0.3 kg is suspended If the block is displaced by a distance x and released,
from the first block through another string. Find the what will be the initial acceleration?
tensions in the two strings. Take g = 10 m/s 2 .
m
k1 k2
5. Two blocks of equal mass m are tied to each other
through a light string. One of the blocks is pulled along (0MRP 10t10000'
the line joining them with a constant force F. Find the
tension in the string joining the blocks. Figure 5E2
6. A particle of mass 50 g moves on a straight line. The
variation of speed with time is shown in figure (5E1). 11. A small block B is placed on another block A of mass
Find the force acting on the particle at t = 2, 4 and 6 5 kg and length 20 cm. Initially the block B is near the
seconds. right end of block A (figure 5E3). A constant horizontal
force of 10 N is applied to the block A. All the surfaces
are assumed frictionless. Find the time elapsed before
the block B separates from A.
Figure 5E1
Figure 5E3
7. Two blocks A and B of mass m, and mBrespectively 12. A man has fallen into a ditch of width d and two of his
are kept in contact on a frictionless table. The friends are slowly pulling him out using a light rope and
experimenter pushes the block A from behind so that two fixed pulleys as shown in figure (5E4). Show that
80 Concepts of Physics
the force (assumed equal for both the friends) exerted 16. Find the reading of the spring balance shown in figure
by each friend on the road increases as the man moves (5E6). The elevator is going up with an acceleration of
up. Find the force when the man is at a depth h. g /10, the pulley and the string are light and the pulley
is smooth.
17. A block of 2 kg is suspended from the ceiling through a
massless spring of spring constant k = 100 N/m. What is
the elongation of the spring ? If another 1 kg is added
to the block, what would be the further elongation ?
18. Suppose the ceiling in the previous problem is that of
an elevator which is going up with an acceleration of
2.0 m/s 2 Find the elongations.
.
0.5 kg. What force is exerted by the block A on the 20. An empty plastic box of mass m is found to accelerate
block B ? up at the rate of g /6 when placed deep inside water.
How much sand should be put inside the box so that it
may accelerate down at the rate of g / 6 ?
21. A force F= v x A is exerted on a particle in addition to
m/s2
the force of gravity, where v is the velocity of the particle
and A is a constant vector in the horizontal direction.
With what minimum speed a particle of mass m be
Figure 5E5 projected so that it continues to move undeflected with
a constant velocity ?
22. In a simple Atwood machine, two unequal masses m,
14. A pendulum bob of mass 50 g is suspended from the and m2 are connected by a string going over a clamped
ceiling of an elevator. Find the tension in the string if
light smooth pulley. In a typical arrangement
the elevator (a) goes up with acceleration 1.2 m/s 2 ,
(figure 5E7) m, = 300 g and m2 = 600 g. The system is
(b) goes up with deceleration 1.2 m/s 2 (c) goes up with
,
uniform velocity, (d) goes down with acceleration released from rest. (a) Find the distance travelled by
1.2 m/s 2 (e) goes down with deceleration 1.2 m/s 2 and
,
the first block in the first two seconds. (b) Find the
(f) goes down with uniform velocity. tension in the string. (c) Find the force exerted by the
clamp on the pulley.
15. A person is standing on a weighing machine placed on
the floor of an elevator. The elevator starts going up
with some acceleration, moves with uniform velocity for
a while and finally decelerates to stop. The maximum
and the minimum weights recorded are 72 kg and 60 kg.
Assuming that the magnitudes of the acceleration and
the deceleration are the same, find (a) the true weight
of the person and (b) the magnitude of the acceleration.
Take g = 9.9 m/s 2 . Figure 5 E7

10 cm 20 cm
20 N
32 N
Figure 5E8
two blocks.
L_I 11 kg
2M B A
n () St,
Figure 5 Ell

33. Find the mass M of the hanging block in figure (5E16) move in the same direction with equal acceleration. If
which will prevent the smaller block from slipping over initially both were at rest, their separation will not
the triangular block. All the surfaces are frictionless and change as time passes.
the strings and the pulleys are light.
Figure 5 E16

