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10.1. Background of the study
Citrus fruits are native to southeastern Asia and are among the oldest fruit crops
domesticated by humans. Citrus widely grows in all suitable subtropical and tropical
climates and consumed worldwide. The most important of the citrus fruits commonly
eaten include sweet oranges, mandarins, lemons, limes, grapefruits, and pummelos. These
are eaten fresh, juiced, and in processed products. Citrus fruits have well documented
nutritional and health benefits as well as industrial uses. Their beauty and utility were
well described by george gallesio in 1811
Citrus fruits constitute several species of the genus citrus of the sub family aurantiodeae
of the plant family rutaceae. Citrus fruits, including important crops like oranges, lemons,
grapefruit, pomelo and limes .
The common oranges as well as the grapefruits are hybrids between the mandarin and
the pumelo. Mandarin orange is a true species; it is one of the progenitors of most
cultivated citrus, Trifoliate orange belongs to the genus poncirus, according to ( swingle
1917). Historical geographical and environmental aspects of citrus production explained
by bonovia (1890) in his study in the cultivated orange and lemons analyzed the
historical derivation of the names of orange and other cultivated citrus crops and he
explained the geo-physical environment required for orange and other citrus crops and
uses of citrus crops. He also analyzed orange and lemon trade of India during period of
1880-1885.once planted, it is usually about two to three years before the tree begins to
produce fruit. Full production is usually achieved at about ten years of age under
appropriate conditions; citrus trees may live a long and productive life and achieve a fair
ly tall height.
This was common in many older citrus-producing areas. Since about the 1970s, citrus
production has become more cyclical, like that of other tree crops, and the life of an
orchard may be no more than twenty to thirty years.
Sati (2004) in the book horticultural development in hills pointed out that orchards
help in maintaining ecological balance by checking soil erosion, maintaining soil

moisture and better utilization of cultivable wasteland. Another major advantage pointed
out in the article is that the orange plants remain productive for 50 years or more. In the
context, orange plants are compared to tea plants during the last four or five years a
tendency is seen to transfer orange orchards to tea gardens. In tinsukia district itself,
about six hundred hectare out of 1448hectare of orange cultivated land is transferred to
small tea gardens. The article also enumerates that profitability of orange production is
higher than that of tea production per unit of land. In spite of being a convenient
horticultural crop, growers lost their interest, as observed in the article, due to different
diseases and the lack of a regulated market.
The horticultural industry makes considerable contribution to Tanzania economy in terms
of income to farmers and traders, new job creation opportunities, quality of diet and the
nutrition of the population (MAFS, 2002).
Citrus can be grown from seed; however, there are some disadvantages. In some cases,
seedlings are not true-to-type with the mother tree; due to juvenility factors, seedling
trees do not usually bear fruit until they are nearly a decade old; and they are vulnerable
to unfavorable soil conditions, diseases, and so forth. For these reasons, most citrus
produced throughout the world utilizes budded (grafted) trees. A budded tree consists of
two parts: the scion, which is the fruit variety, and the rootstock, which supports the scion
in the soil environment. Rootstocks are chosen based on a number of factors, including
compatibility with the scion, resistance to diseases and pests, adaptation to soil
conditions, effect on fruit quality. Citrus rootstocks can be grown from seed, since the
commonly used rootstocks are apomictic (and hence true-to-type), and there are no
confirmed seed-transmitted systemic diseases of citrus. Production from seed is easier
than from cuttings, the common method of production for rootstocks for most other tree
The rootstock is usually of an appropriate size for budding about nine months to a year
after germination, when it is about the diameter of a wood pencil.
The scion variety is budded onto the rootstock by making an incision into the bark of the
rootstock, inserting a bud removed from the scion variety, and wrapping it with tape. A
callus should form between the rootstock and scion tissues in two to four weeks. With

