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CHAD GIFFORD SAWTOOTH

SAWTOOTH FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN

4esters
Max Edwards
Alexander Melchiore
Henry Wimberg
Alexandra Berdetta

12/10/16
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INTRODUCTION

The landowner of this management plan is Mr. Chad Gifford Sawtooth, he is a

retired executive from the lumber industry based in Washington state. Mr. Sawtooth currently

lives in New Brunswick NJ, and he has just recently purchased the property of this management

plan. The property, henceforth called Sawtooth forest, resides within the campus of Stockton

University and is comprised of 110 acres of forest and reservoir with 96.5 forested acres.

Our company, 4esters has one major objective to fulfil throughout all of the properties

that we manage. That objective is to manage all of our properties using ecological forestry, in

order to produce diverse, thriving, and sustainable forests. Ecological forestry involves

maintaining important facets of the forest including, connectivity, landscape heterogeneity, stand

structural complexity, the integrity of aquatic systems in the forest, and disturbance regimes.

Maintaining landscape connectivity is important because a landscape without fragmentation

allows wildlife to travel from habitat to habitat, increasing biodiversity. Heterogeneity in a forest

is important because it the diversity in the forest protects both flora and fauna. Diseases that

devastate a specific species can be stopped from destroying all of the species in the area by

heterogeneity in the forest separating populations from one another. Structural complexity

follows the same lines by protecting plant species from wind damage and providing habitats for

possibly rare species. Maintaining aquatic systems are important because of the innumerable

amounts of different species, including humans, that rely on clean water from streams in order to

survive. Disturbance regimes such as fire are extremely important for a forest because, for

instance, some pines have serotinous cones which need fire in order to release seeds. Also

animals like the Northern Bobwhite Quail need fire in order to maintain their grassland habitat.
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Some methods used in ecological forest management to produce forests that are

diverse and healthy include leaving large living trees and snags as well as large diameter logs on

the forest floor, allowing canopy gaps or anti-gaps, managing forest harvest residue, and to

create a multi-aged groups of trees within a stand. By leaving large healthy trees in the forest

those trees will act as seed trees, continuing a healthy genetic line as opposed to leaving smaller,

unhealthy trees. Leaving snags and large diameter logs on the forest floor will do two different

things, the snags and logs will act as a shelter and a food source for many different types of

organisms, the other major benefit will be that the logs will decompose, rejuvenating the soil

with nutrients, allowing for better plant regeneration in the future.

While ecological forestry, as shown above, provides vibrant healthy forest, the

primary concern of our company is to provide a management plan that fits what the landowner

desires.

OBJECTIVES

Mr. Sawtooth wants his forest to represent the perfect example of a forest that

maximizes wood fiber and profit. The management plan should also maintain ecological

principles and operating the forest sustainably within all federal and state regulations. The

following are the five objectives that Mr. Sawtooth has outlined.

1. To make Sawtooth Forest produce the maximum amount of forest products for profit

using ecological forestry to maintain sustained yields.

2. To meet Farmland Tax Assessment criteria of NJ.


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3. To protect against devastating wildfires.

4. To produce a sustainable maximum yield of wood fiber while meeting all T&E and

Pinelands/State regulations.

5. To protect against all forest pests and pathogens.

ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

METHODOLOGY

We as the 4esters management company went out and sampled four plots from

each of the different sections of the management area: the Atlantic White Cedar stand (4 plots),

the Coniferous Wetland stand (5 plots), Coniferous Forest stand (5 plots), and the

Coniferous/Deciduous stand (6 plots), and the Deciduous/Coniferous stand (5 plots). At each of

the four plots we used a variety of tools to assess each of the areas: we used a handheld GPS to

map out exactly where our plots were, we took tree cores out of two trees per stand using an

increment borer to safely extract the core from the tree (from dominant and or codominant trees)

to assess the site index. Once we took out the cores we used the angle gauge to see which trees

were relevant when we did out plot workup, focusing on the more sizeable trees that measured

over twenty to forty units from our standing spot in each direction. Once we determined which

trees were relevant to our plot, we took the diameter at breast height (DBH) of each of those

trees and recorded them in our plot summary. From there we used the clinometer to get an
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accurate estimate of the height of each of those trees, the crown classification (dominant,

codominant, intermediate, and suppressed), as well as a merchantable height for each of the trees

sampled. Once we got all of the information from the overstory of the plot, we looked at the

understory which looked at all vegetation under six feet essentially such as moss, seedlings, and

woody plants. All of the data collected from each of the plots went into the database NED that

we used to extrapolate all of the data and breakdown each of the plots within the stands. Once we

broke down all of the plots, we referenced the threatened and endangered species of fauna and

flora of the area collected from years past to make sure we did not add any harm to the local

T&E species or their habitats

RESULTS

Once we completed all of the work necessary to assess the plots we were able to

determine the amount of threatened and endangered species as referenced from the Marathon

T&E species survey conducted in our management area. We determined that there is a Coopers

Hawk (Accipiter Cooperii) nest located in the Atlantic Cedar stand, however with the

modifications we are looking to make within the stand, we will not be harming the nest. Besides

the Coopers hawk nest, we have no other threatened and endangered species to halt our forest

management plan.