34. Find the acceleration of the blocks A and B in the three Figure 5 E19

2 kg
38. The monkey B shown in figure (5E20) is holding on to
the tail of the monkey A which is climbing up a rope.
The masses of the monkeys A and B are 5 kg and 2 kg
4 kg
respectively. If A can tolerate a tension of 30 N in its
tail, what force should it apply on the rope in order to
carry the monkey B with it ? Take g = 10 m/s 2 .
B kg
(a)
500 g
Figure 5E18
Figure 5E20
36. A monkey of mass 15 kg is climbing on a rope with one
end fixed to the ceiling. If it wishes to go up with an
acceleration of 1 m/s 2 how much force should it apply
,
to the rope ? If the rope is 5 m long and the monkey 39. Figure (5E21) shows a man of mass 60 kg standing on
starts from rest, how much time will it take to reach a light weighing machine kept in a box of mass 30 kg.
the ceiling ? The box is hanging from a pulley fixed to the ceiling
through a light rope, the other end of which is held by
37. A monkey is climbing on a rope that goes over a smooth the man himself. If the man manages to keep the box
light pulley and supports a block of equal mass at the at rest, what is the weight shown by the machine ? What
other end (figure 5E19). Show that whatever force the force should he exert on the rope to get his correct weight
monkey exerts on the rope, the monkey and the block on the machine ?
Newton's Laws of Motion 83
Figure 5E22
ANSWERS
OBJECTIVE I
10. (k1+ k2) opposite to the displacement.
m
1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (b) 11. 0.45 s.
7. (d) 8. (a) 9. (b) 10. (b) 11. (c) 12. (b)
13. (a) 14. (c) 12. 7111"qd 2 + 4 h 2
4h
13. 4 N
OBJECTIVE II 14. (a) 0.55 N (b) 0.43 N (c) 0.49 N
(d) 0.43 N (e) 0.55 N (f) 0.49 N
1. (b), (d) 2. (c), (d) 3. (a), (b)
4. (a), (c) 5. (a) 6. (b), (c) 15. 66 kg and 0.9 m/s 2
7. (c), (d) 8. (d) 9. (d) 16. 4.4 kg
17. 0.2 m, 0.1 m
EXERCISES 18. 0.24 m, 0.12 m
19 17 21
28. g (up), (down) ,ig
g (down) , 0.25 s 35.13 downward
29. 4.8 kg 36. 165 N, %/17
0s
30. 5 N 38. between 70 N and 105 N
31. (a) 2g/3 (b) Mg /3 39. 15 kg, 1800 N
(c) .42 Mg 13 at an angle of 45 with the horizontal .\1 2 l
40.
32. g/3 up the plane g sin 0
M'+ m 41. tan1(a 1 g) in each case
33.
cotO 1 42. 20 cm
34. (a) ,1 g downward, upward
10 5
(b) g forward, g downward
2
(c) g downward, upward
3 3
CHAPTER 6
FRICTION
(a) tan uA = =
3
./1( 4
Figure 6.1 or, 0 = tan 1(3 / 4) = 37.
(b) The magnitude of the contact force is
F = L.N 2+ f 2
The direction of the contact force acting on a
particular body is not necessarily perpendicular to the = "q(4.0 N) + (3.0 N) = 5.0 N.
contact surface. We can resolve this contact force into
Friction can operate between a given pair of solids,
two components, one perpendicular to the contact
between a solid and a fluid or between a pair of fluids.
surface and the other parallel to it (Figure 6.1). The
Frictional force exerted by fluids is called viscous force
perpendicular component is called the normal contact
and we shall study it in a later chapter. Here we shall
force or normal force and the parallel component is
study about the frictional forces operating between a
called friction.
pair of solid surfaces.
Example 6.1 When two solid bodies slip over each other, the
A body of mass 400 g slides on a rough horizontal force of friction is called kinetic friction. When two
surface. If the frictional force is 3.0 N, find (a) the angle bodies do not slip on each other, the force of friction
made by the contact force on the body with the vertical is called static friction.
and (b) the magnitude of the contact force. Take
It is difficult to work out a reliable theory of
g=10 m/s 2 .
friction starting from the electromagnetic interaction
Solution : Let the contact force on the block by the surface between the particles at the surface. However, a wide
be F which makes an angle 9 with the vertical range of observations can be summarized in a small
(figure 6.2). number of laws of friction which we shall discuss.
86 Concepts of Physics
6.3 STATIC FRICTION force is constant, the maximum possible friction does
not depend on the area of the surfaces in contact.
Frictional forces can also act between two bodies
which are in contact but are not sliding with respect Once again we emphasise that us is the
to each other. The friction in such cases is called static maximum possible force of static friction that can act
friction. For example, suppose several labourers are between the bodies. The actual force of static friction
trying to push a heavy almirah on the floor to take it may be smaller than ptsdV and its value depends on
out of a room (figure 6.7). other forces acting on the body. The magnitude of
frictional force is equal to that required to keep the
body at relative rest. Thus,
is 5 fr.= . . . (6.3)
Example 6.3
Figure 6.7
A boy (30 kg) sitting on his horse whips it. The horse
speeds up at an average acceleration of 2.0 m/s 2. (a) If
The almirah is heavy and even the most sincere the boy does not slide back, what is the force of friction
effort by them is not able to slide it on the floor even exerted by the horse on the boy ? (b) If the boy slides back
by a millimeter. As the almirah is at rest the resultant during the acceleration, what can be said about the
force on the almirah should be zero. Thus, something coefficient of static friction between the horse and the boy.
is exerting a force on the almirah in the opposite Take g = 10 m/s 2.
direction. In this case, it is the floor which exerts a
frictional force on the almirah. The labourers push the Solution : (a) The forces acting on the boy are
almirah towards left in figure (6.7) and the floor exerts (i) the weight Mg.
a frictional force on the almirah towards right. This is (ii) the normal contact force SV and
an example of static friction. (iii) the static friction f, .
How strong is this frictional force ? Suppose the
almirah is pushed with a small force in the beginning
and the force is gradually increased. It does not slide
until the force applied is greater than a minimum fs
value say F. The force of static friction is equal and
opposite to the force exerted by the labourers as long
as the almirah is at rest. This means that the Mg
magnitude of static friction adjusts its value according
to the applied force. As the applied force increases, the
frictional force also increases. The static friction is Figure 6.8
thus, self adjustable. It adjusts its magnitude (and
direction) in such a way that together with other forces
applied on the body, it maintains 'relative rest' As the boy does not slide back, its acceleration a is equal
between the two surfaces. However, the frictional force to the acceleration of the horse. As friction is the only
cannot go beyond a maximum. When the applied force horizontal force, it must act along the acceleration and
exceeds this maximum, friction fails to increase its its magnitude is given by Newton's second law
value and slipping starts. The maximum static friction f, = Ma = (30 kg) (2.0 m/s 2) = 60 N.
that a body can exert on the other body in contact with
(b) If the boy slides back, the horse could not exert a
it, is called limiting friction. This limiting friction is
friction of 60 N on the boy. The maximum force of static
proportional to the normal contact force between the
friction that the horse may exert on the boy is
two bodies. We can write
[max = 11( ...(6.2) f = SY = Mg
where fma, is the maximum possible force of static = (30 kg) (10 nils 2) = las300 N
friction and is the normal force. The constant of where 1.isis the coefficient of static friction. Thus,
proportionality is called the coefficient of static friction 14 (300 N) < 60 N
and its value again depends on the material and
60
roughness of the two surfaces in contact. In general, or, s < 300
= 0.20.
g, is slightly greater than uk . As long as the normal
88 Concepts of Physics
Finding the Direction of Static Friction (2) The direction of kinetic friction on a body is
opposite to the velocity of this body with respect to the
The direction of static friction on a body is such body applying the force of friction.
that the total force acting on it keeps it at rest with
respect to the body in contact. Newton's first or second (3) If the bodies do not slip over each other, the
law can often be used to find the direction of static force of friction is given by
friction. Figure (6.9) shows a block A placed on another ./1/
block B which is placed on a horizontal table. where pisis the coefficient of static friction between the
bodies and SV is the normal force between them. The
direction and magnitude of static friction are such that
the condition of no slipping between the bodies is
ensured.
Figure 6.9 (4) The frictional force fk or L does not depend on
the area of contact as long as the normal force SI/ is
The block B is pulled by a force F towards right. same.
Suppose the force is small and the blocks do not move. Table (6.1) gives a rough estimate of the values of
Let us focus our attention on the upper block. The coefficient of static friction between certain pairs of
upper block is at rest with respect to the ground which materials. The actual value depends on the degree of
is assumed to be inertial. Thus, the resultant force on smoothness and other environmental factors. For
the upper block is zero (Newton's first law). As no other example, wood may be prepared at various degrees of
external force acts on the upper block the friction smoothness and the friction coefficient will varry.
acting on the upper block due to the lower block, must
be zero. If the force F is increased, the two blocks move Table 6.1 : The Friction Coefficients
together towards right, with some acceleration. As the
upper block accelerates towards right the resultant Material gs Material Ils
force on it must be towards right. As friction is the Steel and steel 0.58 Copper and copper 1.60
only horizontal force on the upper block it must be Steel and brass 0.35 Teflon and teflon 0.04
towards right.
Glass and glass 1.00 Rubber tyre on dry 1.0
Notice that it is the friction on the upper block Wood and wood 0.35 concrete road
which accelerates it towards right. It is a general Wood and metal 0.40 Rubber tyre on wet 0.7
misconception that friction always opposes the motion. concrete road
Ice and ice 0.10
It is not really true. In many cases friction causes the
motion. A vehicle accelerates on the road only because Dust, impurities, surface oxidation etc. have a
the frictional force on the vehicle due to the road drives great role in determining the friction coefficient.
it. It is not possible to accelerate a vehicle on a Suppose we take two blocks of pure copper, clean them
frictionless road. Friction opposes the relative motion carefully to remove any oxide or dust layer at the
between the bodies in contact. surfaces, heat them to push out any dissolved gases
Another way to find the direction of static friction and keep them in contact with each other in an
is as follows. For a moment consider the surfaces to evacuated chamber at a very low pressure of air. The
be frictionless. In absence of friction the bodies will blocks stick to each other and a large force is needed
start slipping against each other. One should then find to slide one over the other. The friction coefficient as
the direction of friction as opposite to the velocity with defined above, becomes much larger than one. If a
respect to the body applying the friction. small amount of air is allowed to go into the chamber
so that some oxidation takes place at the surface, the
friction coefficient reduces to usual values.
6.4 LAWS OF FRICTION
6.5 UNDERSTANDING FRICTION
We can summarise the laws of friction between two
bodies in contact as follows : AT ATOMIC LEVEL
(1) If the bodies slip over each other, the force of It has already been pointed out that friction
friction is given by appears because of the interaction between the charged
particles of the two bodies near the surfaces of contact.
fk  km
Any macroscopic object like a steel plate or a wood
where is the normal contact force and Ilk is the piece has irregular surface at atomic scale. A polished
coefficient of kinetic friction between the surfaces. steel surface may look plane to naked eyes but if seen
Friction 89
under a powerful microscope, its surface is found to be The weights of the block B and the hanger H are
quite irregular. Figure (6.10) shows qualitatively how measured. Standard weights are kept on the hanger.
an apparently plane surface may be at the atomic The weights are gradually increased and the minimum
scale. weight needed to just slide the block is noted.
Suppose the weight of the block is W1 and the
weight of the hanger together with the standard
weights is W2 when the block just starts to slide. The
Figure 6.10
tension in the string is W2 and same is the force of
friction on the block by the plank. Thus, the maximum
When two bodies are kept one over the other, the
force of static friction on the block is fmax = W2. The
real area in contact is much smaller than the total
surface area of the bodies (figure 6.11) The distance normal force on the block by the plank is equal to the
between the particles of the two bodies becomes very weight of the block itself as the block is in vertical
small at these actual points of contact and the equilibrium. Thus, the normal force is dV = W1.
molecular forces start operating across the surface. The coefficient of static friction is
Molecular bonds are formed at these contact points. fm ax W2
When one of the two bodies is pulled over the other, 1ts
W1
these bonds are broken, the materials under the bond
is deformed and new bonds are formed. The local To obtain the coefficient of kinetic friction, the
deformation of the bodies send vibration waves into weight on the hanger is slightly reduced and the block
the bodies. These vibrations finally damp out and the is gently pushed with a finger to move it on the plank.
energy appears as the increased random motion of the The weight on the hanger is so adjusted that once
particles of the bodies. The bodies thus, become heated. pushed, the block continues to move on the plank with
A force is, therefore, needed to start the motion or to uniform speed. In this case, the tension in the string
maintain the motion. equals the force of kinetic friction. As the hanger also
moves with uniform velocity, the tension equals the
weight of the hanger plus the standard weights kept
in it. For vertical equilibrium of the block, the normal
force on the block equals the weight of the block. Thus,
Figure 6.11 if W1is the weight of the block and W,' is the weight
of the hanger plus the standard weights, the coefficient
of kinetic friction is
6.6 A LABORATORY METHOD TO
MEASURE FRICTION COEFFICIENT fk W2t
=
(a) Horizontal Table Method One can put certain standard weights on the block
Figure (6.12) shows the apparatus. A wooden plank to increase the normal force and repeat the
A is fixed on a wooden frame kept on a table. A experiment. It can be verified that the force of friction
frictionless pulley is fixed to one end of the plank. A also increases and fk /sV comes out to be the same as
block B is kept on the plank and is attached to a it should be because the nature of the surfaces is same.
hanger H by a string which passes over the pulley. If the block is kept on the plank on some other face,
the area of contact is changed. It can be verified by
repeating the above experiment that the force of
friction does not depend on the area of contact for a
given value of normal contact force.
Example 6.4
A wooden block is kept on a polished wooden plank and
Figure 6.13 the inclination of the plank is gradually increased. It is
found that the block starts slipping when the plank
Block B is placed on the incline and the angle of makes an angle of 18 with the horizontal. However, once
the incline is gradually increased. The angle of the started the block can continue with uniform speed if the
incline is so adjusted that the block just starts to slide. inclination is reduced to 15. Find the coefficients of
The height h and the horizontal distance D between static and kinetic friction between the block and the
the two ends of the plank are measured. The angle of plank.
incline 0 satisfies Solution : The coefficient of static friction is
tang = h /D. = tan 18
Let m be the mass of the block. The forces on the and the coefficient of kinetic friction is
block in case of limiting equilibrium are (figure 6.14) j.tk = tan 15
Figure 6.14
Figure 6.15
Taking components along the incline and applying The wheel does not slide on the floor rather it rolls
Newton's first law, on the floor. The surfaces at contact do not rub each
fs = mg sine. other. The velocity of the point of contact of the wheel
Taking components along the normal to the incline, with respect to the floor remains zero all the time
although the centre of the wheel moves forward. The
.J11 = mg cos0.
friction in the case of rolling is quite small as compared
Thus, the coefficient of static friction between the to kinetic friction. Quite often the rolling friction is
block and the plank is negligible in comparison to the static or kinetic
L mg sin() friction which may be present simultaneously. To
thne =  h reduce the wear and tear and energy loss against
J1( mg cos()
friction, small steel balls are kept between the rotating
To obtain the kinetic friction, the inclination is parts of machines which are known as ball bearings
reduced slightly and the block is made to move on the (figure 6.16).
plank by gently pushing it with a finger. The
inclination is so adjusted that once started, the block
Fixed Part
continues with uniform velocity on the plank. The
height h' and the distance D' are noted. An identical Ball Bearing
Rotating Part
analysis shows that the force of kinetic friction is
fk = mg sine
and the normal contact force is
/1! = mg cos0 Figure 6.16
Friction 91
As one part moves with respect to the other, the and rolling friction being very small causes much less
balls roll on the two parts. No kinetic friction is involed energy loss.
1. The coefficient of static friction between a block of mass not move on the table, how much frictional force the table
m and an incline is IA, = 0.3. (a) What can be the is applying on the block ? What can be said about the
maximum angle 0 of the incline with the horizontal so coefficient of static friction between the block and the
that the block does not slip on the plane ? (b) If the incline table ? Take g = 10 m/s 2.
makes an angle 0/2 with the horizontal, find the Solution : The situation is shown in figure (6W2). The
frictional force on the block. forces on the block are
Solution : The situation is shown in figure (6W1).
(a) the forces on the block are
(i) the weight mg downward by the earth,
(ii) the normal contact force SV by the incline, and N
f
(iii) the friction f parallel to the incline up the plane, by
the incline.
40 N
Figure 6W2
2. A horizontal force of 20 N is applied to a block of mass Solution : Consider the equilibrium of the block of mass
4 kg resting on a rough horizontal table. If the block does m. The forces on this block are
92 Concepts of Physics
(a) mg downward by the earth and (a) mg downward by the earth (gravity),
(b) T upward by the string. (b) SV upward by the block M (normal force) and
Hence, T  mg = 0 or, T = mg. (i) (c) f = 'V (friction) towards right by the block M.
Now consider the equilibrium of the 2 kg block. The In the vertical direction, there is no acceleration. This
forces on this block are gives
(a) T towards right by the string, SV = mg. (i)
(b) f towards left (friction) by the table, In the horizontal direction, let the acceleration be a, then
(c) 20 N downward (weight) by the earth and SV =m a
(d) SV upward (normal force) by the table. Or, 1.1. mg = ma
For vertical equilibrium of this block, Or, a =1.1.g. (ii)
sV= 20 N. (ii) Next, consider the motion of M (figure 6W6).
As m is the largest mass which can be used without
SV
41
moving the system, the friction is limiting.
Thus, f= s ( cNi I
For horizontal equilibrium of the 2 kg block, f =1.1,A/
f = T. ... (iv)
Using equations (i), (iii) and (iv)
Mg
SV = mg
Figure 6W6
Or, 0'2 x 20N=mg
0'2 x 20 The forces on M are
or, m kg = 0.4 kg.
10 (a) Mg downward by the earth (gravity),
(b) 9V, upward by the table (normal force),
4. The coefficient of static friction between the two blocks
shown in figure (6W4) is 1.t and the table is smooth. What (c) SI/ downward by m (normal force),
maximum horizontal force F can be applied to the block (d) f = SV (friction) towards left by m and
of mass M so that the blocks move together ? (e) F (applied force) by the experimenter.
The equation of motion is
FASV =Ma
F
Or, F  p. mg = M g [Using (i) and (ii)]
Figure 6W4 Or, F=p,g(M+m).
Solution : When the maximum force F is applied, both the 5. A block slides down an incline of angle 30 with an
blocks move together towards right. The only horizontal acceleration g/4. Find the kinetic friction coeffcient.
force on the upper block of mass m is that due to the
Solution : Let the mass of the block be m. The forces on
friction by the lower block of mass M. Hence this force
the block are (Figure 6W7),
on m should be towards right. The force of friction on
M by m should be towards left by Newton's third law.
As we are talking of the maximum possible force F that
can be applied, the friction is limiting and hence
f = SV, where dV is the normal force between the
blocks.
Consider the motion of m. The forces on m are Figure 6 W7
(figure 6W5),
(a) mg downward by the earth (gravity),
(b) SY normal force by the incline and
(c) f up the plane, (friction) by the incline.
Taking components parallel to the incline and writing
Newton's second law,
mg sin 30  f = mg14
Figure 6W5 Or, f=mg14.
Friction 93
There is no acceleration perpendicular to the incline. 7. A block placed on a horizontal surface is being pushed
Hence, by a force F making an angle El with the vertical. If the
43 friction coefficient is 1.t , how much force is needed to get
dV = mg cos 30 = mg 2 the block just started. Discuss the situation when
As the block is slipping on the incline, friction is tan() < p.
f=  A f. Solution : The situation is shown in figure (6W9). In the
limiting equilibrium the frictional force f will be equal
So, mg to p SI/. For horizontal equilibrium
SI( 4mg '43 /2 2 43
F sine =11 SV
6. A block of mass 2.5 kg is kept on a rough horizontal
surface. It is found that the block does not slide if a
horizontal force less than 15 N is applied to it. Also it
is found that it takes 5 seconds to slide through the first
10 m if a horizontal force of 15 N is applied and the
block is gently pushed to start the motion. Taking mg
g = 10 m/s 2, calculate the coefficients of static and kinetic
Figure 6W9
friction between the block and the surface.
Solution : The forces acting on the block are shown in For vertical equilibrium
figure (6W8). Here M = 2.5 kg and F = 15 N.
F cos + mg =SV
Eliminating SV from these equations,
F sine F cos() + mg
p. mg
Or, F
sine p, cos()
If tang < p, we have (sine p. cos()) < 0 and then F is
Mg
negative. So for angles less than tan1p., one cannot push
Figure 6W8 the block ahead, however large the force may be.
When F = 15 N is applied to the block, the block remains 8. Find the maximum value of M I m in the situation shown
in limiting equilibrium. The force of friction is thus in figure (6W10) so that the system remains at rest.
f = s dV . Applying Newton's first law, Friction coefficient at both the contacts is Discuss the
f = !is SV and SY = mg situation when tan() <
so that F = !is Mg
F 15 N
or mg 0'60.
(2'5 kg) (10 m/s 2)
When the block is gently pushed to start the motion,
kinetic friction acts between the block and the surface.
Since the block takes 5 second to slide through the first Figure 6 W10

