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Chapter Three

3. Research Methods

3.1 Study approach and Design

The researcher employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches since the nature of the
study approach determines the nature of the study. In designing the research. I employed
cross-sectional survey study design to understand and explore the problem. Because absence
of time the researcher studies the problem by taking cross section at one time and analyze that
cross section carefully. And the conclusion was based on the observation made at one time

3.2 Study population

In this study all female students who study Sheikh Ali Ibrahim primary and secondary school
were the target population. The main reason for selecting this is due little knowledge about
the impact of gender based violence on academic achievement of Sheikh Ali Ibrahim primary
and secondary school. I am not saying there is absence of researches in the area but there is
still some gaps that remained empty for a long time.

3.2.1 Description of the study school

Bisrate Gabriel School is located in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, which is 390 miles east of the
capital, Addis Ababa. De La Salle Christian Brothers from France established the school in
1953 for boys in kindergarten through sixth grade. Bisrate Gabriel became co-educational in
1984. It expanded in 2004 to add high school classes and currently serves 1,984 students
(1,071 boys and 913 girls) in pre-kindergarten through grade 12. Additionally, Bisrate Gabriel
runs an evening school for adults seeking to achieve high school diplomas. It currently has
more than 800 students enrolled. Bisrate Gabriel School is one of the best in its region in
terms of academic achievement. It was number one in its region in the previous academic
year of 2014. Almost all the students make it to the university every year. Bisrate Gabriels
student population includes students who are from families with sufficient finances to
students who are in need. More than 350 students are on full scholarship, which is financed
with the help of twinning donation .(Headmaster: Brother Kassaye
3.4 Sampling technique

The sampling technique of this study was probability sampling. The researcher selects this
guarantees that every individual has an equal opportunity for selection and this can be
achieved if the researcher utilizes randomization.and I believe this sampling type is the only
technique that can fit may study. As subset of random probability technique I used simple
random probability becauseis the easiest form of probability sampling and it gives
every individual for equal chance of being selection .Each member of the population has an
equal chance of being selected as subject. The entire process of sampling is done in a single
step with each subject selected independently of the other members of the population.

3.4Sample size

From the total female students 40 in Sheikh Ali Ibrahim primary and secondary school, a
sample of 40 respondents were drawn, but in true sample size determination formula this is
not the appropriate way of taking sample. And that is because difficulty of finding the
intended respondents I generalized 40 sample from the total female students. some of the
characteristics employed in selecting the sample was purposively selected based on age,
educational level and marital status ,as well as confronting GBV at any time of their life In
Sheikh Ali Ibrahim primary and secondary school there are 913 female students from that
female students the researcher selected 40 female students as respondents.

3.5 Method of Data Collection


There are two methods of data collection in this study. The first was primary data and the
second was secondary data.

3.5.1 Source of Data


The researcher generated two major sources of data primary as well as secondary

.3.5.1.1 Primary Data

Primary data is one most important source that ensured the effectiveness of my study. Some
of the major primary data includes, preparing questionnaire and interview to the respondents.
Interview; Data for this study was collected information through semi structured interview
one to one interview the selective informants in Sheikh Ali Ibrahim primary and secondary
school.

Questionnaire; Questionnaire used in this study consist both open and close ended
questionnaire and the respondents were 40 in number

3.5.1.2. Secondary Data

I also used secondary data through gathering information that were already collected. This is
accessible with different journals, books, memo, internet and any other related documents to
my research

3.6. Method of Data Analysis

After the necessary data was collected. The researchers analyzed the data using mutually both
qualitative and quantitative. Data that was obtained through questionnaire was analyzed using
percentage and table. Then it was described qualitatively with the data that are obtained by
interview. And the data that was obtained from questionnaire was analyzed using qualitative
method the data analysis was written in the form of paragraph; descriptive.