From our own NED data that we collected we determined timber volumes and

determined the species within each plot. The Cedar Swamp was primarily made up of Atlantic

White Cedar trees which can be clear cut in certain sections to make a fair amount of profits, this

is by far the highest economic yield plot and the total board feet for this stand was found to be
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38,062 bd.ft alone in Atlantic White Cedars as referenced in Table 1. The understory includes

sphagnum, highbush blueberry, leucobryum moss, shield lichen, bulrush, and saplings of

Atlantic White Cedar, and blackgum.

The Coniferous/Deciduous stand yielded over 360,359 in net boardfeet which was mostly

comprised of pitch pine which yielded the most boardfeet out of any tree found in the plot with

over 292,201 bd.ft which made over 81% of the total boardfeet. The other 19% of the total

boardfeet was comprised of white oak, scarlet oak, southern red-oak, and sassafras is mentioned

but yielded no boardfeet, refer to Table 2. The understory includes eastern teaberry, inkberry,

roundleaf greenbriar, lowbush blueberry, staggerbush, and saplings of sassafras, southern red

oak, scarlet oak, white oak, pitch pine, and blackjack oak.

The Coniferous Forest stand was able to yield over 65,148 board feet and is dominated

mostly by pitch pine which made up over 96% of the total bd.ft (62,387 bd.ft) and Virgnia pine,

post oak, and white oak which is seen in Table 3. The understory includes black huckleberry,

roundleaf greenbriar, piedmont staggerbush, mountain laurel, sweet fern, and sapplings of red

maple, sassafras, white oak, pitch pine, bear oak, post oak, striped-princes pine, and Virginia

pine.

The Deciduous/Coniferous stand yielded over 154,272 bd.ft which was dominated mostly

by pitch pines which made up over 77% of the total boardfeet (119,457 bd.ft). The next

significant amount of boardfeet comes from the white oaks found in the area which made up over

10% of the total boardfeet (15,407 bd.ft). There were less significant contributions from black

gum, short-leaf pine, scarlet oak, and sassafras. The understory is made up of eastern teaberry,
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inkberry, lowbush blueberry, coastal sweetpepperbush, American Holly, and sapplings of

sassafras, scarlet oak, white oak, bear oak, pitch pine, blackgum, and short-leaf pine.

The Coniferous Wooded Wetlands yielded a total of 73,023 in boardfeed volume and was

mostly dominated by pitch pines, which made up a significant portion of the boardfeet in the plot

(89%) which ended being 65,046 bd.ft. There were less contributions from atlantic white cedar,

black gum, red maple, white oak, scarlet oak, and sassafras referenced in Table 5. The understory

included eastern poison ivy, wintergreen, bayberry, huckleberry, blueberry, holly, and saplings

of Atlantic White Cedar, scarlet oak, white oak, red maple, pitch pine, sassafras, and blackgum.

There was no significant timber value coming out of the Brush Dominant-Bog Wetlands

which we will replace with Atlantic White Cedars in the future of this plan.

The soil map referenced in our map section shows the breakdown the soils within our

management area showing it is ultisol dominated followed by a mix of spodosol, histisol, and

entisol.

DISCUSSION

The history of the Mr. Sawtooths new property begins with the use of fire to manage the

landscape by Native Americans prior to European settlement. When Europeans settled the land

they turned the area into a production zone for forest products until the 1970s. Stockton

University then purchased the land and in 1978, the on staff forestry expert created a

management plan that utilized multiple different methods to manage the forest (Williams, 5)

During the 1900s before the purchase of the property by Stockton University, fire on the

property was prevented along with any other disturbance regimes that could damage the forest.

This was due to the dominant philosophy of forestry at the time, which as preservation. Instead
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of allowing forests to go threw disturbances like fires, the objective of the preservationists was to

keep the forest untouched and to prevent the death of as many trees as possible. While this

sentiment is theoretically good in nature, practically speaking preservation as a management

philosophy hurts the forest by not allowing trees to use adaptions that they have developed for.

Examples of this on the properties are pitch pines, which need fire in order to thrive, because

invading hardwoods that would normally over take pine populations cannot grow in areas with

fire short term fire regimes. Due to these previous practices the property has stands of forest that

have been invaded by hardwoods like oaks, and all of the stands are even-aged and dense in

trees. These factors lead to a very high risk of catastrophic fires as well as pests such as southern

pine beetle.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the forest property is in an unhealthy state due to multiple reasons.