1+
ate, _ 11 g .
Solution : If no force is applied, the block A will slip on C
towards right and the block B will move downward. 1 11 1+
Thus, a lies between g and g.
Suppose the minimum force needed to prevent slipping 1 +11 1
is F. Taking A + B + C as the system, the only external From (i) the force F should be between
horizontal force on the system is F. Hence the 1 1+
(M + 2m)g and 7
1 11
 (M + 2m)g.
acceleration of the system is 1+
a ...
M + 2m 10. Figure (6W15) shows two blocks connected by a light
Now take the block A as the system. The forces on A string placed on the two inclined parts of a triangular
are (figure 6W13), structure. The coefficients of static and kinetic friction
are 0.28 and 0.25 respectively at each of the surfaces. (a)
sv Find the minimum and maximum values of m for which
the system remains at rest. (b) Find the acceleration of
f_ T e either block if m is given the minimum value calculated
in the first part and is gently pushed up the incline for
mg mg
a short while.
Solution : (a) Take the 2 kg block as the system. The forces (1 11) 1 0'28
on this block are shown in figure (6W16) with M = 2 kg. Or, m x2kg
(1+14) 1+0'28
It is assumed that m has its minimum value so that the
9
2 kg block has a tendency to slip down. As the block is
= kg'
in equilibrium, the resultant force should be zero.
When maximum possible value of m is supplied, the
directions of friction are reversed because m has the
tendency to slip down and 2 kg block to slip up. Thus,
the maximum value of m can be obtained from (iii) by
putting u. = 0.28. Thus, the maximum value of m is
1 + 0'28
Figure 6W16 Figure 6W17 m x2kg
10.28
32
Taking components 1 to the incline = kg.
9
= Mg cos 45 =Mg/42. (b) If m = 9/8 kg and the system is gently pushed,
Taking components I I to the incline kinetic friction will operate. Thus,
T + f = Mg sin 45 = Mg142 Mg ,k mg
f=l1k 42 and f
Or, T = Mg 142 f.
As it is a case of limiting equilibrium, where II* = 0.25. If the acceleration is a, Newton's second
f=lissy law for M gives (figure 6W16).
Or,
_Mg Mg Mg
o
(1g. (i)
Mg sin 45 T f = Ma
T = 42 14 42 Mg Mg
or, T 42 Ma. ... (iv)
Now consider the other block as the system. The forces
acting on this block are shown in figure (6W17). Applying Newton's second law m (figure 6W17),
Taking components 1 to the incline,
T mg sin 45 f ' = ma
= mg cos 45 = mg 142. Ilk m g
TakingromponentNI to the incline Or, T mg ma. (v)
2 42
T=mg sin 45 +f'= 17 +f' Adding (iv) and (v)
As it is the case of limiting equilibrium Mg mg
(1 (1 + = (M + m) a
, mg
f' =Pissv = \E M(1 m+
or,
a (M+ m) g
Thus, T= (1 +14). (ii)
42 2 x 075 9/8 x 1.25
From (i) and (ii) 42 (2 + 9/8)
m(1 +14) = M (1 1.4) (iii) = 0.31 in/s 2.
1. For most of the surfaces used in daily life, the friction 5. Can you accelerate a car on a frictionless horizontal road
coefficient is less than 1. Is it always necessary that the by putting more petrol in the engine ? Can you stop a
friction coefficient is less than 1 ? car going on a frictionless horizontal road by applying
2. Why is it easier to push a heavy block from behind than brakes ?
to press it on the top and push ? 6. Spring fitted doors close by themselves when released.
You want to keep the door open for a long time, say for
3. What is the average friction force when a person has a an hour. If you put a half kg stone in front of the open
usual 1 km walk ? door, it does not help. The stone slides with the door
4. Why is it difficult to walk on solid ice ? and the door gets closed. However, if you sandwitch a
96 Concepts of Physics
20 g piece of wood in the small gap between the door 8. Can a tug of war be ever won on a frictionless surface ?
and the floor, the door stays open. Explain why a much
lighter piece of wood is able to keep the door open while 9. Why do tyres have a better grip of the road while going
the heavy stone fails. on a level road than while going on an incline ?
7. A classroom demonstration of Newton's first law is as 10. You are standing with your bag in your hands, on the
follows : A glass is covered with a plastic card and a ice in the middle of a pond. The ice is so slippery that
coin is placed on the card. The card is given a quick it can offer no friction. How can you come out of the ice ?
strike and the coin falls in the glass. (a) Should the
friction coefficient between the card and the coin be 11. When two surfaces are polished, the friction coefficient
small or large ? (b) Should the coin be light or heavy ? between them decreases. But the friction coefficient
(c) Why does the experiment fail if the card is gently increases and becomes very large if the surfaces are
pushed ? made highly smooth. Explain.
OBJECTIVE I
1. In a situation the contact force by a rough horizontal (a) is upward (b) is downward (c) is zero
surface on a body placed on it has constant magnitude. (d) the system cannot remain in equilibrium.
If the angle between this force and the vertical is
decreased, the frictional force between the surface and 6. Suppose all the surfaces in the previous problem are
the body will rough. The direction of friction on B due to A
(a) increase (b) decrease (a) is upward (b) is downward (c) is zero
(c) remain the saint (d) may increase or decrease. (d) depends on the masses of A and B.
2. While walking on ice, one should take small steps to
avoid slipping. This is because smaller steps ensure 7. Two cars of unequal masses use similar tyres. If they
(a) larger friction (b) smaller friction are moving at the same initial speed, the minimum
(c) larger normal force (d) smaller normal force. stopping distance
3. A body of mass M is kept on a rough horizontal surface (a) is smaller for the heavier car
(friction coefficient = it). A person is trying to pull the (b) is smaller for the lighter car
(c) is same for both cars
body by applying a horizontal force but the body is not
(d) depends on the volume of the car.
moving. The force by the surface on A is F, where
(a) F = Mg (b) F = IA Mg
8. In order to stop a car in shortest distance on a horizontal
(c) Mg Mg All + 1.1. 2 (d)Mg F Mg All 11 2 . road, one should
4. A scooter starting from rest moves with a constant (a) apply the brakes very hard so that the wheels stop
acceleration for a time At then with a constant velocity rotating
for the next At, and finally with a constant deceleration (b) apply the brakes hard enough to just prevent slipping
(c) pump the brakes (press and release)
for the next At, to come to rest. A 500 N man sitting on
(d) shut the engine off and not apply brakes.
the scooter behind the driver manages to stay at rest
with respect to the scooter without touching any other
9. A block A kept on an inclined surface just begins to slide
part. The force exerted by the seat on the man is
if the inclination is 30. The block is replaced by another
(a) 500 N throughout the journey
block B and it is found that it just begins to slide if the
(b) less than 500 N throughout the journey
inclination is 40.
(c) more than 500 N throughout the journey
(a) mass of A > mass of B (b) mass of A < mass of B
(d) > 500 N for time At, and At3 and 500 N for At,.
(c) mass of A = mass of B (d) all the three are possible.
5. Consider the situation shown in figure (6Q1). The wall
is smooth but the surfaces of A and B in contact are 10. A boy of mass M is applying a horizontal force to slide
rough. The friction on B due to A in equilibrium a box of mass M' on a rough horizontal surface. The
coefficient of friction between the shoes of the boy and
the floor is pt. and that between the box and the floor is
if. In which of the following cases it is certainly not
possible to slide the box ?
(a) <', M < M ' (b) > , M < M '
Figure 6Q1 (c) <', M > M ' (d) >', M > M
Friction 97
OBJECTIVE II
1. Let F, F, and f denote the magnitudes of the contact (c) Limiting friction is always greater than the kinetic
force, normal force and the friction exerted by one friction.
surface on the other kept in contact. If none of these is (d) Limiting friction is never less than static friction.
zero, 4. A block is placed on a rough floor and a horizontal force
(a) F >F (b) F> f (c) F,> f (d) FN f<F<FN + f. F is applied on it. The force of friction f by the floor on
2. The contact force exerted by a body A on another body the block is measured for different values of F and a
B is equal to the normal force between the bodies. We graph is plotted between them.
conclude that (a) The graph is a straight line of slope 45.
(a) the surfaces must be frictionless (b) The graph is a straight line parallel to the Faxis.
(b) the force of friction between the bodies is zero (c) The graph is a straight line of slope 45 for small F
(c) the magnitude of normal force equals that of friction and a straight line parallel to the Faxis for large F.
(d) the bodies may be rough but they don't slip on each (d) There is a small kink on the graph.
other. 5. Consider a vehicle going on a horizontal road towards
3. Mark the correct statements about the friction between east. Neglect any force by the air. The frictional forces
two bodies. on the vehicle by the road
(a) Static friction is always greater than the kinetic (a) is towards east if the vehicle is accelerating
friction. (b) is zero if the vehicle is moving with a uniform velocity
(b) Coefficient of static friction is always greater than (c) must be towards east
the coefficient of kinetic friction. (d) must be towards west.
EXERCISES
12. If the tension in the string in figure (6E3) is 16 N and and the incline is Calculate the acceleration of the
the acceleration of each block is 0.5 m/s 2, find the friction 2.0 kg block if (a) j.t, = 0.20 and II, = 010, (b) 1 = 010
coefficients at the two contacts with the blocks. and 2 = 0.20. Take g = 10 m/s 2.
111
13. The friction coefficient between the table and the block 19, Two masses M1 and M2 are connected by a light rod
shown in figure (6E4) is 0.2. Find the tensions in the and the system is slipping down a rough incline of angle
two strings. with the horizontal. The friction coefficient at both the
5 kg contacts is pt. Find the acceleration of the system and
the force by the rod on one of the blocks.
20. A block of mass M is kept on a rough horizontal surface.
The coefficient of static friction between the block and
the surface is p.. The block is to be pulled by applying
a force to it. What minimum force is needed to slide the
block ? In which direction should this force act ?
21. The friction coefficient between the board and the floor
shown in figure (6E7) is IA. Find the maximum force
14. The friction coefficient between a road and the tyre of a that the man can exert on the rope so that the board
vehicle is 4/3. Find the maximum incline the road may does not slip on the floor.
have so that once hard brakes are applied and the wheel
starts skidding, the vehicle going down at a speed of
36 km/hr is stopped within 5 m.
15. The friction coefficient between an athelete's shoes and
the ground is 0.90. Suppose a superman wears these
shoes and races for 50 m. There is no upper limit on his
capacity of running at high speeds. (a) Find the
minimum time that he will have to take in completing Figure 6 E7 
30 gi = 0.2 I 2 kg I
112= 0.3 3 kg I
1.13= 0.0 7 kg I
Figure 6E5
Figure 6E8
17. A car starts from rest on a half kilometer long bridge.
The coefficient of friction between the tyre and the road
is 1.0. Show that one cannot drive through the bridge 24. The friction coefficient between the two blocks shown in
in less than 10 s. figure (6E9) is but the floor is smooth. (a) What
18. Figure (6E6) shows two blocks in contact sliding down maximum horizontal force F can be applied without
an inclined surface of inclination 30. The friction disturbing the equilibrium of the system ? (b) Suppose
coefficient between the block of mass 2.0 kg and the the horizontal force applied is double of that found in
incline is p. and that between the block of mass 4.0 kg part (a). Find the accelerations of the two masses.
Friction 99
m
M
28. Find the acceleration of the block of mass M in the
situation of figure (6E10). The coefficient of friction
between the two blocks is g, and that between the bigger Figure 6 E12

ANSWERS
OBJECTIVE I EXERCISES
1. 0.4
1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (d) 6. (a)
7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (d) 10. (a) 2. 50 m
3. zero
OBJECTIVE II 4. 0.11
0
CHAPTER 7
CIRCULAR MOTION
20
a dco= d Example 7.2
dt dt 2 A particle travels in a circle of radius 20 cm at a speed
that uniformly increases. If the speed changes from
If the angular acceleration a is constant, we have
5.0 m/s to 6.0 m/s in 2.0 s, find the angular acceleration.
1 2
0 = Wn 2 at
t Solution : The tangential acceleration is given by
dv _ t:
a, _dt vvt:
03 = 030 + t
2 2 6'0 5'0 2
and = 030 +2a 0 m/s = 0.5 m/s 2 .
2*0
where cooand co are the angular velocities at t = 0 and The angular acceleration is a = at Ir
at time t and 0 is the angular position at time t. The
linear distance PP' travelled by the particle in time 0'5 mis 2
2'5 rad/s 2 .
20 cm
At is
 