4. Chapter four
4. Data Analysis and Presentation
This chapter contains the analysis and presentation of the data that collected and obtained by
the researcher during the survey and visits. After collecting the necessary data, both
qualitative and quantitative method of data analysis was used. Data that was obtained through
questionnaire was analyzed using percentage and table and was described qualitatively with
the data that were obtained by interview.
4.1 Personal background information
Table 1: age of the respondents

No Age group No Percentage Frequency


1 15-19 16 40% 16
2 20-24 15 37.5% 15
3 25-29 2 5% 2
4 <29 7 17.5% 7
Total 40 100 40

Source: - (survey from the respondents 2015)

Table one shows the age composition of respondents as its shows the largest age group of the
respondents are 15-19 in which was 16 in number and constitute( 40%) of the respondents
followed by 20-24, (37.5%), and 25-29, (17.5), while the least age group is above 29 which
was (17.5%). This shows that the largest group of the respondents were 15-19 which was
majority of the victims was in this group and have impact on their educational achievement.

Table 2:- sex differentiation of the respondents

No Sex No Percentage Frequency


1 Female 40 100% 100
2 Male - - -
Total 40 100% 100% 100%
Source (survey from the respondents 2016)

As the above table shows the sex composition of the respondents, sex composition of the
respondents was as follow: - 40(100%) were female where as the 0 (0 %) male.

This shows that this study was participated by female, because the violence against women in
the name of the gender based violence that affect the academic achievement of female
students in Sheikh Ali Ibrahim primary and secondary school were female students selected
as study population.

Table: - 3 the marital status of the respondents

No Marital status No percentage Frequency


1 Single 36 90% 36
2 Married 4 10% 4
3 Divorced - - -
Total 40 100% 40
Source survey from the respondents
As shown in the above table, the majority of the respondents that attend the school were
single, 36(90%) followed by four respondents which were married (10%) who are still
attending the school.

As it can be understood from the data, 90% were single which makes more vulnerable to
gender based violence that affect their educational achievement.

Table: -4educational level of the respondents

No Grade level No percentage Frequency


1 Form one 14 35 % 12
2 Form two 10 25% 12
3 Form three 8 20 % 8
4 Form four 8 20 % 8
Total 40 100% 40
Source: -(survey from the respondents 2015)

As it can be seen from the table 4, the majority of the respondents were form one and form
two which constitute 14(35%) and 10(25%) respondents respectively and followed by form
three and form four constitute 8(20%) and 8(20%) respectively.

4.2 Cause of Gender Based Violence that Impacts the Academic


Achievement of Female Students
This study is intended to investigate the impact of gender based violence on academic
achievement of female student in Sheikh Ali Ibrahim primary and secondary school,
respondents were asked some question concerned with the problem gender based violence.
The following table provides the major cause of gender based violence that affect the female
students and helps to identify major factors.

Table 5:- cause of gender based violence (GBV)

No The cause for incidence GBV that affects female No Percentage (%) frequency
students school achievement
1 Patriarchal ideology that support male students over 15 37.5% 15
female students
2 Lack of resistance from the women side to challenge 8 20% 8
the exploitation by men over the women
2 Lack of social motives to address the problem of male 8 20% 8
dominance
3 Others 9 22.5% 9
Total 40 100 100
Source: - survey from the respondents

As the table 5 shows most of the respondents answer patriarchal ideology that support male
students over female student are the effect of female school achievement 15(37.5%) followed
by those respondents who answered other 9(22.5%) by mentioning another causes like
biological difference and traditional norms that still exist and The least constitute were those
who answered lack of resistance from the women side to challenge the exploitation of women
by men8(20%) and lack of social motives to address the problem of male dominance 8(20%).

Table 6:- the issue of gender promotion and women empowerment in relation with the
incidence of violence against female students as discussed by the respondents

No Do you think the ongoing global effort to no Percent Frequency


empower women in the world has a
relevance to reduce the incidence of GBV at
school level
1 Yes 23 57.5 23

2 No 7 17.5 7

3 Uncertain 10 25 10

Total 40 100% 40

Source: - survey from the respondents

According to the above table the ongoing global effort to promote gender and empower
women has relevance to the incidence of violence against female students, the majority of the
respondents answered yes 23(57.5) and followed by those answered uncertain 10(25) and the
least were those answered No 7(17.5).

This shows that the global effort to empower women is relevance to reduce the incidence of
GBV at school level, as a female students told me, it improves womens self-confidence and
motive female student.

Table 7. GBV sometimes forces female students to drop out from the school
No Do you think GBV sometimes forces female No percent Frequenc
students to drop out from the school y

1 YES 30 75 30

2 NO 10 25 10

Total 40 100 40

Source: - survey from the respondents

As the table 7 shows majority of the respondents have said YES 30(75), whereas 10(25)of the
respondents said no.