The first is that due to historical usage of the area, the forest has become a dense, even-aged

forest that is susceptible to catastrophic fires, pests, pathogens, and diseases. Our forest

management plan intends to fix these issues while following the objectives that Mr. Sawtooth

has set out for us.

MANAGEMENT/STEWARDSHIP PLAN

OVERALL LANDSCAPE PLAN

When landscape plans are needed they are used for large tracts of land in order to address

human made discrepancies that prevent various fauna from being able to travel from habitat to
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habitat. This fragmentation can be caused by highways or large stretches of farmland that

separate forests from one another. Landscape plans help alleviate these issues by creating

corridors between forests and building wildlife bridges over highways. For Sawtooth forest, there

is simply not enough land to need a landscape plan. The closest our company can get to a

landscape plan is to ensure that the forest that we are managing is not susceptible to pests,

pathogens, diseases, and catastrophic wildfires. This will be outlined in the silvicultural

prescriptions by stand and the contingency plans.

Silvicultural Prescriptions by Stand

Atlantic White Cedar

This stand is currently in good overall health, and little needs to be done to improve or

maintain its current condition. Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) is a high value

timber species, and as such we will seek to maximize our utilization of this stand by several

means. Thinning an acre of the atlantic white cedar stand once every two years starting the

second year will have the dual benefit of bringing in early revenue, while freeing up above and

below ground resources for regeneration, and to allow the best trees to continue growing. We

will also clear-cut one acre of Atlantic white cedar in the southern portion of the stand. While it

has been well documented that Atlantic White Cedar responds well to being clearcut

(Zimmermann & Mylecraine, 2000), this will serve as a test plot which will allow us to see,

without too much risk, how effective this method is in regenerating our particular stand. A deer

fence may need to be constructed around the clear-cut to prevent over browse. We will monitor
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the effects of deer for at least one year before deciding whether or not to build the fence. We

may also need to implement herbicide treatment to prevent other species out competing the

Atlantic White cedar, as mechanical cutting of hardwood and woody shrub sprouts is not only

expensive, but largely ineffective. In this event, we will apply Arsenal herbicide with backpack

sprayers. This herbicide is approved for wetlands use and has been shown to be effective at

controlling competing hardwood species such as red maple (Zimmermann & Mylecraine, 2000).

Over the next 20 years our plans include thinning of the clearcut area for poles, and a

second thinning of the rest of the stand. We may also decide to clearcut more of the stand

depending on the success of our test plot. Our goal is to expand this stand into the surrounding

coniferous wooded wetlands, though little needs to be done to this stand to facilitate that goal.

Coniferous Wooded Wetlands

In its current state, this stand is doing little for us both economically and

ecologically. We have decided the best way to make use of this land is by converting it to

Atlantic white cedar. This makes sense economically, as even though we are currently in a

repressed market Atlantic white cedar is a high value timber species. As a globally threatened

species, it is also of ecological value to propagate Atlantic White cedar and create a habitat that

is increasingly rare. Converting to a cedar stand should be made easier by the fact that this stand

currently surrounds a healthy Atlantic white cedar stand, which should supply seeds and prevent

inter-species competition from that side. The area is mostly comprised of histisols with a small

area of spodisol, both of which are good soils for the cedars to grow in. We will convert the
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stand by clearcutting everything in year one, except the Atlantic white cedars currently present,

and planting Atlantic white cedar sprouts. The current density of Atlantic white cedar in this

stand is low enough that we should be able to benefit from them as seed trees, while not having

to worry about them taking up too many resources, though we will have to watch them to be sure

they are able to withstand the wind. We will wait to see if a deer fence and/or arsenal herbicide

treatments are necessary to prevent over browse and competition from other plant species.

Our 30 year plan includes at least one thinning of this stand for poles around year 20. We

will also harvest the seed trees about 25 years into the plan if they stand up to the wind. We

will harvest this stand around year 70.

Deciduous/Coniferous

This stand is broken up into two areas of roughly 8 acres each. Currently composed of

mostly oaks, with some pitch pine, sassafras, black gum, and a few other species, it is not

currently of great value due to both the species composition and condition of the trees. We intend

to clearcut the southern portion of the stand and plant the very valuable timber species black

walnut (Juglans nigra). This area is strictly an entisol, a soil perfect for growing black walnut.

After clearing the trees we will clear the understory in strips, where we will plant seedlings in a

10 by 10 grid, resulting in a density of 436 trees per acre. We will have to mow and/or

herbicide during the first 3-5 years to prevent competition, and will monitor the trees early

growth to determine if fertilization is worthwhile. Lateral pruning of branches will also be

performed to reduce knots and produce a higher quality lumber. This will be done in the dormant
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season beginning when the trees are 10 tall. Branches will be pruned when less than 2 diameter

until 17 of bole are limb-free.