7.2 UNIT VECTORS ALONG THE RADIUS The term r co is the speed of the particle at time t
AND THE TANGENT (equation 7.4) and the vector in the square bracket is
Consider a particle moving in a circle. Suppose the the unit vector et along the tangent. Thus, the velocity
particle is at a point P in the circle at a given instant of the particle at any instant is along the tangent to
(figure 7.2). Take the centre of the circle to be the the circle and its magnitude is v = r w.
origin, a line OX as the Xaxis and a perpendicular The acceleration of the particle at time t is
radius OY as the Yaxis. The angular position of the E*= From (ii),
particle at this instant is 0. dt
> [ d > dw >
a = r co isine + j cos0] + [ i sine +3 cos0]
dt[ dt
de del do) >
= or [ t cos()  j sine Tii + r et
dt dt
7> dco >
= Zr [t cos() + j sine] + r e
dt t
2 ) dv >
=w r er + et ... (7.8)
dt
> >
Figure 7.2 where er and et are the unit vectors along the radial
and tangential directions respectively and v is the
> speed of the particle at time t. We have used
Draw a unit vector PA = e,. along the outward
3 _ do)d dv
radius and a unit vector PB = et along the tangent in r = (r CO) =itT
dt dt
the direction of increasing 0. We call r the radial unit
>
vector and et the tangential unit vector. Draw PX ' Uniform Circular Motion
parallel to the Xaxis and PY ' parallel to the Yaxis. If the particle moves in the circle with a uniform
From the figure, speed, we call it a uniform circular motion. In this
> >
PA = i PA cos0 + j PA sin0 case v = 0 and equation (7.8) gives
, dt
4 2
or, e,.= i
cog) + j sine, ... (7.6) a=w r er.
where rand j are the unit vectors along the X and Y Thus, the a>cceleration of the particle is in the
axes respectively. Similarly, direction of  er, that is, towards the centre. The
magnitude of the acceleration is
PB =  i PB sine +.7 PB COS 2
)
ar= o) r
Or, et = i sine +3 cos0.
 ... (7.7) 2
v U2
= r= r ... (7.9)
7.3 ACCELERATION IN CIRCULAR MOTION
Thus, if a particle moves in a circle of radius r with a
Consider the situation shown in figure (7.2). It is constant speed v, its acceleration is v 21r directed
clear from the figure that the position vector of the towards the centre.. This acceleration is called
particle at time t is centripetal acceleration. Note that the speed remains
4 )
r = OP = OP er constant, the direction continuously changes and hence
the "velocity" changes and there is an acceleration
= r (I c + 3 si ne). (i) during the motion.
Differentiating equation (i) with respect to time, the
velocity of the particle at time t is Example 7.3
When vehicles go through turnings, they travel Friction is not always reliable at circular turns if
along a nearly circular arc. There must be some force high speeds and sharp turns are involved. To avoid
which will produce the required acceleration. If the dependence on friction, the roads are banked at the
vehicle goes in a horizontal circular path, this turn so that the outer part of the road is somewhat
resultant force is also horizontal. Consider the lifted up as compared to the inner part (figure 7.5).
situation as shown in figure (7.4). A vehicle of mass
M moving at a speed v is making a turn on the circular
path of radius r. The external forces acting on the
vehicle are
(i) weight Mg
(ii) Normal contact force _/( and
(iii) friction f,.
Figure 7.5
act towards the centre is the friction f,. This is static tan() = ... (7.13)
rg
friction and is self adjustable. The tyres get a tendency
to skid outward and the frictional force which opposes The angle 0 depends on the speed of the vehicle as
this skidding acts towards the centre. Thus, for a safe well as on the radius of the turn. Roads are banked
turn we must have for the average expected speed of the vehicles. If the
2 speed of a particular vehicle is a little less or a little
V f, more than the correct speed, the self adjustable static
r M friction operates between the tyres and the road and
2 the vehicle does not skid or slip. If the speed is too
Mv
or, fs = different from that given by equation (7.13), even the
maximum friction cannot prevent a skid or a slip.
However, there is a limit to the magnitude of the
frictional force. If II, is the coefficient of static friction Example 7.6
between the tyres and the road, the magnitude of
friction fscannot exceed RsSV. For vertical equilibrium The road at a circular turn of radius 10 m is banked by
dV = Mg, so that an angle of 10. With what speed should a vehicle move
on the turn so that the normal contact force is able to
fs Mg.
provide the necessary centripetal force ?
Thus, for a safe turn Solution : If v is the correct speed,
2 2
Mv
1 s Mg tanO =
rg
Circular Motion 105
(a) (b) (c) Note that we get the same equation for friction as we
got from the ground frame. But we had to apply
Figure 7.6 Newton's second law from the ground frame and
Newton's first law from the rotating frame. Let us now
Suppose the observer is sitting in a closed cabin summarise our discussion.
which is made to rotate about the vertical Zaxis at a Suppose we are working from a frame of reference
uniform angular velocity co (figure 7.6). The X and Y that is rotating at a constant angular velocity co with
axes are fixed in the cabin. Consider a heavy box of respect to an inertial frame. If we analyse the
mass m kept on the floor at a distance r from the dynamics of a particle of mass m kept at a distance r
Zaxis. Suppose the floor and the box are rough and from the axis of rotation, we have to assume that a
the box does not slip on the floor as the cabin rotates. force mco2r acts radially outward on the particle. Only
The box is at rest with respect to the cabin and hence then we can apply Newton's laws of motion in the
is rotating with respect to the ground at an angular rotating frame. This radially outward pseudo force is
velocity co. Let us first analyse the motion of the box called the centrifugal force.
from the ground frame. In this frame (which is inertial)
the box is moving in a circle of radius r. It, therefore, In fact, centrifugal force is a sufficient pseudo
force, only if we are analysing the particles at rest in
has an acceleration v 2 /r = co 2r towards the centre. The a uniformly rotating frame. If we analyse the motion
resultant force on the box must be towards the centre of a particle that moves in the rotating frame, we may
and its magnitude must be mco2r. The forces on the have to assume other pseudo forces, together with the
box are centrifugal force. Such forces are called the coriolis
(a) weight mg forces. The coriolis force is perpendicular to the velocity
of the particle and also perpendicular to the axis of
(b) normal force SV by the floor rotation of the frame. Once again, we emphasise that
(c) friction f by the floor. all these pseudo forces, centrifugal or coriolis, are
needed only if the working frame is rotating. If we
Figure (7.6b) shows the free body diagram for the box.
work from an inertial frame, there is no need to apply
Since the resultant is towards the centre and its
any pseudo force.
magnitude is mco2r, we should have
It is a common misconception among the beginners
2
f= r. that centrifugal force acts on a particle because the
106 Concepts of Physics
particle goes on a circle. Centrifugal force acts (or is (c) the tension in the string T along the string.
assumed to act) because we describe the particle from
a rotating frame which is noninertial and still use
Newton's laws.
1. A car has to move on a level turn of radius 45 m. If the Putting the values, v =1/2 x 10 m/s 2 X 45 m
coefficient of static friction between the tyre and the road
= 30 m/s = 108 km/hr.
is Rs = 2.0, find the maximum speed the car can take
without skidding. 2. A circular track of radius 600 m is to be designed for
Solution Let the mass of the car be M. The forces on the cars at an average speed of 180 km/hr. What should be
car are the angle of banking of the track ?
(a) weight Mg downward Solution : Let the angle of banking be 0. The forces on the
(b) normal force sY by the road upward car are (figure 7W1)
(c) friction fs by the road towards the centre. (a) weight of the car Mg downward and
The car is going on a horizontal circle of radius R, so it (b) normal force sY.
is accelerating. The acceleration is towards the centre
and its magnitude is v 2 /R, where v is the speed. For
vertical direction, acceleration = 0. Resolving the forces
in vertical and horizontal directions and applying
Newton's laws, we have
dV = mg
and fs = My 2 /R. Figure 7W1
As we are looking for the maximum speed for no
For proper banking, static frictional force is not needed.
skidding, it is a case of limiting friction and hence
For vertical direction the acceleration is zero. So,
SI/ cog) = Mg. (i)
So, we have 2
For horizontal direction, the acceleration is v /r towards
p5 Mg=Mv 2 /R the centre, so that
2
or, v = usgR dl/ sine = My 2 /r. (ii)
108 Concepts of Physics
From (i) and (ii), horizontal. If the mass is made to rotate at an angular
tan() = v 2 /rg. velocity of 2 rad/s, find the elongation of the spring.
2 Solution : The particle is moving in a horizontal circle, so
Putting the values, tan0 = (180 km/hr) 0'4167 it is accelerated towards the centre with magnitude
(600 m) (10 m/s )
v 2 Ir. The horizontal force on the particle is due to the
Or, 0 = 22.6. spring and equals kl, where l is the elongation and k is
the spring constant. Thus,
3. A particle of mass m is suspended from a ceiling through kl = mu 2I r = mw r = mco 2(1, + 1).
a string of length L. The particle moves in a horizontal
Here co is the angular velocity, 1, is the natural length
circle of radius r. Find (a) the speed of the particle and
(0.5 m) and 1, + l is the total length of the spring which
(b) the tension in the string. Such a system is called a
is also the radius of the circle along which the particle
conical pendulum.
moves.
Solution : The situation is shown in figure (7W2). The
Thus, (k mco 2)1= mo 210
angle 0 made by the string with the vertical is given by
mco 2l0
sine = r/L. (i) or l
k mu) 2
Putting the values,
0.5 x 4 x 0.5 1
/= m m = 1 cm.
100 0.5 x 4 100
Solution : Consider water as the system. At the top of the 8. Figure (7W5) shows a rod of length 20 cm pivoted near
circle its acceleration towards the centre is vertically an end and which is made to rotate in a horizontal plane
downward with magnitude v 2 /r. The forces on water are with a constant angular speed. A ball of mass m is
(figure 7W4) suspended by a string also of length 20 cm from the other
(a) weight Mg downward and end of the rod. If the angle 9 made by the string with
(b) normal force by the bucket, also downward. the vertical is 30, find the angular speed of the rotation.
Take g = 10 m/s 2.
Figure 7 W5

