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Experiment 1: Density and composition of Solutions

Purpose

This experiment was aimed at measuring the densities of some solutions of ordinary sugar in
water by both the direct as well as Archimedean method. In addition, our goal was to identify the
composition of an unknown sugar solution graphically, after having found its density. The direct
method involved calculating the densities from definition (mass/volume).The Archimedean
method involved determining densities after submerging a solid in the solutions. As densities
were determined, they were graphed according to their composition versus density.

Theory/Principles

The direct method employs the simplest definition of density to find it. By figuring out the mass
of the liquid and dividing it by its volume, one can easily deduce its density.

Density= mass of the liquid/volume of the liquid ----(1)

The Archimedean method is based on the fact that when a solid body is immersed in a
liquid, it apparently loses weight equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. This technique uses
the fact that the density of water is 1.00g/ml. Taking the ratio of the mass of displaced liquids is
the same as calculating the ratio of how much weight the solid loses when submerged in the
liquids, with respect to air. Hence, the density of the liquid is easily obtained by multiplying this
ratio with the density of water.

% by weight of solute = --------------------------- ---(3)

Mass of solute + mass of solvent

Procedure

The first step was to calculate the % by weight of sucrose. We took three different water
solutions of sucrose. Namely, 7.5 g to be dissolved with 40.0 ml, 14.0 g to be dissolved with 36.0
ml and 30.0 g to be dissolved with 30.0 ml of water. Then equation (2) would yield us the per
cent age composition of the solution. The known density of water helped us calculate its mass.

Secondly, we used the direct method to calculate the densities of the solutions, which
involved measuring the mass of the graduated cylinder, combined mass of the graduated cylinder
and solutions, and volumes of solutions. Mass of the liquid was calculated by subtracting the
mass of the graduated cylinder from the combined mass of the graduated cylinder and solutions.
The densities of the solutions were then calculating using equation (1).

Finally, we submerged a piece of metal in the above three solutions and a solution Z
given by the instructor. By recording the mass of sinker in air, apparent mass of sinker in water
and apparent mass of sinker in all the four solutions and using them in equation (2), we were able
to calculate the densities of all four solutions by the Archimedean method. We also calculated the
density of the unknown solution by the direct method, wherein we had to record the mass of the
graduated cylinder + unknown sucrose solution, and volume of the unknown solution.

Analysis &Calculation

Solution Mass of Sucrose (g) Volume of Water (ml)

A 7.5 40.0
B 14.0 36.0
C 30.0 30.0
% by weight calculation

From the above data, we can calculate the composition of each solution using (3).

2. Direct method

Arrangement Mass (g)

Empty graduated cylinder 25.9
A + cylinder 36.46
B + cylinder 36.81
C + cylinder 37.95
Z+ cylinder 37.50

Density of solution Z = (37.50-25.9)g/10ml = 1.16g/ml

3. Archimedean Method

Arrangement Mass (g)

Mass of solid in air 17.68
Apparent mass of solid in A 15.1
Apparent mass of solid in B 14.9
Apparent mass of solid in C 14.7
Apparent mass of solid in Z 14.75
Apparent mass of solid in water 15.23

From (2), the density of A = (17.68-15.1)g /(17.68-15.23)g * 1g/ml = 1.05 g/ml

Similarly, density for B = 1.09 g/ml, density for C = 1g/ml, density for Z is 1.19g/ml.

As can be seen from the calculations, the densities of A and B came out to be exactly the same
from both the methods. The density of C and Z were slightly different.

The average of the two densities for B = 1.09g/ml

The average of the two densities for C = 1.1g/ml

The average of the two densities for Z = 1.175g/ml

From, graphical analysis, it was found that the % weight of sucrose in the unknown solution is
40.5 %.

Final Result

Solution Density (g/ml) % by weight of sucrose

A 1.05 15.7
B 1.09 28
C 1.1 50
Z 1.17 40.5

Conclusion/Discussion

By employing the direct as well as the Archimedean methods, we were able to identify the
densities of four different solutions. We also calculated the percent by weight of the four known
solutions and plotted a graph of density versus their percent composition. By inserting the
density of the unknown sucrose solution, we were able to find the per cent composition by
weight of the sucrose solution from graphical analysis. The calculated values in my results may
have been slightly deviated from true values because of the wind that was disturbing my beam
balance during measurement.