appropriate training, the young tree is ready for planting in the field in about another year.
(Wikipedia web2017)
Citrus is produced in slightly different ways in different areas. Commercial production is
more uniform throughout the world than is local or personal production, but there are
some differences here as well. Many of the differences are in the nature of farming inputs
rather than the production of trees. For instance, fertilization and irrigation are necessary
in most areas. However, a more industrialized producer in an exporting country may
utilize drip irrigation with inorganic fertilizers injected through the drip system, while a
producer for the local market in a poor country or area may use manure and flood
irrigation. The citrus orange is a crop of economic importance and a valuable source of
vitamin C. It can be made into juices, concentrates, marmalade, jams.
Crop farming is currently the second most important economic activity in the in
Somaliland, after livestock, with up to 20-25% of the population depending on it for their
The production system is predominantly subsistence in nature. The principal crops are
sorghum and maize grown for household level consumption, and fruit and vegetables
farming, mainly for sale. Dominant horticultural crops include tomatoes, lettuce, onions,
peppers, cabbages, oranges, lemons, and papaya.Rain-fed farming accounts for 90% of
the total area cultivated, while the area under irrigation constitutes only 10%. The sector
is dominated by smallholder farmers who tend small farms ranging from 2 to 30 hectares
in area. The size of the average farm is just about 4 hectares. In history, dry land
horticulture. Cultivation especially citrus production mainly oranges was initiated in
Gedeeble village which is one the villages currently under Darasalam district by British
armys based in village at 1950. Later decade growing horticulture extended in village
and other neighbored villages as well as the other regions in Somaliland. Particularly M-
jeeh and Gabiley.
Citrus fruits are one of the main horticultural commodities produced in Somaliland
particularly areas around valley where supplementary irrigation available as source of
water from shallow well. The agriculture sector also provides employment and income to
people involved in the farm produce marketing chain at both wholesale and retail levels.

There are great investments opportunities to commercialize the crop farming sector, and
this will lead to significant increase in income to traders and producers.
in Somaliland specially in M-jeeh region , demand of citrus ranks from home
consumption as part of daily dish of farmers household up to marketing areas in local
towns, such restaurants, beverage dealers, hotels and urban dwellers householders,
medical and nutritional aspects. Intensity of this demand create trade opportunities for
farmer of neighbor countries.


Despite the low and erratic rainfall experienced on drylands, rain-fed subsistence food
production, typically mixed crop and/or livestock farming on smallholdings, remains a
predominant livelihood activity for the majority of people living in these areas.(USIAD
March 2014) .
Crop agriculture is currently an underdeveloped and offers considerable potential, both in
cereal and in horticultural production, poor farming practices, poor post-harvest
management skills, which results in relatively low production, affect most of the citrus
producer farmers particularly the smallholder farmers. rainfall variability often results
cyclic drought causing citrus production failure, the other constraints includes absences
of micro finance support for inputs post harvesting and Transportation facilities in
addition to that there is limitation of understanding causes and consequence of pre
harvesting constraints from seedling management under nursery site, transplanting, land
preparation vegetative propagation and husbandry practices and pest and diseases.


This research paper discusses opportunities and challenges of the small-scale Citrus
production at Darasalam District. Although small-scale farmers of this district grows
various crops includes sessional, annual, biennials and perennials dry horticulture and
cereal crops of various varieties. Citrus is mature crops grown in Darasalam,. Vegetable
and fruit was ranked as first livelihood source of communities in Beenyo liiban and
Hore haadley under Darasalam district ( Dr. Aden 2014 impact of climate on agricultural
production report .) Therefore, we are dedicate our research thesis for writing

opportunities and challenges of citrus production grown this district. The general
objective of study is to find out the opportunities and challenges of preharvesting and
post harvesting of citrus production in Darasam areas.


Typical challenges stand against smallholder farmers at this district area. However,
challenges and opportunities is differ from place to the other place concerning citrus
production either small scale or wider commercial ones, due to cause or origin of
challenges. Because of the geo-location, agro-ecology, inputs like seeds, machineries
knowledge and technological initiatives and innovation availability. However, specific
objectives are as following.
I. To know causes and consequence factors of challenges of citrus in pre- and post- harvesting
citrus production in darasalam
II. To find out key core challenges against opportunities for citrus orange in Darasalam for
example as poor practices,
III. To assess climatic, soil, water, requirements of the citrus production and compare with climatic
condition of Darasalam area with aim of finding out climatic constraints against citrus


What are factors effecting pre and post harvesting citrus production in Darasalam?
What opportunities and constraints exist or What are the opportunities for improving citrus
production in Darasalam ?
Why farmers remain adoption of the poor farming practices of citrus production,
Is Agro cooperative crop marketing absenteeism prerequisite factor for citrus production


The significance of the research is that findings of this study could

demonstrate opportunities and pre- and post- harvesting challenges of

citrus production. As the vital role of rain fed small scale on producing
the circus fruit in Darasalam district as an opportunity, while this
emphasis how opportunities and challenges can be mitigated for the
circus fruit production improvement as source of livelihood. These
findings will help different stakeholders in citrus production sector such as producer from
farm level up to actors in value chain, the extension agents, policy makers and
researchers and this research may serve as knowledge for improvement of practices of the
citrus production as whole of Somaliland.