Figure 7 W4

Solution : Consider one of the blocks. If the frequency of kept in the bowl rotates with the bowl without slipping
revolution is f, the angular velocity is w = 2n f. The on its surface. If the surface of the bowl is smooth, and
= 2l = 2 f.2 It
the angle made by the radius through the block with the
acceleration towards the centre is v 2 /l
The only horizontal force on the block is the tension of vertical is 0, find the angular speed at which the bowl
the rod. At the point of breaking, this force is T,. So is rotating.
from Newton's second law, Solution : Suppose the angular speed of rotation of the
m 4it 2f 2/ bowl is a The block also moves with this angular speed.
1/2 The forces on the block are (figure 7W8)
f = 1 [ 7'0 (a) the normal force dV and
or,
27c M/ (b) the weight mg.
or, w= g
When the floor is removed, the forces on the person are R cos()
(a) weight mg downward
(b) normal force SV due to the wall, towards the centre 12. A metal ring of mass m and radius R is placed on a
(c) frictional force f, , parallel to the wall, upward. smooth horizontal table and is set rotating about its own
The person is moving in a circle with a uniform speed, axis in such a way that each part of the ring moves with
a speed v. Find the tension in the ring.
so its acceleration is v 2 /r towards the centre.
Newton's law for the horizontal direction (2nd law) and Solution : Consider a small part ACB of the ring that
for the vertical direction (1st law) give subtends an angle 00 at the centre as shown in figure
SV = my 2/r (7W9). Let the tension in the ring be T.
(i)
and f,=. mg. (ii)
For the minimum speed when the floor may be removed,
the friction is limiting one and so equals Rs sV. This
gives
Iis V = mg
2
lismv
or, mg [using OA
r
s 02
The forces on this small part ACB are
11. A hemispherical bowl of radius R is set rotating about (a) tension T by the part of the ring left to A,
its axis of symmetry which is kept vertical. A small block (b) tension T by the part of the ring right to B,
Circular Motion 111
(c) weight (Arn)g and the Xaxis along the groove (figure 7W10). The Yaxis
(d) normal force SV by the table. is along the line perpendicular to OX coplanar with the
The tension at A acts along the tangent at A and the surface of the table and the Zaxis is along the vertical.
tension at B acts along the tangent at B. As the small Suppose at time t the particle in the groove is at a
part ACB moves in a circle of radius R at a constant distance x from the origin and is moving along the Xaxis
speed v, its acceleration is towards the centre (along CO) with a speed v. The forces acting on the particle
and has a magnitude (Arn)v I R . (including the pseudo forces that we must assume
Resolving the forces along the radius CO, because we have taken our frame on the table which is
rotating and is nonintertial) are
T cos (900  T cos (900 A(4)  (Am) )
or, 1 vdv =5
. 0) 2X dx
0 a
1 v 2] [ 122
0) x 1
or,
2 0
2 a
Figure 7W10 2
V 2 2 2
Or, = (L  a )
2 2
Let us work from the frame of reference of the table.
v = (0 .\1.1,2 a 2
Let us take the origin at the centre of rotation 0 and or,
1. You are driving a motorcycle on a horizontal road. It is accelerate the motorcyle without putting higher petrol
moving with a uniform velocity. Is it possible to input rate into the engine ?
112 Concepts of Physics
OBJECTIVE I
2
1. When a particle moves in a circle with a uniform speed MV
(a) towards the centre
(a) its velocity and acceleration are both constant r
2
my mu 2 speed along the equator. A presses the track with a force
(a) mg (b) mg is greater than F1 and B presses the track with a force F2 .
r r
2
my (a) F1> F,. (b) F1 < F2. (c) F,= F,.
(c) mg is not greater than
r (d) the information is insufficient to find the relation
MU 2
between F1 and F2 .
(d) mg is not less than 13. If the earth stops rotating, the apparent value of g on
r
8. A stone of mass m tied to a string of length 1 is rotated its surface will
in a circle with the other end of the string as the centre. (a) increase everywhere
The speed of the stone is v. If the string breaks, the (b) decrease everywhere
stone will move (c) remain the same everywhere
(a) towards the centre (b) away from the centre (d) increase at some places and remain the same at
(c) along a tangent (d) will stop. some other places.
9. A coin placed on a rotating turntable just slips if it is 14. A rod of length L is pivoted at one end and is rotated
placed at a distance of 4 cm from the centre. If the with a uniform angular velocity in a horizontal plane.
angular velocity of the turntable is doubled, it will just Let T1 and T2be the tensions at the points L /4 and
slip at a distance of 3L /4 away from the pivoted ends.
(a) 1 cm (b) 2 cm (c) 4 cm (d) 8 cm. (a) T,> T,. (b) T,> Ti . (c) Ti = T,. (d) The relation
10. A motorcyle is going on an overbridge of radius R. The between T1 and T2depends on whether the rod rotates
driver maintains a constant speed. As the motorcycle is clockwise or anticlockwise.
ascending on the overbridge, the normal force on it 15. A simple pendulum having a bob of mass m is suspended
(a) increases (b) decreases from the ceiling of a car used in a stunt film shooting.
(c) remains the same (d) fluctuates. The car moves up along an inclined cliff at a speed
11. Three identical cars A, B and C are moving at the same and makes a jump to leave the cliff and lands at some
speed on three bridges. The car A goes on a plane bridge, distance. Let R be the maximum height of the car from
B on a bridge convex upward and C goes on a bridge the top of the cliff. The tension in the string when the
concave upward. Let FA, FB and F, be the normal forces car is in air is
2
exerted by the cars on the bridges when they are at the MU 2
(a) mg (b) mg R (c) mg + (d) zero.
middle of bridges.
(a) FAis maximum of the three forces. 16. Let 0 denote the angular displacement of a simple
(b) FBis maximum of the three forces. pendulum oscillating in a vertical plane. If the mass of
(c) F, is maximum of the three forces. the bob is m, the tension in the string is mg cos()
(d) FA = F,= . (a) always (b) never
12. A train A runs from east to west and another train B (c) at the extreme positions
of the same mass runs from west to east at the same (d) at the mean position.
OBJECTIVE II
3. The position vector of a particle in a circular motion (a) The velocity of the particle is constant.
about the origin sweeps out equal area in equal time. (b) The acceleration of the particle is constant.
114 Concepts of Physics
(c) The magnitude of acceleration is constant. (b) If the car turns at a speed less than 40 km/hr, it will
(d) The magnitude of acceleration is decreasing slip down.
continuously. (c) If the car turns at the correct speed of 40 km/hr, the
2
5. A car of mass M is moving on a horizontal circular path my
force by the road on the car is equal to
of radius r. At an instant its speed is u and is increasing r
at a rate a. (d) If the car turns at the correct speed of 40 km/hr, the
(a) The acceleration of the car is towards the centre of force by the road on the car is greater than mg as well
the path. m 2
(b) The magnitude of the frictional force on the car is as greater than
r
greater than mu 7. A person applies a constant force F on a particle of mass
(c) The friction coefficient between the ground and the m and finds that the particle moves in a circle of radius
car is not less than alg. r with a uniform speed v as seen from an inertial frame
(d) The friction coefficient between the ground and the of reference.
2 (a) This is not possible.
car is p. = tan 11.  (b) There are other forces on the particle.
rg
2
6. A circular road of radius r is banked for a speed v = 40 (c) The resultant of the other forces is my towards the
km/hr. A car of mass m attempts to go on the circular r
road. The friction coefficient between the tyre and the centre.
road is negligible. (d) The resultant of the other forces varies in magnitude
(a) The car cannot make a turn without skidding. as well as in direction.
EXERCISES
1. Find the acceleration of the moon with respect to the 9. In the Bohr model of hydrogen atom, the electron is
earth from the following data : Distance between the treated as a particle going in a circle with the centre at
earth and the moon = 3.85 x 10 5km and the time taken the proton. The proton itself is assumed to be fixed in
by the moon to complete one revolution around the earth an inertial frame. The centripetal force is provided by
= 27.3 days. the Coloumb attraction. In the ground state, the electron
goes round the proton in a circle of radius
2. Find the acceleration of a particle placed on the surface
of the earth at the equator due to earth's rotation. The 5.3 x 10 11m. Find the speed of the electron in
diameter of earth = 12800 km and it takes 24 hours for the ground state. Mass of the electron = 9.1 x 10 31kg
the earth to complete one revolution about its axis. and charge of the electron = 1.6 x 10 19 C.
3. A particle moves in a circle of radius 1.0 cm at a speed 10. A stone is fastened to one end of a string and is whirled
given by v = 2.0 t where v is in cm/s and t in seconds. in a vertical circle of radius R. Find the minimum speed
(a) Find the radial acceleration of the particle at t = 1 s. the stone can have at the highest point of the circle.
(b) Find the tangential acceleration at t = 1 s. (c) Find 11. A ceiling fan has a diameter (of the circle through the
the magnitude of the acceleration at t = 1 s. outer edges of the three blades) of 120 cm and rpm 1500
4. A scooter weighing 150 kg together with its rider moving at full speed. Consider a particle of mass 1 g sticking at
at 36 km/hr is to take a turn of radius 30 m. What the outer end of a blade. How much force does it
horizontal force on the scooter is needed to make the experience when the fan runs at full speed ? Who exerts
turn possible ? this force on the particle ? How much force does the
5. If the horizontal force needed for the turn in the previous particle exert on the blade along its surface ?
problem is to be supplied by the normal force by the 12. A mosquito is sitting on an L.P. record disc rotating on
road, what should be the proper angle of banking ? a turn table at 333 per minute. The distance
3
6. A park has a radius of 10 m. If a vehicle goes round it
of the mosquito from the centre of the turn table is
at an average speed of 18 km/hr, what should be the
10 cm. Show that the friction coefficient between the
proper angle of banking ?
record and the mosquito is greater than It 2/81. Take
7. If the road of the previous problem is horizontal (no
banking), what should be the minimum friction g =10 IniS 2.
coefficient so that a scooter going at 18 km/hr does not 13. A simple pendulum is suspended from the ceiling of a
skid ? car taking a turn of radius 10 m at a speed of 36 km/h.
8. A circular road of radius 50 m has the angle of banking Find the angle made by the string of the pendulum with
equal to 30. At what speed should a vehicle go on this the vertical if this angle does not change during the turn.
road so that the friction is not used ? Take g= 10 nils 2.
Circular Motion 115
14. The bob of a simple pendulum of length 1 m has mass ensure that the cyclist can move with constant speed ?
100 g and a speed of 1.4 m/s at the lowest point in its Take g= 10 nils 2.
dv dv
tangential acceleration (= v  to obtain the speed
dt ds
of the block after one revolution.
28. A table with smooth horizontal surface is fixed in a cabin
that rotates with a uniform angular velocity co in a
circular path of radius R (figure 7E3). A smooth groove
AB of length L( R) is made on the surface of the table. 0
The groove makes an angle 0 with the radius OA of the
circle in which the cabin rotates. A small particle is kept
at the point A in the groove and is released to move
along AB. Find the time taken by the particle to reach
the point B. Figure 7 E4