The density of trees between planting and final harvest will be reduced by a series of five

thinnings from 436 to 23 trees per acre (see table 8). The goal of these thinnings is to maximize

growth of all potential crop trees for as long as possible while selecting the best trees for final

harvest, and to grow the trees which will be removed to a size and quality which can be sold to

bring in reasonable intermediate returns (Silviculture Handbook). We will also be able to harvest

nuts about 20 years after planting. Final harvest will be around 80 years after planting.

The northern portion of the stand will be clear cut and clear of stumps and rocks in order

to plant scotch pine seedlings. This area is mostly comprised of entisols with a small area of

ultisols, which is conducive to growing pines. Over a period of 8 years one acre a year of scotch

pine seedlings, which is 1200 seedlings per acre, will be planted, so that, there will always be a

mature acre of christmas trees to sell each year. The 8 acres will will be mowed for 26 weeks

during the time in which grasses and other plants grow. Herbicides will also be used to prevent

the growth of competing plants. The scotch pines will be pruned every spring starting in year 3

and until the trees are ready to be sold. After 8 years of growth the scotch pines will be sold to

consumers with any remaining trees being sold off to landscapers.

Coniferous/Deciduous Forest

This is the largest stand in our forest, and will require the most hands on

management. The site is currently composed primarily of pitch pine, with some short leaf pine,
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oaks, and a few other hardwoods. We hope to maximize the economic output of this stand while

retaining characteristics of the surrounding pinelands by creating a two aged stand predominantly

composed of shortleaf pine. To accomplish this, we will clearcut about 30 acres of the stand,

leaving behind any shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) present to act as seed trees. We will then plant

shortleaf pine seedlings in the spring, as the current density of shortleaf pine in this stand is not

sufficient to regenerate the stand alone.

The 6 acres of this stand not being cut will be used as a buffer between the clearcut and

wetlands to the east, and along the property boundary to the west. We will start burning in the

first or second year, as shortleaf pine forms a basal crook below the surface at about 2-3 months

of age, which can re-sprout in the event of a severe fire (Silvics Manual, USFS). We will

continue to burn every 3-5 years for the entire rotation in order to keep pests, hardwood

competition, and catastrophic fires at bay. We will thin the stand around 20 years into the plan,

followed by a final harvest at age 40-50.

Coniferous Forest

This pine dominated stand will be managed a bit differently than most of our other land,

in that economic return will not be the driving force behind management decisions. Instead, we

would like to implement more ecological management practices in line with the Stoddard-Neel

approach to forestry. What we hope to create is a diverse, multi aged forest which can show the

potential of a pine dominated forest in the pinelands.


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The Stoddard-Neel approach emphasizes mimicking natural disturbance as closely as

possible. The two primary ways we will do this is by selective harvesting techniques and

frequent controlled burning. We will harvest about every 10 years, marking trees conservatively

with the exception of the first since the stand is currently overstocked. When marking trees we

will seek to maintain older trees and shortleaf pine, preferentially harvesting defective trees.

Burns will occur every 1-3 years, or as often as fuel loads allow. This should keep pests

and hardwoods from encroaching, and thin the stand in a natural, almost random way. The

understory will also change dramatically from this frequent fire, changing from shrub dominated

to a grassy savannah.

Brush-dominated and bog-wetlands

Like the coniferous wooded wetlands the bog is being converted into a homogeneous

atlantic white cedar stand. This will be done by clear cutting the 4 acres of wetlands and then

planting them with atlantic white cedar seedlings, 1000 seedlings per acre. Herbicide will be

used to reduce competition for the atlantic white cedar saplings. The stand will also be monitored

for deer activity and if need be, deer fences will be erected to protect the saplings. After 20 years

the stand will be thinned for poles and the final harvest of the stand will occur in year 70 of the

plan.
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TIMETABLE

Stand Acres Action Year of Action

Cedar swamp 8.06 -One acre clear cut -1

-Thin one acre -2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12

-Thin clearcut area -20

Coniferous Wooded 26.7 -Clearcut 26.7 acres (leave -1


Wetlands AWC)
-1
-Plant AWC seedlings
-Ongoing for 2 years
-Monitor effects of deer browse
-Ongoing for 5 years
-Monitor herbaceous competition
-20
-Thin stand
-15
-Harvest seed trees
-70
Final Harvest

Coniferous/Deciduous 36.01 -Clearcut (leave shortleaf pine) -1

-Plant shortleaf pine -1

-Burn -Ongoing (every 3-5


years

-Thin -20
15

Final Harvest -50

Coniferous 9.52 -Thin (single tree selection) -Ongoing (every 10


years)
-Burn
-Ongoing (every 1-3
years)