Limitation of this thesis study are numerous factors and includes as followings

I. Secondary data on climatic, edaphic factors farming practices is quite limited not enough
available for analysing of opportunities and challenges of citrus , since identification accurate
opportunity horticulture production is determinated through assessing plant requirement with
climatic condition, topography , edaphic factors of areas has in addition to affordability and
availability of horticultural development technology and socioeconomic of the country
II. time and cost for transport, internet reference documents is also an other limitation
III. Language of interview questions for farmers is constraint against the accordance data, as being,
writing second typical thesis may also bring shortcomings of experience however, supervisor
adversity support service can be healed this constraint
10.8. Frame work / Scope of the study

Scope this research study is focuses the opportunities and challenges of citrus production
in darasalaam through assessing climatic condition, edaphic factors, farmer knowledge
with citrus orange requirement. Furthermore, research also may evolve assessment for
value chain within the context of citrus production particularly constrains on technical
information (access to agro-cooperative crop marketing ) and good agricultural practices,
small scale and fragmented farm size Labour skills (handling, picking) .
An idea of this thesis come after knowledge gained from training programs conducted in
Darasalam for several years created an argumentative hypothesis as main constraints of
citrus production as rain fall variability, climate change and poor practice with absence of
agro cooperative crop marketing.

10.9. Geomorphological Description Of Location Of Study Area And Population Estimate

Darasalam locates in north direction of hargiesa city and a way 41 km from hargiesa.
Darasalam was newly nominated as district during President cigal time. Geophysical or
geomorphological features of Darasalam areas mainly are mountainous with various high
from low to middle range. Moreover, highland. In the middle of the study area are the all
Mountains (Golis Mountains), oriented almost E-W parallel to the coast, with a very
rugged topography rising to more than 1500m asl. Both sides of the mountains, towards
the sea and southern hinterland, are drained by numerous streams of varying sizes
(SWALIM 2007, soil survey in studied area.).
Population in district is estimated around 10,000 in 1250 households with 8 person as an
average of per house hold ( Mayer of darasam 2017, and Dr. Aden December, 2014
climate change assessment in M & G).

10.10. CLIMATE

Climate is the long-term nature of the weather, it refers to the total complex of weather
conditions, its average value, and range of variation over appreciable area of the earths
surface usually conditions for many years (30-35 years data) are taken into
considerations. General temperature and atmospheric conditions over an extended period
is called climatic & it is studied in terms of various elements like temperature, radiation,
atmospheric pressure, wind & humidity (including water vapor clouds precipitation and
evaporation). The broad type of vegetation in a region is strongly determined by its
climate in addition climatic factors also affect the performance of plant system by
changing the population pests, disease and competitors and making more or less difficult
to till or work on.

10.11. Climatic Conditions Of Darasalam

In order to explain climatic condition of the darasalaam district with of assessing

opportunities and challenges of the citrus production followings are climatic relative
secondary data from different source under employed although this data is not focused
only on specifically in darasalam. However, it could provide climatic information through

region which darasalam is a part of. Generally Annual rainfall average is estimated
300mm to 400mm per years, but mostly expected rainfall in two three years from 2015-
2016 not rained. As following figures and table shown. Dararweyne and Hargiega rain-
gage station are nearest one to estimate rainfall which read as seen 100mm and 230mm in
2015 respectively and >10 mm 2016 both.
Graph1. Rainfall in Somaliland 2016.

Cabirka roobka Somaliland sanadkii 2015

cabirka roobka (mm) 100

Goobaha roob beega

Source MoA Agro-metrology station at hargiesa

Rainfall of 3rd Dekadal (mm)





Rainfall (mm) 15



Table 4. Monthly rainfall (mm) in Hargeisa, Aburin, and Gabiley stations from 2008 to 2014 (Data source: SWALIM)

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

a 0.0 0.00 0 77 64 7 7 33 58 0.0 0.03
r 0 0 . . .0 .0 1 6 .5 .5 0 0 8
g 0 0 0 0 . . 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 .
0 0 0