This data indicate that majority of the respondents have agreed that gender based violences
sometimes forces female students to drop out from their school, and some informants told me
female students drop out because of early marriage and involuntary marriage.

Table 8, forms of violence against female student

No What forms of violence against female students, do No Percent Frequency


you think that have more victim than the others in
Bisrategabriel secondary and preparatory school

1 Female genital maturation 6 15 6


2 Involuntary marriage 12 30 12
3 Sexual harassment __
4 Physical abuse 10 25 10
5 Domestic violence 12 30 12
Total 40 100 40
Source: - survey from the respondents

As the table 8 shows, the majority of the respondents said that involuntary 12(30%), and
domestic violence 12(30%), have more victim than the others in Sheikh Ali Ibrahim primary
and secondary school, followed by physical abuse 10(25%), and the least one is female
genital maturation (FGM) which were 6(15%) of the respondents.
The most prevalent and have more victims in Sheikh Ali Ibrahim primary and secondary
school Involuntary marriage 12(30%) and domestic violence 12(30%), which shows it affects
female students than other.

Table 9, shows whether there is any sexual harassment at the school?

No Is there any kind of sexual harassment at your school? No Percent Frequenc


y
1 YES 8 20 8

2 NO 26 65 26

3 I dont know 6 15 6

Total 40 100 40

Source: - survey from the respondents

As the table shows, majority of the respondents said No 26(65%), and 8(20%) of the
respondents said Yes, while 6(15%) said I dont know. This shows that the problem of sexual
harassment is not common at school and less to do the academic achievement of female
students.

Table 10, whether there is physical abuse at school

No Are physical abuses common at your school No Percent Frequency


1 Yes 15 37.5 15
2 No 25 62.5 25
Total 40 100 40
Source: - survey from the respondents
As table 10 shows, majority of the respondents said No 25(62.5%), while the remaining said
Yes 15(37.5%), so the physical abuses have no more impact on the academic achievement of
female students. While conducting interview most of the female student said that physical
abuses have little effect on their school achievement.

Table 11, shows whether there is verbal abuse in the school

No Are there any verbal abuses at your school No Percent Frequency


1 Yes 24 60 24
2 No 10 25 10
3 Uncertain 6 15 6
Total 40 100 40
Source: - survey from the respondents

As the table 11 shows, majority of the respondents answered Yes 24(60%), and the remaining
answered No 10 (25%) and uncertain 6(15%).

This data shows that majority of female students vulnerable to verbal abuse specially insults
by male students, and involves others.

4.3Impact of Gender Based Violence (GBV) on Female Educational


Achievement
One of the most important objectives of the study was to show how gender based violence
impacts the educational achievement of female students in Sheikh Ali Ibrahim primary and
secondary school.

UN declaration on the elimination of violence against women in 1993, the later defines
violence against women as any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to
result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women(United Nation
1993). Significantly, the declaration singles out female children as a particularly vulnerable
group and identifies educational institutions as potential sites for gender violence, even
though most research today has concentrated on domestic or intimate partner violence on
adult women (MacKinnon, C.A. (1987)

Table 12, shows specific forms of gender based violence (GBV) that severely affect
female educational attainment

No In your opinion could you tell us the specific forms No Percent Frequenc
of violence that severely affect female educational y
attainment?
1 Female genital mutilation (FGM) 6 15 6

2 Early and involuntary marriage 14 35 14

3 Sexual harassment 6 15 6

4 Domestic violence 6 15 6

5 Physical abuse 6 15 6

6 Others 2 5 2

Total 40 100 40

Source: - survey from the respondents

As the above table shows most of the respondents answered Early and Involuntary marriage
14(35%) and followed by female genital mutilation 6(15%), sexual harassment 6(15%),
domestic violence 6(15%), physical abuse 6(15%), and the least proportion constitutes others
2(5%), such as rape and family problem. This data shows that early and involuntary marriage
is the mostly disturbs the educational achievement of female student and least is other such
as; rape and family problem, in the opinion of the female students.

Table 15, shows that GBV has a negative consequence on female students

No Do you agree that GBV has a negative consequence on No Percent Frequenc


female students y

1 Strongly agree 14 35 14

2 Agree 10 25 10
3 Uncertain 6 15 6
4 Disagree 8 20 8
5 Strongly disagree 2 5 2
Total 40 100 40

Source: - survey from the respondents


The above table shows that, most of the respondents strongly agree 14(35%), followed by
those agree 10(25%), and disagree 8(20%), while those who answered uncertain 6(15%), and
the least is those who answered strongly disagree 2(5%).

This data shows that gender based violence has negative consequence in female students as
most of the respondents answered strongly agree which was 35% that shows GBV have
strong impact on the female educational achievement.

1.4 The role of the government and nongovernmental organization in reducing


(GBV) gender based violence.

Table 13 shows the role of the government and nongovernmental organization in


reducing GBV

NO What do you NO percent Frequency


think about of the
role of the
government and
nongovernmental
organizations in
reducing GBV??
1 Both engage very 2 5 2
well
2 Both not engage 14 35 14
at all
3 Uncertain 10 25 10

4 The government 6 15 6
only engage
5 Only 8 20 8
nongovernmental
organizations
participate the
process
TOTAL 40 100 40

Table 13 shows that the majority of the respondents said that both the government and
nongovernmental organizations plays nothing in reducing GBV 14 (35%) followed by
those who said uncertain 10 ( 25%) followed by those who said only
nongovernmental organizations play a role 8 ( 20%) followed by those who said only
government play their role 8 ( 15%) and the least respondents argued that both engage
very well. Therefore the majority of the respondents argued that both engage nothing
in the process while the least respondents argued both engage very well

Chapter Five

5. Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusions
Most of the problem that affects female education is gender based violence in both inside and
outside the school; especially that of outside the school is the barrier to the female students.
And there are some gender based violence against female students such as verbal and make
some female students to feel inferior to male students. School is the only compound that
female students can compete with male students as some informants told me in the interview
secession, most of the female students faced the problem of GBV from their family, to force
to marry or stay at home in order to do domestic work at home and sending boys to the
school and motivate education this is because of the patriarchal ideology that dominate our
society.

Lack of voice of female students is the major problem that create gap between level of female
education and that of male education and consequences may be as the researcher find social,
moral and financial dependent of female on their husband in the future that make most of
wives voiceless but nowadays government and different NGOs are working to fill the gap
created by GBV through establishing organizations inside and outside the school.

Generally, the school and qualification are very important for current and future work but
GBV is the major obstacles for female students, as majority of female students feel that they
inferior to male students, because of the problem faced from GBV both in home and in the
school.

Lastly the cause of GBV in Sheikh Ali Ibrahim primary and secondary school is the
patriarchal ideology that supports male students over female students also the impact of
gender based violence on academic achievement of female students like that of female
students drop their school due to GBV some others score low grades due GBV.

GBV forms like early marriage and verbal abuses are common in Sheikh Ali Ibrahim primary
and secondary school while sexual harassment, and physical abuses are low and the major
GBV that effect female education achievement is early and involuntary marriage

To conclude this study I can better say what I have seen in my eyes that GBV exists Sheikh
Ali Ibrahim primary and secondary school particularly those GBV that effects female
educational achievement but I cannot better say the most extreme forms of GBV like female
trafficking and sexual harassment are found
5.2 Recommendations
Based on the finding of the study the research I would like to recommend the following
points assuming that the concerned body would intervene to reverse the situation as much as
possible.

1. So as to elevate the knowledge basis of gender based violence on academic


achievement of female student, first and for most their social, economic and cultural
barrier should be addressed.
2. Emphasis should be placed on behavioral change on the part gender based violence in
relation to school achievement.
3. Integrate and well organized educational programs should be designed to educate the
community about the harmfulness of some traditional practice such as early marriage
of girls, female genital mutilation.
4. To understand the importance of knowledge of women of urban and that of rural
women.
5. Conductive environment should be created in order to be able to disseminate the
necessary and timely in information regarding GBV and the school.
6. A viable policy frame work and coordinated program of action should be established
at all organizational levels to address the problem of gender based violence that affect
the academic of female student.
7. Every community, governmental organization, non-governmental organization,
voluntary agents, and individual should integrate and cooperate as one agent to invest
all their effort in stopping the GBV in all level.
8. There should be policy that supports the female students to reinforce their education
and also there should be policy that disposes extreme and severe, cruel sanction to any
one who exhibit any violence related to gender based violence in school levels