Deciduous/Coniferous 8 -Clearcut 16.66 acres -1


(black walnut
plantation) -Mow -Ongoing

-Herbicide -Ongoing (every 3-5


years)

-Lateral Pruning -Ongoing (~ year 5 to


20)

-Thin - 5 thinnings between


years 6 and 60

Final harvest -80

Deciduous/Coniferous 8 -Clearcut -1
(Christmas tree farm)
-Plant 1 acre of scotch pine -once a year for first 8
years

-Mow -Ongoing (26 weeks


out of the year)

-Herbicide -Ongoing

-Prune -age 3 until harvest

-Harvest -Age 8-11 years


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Brush-Dominant and 4.2 -Clearcut 26.7 acres (leave -1


Bog Wetlands AWC)
-1
-Plant AWC seedlings
-Ongoing for 2 years
-Monitor effects of deer browse
-Ongoing for 5 years
-Monitor herbaceous competition
-20
-Thin stand
-70
-Final Harvest

ECONOMICS

As Mr. Sawtooth outlines in his objectives in the forest management plan, Mr.

Sawtooth wants Sawtooth forest to meet the Farmland Tax Assessment (FTA) for New Jersey.

The requirements to meet the FTA are to produce a gross income of $500 base with an additional

$0.50 for every additional acre yearly, or show that the property is will produce that amount of

money.. For Sawtooth forest, this means that $545.75 gross income must be produced annually.

Since this is a forest management plan we are growing trees, not something like cabbages, which

have a rotation cycle of 1 year, we have to use the existing forest to meet the farmland tax

assessment until our silvicultural plan produces wood products. In order to accomplish this we

will first cut one acre of Atlantic White Cedar to produce a gross profit of $2000, which will

cover year one and two. After that one acre of the stand will be thinned producing a gross profit

of $1100 every two years for the next 14 years. By doing this the farmland tax assessment will

be covered until the 16th year of the plan at which time the profit of the Coniferous/Deciduous,

which will be $572160.23 (present value) which will cover the farmland tax assessment for years
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ahead. (Farmland Assessment Overview, 1). All of the following financial reports have been

brought back to present monetary values.

The financials for the first ten years of the Atlantic White Cedar Stand are as

follows: the first year a clear cut of one acre will cost $1500 to perform and will yield $2000.

That acre will then possible need herbicide over the first five years, which if that is the case will

cost $234.18. The 5 acres of atlantic white cedar will be cut individually every 2 years as stated

in the FTA portion, this will cost $663.10 and the gross income will be $3445.15 (Zimmermann,

1).

The costs of the incomes and costs of the coniferous wooded wetlands will be as follows:

the initial clear cut of the 26.5 acres will cost $39750, the planting of atlantic white cedar will

cost $13250, and the 5 years of herbicide treatments will cost $6205.82 (Zimmermann, 1). The

gross profit gained from clearcutting the stand will amount to $211.

The financials for the first ten years of the coniferous/deciduous forest are as follows:

The initial clearcut of the 16 acres will cost $24000 and the additional site preparation will cost

$3200. The planting of the 8 acres of scotch pine will cost $4634.80 over 8 years while the

planting of the black walnut seedlings will cost $62784 (SCFC, 1)(Zimmermann, 1). Mowing the

8 acres for the first ten years will cost $113877.10 while the mowing of the 8 acres of black

walnut for 5 years will cost $54122.02. Herbicide of the 8 acres of christmas tree farm for the

first ten years will cost $3491.90 while the herbicide treatment for the first five years of the 8

acre black walnut will cost $1873.45. The total cost of pruning the christmas trees for years 3

through 10 will cost $1638.63 (Johnson et al 1).


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The financials of the incomes and costs of the deciduous/coniferous forest will be as

follows: the initial clear cut of the 30 acres will cost $45000, the planting cost of shortleaf pine is

$4860, The gross profit of the 30 acre clear cut will amount to $903.24 (Zimmermann, 1).

The financials for the first ten years of the coniferous forest starts with an initial thinning

of all nine acres costing $1350 and will produce $104.20 in gross income. $422.46 will be spent

on 5 burns over the ten year period (Zimmermann, 1).

The financials of the incomes and costs of the brush-dominated and bog-wetlands will be

as follows: the initial clear cut will cost $6000 for the 4 acres and planting that area will cost

$2000. The clear cut will give $77 in gross income. Herbicide will cost $936 for the first five

years (Zimmermann, 1).