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2009 11. 0.0 35.5 77.50 35.0 0.0 41.0 34.50 14.5 58.5 2.0 0.00 309
0 0 0 0 0 .5
2010 0.0 17. 95.0 126.5 80.5 6.0 100.2 39.70 47.1 2.50 0.0 0.0 514
0 0 0 0 0 .5
2011 0.0 0.0 0.0 26.0 163. 18.0 14.0 93.0 80.5 0.0 4.0 0.0 398
0 0 .5
2012 0.0 0.0 0.0 99.80 51.5 54.5 45.0 59.50 68.5 2.0 0.0 0.0 380
0 0 0 .8
2013 0.0 0.0 54.5 122.0 34.5 23.0 93.50 57.0 53.5 50.0 88. 0.0 576
0 0 0 0 .0

2 6 3
0 5 5 6 4 9 4
1 0 0 0 0 6 0 6 . 3 0 0 0
4 . . . . . . . 5 . 10 . . .
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .5 0 0 0


2 5 4 5 5 2 3
0 0 0 0 5 7 7 0 0 1 9 0 0 9
0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2009 5.0 0.0 4.0 10.0 68.0 49.0 27.0 29.0 53.0 44.0 0.0 0.0 289
0 .0

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2010 0.0 41. 20.0 29.0 92 12.0 17.0 11 62.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 284
0 0 .0
2011 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.0 121. 34.5 25.5 104.5 53.5 0.0 18. 0.0 363
0 0 .0
2012 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 26.0 0.0 18.5 29.0 115. 0.0 0.0 0.0 188
4 .9
2013 0.0 0.0 49.0 122.0 57.0 0.0 33.0 45.5 57.0 0.0 56. 0.0 419
0 .5

2 3
0 5 9 3 8 8 1 5
1 0 0 0 8 1 0 3 0 2 2 0 0 6
4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 5


1 4
2 5 6 5 2 6 7 2 4
0 0 0 0 0 8 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 3
0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5

2009 6.5 0.0 12.5 35.5 16.5 49.0 37.0 74.5 34.5 27.5 0.0 0.0 293
2010 0.0 67. 64.0 116.0 91.0 27.5 50.0 55.0 59.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 530
0 .0
2011 0.0 0.0 0.0 28.0 93.5 74.0 36.0 115.0 64.0 0.0 24. 0.0 434
0 0 .5
2012 0.0 0.0 55.5 10.50 103 27.0 81.0 78.0 41.5 16 43. 0 455
0 .5
2013 0.0 0.0 10.5 103.0 27.0 81.0 78.0 41.5 16.0 43.0 43. 0.0 443
0 .0
2014 0.0 0.0 0.0 56.0 93.0 4.0 21.0 128.50 95.0 13.50 0.0 0.0

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Source SWALIM Figure 4: Rainfall distribution and climate classification of the study

SOURCE SWALIM Figure 3: Relative humidity of the study area

10.12. Soil type.

Soil type of Darasalam is Vertisol. Verstisols are fine-textured soils dominated by

expanding montmorillonite clay minerals. Which has plasticity character, when it meets
rain it extended while dry season it shrinks. The minerals normally expand and contract
on wetting and drying, respectively. In the dry condition, the soils develop a shallow
grumic or granular mulch structure and form wide cracks on the surface.
(SWALIM 2007 soil survey) pointed out that Vertisols occur in the Plateau and dissected
plateau between Hargeisa, Gebiley andBorama, south of the Al Mountains. The plateau is
mostly flat apart from areas of uneven relief, slopes towards streams and rolling surfaces.
From a climatic point of view this area is considered as semi-arid due to its higher annual
rainfall of 500 mm in comparison to the rest of the study area; this situation positively

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influences soil formation processes. These soils are located in the unique agro-pastoral
system of the study area commonly called the sorghum belt.

10.13. Farming practices.

Population of darasalam are mostly small-scale farmers whose livelihood derives from
farming practices as mature land use in different forms as rain fed agriculture for hay
production. (SWALIM, 2007).
Rain fed agriculture is found in what is considered as the sorghum belt of Somaliland,
practiced in combination with pastoralism and wood collection. This class of land use is
the economic basis of households in the study area. Cultivation of irrigated orchards is a
cash-oriented activity in the area, involving the growing of fruit trees such as citrus,
guava, papaya and mango.
Supplementary water for irrigating the crops is obtained from wells, dams and other
water bodies. Sedentary and semi- pastoralism practices and irrigated agriculture for
horticulture production mainly vegetable and fruit. Citrus is main horticulture crops
grown in dasalam, marketing of citrus production is to Hargeisa through poor feeder road.

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