ANSWERS
1/2
15. 1.16 N g(sine cos()) g(sine + cose) I/2
16. mg cog', 24. to
[R sine(cose + sine) [ R sine(cose sine)
17. (a) 3.5 x 10 3 (b) 2.0 hour u 2cos 20
18. Between 14.7 km/h and 54 km/hr 25.
g
19. (a) A
NF?,F, u2COS 20
(b) a distance ItR/3 along the bridge from the highest 26.
g cos 3(0 12)
point,
2 2
(c)'\IgRcos(L 12 R) 2
27. (a) (b) (c) (d) voe 21t g
2g 2 a 2)R 211/4 R
20. [01
2 ]1/4
2L
28. A/
21. (a).N,7
ugTf (b) [(ligr) a 2 co 2R cos()
22. (a) 975 N, 1025 N (b) 0, 707 N, 0 29. (a) 0.2 N (b) 30
(c) 682 N, 732 N (d) 1.037
co R 4 2
23. 10 n 2 30. mco R
CHAPTER 8
the kinetic energies of all its constituent particles, i.e., The quantity F dr =F dr cos is called the work
1 2 done by the force F on the particle during the small
m. v displacement dr.
2 "
The work done on the particle by a force F acting
on it during a finite displacement is obtained by
W= f F dr4= f F cos dr, ... (8.3)
Less energetic man
Qt xr where the integration is to be performed along the path
of the particle. If F is the resultant force on the particle
Less energetic More energetic man we can use equation (8.2) to get
balls
Figure 8.1
= F dr=J dK= K2 K1.
The kinetic energy of a particle or a system of Thus, the work done on a particle by the resultant
particles can increase or decrease or remain constant force is equal to the change in its kinetic energy. This
as time passes. is called the workenergy theorem.
If no force is applied on the particle, its velocity v Let F1, F2 F3 . . . be the individual foes 4cting on
remains constant and hence the kinetic energy a particle. The resultant force is F = F1+ F2+ F3 ..., and
remains the same. A force is necessary to change the the work done by the resultant force on the particle is
kinetic energy of a particle. If the resultant force acting
on a particle is perpendicular to its velocity, the speed
147 = P> dr)
4 4 4
of the particle does not change and hence the kinetic = >
+ F2 + F3 ) dr
energy does not change. Kinetic energy changes only r r
when the speed changes and that happens only when P dr + F2 dr + F3 dr ... ,
the resultant force has a tangential component. When r > >
where = F1. dr is the work done on the particle by
a particle falls near the earth's surface, the force of
gravity is parallel to its velocity. Its kinetic energy F1and so on. Thus, the work done by the resultant
increases as time passes. On the other hand, a particle force is equal to the sum of the work done by the
projected upward has the force opposite to the velocity individual forces. Note that the work done on a particle
and its kinetic energy decreases. by an individual force is not equal to the change in its
Work and Energy 119
kinetic energy; the sum of the work done by all the If the particle goes from the point A to the point
forces acting on the particle (which is equal to the work B along some other curve, the work done by the force
done by the resultant force) is equal to the change in of gravity is again mgh. We see that the work done by
its kinetic energy. a constant force in going from A to B depends only on
The rate of doing work is calleA the power the positions of A and B and not on the actual path
delivered. The work done by a force F in a small taken. In case of gravity, the work is weight mg times
> the height descended. If a particle starts from A and
displacement dr is dW = F dr.
reaches to the same point A after some time, the work
Thus, the power delivered by the force is done by gravity during this round trip is zero, as the
> height descended is zero. We shall encounter other
P= F =F V. forces having this property.
dt dt
The SI unit of power is joule/second and is written
as "watt". A commonly used unit of power is Spring Force
horsepower which is equal to 746 W.
Consider the situation shown in figure (8.3). One
end of a spring is attached to a fixed vertical support
8.3 CALCULATION OF WORK DONE and the other end to a block which can move on a
horizontal table. Let x = 0 denote the position of the
The work done by a force on a particle during a
block when the spring is in its natural length. We shall
displacement has been defined as
calculate the work done on the block by the
W= J F> dr>. springforce as the block moves from x = 0 to x =
Constant Force
Three positions of a spring are shown in figure application and the work will be negative. Thus, the
(8.4). In (i) the spring is in its natural length, in (ii) work done by the springforce is 2.5 mJ.
it is compressed by an amount x and in (iii) it is
elongated by an amount x. Work done by the
The following three cases occur quite frequently :
springforce on the block in various situations is shown
in the following table. (a) The force is perpendicular to the velocity at all
the instants. The work done by the force is then zero.
Table 8.1 (b) The force is constant (both in magnitude and
direction). The work done by the force is
Initial state of Final state of x, x2 W = Fd cos% where F and d are magnitudes of the
the spring the spring force and the displacement and 0 is the angle between
Natural Compressed 0 x kx 2 them. The amount of work done depends only on the
2
end positions and not on the intermediate path. The
Natural Elongated 0 x kx 2 work in a round trip is zero. Force of gravity on the
2
Natural 0
bodies near the earth's surface is an example.
Elongated lkx2
2 The work done due to the force of gravity on a
Compressed Natural x 0 particle of mass m is mgh, where h is the vertical
1kx2
2 height 'descended' by the particle.
Elongated Compressed x x 0 (c) The force is F kx as is the case with an
Compressed Elongated x x 0 elastic spring. The magnitude of the work done by the
force during a displacement x from or to its natural
1 2 1 2
position (x = 0) is 2 kx . The work may be + kx or
2
1 2
kx depending on whether the force and the
displacement are along the same or opposite directions.
Example 8.2
Example 8.1
8.4 WORKENERGY THEOREM FOR A
A spring of spring constant 50 N/m is compressed from
SYSTEM OF PARTICLES
its natural position through 1 cm. Find the work done
by the springforce on the agency compressing the spring. So far we have considered the work done on a
Solution : The magnitude of the work is single particle. The total work done on a particle
1 2 1 equals the change in its kinetic energy. In other words,
kx = x (50 Wm) x (1 cm) 2 to change the kinetic energy of a particle we have to
apply a force on it and the force must do work on it.
= (25 N/m) x (1 x 10 2m) 2 = 2.5 x 10 3 J. Next, consider a system containing more than one
As the compressed spring will push the agency, the force particle and suppose the particles exert forces on each
will be opposite to the displacement of the point of other. As a simple example, take a system of two
Work and Energy 121
charged particles as shown in figure (8.5) attracting decreases. Thus, the kinetic energy of the twoparticle
each other (such as a positive and a negative charge). system decreases as time passes. Suppose at a time
t2, the particles are at A' and B', the speeds have
Fqg FBA
O O changed to v1 and v2 and the kinetic energy becomes
A
K2. We call the positions of the particles at time t2 as
Figure 8.5 configuration2. The kinetic energy of the system is
decreased by K1 K2.
Because of mutual attraction, the particles are However, if you wait for some more time, the
accelerated towards each other and the kinetic energy particles return to the original positions A and B, i.e.,
of the system increases. We have not applied any in configuration1. At this time, say t3, the particles
external force on the system, yet the kinetic energy move towards each other with speeds v1and u2 . Their
has changed. Let us exaTine this in more detail. The kinetic energy is again K1 .
particle B exerts a force FABon A. As A moves towards When the particles were in configuration1 the
B, this force does work. The work done by this force kinetic energy was K1 . When they reached
is equal to the increase in the kinetic energy of A. configuration2 it decreased to K2 The kinetic energy
.
Similarly, A exerts a force FBA on B. This force does has decreased but is not lost for ever. We just have to
wait. When the particles return to configuration1 at
work on B and this work is equal to lie increase in
time t3, the kinetic energy again becomes K1 . It seems
the kinetic energy of B. The work by FAB+ the work
* meaningful and reasonable if we think of yet another
by FBA is equal to the increase in the total kinetic kind of energy which depends on the configuration. We
energy of the two particles. Note that ;AB = F FBA, so call this as the potential energy of the system. Some
that FAB + FBA = 0. But the work by FAB+ the work by kinetic energy was converted into potential energy
FBA * 0. The two forces are opposite in direction but when the system passed from configuration1 to
the displacements are also opposite. Thus, the work configuration2. As the system returns to
done by both the forces are positive and are added. configuration1, this potential energy is converted back
The total work done on different particles of the system into kinetic energy. The sum of the kinetic energy and
by the internal forces may not be zero. The change in the potential energy remains constant.
the kinetic energy of a system is equal to the work How do we precisely define the potential energy of
done on the system by the external as well as the a system ? Before defining potential energy, let us
internal forces. discuss the idea of conservative and nonconservative
forces.
8.5 POTENTIAL ENERGY
8.6 CONSERVATIVE AND
Consider the example of the two charged particles NONCONSERVATIVE FORCES
A and B taken in the previous section. Suppose at some
instant t1the particles are at positions A, B and are Let us consider the following two examples.
going away from each other with speeds u1 and v2 (1) Suppose a block of mass m rests on a rough
(figure 8.6). horizontal table (figure 8.7). It is dragged horizontally
towards right through a distance 1 and then back to
N/2 t t
1 A its initial position. Let g be the friction coefficient
between the block and the table. Let us calculate the
B b.v2 t = t 2 work done by friction during the round trip.
i
V
vl V2
t = t3 V
A
f
Figure 8.6 mg
the block moves towards right, friction on it is towards 8.7 DEFINITION OF POTENTIAL ENERGY AND
left and the work by friction is ( iimg/) . When the CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY
block moves towards left, friction on it is towards right We define the change in potential energy of a
and the work is again ( lime) . system corresponding to a conservative internal force
Hence, the total work done by the force of friction as
in the round trip is ( 21.ungl) . r
Uf  Ui=  147 =  .1 F dr
where E = K + U is the total mechanical energy. on the system because it acts on the charge A which
does not move. Thus, the external forces do no work and
If the internal forces are conservative but external
internal forces are conservative. The total mechanical
forces also act on the system and they do work,
energy must, therefore, remain constant. There are two
W, = 0 and from (8.7),
internal forces; FABacting on A and FBAacting on B. The
Wext = Ef  ... (8.8) force FABdoes no work because' it acts on A which does
The work done by the external forces equals the change not move. The work done by FBAas the particle B is
in the mechanical energy of the system. taken away is,
Let us summarise the concepts developed so far in 00
this chapter.
r k k
W=S Pd7.=j idr= (i)
r r,,
(1) Work done on a particle is equal to the change r,
in its kinetic energy. External force
A
(2) Work done on a system by all the (external and F
AB
= kir FBA= kir 2
internal) forces is equal to the change in its kinetic
Figure 8.9
energy.
(3) A force is called conservative if the work done The change in the potential energy of the system is
by it during a round trip of a system is always zero.
Uf U,=W =
The force of gravitation, Coulomb force, force by a To
spring etc. are conservative. If the work done by it As the total mechanical energy is conserved,
during a round trip is not zero, the force is Kf (If = Ki + Ui
nonconservative. Friction is an example of or, Kf =  (Uf  Ui)
nonconservative force. 1 2 k
(4) The change in the potential energy of a system or, mu = T
2
corresponding to conservative internal forces is equal
to negative of the work done by these forces. or, v =
mr,
(5) If no external forces act (or the work done by
them is zero) and the internal forces are conservative,
the mechanical energy of the system remains constant. 8.8 CHANGE IN THE POTENTIAL ENERGY
This is known as the principle of conservation of IN A RIGIDBODYMOTION
mechanical energy.
If the separation between the particles do not
(6) If some of the internal forces are change during motion, such as in the case of the
nonconservative, the mechanical energy of the system motion of a rigid body, the internal forces do no work.
is not constant. This is a consequence of Newton's third law. As an
(7) If the internal forces are conservative, the work example, consider a system of two particles A and B.
done by the external forces is equal to the change in Suppose, the particles move in such a way that the
mechanical energy. life AB translates parallel to itself. The displacement
drAof the particle A is equal to the displacement drB
Example 8.3
of the particle B in any short titav interval. The net
Two charged particles A and B repel each other by a work done by the internal forces FAB and PBA is
force k 1 r 2, where k is a constant and r is the separation
between them. The particle A is clamped to a fixed point W = J (FAB drA + FBA drB)
in the lab and the particle B which has a mass m, is
released from rest with an initial separation r, from A. =5 "AB +FBA) drA = 0.
Find the change in the potential energy of the twoparticle Thus, the work done by FAB and FBA add up to zero.
system as the separation increases to a large value. What Even if AB does not translate parallel to itself but
will be the speed of the particle B in this situation? rotates, the result is true. The internal forces acting
Solution : The situation is shown in figure (8.9). Take between the particles of a rigid body do no work in its
A + B as the system. The only external force acting on motion and we need not consider the potential energy
the system is that needed to hold A fixed. (You can corresponding to these forces.
imagine the experiment being conducted in a gravity free The potential energy of a system changes only
region or the particles may be kept and allowed to move when the separations between the parts of the system
on a smooth horizontal surface, so that the normal force change. In other words, the potential energy depends
balances the force of gravity). This force does no work only on the separation between the interacting particles.
124 Concepts of Physics
8.9 GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY is perpendicular to its velocity. No external force does
any work on the system. Hence,
Consider a block of mass m kept near the surface increase in kinetic energy = decrease in potential energy
of the earth and suppose it is raised through a height
h. Consider "the earth + the block" as the system. The or,
22
mv = mgh or, v = q2gh
gravitational force between the earth and the block is
conservative and we can define a potential energy Example 8.5
corresponding to this force. The earth is very heavy as
A pendulum bob has a speed 3 m/s while passing through
compared to the block and so one can neglect its
acceleration. Thus, we take our reference frame its lowest position. What is its speed when it makes an
attached to the earth, it will still be very nearly an angle of 60 with the vertical ? The length of the
inertial frame. The work done by the gravitational pendulum is 0.5 m. Take g = 10 m/s 2.
force due to the block on the earth is zero in this frame. Solution : Take the bob + earth as the system. The
The force mg on the block does work (mgh) if the external force acting on the system is that due to the
block ascends through a height h and hence the string. But this force is always perpendicular to the
potential energy is increased by mgh. Thus, if a block velocity of the bob and so the work done by this force
of mass m ascends a height h above the earth's surface is zero. Hence, the total mechanical energy will remain
(h << radius of earth), the potential energy of the "earth constant. As is clear from figure (8.11), the height
+ block" system increases by mgh. If the block descends ascended by the bob at an angular displacement a is
by a height h, the potential energy decreases by mgh. 1 1 case = 1 (1 cos0). The increase in the potential
Since the earth almost remains fixed, it is customary energy is mgl (1 cog)). This should be equal to the
to call the potential energy of the earthblock system decrease in the kinetic energy of the system. Again, as
as the potential energy of the block only. We then say the earth does not move in the lab frame, this is the
that the gravitatiohal potential energy of the "block" decrease in the kinetic energy of the bob. If the speed
is increased by an amount mgh when it is raised at an angular displacement 0 is v1, the decrease in
through a hieght h above the earth's surface. kinetic energy is
We have been talking in terms of the changes in
gravitational potential energy. We can choose any
position of the block and call the gravitational
potential energy to be zero in this position. The
potential energy at a height h above this position is
mgh. The position of the zero potential energy is
chosen according to the convenience of the problem.
Example 8.4
= 2 m/s.
Figure 8.10
on a smooth horizontal surface to extend the spring. other end of the spring is fixed to a wall. If it has a speed
Take the spring as the system. When it is elongated v when the spring is at its natural length, how far will
by a distance x, the tension in it is kx, where k is its it move on the table before coming to an instantaneous
spring constant. It pulls the wall towards right and rest ?
the block towards left by forces of magnitude kx. The Solution : Consider the block + the spring as the system.
forces exerted on the spring. are (i) kx towards left by The external forces acting on the system are (a) the force
the wall and (ii) kx towards right by the block. of gravity, (b) the normal force by the table and (c) the
force by the wall. None of these do any work on this
system and hence the total mechanical energy is
conserved. If the block moves a distance x before
comming to rest, we have,
2 2
2 mv = kx
2
Figure 8.12
or, x = v 4m1k.
How much work has been done on the spring by Example 8.7
these two external forces ? The force by the wall does
no work as the point of application is fixed. The force A block of mass m is suspended through a spring of
spring constant k and is in equilibrium. A sharp blow
by the block does work 5 kx dx = kx 2. The work is gives the block an initial downward velocity v. How far
2
0 below the equilibrium position, the block comes to an
positive as the force is towards right and the particles instantaneous rest ?
of the spring, on which this force is acting, also move Solution : Let us consider the block + the spring + the
towards right. Thus, the total external work done on earth as the system. The system has gravitational
1 2
the spring is 2 kx 2, when the spring is elongated by potential energy corresponding to the force between the
an amount x from its natural length. The same is the block and the earth as well as the elastic potential
external work done on the spring if it is compressed energy corresponding to the springforce. The total
by a distance x. mechanical energy includes kinetic energy, gravitational
potential energy and elastic potential energy.
We have seen (equation 8.8) that the external work
done on a system is equal to the change in its total
mechanical energy. The spring is assumed to be
massless and hence its kinetic energy remains zero all
the time. Thus, its potential energy has increased by
1 2
kx .
2
We conclude that a stretched or compressed spring
has a potential energy 1
2 kx 2 larger than its potential
Figure 8.13
energy at its natural length. The potential energy of
the spring corresponds to the internal forces between When the block is in equilibrium, it is acted upon by
the particles of the spring when it is stretched or two forces, (a) the force of gravity mg and (b) the tension
compressed. It is called elastic potential energy or the in the spring T = kx, where x is the elongation. For
strain energy of the spring. Again, the calculation gives equilibrium, mg = kx, so that the spring is stretched by
only the change in the elastic potential energy of the a length x = mg /k. The potential energy of the spring
spring and we are free to choose any length of the in this position is
spring and call the potential energy zero at that length. 2
2 M 2g
It is customary to choose the potential energy of a 1k (mg 1 k)
2 2k
spring in its natural length to be zero. With this choice
1 2 Take the gravitational potential energy to be zero in this
the potential energy of a spring is 2kx 2, where x is the position. The total mechanical energy of the system just
elongation or the compression of the spring. after the blow is
2 2
1 2 771 g
Example 8.6 MV
2 2k
A block of mass m, attached to a spring of spring The only external force on this system is that due to the
constant k, oscillates on a smooth horizontal table. The ceiling which does no work. Hence, the mechanical
126 Concepts of Physics
energy of this system remains constant. If the block rest, the particles in it are continuously moving inside
descends through a height h before coming to an the body. These particles also exert forces on each
instantaneous rest, the elastic potential energy becomes other and there is a potential energy corresponding to
k (mg I k + h) 2 and the gravitational potential energy
these forces. The total energy corresponding to the
2 internal motion of molecules and their interaction, is
mgh. The kinetic energy is zero in this state. Thus, called internal energy or thermal energy of the body.
we have Light and sound are other forms of energy. When a
22 source emits light or sound, it loses energy. Chemical
1 2 M g 1
mv + k (mg I k + h) 2mgh. energy is significant if there are chemical reactions.
2 2k 2
Solving this we get, Einstein's special theory of relativity shows that a
h = v k. material particle itself is a form of energy. Thus, about
Compare this with the result obtained in Example (8.6).
8.18 x 10 14 J of energy may be converted to form an
If we neglect gravity and consider the length of the electron and equal amount of energy may be obtained
spring in equilibrium position as the natural length, the by destroying an electron. The ralation between the
answer is same. This simplification is often used while mass of a particle m and its equivalent energy E is
dealing with vertical springs. given as
E = mc 2 ,
1. A porter lifts a suitcase weighing 20 kg from the platform (in magnitude). The rate of doing work, i.e., the power
and puts it on his head 2.0 m above the platform. delivered is
Calculate the work done by the porter on the suitcase. P = F v = mgv
Solution : The kinetic energy of the suitcase was zero = (500 kg) (9.8 m/s2) (0.2 m/s) = 980 W
when it was at the platform and it again became zero
when it was put on the head. The change in kinetic
Assuming no loss against friction etc., in the motor, the
energy is zero and hence the total work done on the
minimum horsepower of the motor is
suitcase is zero. Two forces act on the suitcase, one due
to gravity and the other due to the porter. Thus, the 80
P = 980 W = hp = 1.3 hp.
work done by the porter is negative of the work done by 746
gravity. As the suitcase is lifted up, the work done by
gravity is 3. A block of mass 2.0 kg is pulled up on a smooth incline
W = mgh of angle 30 with the horizontal. If the block moves with
an acceleration of 1'0 m/s2, find the power delivered by
= (20 kg) (9.8 m/s 2) (2 m) = 392 J
the pulling force at a time 4.0 s after the motion starts.
The work done by the porter is 392 J = 390 J. What is the average power delivered during the 4.0 s
after the motion starts?
2. An elevator weighing 500 kg is to be lifted up at a
constant velocity of 0.20 in/s. What would be the Solution : The forces acting on the block are shown in
minimum .horsepower of the motor to be used ? figure (8W1). Resolving the forces parallel to the incline,
we get
Solution : As the elevator is going up with a uniform
F mg sin() = ma
velocity, the total work done on it is zero in any time
interval. The work done by the motor is, therefore, equal or, F = mg sines + ma
to the work done by the force of gravity in that interval = (2.0 kg) [(9.8 m/s 2) (1/2) + 1.0 m/s = 11.8 N.
Work and Energy 127
=[10x+0.50
1 20
=21J.
the process. The density of water is p.
Solution : Since the total volume of the water is constant,
the height in each vessel after interconnection will be
2 0
(h1 +11012 . The level in the left vessel shown in the
figure, drops from A to C and that in the right vessel
5. A body dropped from a height H reaches the ground with
rises from B to D. Effectively, the water in the part AC
a speed of 1.2 VgrI. Calculate the work done by has dropped down to DB.
airfriction.
Solution : The forces acting on the body are the force of
D
gravity and the airfriction. By workenergy theorem, the
total work done on the body is t, h1+ h2 B T
1 2 h2
W= m(1.2 Jai) 2  0 = 0.72 mgH.
p
l
l 2
The height descended by this water is AC = (h, h2)12.
The work done by the force of gravity during this process
is, therefore,
2
p A (h,
2 Figure 8W5
5.
8. What minimum horizontal speed should be given to the The potential energy of the l/3 of the chain that
1/3
bob of a simple pendulum of length l so that it describes
overhangs is U1=
r 
m
gx dx
a complete circle ?
Solution : Suppose the bob is given a horizontal speed v0
._[m 0 (x 1/3 ._ 1 ni0/.
at the bottom and it describes a complete vertical circle. / 2 18
Let its speed at the highest point be v. Taking the
gravitational potential energy to be zero at the bottom, This is also the potential energy of the full chain in the
the conservation of energy gives, initial position because the part lying on the table has
1 2 1 2 zero potential energy. The potential energy of the chain
my, = mv + 2mg1 when it completely slips off the table is
2 2
2 2
or, my = mv0  4 mgl. (i)
U2 = f  l gx dx =  mgl.
o
1mg1)( mg1)
18
The loss in potential energy = C
4
= mgl.
ApT: 1 1/2
Figure 8W8
v=  (L  x) 2
m 4
When the spring acquires its natural length, x = Lo and Solution : At the instant of maximum compression the
speed of the 40 g mass reduces to zero. Taking the
_NF L
v= 77:
 1 Thereafter, the block continues with this gravitational potential energy to be zero at the
horizontal part, the conservation of energy shows,
velocity.
mgh = I kx 2
11. A particle is placed at the point A of a frictionless track where m = 0.04 kg, h = 4.9 m, k = 400 N/m and x is the
ABC as shown in figure (8W7). It is pushed slightly maximum compression.
towards right. Find its speed when it reaches the point
Thus, x = *V2271gLI
B. Take g = 10 mls 2.
C
.\/ 2 x (0.04 kg) x (9.8 m/s)x (4.9 m)
Im
vv
= 9.8 cm.
(400 N/m)
0.5 m
13. Figure (8W9) shows a looptheloop track of radius R.
A car (without engine) starts from a platform at a
Figure 8W7 distance h above the top of the loop and goes around the
loop without falling off the track. Find the minimum
Solution : Let us take the gravitational potential energy value of h for a successful looping. Neglect friction.
to be zero at the horizontal surface shown in the figure.
The potential energies of the particle at A and B are
UA Mg (1 m) =
and UB = Mg (0.5 m).
The kinetic energy at the point A is zero. As the track
is frictionless, no energy is lost. The normal force on the
particle does no work. Applying the principle of Figure 8 W9