Misc costs include creating roads and firebreaks and total $771.90 and the taxes will cost

$40462 for the first ten years. Overall by year 10 there will be a net loss of $295264.64, as

shown by Table 6, but this will be recovered by the profits from the christmas tree farm as well

as the shortleaf pine forest. By the end of the rotation, as shown in Table 7, the present value of

the propertys net profits will be approximately $2407940.35. That value is far in the future so

they might not be accurate, but if anything the profit would increase since the price of atlantic

white cedar is so depressed and should only increase (USDA, 1).

CONTINGENCY PLANS

There are many threats to a forest that may boil down to four categories: insects, disease,

wildfire, and invasive plants. Seeing that we are only focused on issues that may occur in the

pine barrens of New Jersey, our main threats include hemlock woody aeglid and bacterial leaf

scorch for pathogens and southern pine beetle and gypsy moths for pests. In our plots there are
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no ash trees for pests such as the emerald ash borer to affect but we still have contingency plans

for the pests that have been spotted nearby.

DISEASE

Bacterial leaf scorch is a bacteria that obstructs the xylem and is spread by insects

primarily. You can tell if a tree is infected due to a halo between the green and brown leaf

tissue in August when the leaves begin to change. Not all trees infected with bacterial leaf scorch

exhibit symptoms so it is particularly difficult to stay on top of. This is a statewide problem so

we want to monitor this closely. Granted that this impacts primarily oak species, which we will

primarily be clearcutting when we cut the thirty acres of deciduous/coniferous forests. This still

has the potential to affect other trees, not just oak, so we want to closely monitor a potential

outbreak (Yoo 2016).

PATHOGENS

The southern pine beetle is a primary threat to our forest management area. The problem

with this pest is that it is native to the general area and it has expanded its range into the state (it

was discovered to reach New Jersey in 2001). The way to identify this pest is through pitch tubes

indicate the initial attack, exit holes in the bark indicate that there have been adults that have left

to attack other trees, larval s-shaped galleries from constant burrowing and feasting, and finally

there are clear indicators that the tree itself has reached mortality. Southern pine beetle has only

had a huge effect in areas where the trees are overpopulated and too close together. It has been

detected in the surrounding forests outside of our plot (Fettig et. al 2007).

Right now there is no indication that there is a pine beetle infestation here but that is a

high possibility in the near future. Since this problem is a little too close for comfort, we are
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setting a contingency plan in place to make sure that these infestations stay out of the area. The

primary way to combat this threat is through tree removal, pesticides, and modification of the

forest itself (Fettig et. al 2007). The thins and the clear cuts we are doing in the

coniferous/deciduous plots should suffice to keep the populations of individuals down as well as

individual tree removal of infected trees. Beetle trapping is another effective strategy that aids in

early detection using a concoction of glycol and antifreeze. Once the shortleaf pines are planted,

constant monitoring will be a key management strategy as well as making sure the trees are

planted an acceptable length apart (Yoo 2016).

White-tailed deer are a major pest in the forest management area as they are

overpopulated and present a threat to tree-regrowth.Since hunting of this population has been

discouraged from the area, the best way to combat this problem is through the use of deer fences

around our sensitive regrowth areas such as the Atlantic White Cedar stand after five years.

WILDFIRE

Wildfire is another potential hazard that can plague our management area. In order to

combat this potential problem, it is important to have controlled burns within the coniferous

coniferous/deciduous parts of the management are to rid the area of leaf litter that could add to a

wildfire outbreak as explained previously.

INVASIVE SPECIES

Gypsy moths are another forest pest that has the potential to reach our management area.

The gypsy moth was introduced to Massachusetts in the 1880s as a silk producer but it turns out

that it was able to thrive and escape. It has been found in multiple states, including New Jersey in
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1980. In addition to this, it feeds on many of the trees in our plot and with its sheer numbers,it

has the potential to defoliate many trees.

Much like the southern pine beetle, it has not been detected in our management area but

we are prepared to combat the problem if it ever arises. The primary monitoring options are egg

mass surveys to determine a suppression option. The primary way to take care of the gypsy moth

populations in mass are aerial sprays of pesticides to extinguish the larvae in the area. This has

been shown to be effective in other parts of the state with gypsy moth issues and we would likely

utilize that management plan here if needed. Granted there are other methods such as biological

controls (releasing carpenter ants, mice, ground beetles which are already found in this area) that

can be utilized but seeing as that there are already the biological controls in this area we do not

need to release anymore (Yoo 2016).

There are other threats to our area such as winter moths, spotted lantern flies, oak wilt,

etc. but have not yet been found within New Jersey, much less our management area, Constant

monitoring will be needed to detect these potential problems early as well as the utilization of

biological controls and pesticides.

FINAL CONCLUSIONS

In conclusion, after a full cycle of the forest, there will be a $2,412,553.67 profit. This

will be done by encouraging the growth of the short pine in the area, as well as starting a Black

Walnut tree and Christmas tree (Scotch Pine) plantation. Thinnings of the Atlantic White Cedar

stands will also help produce profit in the early years of the cycle. Constant growth
22

encouragement and area spread of the Atlantic White Cedars will also produce an investment in

the future.

There are many threats to this potential source of income, one of which is pests. We have

a contingency plan in case infestation occurs. Prescribed burns in certain areas as well as the

thinning of the overcrowded forest will assist in preventing infestations. Bacterial leaf scorch

wont be a concern in our forest because of its primary target of the oak; this forest will have

most if not all oaks clear cut from the area. The southern pine beetle and gypsy moths are very

hard to prevent, so constant monitoring as well as ongoing plans for irradiation will be upheld,

including total clearcuts of infected areas and aerial pesticide spray. Another issue is wildfire

will be prevented through prescribed burns in the coniferous and coniferous/deciduous stands

which will reduce litter in problem areas.

Overall, this plan meets all required marks provided to our forest management group

from Mr Sawtooth with minimal effort on his part. This plan will make him over protect from

wildfires, pests, and pathogens, while protecting T&E species and meeting regulations regarding

these species. It will also produce a sustainable maximum yield of wood fiber, as well as meet

the Farmland Tax Assessment criteria of NJ. Most importantly, this plan will produce the

maximum amount of forest products for profit using ecological forestry to maintain sustainable

yields, making Mr. Sawtooth $2 million in ###### years.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Bob Williams

Rosa Yoo
23

Dr. Zimmermann

Tim McWilliams

LITERATURE CITED

Fettig, C. J., Klepzig, K. D., Billings, R. F., Munson, A. S., Nebeker, T. E., Negrn, J. F.,

& Nowak, J. T. (2007). The effectiveness of vegetation management practices for prevention and

control of bark beetle infestations in coniferous forests of the western and southern United

States. Forest Ecology and Management, 238(1), 24-53.

Johnson JE, Pease JW, Johnson L, Hopper GM. (2009). Tree Crops For Marginal

Farmland -- Christmas Trees. Virginia Cooperative Extension. Retrieved from:

https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/446/446-605/446-605.html

McIntyre R., Jack S., Mitchell R., Hiers J., & Neel, W. L. (n.d.). Multiple Value

Management: The Stoddard-Neel Approach to Ecological Forestry In Longleaf Pine Grasslands.

Joseph A Jones Ecological Research Center.

Missouri Department of Conservation, Forestry Division. (2013). MISSOURI TIMBER

PRICE TRENDS. Retrieved from: https://mdc.mo.gov/sites/default/files/resources/2013/

10/tptjulysept13.pdf

Silvics Manual Volume I: Conifers. (n.d.). Retrieved from

https://blackboard.stockton.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-998971-dt-content-rid-3572365_1/courses/XLS
24

08201680/silvics manual conifers.pdf

Silviculture handbook. (n.d.). State of Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

https://blackboard.stockton.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-998968-dt-content-rid-3572362_1/cours

es/XLS08201680/WISCONSIN%20SILVICULTURE%20HANDBOOK.pdf

South Carolina Forestry Commission. (2016). Price Guide For Tree Seedlings,

Equipment, and Services. Available from:https://www.state.sc.us/forest/refprice.htm

USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service North Carolina. Practice: 394 -

Firebreak. (2013). Retrieved from: https://efotg.sc.egov.usda.gov/references/public/nc/

costsenarios_394-fi rebreak.pdf

Yoo, Rosa. (2016). Forest Pests and Pathogens. Retrieved from Lecture notes:

https://blackboard.stockton.edu/webapps/blackboard/execute/content/file?cmd=view&content_id

=_1051293ip

Zimmermann, G. L., & Mylecraine, K. A. (2000). Atlantic White Cedar: Ecology and

Best Management Practices Handbook. Retrieved from

https://blackboard.stockton.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-999304-dt-content-rid-3572686_1/courses/XLS

08201680/AWC BMP Mylecraine Zimmermann.pdf


25

Zimmermann, G. (2016) Some numbers that might help you (2016 update). Retrieved

from:https://blackboard.stockton.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-1059272-dt-content-rid-3893615_1/course

s/XLS08201680/Some%20realistic%20finance%20numbers%20that%20might%20help%20you

%202016.pdf

Zimmermann, G. (2016). ECOLOGICAL FORESTRY MANAGEMENT INTRO.

Powerpoint. Retrieved

from:https://blackboard.stockton.edu/webapps/blackboard/execute/content/file?cmd=view&cont

ent_id=_998993_1&course_id=_52329_1

(2015). Farmland Assessment Overview. New Jersey Department of Agriculture.