conservation of energy,
UA + KA = UB + KB Solution : Suppose the speed of the car at the topmost
point of the loop is v. Taking the gravitational potential
Or, Mg(1 m)= Mg(0.5 m) + My,: energy to be zero at the platform and assuming that the
car starts with a negligible speed, the conservation of
or, V B= g(1 m  0.5 m)

2
2
energy shows,
1 2
0 =  mgh +  my
= (10 m/s 2) 0.5 m 2
= 5m or, mu 2 = 2 mgh, (i)
2/s2
Or, VB = 41.15
where m is the mass of the car. The car moving in a
circle must have radial acceleration v 2 /R at this instant.
The forces on the car are, mg due to gravity and s1( due
12. Figure (8W8) shows a smooth curved track terminating to the contact with the track. Both these forces are in
in a smooth horizontal part. A spring of spring constant radial direction at the top of the loop. Thus, from
400 N/m is attached at one end to a wedge fixed rigidly Newton's Law
with the horizontal part. A 40 g mass is released from
n21.1 2
rest at a height of 4.9 m on the curved track. Find the mg + dV  R
maximum compression of the spring.
130 Concepts of Physics
/ sine 1 / sine 2
or, / cose = (v sine) (
V cos0 2gv cose
Figure 8W10
g v2
/ sin
i vs200
Or, cos 20 = sin 20
Solution : Suppose the string becomes slack when the
particle reaches the point P (figure 8W10). Suppose the Or, cos 20 = 1 cos 20 1
2g soins22 [From (i)]
gil c :
1. When you lift a box from the floor and put it on an 8. A heavy box is kept on a smooth inclined plane and is
almirah the potential energy of the box increases, but pushed up by a force F acting parallel to the plane. Does
there is no change in its kinetic energy. Is it a violation the work done by the force F as the box goes from A to
of conservation of energy ? B depend on how fast the box was moving at A and B ?
2. A particle is released from the top of an incline of height Does the work by the force of gravity depend on this ?
h. Does the kinetic energy of the particle at the bottom 9. One person says that the potential energy of a particular
of the incline depend on the angle of incline ? Do you book kept in an almirah is 20 J and the other says it is
need any more information to answer this question in 30 J. Is one of them necessarily wrong ?
Yes or No ? 10. A book is lifted from the floor and is kept in an almirah.
One person says that the potential energy of the book
3. Can the work by kinetic friction on an object be positive ?
is increased by 20 J and the other says it is increased
Zero ?
by 30 J. Is one of them necessarily wrong ?
4. Can static friction do nonzero work on an object ? If yes, 11. In one of the exercises to strengthen the wrist and
give an example. If no, give reason. fingers, a person squeezes and releases a soft rubber
5. Can normal force do a nonzero work on an object. If yes, ball. Is the work done on the ball positive, negative or
give an example. If no, give reason. zero during compression ? During expansion ?
12. In tug of war, the team that exerts a larger tangential
6. Can kinetic energy of a system be increased without
force on the ground wins. Consider the period in which
applying any external force on the system ?
a team is dragging the opposite team by applying a
7. Is workenergy theorem valid in noninertial frames ? larger tangential force on the ground. List which of the
Work and Energy 131
following works are positive, which are negative and 15. The magnetic force on a charged particle is always
which are zero ? perpendicular to its velocity. Can the magnetic force
(a) work by the winning team on the losing team change the velocity of the particle ? Speed of the
(b) work by the losing team on the winning team particle ?
(c) work by the ground on the winning team 16. A ball is given a speed v on a rough horizontal surface.
(d) work by the ground on the losing team The ball travels through a distance 1 on the surface and
(e) total external work on the two teams. stops. (a) What are the initial and final kinetic energies
13. When an apple falls from a tree what happens to its of the ball ? (b) What is the work done by the kinetic
gravitational potential energy just as it reaches the friction ?
ground ? After it strikes the ground ? 17. Consider the situation of the previous question from a
frame moving with a speed vo parallel to the initial
14. When you push your bicycle up on an incline the velocity of the block. (a) What are the initial and final
potential energy of the bicyle and yourself increases. kinetic energies ? (b) What is the work done by the
Where does this energy come from ? kinetic friction ?
OBJECTIVE I
1. A heavy stone is thrown from a cliff of height h with a (a) total energy (b) kinetic energy
speed v. The stone will hit the ground with maximum (c) potential energy (d) none of these.
speed if it is thrown 7. of a two particle system depends only on the
(a) vertically downward (b) vertically upward separation between the two particles. The most
(c) horizontally appropriate choice for the blank space in the above
(d) the speed does not depend on the initial direction. sentence is
2. Two springs A and B(kA= 2k,) are stretched by applying (a) Kinetic energy (b) Total mechanical energy
forces of equal magnitudes at the four ends. If the energy (c) Potential energy (d) Total energy.
stored in A is E, that in B is
(a) E/2 (b) 2E (c) E (d) E/4. 8. A small block of mass m is kept on a rough inclined
surface of inclination 0 fixed in an elevator. The elevator
3. Two equal masses are attached to the two ends of a
goes up with a uniform velocity v and the block does not
spring of spring constant k. The masses are pulled out
slide on the wedge. The work done by the force of friction
symmetrically to stretch the spring by a length x over
on the block in time t will be
its natural length. The work done by the spring on each
(a) zero (b) mgvt cos 20
mass is
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 (c) mgvt sin 20 (d) mgvt sin 20.
(a) kx (b)  kx (c) kx (d)  kx .
2 2 4 4 9. A block of mass m slides down a smooth vertical circular
4. The negative of the work done by the conservative track. During the motion, the block is in
internal forces on a system equals the change in
(b) kinetic energy (a) vertical equilibrium (b) horizontal equilibrium
(a) total energy
(c) potential energy (d) none of these. (c) radial equilibrium (d) none of these.
5. The work done by the external forces on a system equals 10. A particle is rotated in a vertical circle by connecting it
the change in to a string of length 1 and keeping the other end of the
(a) total energy (b) kinetic energy string fixed. The minimum speed of the particle when
(c) potential energy (d) none of these. the string is horizontal for which the particle will
6. The work done by all the forces (external and internal) complete the circle is
on a system equals the change in (a) gl (b) (c) g (d)
OBJECTIVE II
1. A heavy stone is thrown from a cliff of height h in a (c) must be independent of the speed of projection
given direction. The speed with which it hits the ground (d) may be smaller than the speed of projection.
(a) must depend on the speed of projection 2. The total work done on a particle is equal to the change
(b) must be larger than the speed of projection in its kinetic energy
(a) always
132 Concepts of Physics
(b) only if the forces acting on it are conservative its highest point.
(c) only if gravitational force alone acts on it (b) The velocity of the particle becomes zero at the
(d) only if elastic force alone acts on it. highest point.
3. A particle is acted upon by a force of constant magnitude (c) The kinetic energy of the ball in initial position was
which is always perpendicular to the velocity of the 2
2 my = mgl .
particle. The motion of the particle takes place in a
plane. It follows that (d) The particle again passes through the initial position.
(a) its velocity is constant 8. The kinetic energy of a particle continuously increases
(b) its acceleration is constant with time.
(c) its kinetic energy is constant (a) The resultant force on the particle must be parallel
(d) it moves in a circular path. to the velocity at all instants.
4. Consider two observers moving with respect to each (b) The resultant force on the particle must be at an
other at a speed v along a straight line. They observe a angle less than 90 all the time.
block of mass m moving a distance 1 on a rough surface. (c) Its height above the ground level must continuously
The following quantities will be same as observed by the decrease.
two observers (d) The magnitude of its linear momentum is increasing
(a) kinetic energy of the block at time t continuously.
(b) work done by friction 9. One end of a light spring of spring constant k is fixed
(c) total work done on the block to a wall and the other end is tied to a block placed on
(d) acceleration of the block. a smooth horizontal surface. In a displacement, the work
5. You lift a suitcase from the floor and keep it on a table. 1 2
done by the spring is kx . The possible cases are
The work done by you on the suitcase does not depend 2
on (a) the spring was initially compressed by a distance x
(a) the path taken by the suitcase and was finally in its natural length
(b) the time taken by you in doing so (b) it was initially streched by a distance x and finally
(c) the weight of the suitcase was in its natural length
(d) your weight. (c) it was initially in its natural length and finally in a
6. No work is done by a force on an object if compressed position
(a) the force is always perpendicular to its velocity (d) it was initially in its natural length and finally in a
(b) the force is always perpendicular to its acceleration stretched position.
(c) the object is stationary but the point of application 10. A block of mass M is hanging over a smooth and light
of the force moves on the object pulley through a light string. The other end of the string
(d) the object moves in such a way that the point of is pulled by a constant force F. The kinetic energy of
application of the force remains fixed. the block increases by 20 J in 1 s.
7. A particle of mass m is attached to a light string of (a) The tension in the string is Mg.
length 1, the other end of which is fixed. Initially the (b) The tension in the string is F.
string is kept horizontal and the particle is given an (c) The work done by the tension on the block is 20 J
upward velocity u. The particle is just able to complete in the above 1 s.
a circle. (d) The work done by the force of gravity is 20 J in the
(a) The string becomes slack when the particle reaches above 1 s.
EXERCISES
1. The mass of cyclist together with the bike is 90 kg. 5. A constant force of 2.50 N accelerates a stationary
Calculate the increase in kinetic energy if the speed particle of mass 15 g through a displacement of 2.50 m.
increases from 6'0 km/h to 12 km/h. Find the work done and the average power delivered.
2. A block of mass 2.00 kg moving at a speed of 10.0 m/s 7> 7>
6. A particle moves from a point r1 = (2 m) + (3 m)j to
accelerates at 3.00 m/s2 for 5.00 s. Compute its final 4 7>
kinetic energy. another point r2= (3 m) t + (2 m)rduring which a certain
force F = (5 N) i + (5 N)j acts on it. Find the work done
3. A box is pushed through 4.0 m across a floor offering
by the force on the particle during the displacement.
100 N resistance. How much work is done by the
resisting force ? 7. A man moves on a straight horizontal road with a block
4. A block of mass 5.0 kg slides down an incline of of mass 2 kg in his hand. If he covers a distance of 40 in
inclination 30 and length 10 m. Find the work done by with an acceleration of 0.5 m/s 2, find the work done by
the force of gravity. the man on the block during the motion.
Work and Energy 133
8. A force F = a + bx acts on a particle in the xdirection, started from rest, find the work done (a) by the applied
where a and b are constants. Find the work done by this force in the first second, (b) by the weight of the block
force during a displacement from x = 0 to x = d. in the first second and (c) by the frictional force acting
9. A block of mass 250 g slides down an incline of on the block in the first second. Take g = 10 m/s 2.
inclination 37 with a uniform speed. Find the work done 18. A 250 g block slides on a rough horizontal table. Find
against the friction as the block slides through 1.0 m. the work done by the frictional force in bringing the
10. A block of mass m is kept over another block of mass block to rest if it is initially moving at a speed of 40
M and the system rests on a horizontal surface cm/s. If the friction coefficient between the table and the
(figure 8E1). A constant horizontal force F acting on the block is 0.1, how far does the block move before coming
to rest ?
lower block produces an acceleration2 (m + in the
19. Water falling from a 50 m high fall is to be used for
system, the two blocks always move together. (a) Find generating electric energy. If 1.8 x 10 6 kg of water falls
the coefficient of kinetic friction between the bigger block per hour and half the gravitational potential energy can
and the horizontal surface. (b) Find the frictional force be converted into electric energy, how many 100 W
acting on the smaller block. (c) Find the work done by lamps can be lit ?
the force of friction on the smaller block by the bigger 20. A person is painting his house walls. He stands on a
block during a displacement d of the system. ladder with a bucket containing paint in one hand and
a brush in other. Suddenly the bucket slips from his
hand and falls down on the floor. If the bucket with the
paint had a mass of 6.0 kg and was at a height of 2.0 m
at the time it slipped, how much gravitational potential
Figure 8El energy is lost together with the paint ?
21. A projectile is fired from the top of a 40 m high cliff
11. A box weighing 2000 N is to be slowly slid through 20 m with an initial speed of 50 m/s at an unknown angle.
on a straight track having friction coefficient 0.2 with Find its speed when it hits the ground.
the box. (a) Find the work done by the person pulling 22. The 200 m free style women's swimming gold medal at
the box with a chain at an angle 9 with the horizontal. Seol Olympic 1988 went to Heike Friendrich of East
(b) Find the work when the person has chosen a value Germany when she set a new Olympic record of 1 minute
of 0 which ensures him the minimum magnitUde of the and 57.56 seconds. Assume that she covered most of the
force. distance with a uniform speed and had to exert 460 W
12. A block of weight 100 N is slowly slid up on a smooth to maintain her speed. Calculate the average force of
incline of inclination 37 by a person. Calculate the work resistance offered by the water during the swim.
done by the person in moving the block through a 23. The US athlete Florence GriffithJoyner won the 100 m
distance of 2.0 m, if the driving force is (a) parallel to sprint gold medal at Seol Olympic 1988 setting a new
the incline and (b) in the horizontal direction. Olympic record of 10.54 s. Assume that she achieved her
13. Find the average frictional force needed to stop a car maximum speed in a very shorttime and then ran the
weighing 500 kg in a distance of 25 m if the initial speed race with that speed till she crossed the line. Take her
is 72 km/h. mass to be 50 kg. (a) Calculate the kinetic energy of
14. Find the average force needed to accelerate a car GriffithJoyner at her full speed. (b) Assuming that the
weighing 500 kg from rest to 72 km/h in a distance of track, the wind etc. offered an average resistance of one
25 m. tenth of her weight, calculate the work done by the
15. A particle of mass m moves on a straight line with its resistance during the run. (c) What power Griffith
velocity varying with the distance travelled according to Joyner had to exert to maintain uniform speed ?
the equation v = aIx, where a is a constant. Find the 24. A water pump lifts water from a level 10 m below the
total work done by all the forces during a displacement ground. Water is pumped at a rate of 30 kg/minute with
from x = 0 to x = d. negligible velocity. Calculate the minimum horsepower
16. A block of mass 2.0 kg kept at rest on an inclined plane the engine should have to do this.
of inclination 37 is pulled up the plane by applying a 25. An unruly demonstrator lifts a stone of mass 200 g from
constant force of 20 N parallel to the incline. The force the ground and throws it at his opponent. At the time
acts for one second. (a) Show that the work done by the of projection, the stone is 150 cm above the ground and
applied force does not exceed 40 J. (b) Find the work has a speed of 3.00 m/s. Calculate the work done by the
done by the force of gravity in that one second if the demonstrator during the process. If it takes one second
work done by the applied force is 40 J. (c) Find the for the demonstrator to lift the stone and throw, what
kinetic energy of the block at the instant the force ceases horsepower does he use ?
to act. Take g = 10 m/s 2. 26. In a factory it is desired to lift 2000 kg of metal through
17. A block of mass 2.0 kg is pushed down an inclined plane a distance of 12 m in 1 minute. Find the minimum
of inclination 37 with a force of 20 N acting parallel to horsepower of the engine to be used.
the incline. It is found that the block moves on the 27. A scooter company gives the following specifications
incline with an acceleration of 10 m/s2. If the block about its product.
134 Concepts of Physics
Weight of the scooter  95 kg offered by the slide is three tenth of his weight. Find
Maximum speed  60 km/h (a) the work done by the ladder on the boy as he goes
Maximum engine power  3.5 hp up, (b) the work done by the slide on the boy as he comes
Pick up time to get the maximum speed  5 s down. Neglect any work done by forces inside the body
Check the validity of these specifications. of the boy.
28. A block of mass 30.0 kg is being brought down by a
chain. If the block acquires a speed of 40.0 cm/s in
dropping down 2.00 m, find the work done by the chain
during the process.
29. The heavier block in an Atwood machine has a mass
twice that of the lighter one. The tension in the string
is 16.0 N when the system is set into motion. Find the Figure 8 E3

Figure 8E4
k2
(001)0 0 (50'
Figure 8E6
Figure 8E9
41. A block of mass 5.0 kg is suspended from the end of a
vertical spring which is stretched by 10 cm under the 47. A block of massip, sliding on a smooth horizontal surface
load of the block. The block is given a sharp impulse with a velocity v meets a long horizontal spring fixed at
from below so that it acquires an upward speed of 2.0 one end and having spring constant k as shown in figure
m/s. How high will it rise ? Take g = 10 m/s 2 .
(8E10). Find the maximum compression of tin spring.
42. A block of mass 250 g is kept on a vertical spring of Will the velocity of the block be the same as v when it
spring constant 100 N/m fixed from below. The spring comes back to the original position shown ?
is now compressed to have a length 10 cm shorter than
its natural length and the system is released from this k
position. How high does the block rise ? Take m
g =10 mls 2 .
43. Figure (8E7) shows a spring fixed at the bottom end of Figure 8E10
an incline of inclination 37. A small block of mass 2 kg
starts slipping down the incline from a point 4.8 m away
from the spring. The block compresses the spring by 48. A small block of mass 100 g is pressed against a
20 cm, stops momentarily and then rebounds through a horizontal spring fixed at one end to compress the spring
distance of 1 m up the incline. Find (a) the friction through 5.0 cm (figure 8E11). The spring constant is
coefficient between the plane and the block and (b) the 100 N/m. When released, the block moves horizontally
spring constant of the spring. Take g = 10 m/s 2. till it leaves the spring. Where will it hit the ground 2 m
below the spring ?
Figure 8 E7

Figure 8 Ell

Figure. 8 E12

Figure 8 E8

to a spring of spring constant 40 N/m whose other end is then released. Find the initial compression of the
is fixed to a support 40 cm above the horizontal surface. spring so that the block presses the track with a force
Initially, the spring is vertical and unstretched when the mg when it reaches the point P, where the radius of the
system is released to move. Find the velocity of the block track is horizontal.
A at the instant it breaks off the surface below it. Take 56. The bob of a stationary pendulum is given a sharp hit
g = 10 m/s 2. to impart it a horizontal speed of .4T
gr. Find the angle
51. One end of a spring of natural length h and spring rotated by the string before it becomes slack.
constant k is fixed at the ground and the other is fitted
with a smooth ring of mass m which is allowed to slide 57. A heavy particle is suspended by a 1.5 m long string. It
on a horizontal rod fixed at a height h (figure 8E13).
is given a horizontal velocity of m/s. (a) Find the
Initially, the spring makes an angle of 37 with the angle made by the string with the upward vertical, when
vertical when the system is released from rest. Find the it becomes slack. (b) Find the speed of the particle at
speed of the ring when the spring becomes vertical. this instant. (c) Find the maximum height reached
by the particle over the point of suspension. Take
g =10 m/s 2.
1
58. A simple pendulum of length L having a bob of mass m
is deflected from its rest position by an angle 9 and
released (figure 8E16). The string hits a peg which is
fixed at a distance x below the point of suspension and
Figure 8E13
the bob starts going in a circle centred at the peg. (a)
Assuming that initially the bob has a height less than
52. Figure (8E14) shows a light rod of length 1 rigidly the peg, show that the maximum height reached by the
attached to a small heavy block at one end and a hook bob equals its initial height. (b) If the pendulum is
at the other end. The system is released from rest with released with 9 = 90 and x=LI2 find the maximum
the rod in a horizontal position. There is a fixed smooth height reached by the bob above its lowest position
ring at a depth h below the initial position of the hook before the string becomes slack. (c) Find the minimum
and the hook gets into the ring as it reaches there. What value of x/L for which the bob goes in a complete circle
should be the minimum value of h so that the block about the peg when the pendulum is released from
moves in a complete circle about the ring ? 9 = 90.
n
n rCD
Figure 8 E14

53. The bob of a pendulum at rest is given a sharp hit to Figure 8 E16

through the particle with the vertical when it leaves the when it reaches the top. (c) Assuming that the
sphere. projectionspeed is only slightly greater than v0, where
will the block lose contact with the track ?
63. A chain of length 1 and mass m lies on the surface of a
smooth sphere of radius R >1 with one end tied to the
top of the sphere. (a) Find the gravitational potential
energy of the chain with reference level at the centre of
the sphere. (b) Suppose the chain is released and slides
down the sphere. Find the kinetic energy of the chain,
when it has slid through an angle 9. (c) Find the
Figure 8E17
tangential acceleration civtof the chain when the chain
62. Figure (8E17) shows a smooth track which consists of starts sliding down.
a straight inclined part of length 1 joining smoothly with
the circular part. A particle of mass m is projected up 64. A smooth sphere of radius R is made to translate in a
the incline from its bottom. (a) Find the minimum straight line with a constant acceleration a. A particle
projectionspeed v, for which the particle reaches the top kept on the top of the sphere is released from there at
of the track. (b) Assuming that the projectionspeed is zero velocity with respect to the sphere. Find the speed
2v0 and that the block does not lose contact with the of the particle with respect to the sphere as a function
track before reaching its top, find the force acting on it of the angle 0 it slides.
ANSWERS
38. mg//18
55. \13mg R
39. 21.1MgL/9
40.  2 J
56. cos ' ( 1/3)
41. 20 cm
42. 20 cm 57. (a) 53 (b) 3.0 m/s
43. (a) 0.5 (b) 1000 N/m 58. (b) 5L/6 above the lowest point (c) 0:6
12m
2 59. cos1(2/3)
AA 3 my