Retrieved from:http://www.nj.gov/agriculture/divisions/anr/pdf/farmlandassessmentoverview.pdf

APPENDICES

Table 1. Atlantic White Cedar Stand overstory total volumes

Species Net Net Net Cubic

Board-foot Volume Total Pulpwood Volume Total Volume (cu.ft)

(bd.ft) (cu.ft)

Atlantic white cedar 38,062 100 12,736 100 17,644

(Chamaecyparis

thyoides)

blackgum 0 0 0 0 0

(Nyssa sylvatica)
26

Total 38,062 100 12,736 100 17,644

Table 2. Coniferous Wooded Wetlands Stand overstory total volumes

Species Net Net Net Cubic

Board-foot Volume Total Pulpwood Volume Total Volume (cu.ft)

(bd.ft) (cu.ft)

pitch pine 292,201 81 0 0 41,997

(Pinus rigida)

white oak 35,713 10 0 0 6,920

(Quercus

alba)

scarlet oak 28,105 8 0 0 4,613


27

(Quercus

coccinea)

southern red 4,340 1 0 0 769

oak

(Quercus

falcata)

sassafras 0 0 0 0 556

(Sassafras

albidum)

Total 360,359 100 0 0 54,855

Table 3. Coniferous Stand overstory total volume

Species Net Net Pulpwood Net Cubic

Board-foot Volume Total Volume (cu.ft) Total Volume (cu.ft)

(bd.ft)

pitch pine 62,387 96 4,919 67 13,125

(Pinus

rigida)

white oak 2,761 4 972 13 1,357

(Quercus

alba)
28

Virginia 0 0 781 11 781

pine

(Pinus

virginiana)

post oak 0 0 627 9 627

(Quercus

stellata)

Total 65,148 100 7,300 100 15,891

Table 4. Deciduous/Coniferous Stand overstory total volume

Species Net Net Net Cubic

Board-foot Volume Total Pulpwood Volume Total Volume (cu.ft)

(bd.ft) (cu.ft)

pitch pine 119,457 77 4,940 36 20,182

(Pinus

rigida)

white oak 15,407 10 2,972 22 6,328


29

(Quercus

alba)

scarlet 10,984 7 141 1 1,891

oak

(Quercus

coccinea)

blackgum 4,602 3 3,615 26 4,601

(Nyssa

sylvatica)

shortleaf 3,823 2 239 2 714

pine

(Pinus

echinata)

sassafras 0 0 1,783 13 1,783

(Sassafras

albidum)

Total 154,272 100 13,690 100 35,501

Table 5. Coniferous/Deciduous Stand overstory total volume

Species Net Net Net Cubic

Board-foot Volume Total Pulpwood Volume Total Volume (cu.ft)

(bd.ft) (cu.ft)
30

pitch pine 65,046 89 6,323 64 14,945

(Pinus

rigida)

Atlantic 4,837 7 242 2 859

white cedar

(Chamaecyp

aris thyoides)

red maple 1,599 2 209 2 437

(Acer

rubrum)

blackgum 1,541 2 2,079 21 2,300

(Nyssa

sylvatica)

white oak 0 0 734 7 734

(Quercus

alba)

scarlet oak 0 0 361 4 361

(Quercus

coccinea)

sassafras 0 0 0 0 0

(Sassafras)

Total 73,023 100 9,948 100 19,636


31

Table 6: Present value of first 10 years expenses and income

Expenses (10

Stand years) Income (10 years) Net Profit

Dec/Con 290189.45 155770.71 -134418.74

Con/Dec 59205 903.24 -589949

AWC 2043.97 3945.15 1901.18

Coniferous 1772.46 104.2 -1668.26

Con WW 54592.5 211 -54381.5

B-D and

BW 8936.73 77 -8859.73

Misc 771.9 -771.9

Taxes 40462 -40462

Total -295264.64

Table 7: Present value one 80 year rotation incomes and expenses.

Income (80

Stand Expenses (80 years) years) Net Profit

Dec/Con 944348.53 2167194.66 1222846.13

Con/Dec 75176 1393085.03 1317909.03

AWC 4595 11402 6807


32

Coniferous 6769.3 921.99 -5847.31

Con WW 69640.26 33128.66 -36511.6

B-D and BW 0 0 0

Misc 771.9 -771.9

Taxes 91877.68 -91877.68

Total 2412553.67

Table 8: Schedule for black walnut thinning (Silviculture Handbook)


33

MAPS

Basic property outline:


34

The initial forest stands:


35

Soils:
36

Streams (body of water flowing through the property is a tributary to Morses Mill
Stream):
37

T&E species location:


38

Fire set up:


39

Burns:
40

Clear Cuts
41

Thins
42

Final forest appearance


43

Land prior to Stockton campus: