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Question Bank (Ch.

9)

INTERACTIVE SCIENCE 2B
Question Bank

Chapter 9 SPACE TRAVEL

Concept Checking
Write T for a true statement or F for a false statement.

9.1 Forces
2B090101Q001Eng

The size of force can be measured by a Newton balance.


[Ans] T

2B090101Q002Eng

A force can start or stop a motion of an object.


[Ans] T

2B090101Q003Eng

A force can change the speed of an object.


[Ans] T

2B090101Q004Eng

A force can change the direction of an object.


[Ans] T

2B090201Q005Eng

Force can only exist between two objects when they are in contact.
[Ans] F

2B090101Q006Eng

Magnetic force is an example of contact force.


[Ans] F

2B090201Q007Eng

If an object is not moving, there must be no forces acting on it.


[Ans] F

156
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

9.2 Friction
2B090201Q008Eng

Friction between objects can be reduced by introducing a layer of oil between the surfaces.
[Ans] T

2B090101Q009Eng

Friction always opposes the motion of an object.


[Ans] T

2B090101Q010Eng

There is no friction acting on an object when the object is at rest.


[Ans] F

2B090201Q011Eng

There is no friction between air and the surface of a plane when it is flying.
[Ans] F

2B090201Q012Eng

Magnetic levitation trains () make use of magnetic force to raise the trains from the tracks. The
friction between the trains and the tracks is reduced and trains can run faster.
[Ans] T

2B090101Q013Eng

People easily slip on wet floor because friction is reduced when the floor becomes wet.
[Ans] T

2B090101Q014Eng

Friction is not necessary in our daily life.


[Ans] F

2B090201Q015Eng

Without friction, we cannot walk.


[Ans] T

2B090201Q016Eng

The grooves on the tyres increase friction acting on tyres and prevent cars from slipping.
[Ans] T

2B090201Q017Eng

By streamlining objects, we can reduce friction acting on them.


[Ans] T

157
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

9.3 Force of Gravity


2B090201Q018Eng

Gravitational force is an example of non-contact force.


[Ans] T

2B090101Q019Eng

The force of gravity acting on an object is the same in the universe regardless of the position of the
object.
[Ans] F

2B090101Q020Eng

Weight of an object is the force of gravity of the Earth acting on the object.
[Ans] T

2B090101Q021Eng

The unit of weight is kilogram.


[Ans] F

2B090101Q022Eng

An object has the same mass on the Earth and on the Moon.
[Ans] T

2B090101Q023Eng

(extension) The gravity on the Earth is only 1/6 of that on the Moon.
[Ans] F

2B090201Q024Eng

(extension) If the mass of John is 40 kg, his weight on the Moon is about 66 N.
[Ans] T

2B090201Q025Eng

(extension) The mass of an object will become smaller when it is put into space.
[Ans] F

9.4 A Space Journey


2B090101Q026Eng

Owing to the friction between surfaces, heat is produced when objects slid over each other.
[Ans] T

2B090101Q027Eng

Spacecraft must be launched with a very high speed to overcome the force of gravity of the Earth.
[Ans] T
158
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090101Q028Eng

Forces always occur in pairs. For each pair of forces, forces point in the same direction.
[Ans] F

2B090201Q029Eng

For action and reaction, when body A exerts a force on body B, body A also experiences an unequal and
opposite force at the same time.
[Ans] F

2B090101Q030Eng

Some rockets use hydrogen and oxygen as fuel.


[Ans] T

2B090101Q031Eng

The advantage of using a liquid fuel is that the fuel can be turned on and off at any time to control the
burning process.
[Ans] T

2B090101Q032Eng

The astronauts are in a state of weightlessness in space.


[Ans] T

2B090101Q033Eng

The friction of spacecraft is small even though there is no air in space.


[Ans] F

2B090201Q034Eng

Even when the engines of spacecraft are switched off, the spacecraft can move forwardly continuously in
space.
[Ans] T

2B090201Q035Eng

The engines must be switched off when the spacecraft is going to stop from moving.
[Ans] F

2B090101Q036Eng

When a space shuttle returns to Earths atmosphere at a very high speed, a large amount of heat will be
produced owing to the friction between air and the surface of shuttle.
[Ans] T

159
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090201Q037Eng

Heat-resistance tiles can be made of all kinds of heat insulators.


[Ans] F

2B090201Q038Eng

Space shuttle is streamlined in shape because streamlining it can reduce its absorption of heat from the
Sun.
[Ans] F

2B090101Q039Eng

Astronauts float in space because there is no air.


[Ans] F

2B090201Q040Eng

Solar energy is commonly used in space station.


[Ans] T

2B090101Q041Eng

The heat insulating tiles outside a spacecraft are made of metals.


[Ans] F

2B090101Q042Eng

Parachutes of space shuttles make use of friction to reduce the speed of space shuttles on landing.
[Ans] T

2B090101Q043Eng

(extension) Burning hydrogen can emit a large amount of heat.


[Ans] T

2B090201Q044Eng

(extension) A small amount of hydrogen gas burns in air with a pop sound while large amount of
hydrogen burns explosively in air.
[Ans] T

2B090201Q045Eng

(extension) The density of hydrogen is higher than that of air.


[Ans] F

2B090201Q046Eng

(extension) The main parts of a manned spacecraft include an orbit module, a return module and a
propulsion module.
[Ans] T
160
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

9.5 The Life of an Astronaut in Space


2B090101Q047Eng

Exercise is important for astronauts in space because they lack of muscle movement in the weightless
environment.
[Ans] T

2B090201Q048Eng

(extension) Spacesuits should be made of good conductor to conduct the heat from astronauts to the
space.
[Ans] F

2B090201Q049Eng

(extension) Heat can be transferred across a vacuum by convection.


[Ans] F

2B090201Q050Eng

(extension) Conduction needs a medium for heat transmission.


[Ans] T

2B090201Q051Eng

(extension) Heat can only be transferred by radiation in space.


[Ans] T

2B090201Q052Eng

(extension) The shiny surface of a spacesuit can reflect radiation.


[Ans] T

9.6 Space Exploration


2B090101Q053Eng

USA uses rockets to send astronauts into space.


[Ans] F

2B090101Q054Eng

The first satellite was sent into space by USA.


[Ans] F

2B090201Q055Eng

There were explosions of space shuttles in the space exploration history.


[Ans] T

161
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090101Q056Eng

(extension) Broadcasting live programmes around the world is one of the functions of artificial satellites.
[Ans] T

2B090201Q057Eng

(extension) Global Positioning System (GPS) is one of the space technology that benefit our lives.
[Ans] T

2B090201Q058Eng

(extension) Change 1 () is the first Chinas lunar orbiting probe.


[Ans] T

2B090201Q059Eng

(extension) Yang Li-wei () is the first man orbited the Earth in space in Chinas spaceflight history.
[Ans] T

2B090201Q060Eng

(extension) The Shenzhou 5 ( 5 ) spacecraft launched in 2007.


[Ans] F

Multiple Choice
Circle the best answer for each question below.

9.1 Forces
2B090202Q001Eng

A force CANNOT change the


A. speed of an object.
B. shape of an object.
C. mass of an object.
D. motion direction of an object.
[Ans] C

9.2 Friction
2B090102Q002Eng

Which of the following activities does NOT require friction?


A. Walking
B. Cars running on roads
C. Standing up on level ground
D. Landing slowly with a parachute
[Ans] C

162
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090102Q003Eng

A puck slides on a table and it stops after a while. With which of the following methods can the puck slide
for a longer time?
(I) Add oil on the table.
(II) Stick sandpaper to the bottom of the puck.
(III) Add small beads on the table.

A. (I) only
B. (II) only
C. (I) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III)
[Ans] C

2B090202Q004Eng

Susan is pushing a box on the ground. In which of the following situation will Susan push the box with
the largest force?
A. The ground is rough.
B. The ground is wet.
C. The box has rollers at the bottom.
D. There is a layer of oil on the ground.
[Ans] A

2B090202Q005Eng

Tom pushes a box on a horizontal table but the box does NOT move. Which of the following is/are
correct?
(I) There is friction between the box and the table.
(II) If Tom pushes the box in another direction with the same size of force, the box will move.
(III) If Tom pushes the box with larger force, the box will move.

A. (I) only
B. (II) only
C. (I) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III)
[Ans] C

2B090202Q006Eng

Which of the following make use of friction?


(I) Parachutes
(II) Grooves at the bottom of shoes
(III) Cooling systems of cars

163
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

A. (I) and (II) only


B. (I) and (III) only
C. (II) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III)
[Ans] A

2B090202Q007Eng

Which of the following activities is/are desirable to reduce friction?


(I) Ice skating
(II) Aeroplane flying in the sky
(III) Submarine travelling in the sea

A. (I) only
B. (I) and (II) only
C. (II) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III)
[Ans] D

2B090202Q008Eng

Which of the following CANNOT reduce air resistance?


A. Ball bearings in yo-yos
B. Wind deflectors on cargo trucks
C. V-shaped bicycle helmets
D. The front of aeroplanes is point-shaped
[Ans] A

2B090202Q009Eng

Which of the following CANNOT reduce friction?


A. Use of lubricants in machines
B. Streamlined design in a car
C. Ball bearings used in yo-yos
D. Grooves on tyres
[Ans] D

2B090102Q010Eng

When we walked on a wet road surface, we skied easily. It is because the friction between the our feet and
the road surface
A. increases.
B. decreases.
C. disappears.
D. does not change.
[Ans] B
164
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090202Q011Eng

In which of the following activities is friction NOT helpful?


A. Walking on roads
B. Pulling nails out of walls
C. Writing on paper with pens
D. Braking a car on roads
[Ans] B

2B090202Q012Eng

Goalkeepers wear gloves because


A. they can reduce the chance of getting wound.
B. they allow goalkeepers to throw balls faster.
C. they allow goalkeepers to reach higher to catch balls.
D. they increase the friction acting on balls when touched.
[Ans] D

2B090202Q013Eng

Which of the following phenomenon is not related to friction?


A. Meteorites start to burn when they fall from space into the Earths atmosphere.
B. Marks are left on roads if cars are braked in emergencies.
C. The ground is heated up by sunlight.
D. Objects can rest on an inclined road.
[Ans] C

9.3 Force of Gravity


2B090102Q014Eng

Which of the following is the standard unit of mass?


A. Metre
B. Newton
C. Kilogram
D. Degree Celsius
[Ans] C

2B090202Q015Eng

A ball is thrown up vertically. The ball rises and then falls back on the ground. Which of the following is
the correct explanation?
A. The mass of the ball is large.
B. The air resistance stops the motion of the ball.
C. The ball loses all its energy.
D. The force of gravity pulls the ball downwards.
[Ans] D

165
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090202Q016Eng

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?


(I) No force of gravity acts on objects when objects rest on a desk.
(II) Artificial satellites can move around the Earth even though they have no engine.
(III) Owing to gravity, raindrops fall down.

A. (I) only
B. (III) only
C. (I) and (II) only
D. (II) and (III) only
[Ans] D

2B090102Q017Eng

Weight is measured in
A. newton (N).
B. kilogram (kg).
C. litre (L).
D. joule (J).
[Ans] A

2B090202Q018Eng

If the weight of John is 600 N on the Earth, what is his weight on the Moon?
A. 0N
B. 100 N
C. 600 N
D. 3600 N
[Ans] B

2B090202Q019Eng

Which of the following about weight is/are correct?


(I) Weight is a kind of force.
(II) The weight of objects only depends on the amount of matter inside objects.
(III) Objects fall down because of their weight.

A. (I) only
B. (I) and (II) only
C. (I) and (III) only
D. (II) and (III) only
[Ans] C

166
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090202Q020Eng

Which of the following is/are correct?


(I) An object has the same mass on the Earth and on the Moon.
(II) The weight of an object is measured in kilogram.
(III) The mass of an object is the force of gravity acting on it.

A. (I) only
B. (III) only
C. (I) and (II) only
D. (II) and (III) only
[Ans] A

2B090102Q021Eng

Which of the following instruments can we use to measure the force of gravity acting on objects?
(I) Newton balance
(II) Spring balance
(III) Bathroom scale

A. (I) and (II) only


B. (I) and (III) only
C. (II) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III)
[Ans] D

2B090202Q022Eng

Which of the following is correct?


A. The force of gravity acting on astronauts on the Moon is less than that on the Earth.
B. The force of gravity acting on astronauts on the Moon is more than that on the Earth.
C. The mass of astronauts on the Moon is less than that on the Earth.
D. The mass of astronauts on the Moon is more than that on the Earth.
[Ans] A

2B090202Q023Eng

(extension) If the weight of Maggie is 12 N on the Moon, what is her weight on the Earth?
A. 2N
B. 12 N
C. 72 N
D. 120 N
[Ans] C

167
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

9.4 A Space Journey


2B090202Q024Eng

Which of the following is correct?


A. Forces always occur in pairs.
B. No friction acts on objects if they move in water or air.
C. Water can increase friction of a surface.
D. Friction usually increases the speed of moving objects.
[Ans] A

2B090202Q025Eng

Which of the following about action and reaction is NOT correct?


A. The forces are equal to each other.
B. They are in opposite direction.
C. They act on two different objects.
D. The forces occur at different time.
[Ans] D

2B090102Q026Eng

Which of the following causes rockets to lift up in the sky during launching?
A. The hot gas ejected downwards from rockets
B. The weight of the rocket
C. The gravity of the Earth acting on rockets
D. The gravity of the Moon acting on rockets
[Ans] A

2B090102Q027Eng

Which of the following is commonly used as a fuel for rocket?


A. Nitrogen
B. Hydrogen
C. Chlorine
D. Carbon dioxide
[Ans] B

2B090202Q028Eng

Which of the following are used to fuel rockets?


A. Liquid hydrogen and alcohol
B. Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen
C. Liquid nitrogen and alcohol
D. Oil and alcohol
[Ans] B

168
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090202Q029Eng

Why liquid fuels are commonly used in rockets?


(I) The pump for liquid fuels can be turned on or off at any time.
(II) They are more stable and do not cause explosion easily.
(III) Compared with solid fuels, liquid fuels are lighter.

A. (I) only
B. (III) only
C. (I) and (II) only
D. (II) and (III) only
[Ans] A

2B090202Q030Eng

Which of the following is/are advantage(s) of using solid fuels instead of liquid fuels?
(I) Solid fuels are easy to handle and occupy less space.
(II) Solid fuel produces greater heat in a certain time.
(III) Solid fuel is much cheaper.

A. (I) only
B. (II) only
C. (III) only
D. (II) and (III) only
[Ans] A

2B090202Q031Eng

Which of the following is the main advantage of streamlining rockets?


A. The design can minimize the air resistance acting on rockets.
B. The design can minimize the cost of rockets.
C. The design can maximize the loading capacity of rockets.
D. The design can maximize the heat resisting capacity of rockets.
[Ans] A

2B090102Q032Eng

Which of the followings is NOT common to most manned space journeys?


A. Launch
B. Travelling in space
C. Landing on the Moon
D. Returning to the Earth
[Ans] C

169
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090102Q033Eng

Burning hydrogen will produce


A. water.
B. oxygen.
C. carbon.
D. metal.
[Ans] A

2B090102Q034Eng

Which of the following is a frictionless motion?


A. Space shuttles launch from the ground.
B. Space shuttles travel in the Earths atmosphere when they return to the Earth.
C. Artificial satellites drop and burn in the atmosphere when they are out of order.
D. Artificial satellites move in orbits around the Earth.
[Ans] D

2B090202Q035Eng

If engines of a spacecraft are turned off when the spacecraft moves forwards, the spacecraft will
A. stop.
B. continue to move forwards slower and slower.
C. continue to move forwards with the same speed.
D. continue to move forwards faster and faster.
[Ans] C

2B090202Q036Eng

Parachute was NOT used when spacecraft landed on the Moon. Which of the following was the reason?
A. The gravity of Moon is small.
B. There is no air on the Moon.
C. The spacecraft landed on the Moon was very small.
D. Objects can only move with a low speed in space.
[Ans] B

2B090202Q037Eng

Which of the following is NOT correct when a space shuttle enters the Earths atmosphere?
A. The space shuttle travels at a very high speed.
B. The astronauts feel weightlessness.
C. Great friction exists between the surface of space shuttle and the atmosphere.
D. The temperature of the surface of the space shuttle is very high.
[Ans] B

170
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090102Q038Eng

Which of the following is used for preventing space shuttles from burning up?
A. Streamlined design of space shuttles.
B. Parachutes of space shuttles.
C. Heat-resistant materials on the surface of space shuttles.
D. The wings of space shuttles.
[Ans] C

2B090202Q039Eng

(extension) Which of the following is used for testing the existence of hydrogen?
A. Hydrogencarbonate indicator
B. Iodine solution
C. Glowing splint
D. Burning splint
[Ans] D

2B090202Q040Eng

(extension) Which of the followings is/are advantage(s) of using space shuttles than other spacecraft?
(I) Parts of space shuttles can be reused many times but other spacecraft can be used once only.
(II) Space shuttles have a larger space for carrying cargo.
(III) Space shuttle can load more astronauts than other spacecraft.

A. (I) and (II) only


B. (I) and (III) only
C. (II) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III)
[Ans] D

2B090102Q041Eng

(extension) Which of the following is/are the characteristic(s) of the heat-resistant tiles on space shuttles?
(I) Poor conductor of heat
(II) With low melting point
(III) Must be black in colour

A. (I) only
B. (I) and (III) only
C. (II) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III)
[Ans] A

171
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

9.5 The Life of an Astronaut in Space


2B090202Q042Eng

Which of the following would happen when astronauts are in the state of weightlessness?
(I) Astronauts float in space.
(II) Astronauts do not use muscles as much as they work on the Earth.
(III) Astronauts cannot sleep in space.

A. (I) only
B. (I) and (II) only
C. (II) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III)
[Ans] B

2B090102Q043Eng

hich of the following is/are challenge(s) faced by astronauts in space?


(I) Taking a shower and going to the toilet
(II) Sleeping
(III) Eating and drinking

A. (I) and (II) only


B. (I) and (III) only
C. (II) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III)
[Ans] D

2B090102Q044Eng

Heat energy is transferred from the Sun to the Earth by


(I) Convection
(II) Conduction
(III) Radiation

A. (I) only
B. (III) only
C. (I) and (II) only
D. (II) and (III) only
[Ans] B

2B090102Q045Eng

(extension) Which of the following statements about radiation (heat) is/are correct?
(I) Shiny surfaces are not good absorbers of radiation.
(II) It may be harmful to our health.
(III) It can be transferred in a vacuum.
172
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

A. (I) only
B. (III) only
C. (I) and (II) only
D. (II), (II) and (III)
[Ans] D

2B090102Q046Eng

(extension) In space, temperature of astronauts would change a lot when sunlight shines on them and
when they stay in shadows of sunlight. Which of the following can control the temperature of astronauts?
A. The liquid cooled underwear
B. The bendable joints
C. The life support system at the back
D. The visor of the helmet
[Ans] A

2B090102Q047Eng

(extension) The airtight design of spacesuit is used to


A. reflect radiation from the Sun.
B. maintain constant air pressure.
C. allow communication between astronauts.
D. bring away heat released by astronauts during body movement.
[Ans] B

9.6 Space Exploration


2B090102Q048Eng

Which of the followings is/are reason(s) for space exploration?


(I) Explore knowledge of the universe.
(II) Satisfies curiosity of humans.
(III) Discover new energy sources.

A. (I) only
B. (III) only
C. (I) and (II) only
D. (II) and (III) only
[Ans] C

173
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090102Q049Eng

(extension) The space shuttle which exploded in returning to the Earth was
A. Atlantis.
B. Columbia.
C. Challenger.
D. Endeavour.
[Ans] B

2B090102Q050Eng

(extension) Which of the following countries has sent astronauts to the space?
A. USSR
B. Japan
C. Germany
D. England
[Ans] A

2B090102Q051Eng

(extension) Which of the following countries has sent astronauts to the Moon?
A. USSR
B. China
C. USA
D. England
[Ans] C

2B090102Q052Eng

(extension) When did China first launch manned spacecraft Shenzhou 5 to space?
A. 1997
B. 2000
C. 2003
D. 2007
[Ans] C

2B090102Q053Eng

(extension) Which of the following is NOT a function of satellites?


A. Communication
B. GPS navigation
C. Broadcasting
D. Generating electricity
[Ans] D

174
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090102Q054Eng

(extension) Which of the followings is/are spin-off(s) of space exploration?


(I) Scratch-resistant lenses
(II) Joystick control used in computer games
(III) Submarines

A. (I) and (II) only


B. (I) and (III) only
C. (II) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III)
[Ans] A

Integrated Questions
2B090102Q055Eng

When a pitcher throws a baseball,


A. the applied force changes the mass of the ball.
B. the applied force changes the weight of the ball.
C. the applied force changes the speed of the ball.
D. the applied force changes the speed and the direction of the ball.
[Ans] D

2B090102Q056Eng

Which of the following is NOT a type of force?


A. Mass
B. Weight
C. Tension
D. Friction
[Ans] A

2B090102Q057Eng

Which of the following is/are a type of non-contact force?


(I) Gravitational Force
(II) Magnetic Force
(III) Electrostatic Force

A. (I) and (II) only


B. (I) and (III) only
C. (II) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III)
[Ans] D

175
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090102Q058Eng

Which of the following about force is /are correct?


(I) Spring balance is used to measure force in laboratory.
(II) Force can change the speed of a moving object.
(III) The mass of an object is equivalent to its weight.

A. (I) and (II) only


B. (I) and (III) only
C. (II) and (III) only
D. (I), (II) and (III)
[Ans] A

2B090202Q059Eng

When David is jump off from the top of a slide (), he moves down with increasing speed. We can say
that
A. there is no friction between David and the slide.
B. there is strong wind which blows David downwards.
C. there is a force pulling David downwards.
D. David is very heavy.
[Ans] C

2B090202Q060Eng

Which of the following statements about friction is INCORRECT?


A. Friction is a type of contact force.
B. Even when an object is at rest, there could be friction acting on the object.
C. Heat cannot be produced owing to friction.
D. Friction can be reduced if we change the shape of a body.
[Ans] C

Fill in the Blanks

9.1 Forces
2B090103Q001Eng

________________ is needed to push a car to move forward.


[Ans] Force

2B090103Q002Eng

A force can change the (a)________________ and the (b)________________ of motion of object.
[Ans] (a) speed (b) direction

176
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090103Q003Eng

The unit of force is (a)________________ and the symbol is (b)________________.


[Ans] (a) newton (b) N

2B090103Q004Eng

________________ is a device that we usually use in laboratories to measure the size of force. We read
the size of a force by the extension of the spring in the device.
[Ans] newton balance

2B090103Q005Eng

If a force acts on an object continuously along the direction of the its motion, the speed of the object will
________________.
[Ans] Increase

2B090103Q006Eng

Forces that act on objects without directly touch them are called ________________.
[Ans] non-contact forces

2B090103Q007Eng

Magnetic force and electrostatic force are examples of ________________ forces .


[Ans] non-contact

9.2 Friction
2B090103Q008Eng

Friction acting on objects is a type of ________________ force.


[Ans] Contact

2B090103Q009Eng

________________ acts on the contacting surfaces of two objects when they move over each other.
[Ans] Friction

2B090103Q010Eng

Friction always ________________ the motion of an object.


[Ans] Opposes

2B090203Q011Eng

Oil or chemicals can (a)________________ the friction between moving parts of machines. They are
called (b)________________.
[Ans] (a) reduce (b) lubricants

177
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090203Q012Eng

To reduce the air friction acting on cars, cars are made ________________ in shape.
[Ans] Streamlined

2B090203Q013Eng

Grooves on the tyres (a)________________ the friction between the ground and the tyres. They prevent
cars from (b)________________ easily.
[Ans] (a) increase (b) slipping

2B090203Q014Eng

Ice skating books () reduces the friction with the ice surface by decreasing the
________________ of contact with the ice surface.
[Ans] Area

2B090103Q015Eng

The studs () at the bottom of football boots can (a)________________ the friction acting on football
players and prevent players from (b)________________.
[Ans] (a) increase (b) slipping

2B090203Q016Eng

When objects move on surfaces, ________________ between objects and surfaces produces heat.
[Ans] Friction

9.3 Force of Gravity


2B090103Q017Eng

The weight of an object is the measure of the force of ________________ acting on that object.
[Ans] Gravity

2B090203Q018Eng

The Earth exerts a force on objects on or around it. The force is known as (a)________________ and it
points towards the (b)________________ of the Earth.
[Ans] (a) gravity (b) centre

2B090103Q019Eng

The force of gravity ________________ the speed of a body when the body is falling down.
[Ans] Increase

2B090103Q020Eng

The (a)________________ of a body remains unchanged everywhere, while the (b)________________


of a body varies with the force of gravity acting on it.
[Ans] (a) mass (b) weight

178
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090203Q021Eng

A boy of mass 30 kg weighs about (a)________________ on the Earth while he weighs about
(b)________________ on the Moon.
[Ans] (a) 300 N (b) 50 N

2B090103Q022Eng

(extension) The mass of an object is the measure of amount of ________________.


[Ans] Matter

2B090103Q023Eng

(extension) The unit of mass is (a)________________ or (b)________________ while the unit of weight
is (c)________________ .
[Ans] (a) kilogram (b) gram (c) newton

2B090203Q024Eng

(extension) The force of gravity of the Moon is only ________________ of that of the Earth.
[Ans] 1/6

9.4 A Space Journey


2B090103Q025Eng

Rockets are streamlined to reduce air ________________ .


[Ans] friction / resistance

2B090103Q026Eng

Space shuttles or rockets must be launched with a very ________________ speed to overcome the force
of gravity of the Earth.
[Ans] Speed

2B090203Q027Eng

The pair of forces that are (a)________________ in size but (b)________________ in direction are called
a pair of (c)________________ and (d)________________ .
[Ans] (a) equal (b) opposite (c) action (d) reaction

2B090203Q028Eng

Each journey of a space shuttle includes three main stages: (a)________________ ,


(b)________________ and (c)________________ .
[Ans] (a) launch (b) travel in space (c) return to the Earth

179
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090203Q029Eng

When a rocket is launched, (a)________________ is ejected downwards of the rocket and


(b)________________ moves upwards. The launching process makes use of (c)________________ and
(d)________________ .
[Ans] (a) gas (b) rocket (c) action (d) reaction

2B090103Q030Eng

The rocket is pushed upwards during launching as the exhaust gas is ejected ________________
(direction).
[Ans] Downwards

2B090103Q031Eng

________________ fuels are used in some rockets. The fuel is mixed up with oxidizers.
[Ans] Solid

2B090203Q032Eng

If rockets use (a)________________ fuels, they cannot control the thrust of rockets and once the fuel is
(b)________________ , the burning process cannot be stopped or restarted.
[Ans] (a) solid (b) ignited

2B090103Q033Eng

Hydrogen is odourless and (a)________________ . When it is ignited in air, (b)________________


sound is heard.
[Ans] (a) colourless (b) pop

2B090103Q034Eng

A pop sound test is used to test a small amount of (a)________________ gas. A large amount of it will
(b)________________ in air.
[Ans] (a) hydrogen (b) explodes

2B090103Q035Eng

The fuel tank of a space shuttle stores liquid (a)________________ and (b)________________ .
[Ans] (a) hydrogen (b) oxygen

2B090103Q036Eng

(a)________________ , (b)________________ and food are the most important resources in a space
shuttle.
[Ans] (a) Oxygen (b) water

2B090203Q037Eng

Rockets operating with ________________ fuels can travel longer space journeys.
[Ans] Liquid
180
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090103Q038Eng

When a space shuttle moves around the Earth in the space, astronauts inside are in a state of
________________ .
[Ans] Weightlessness

2B090103Q039Eng

When a space shuttle enters the Earths atmosphere, its speed is very (a)________________ . Therefore,
the friction exists between its (b)________________ and the (c)________________ is extremely large.
[Ans] (a) high (b) surface (c) atmosphere

2B090103Q040Eng

When a spacecraft enter the atmosphere of the Earth, the air friction will produce a large amount of
________________ .
[Ans] Heat

2B090103Q041Eng

The ________________ materials of a space shuttle prevent it from burning up.


[Ans] heat-resistant

2B090103Q042Eng

The air friction acting on spacecraft can reduce (a)________________ which helps it to land safely.
[Ans] Speed

2B090203Q043Eng

________________are used on the space shuttles when landing on runways.


[Ans] Parachutes

2B090103Q044Eng

________________ are reusable and can travel between the Earth and space for many times.
[Ans] Space shuttles

2B090203Q045Eng

When a space shuttle experiences great friction with the atmosphere, the space slows down and its
(a)________________ energy is changed into (b)________________ energy.
[Ans] (a) kinetic (b) heat

2B090203Q046Eng

(extension) A manned spacecraft is usually consists of a/an (a)________________ module, a/an


(b)________________ module and a/an (c)________________ module.
[Ans] (a) orbit (b) return (c) propulsion

181
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

9.5 The Life of an Astronaut in Space


2B090103Q047Eng

There is no air in space and spacecraft would carry out (a)________________ motion. Even if the engine
of a spacecraft is turned off, the spacecraft will (b)________________ .
[Ans] (a) frictionless (b) move continuously

2B090103Q048Eng

In space, the astronauts float in a state of (a)________________ . The motion of them are
(b)________________ : if they are not held, they will move on without a stop.
[Ans] (a) weightlessness (b) frictionless

2B090103Q049Eng

Space is a/an (a)________________ , heat from the Sun can only be transferred by
(b)________________ to the Earth.
[Ans] (a) vacuum (b) radiation

2B090103Q050Eng

Astronauts need to wear ________________ to protect themselves when working outside the spacecraft.
[Ans] Spacesuits

2B090203Q051Eng

The materials used to make the spacesuit are (a)________________ conductors of heat. They prevent
excessive heat (b)________________ (gain/loss) from the sun.
[Ans] (a) poor (b) gain

2B090103Q052Eng

(extension) Heat cannot be transfer by (a)________________ and (b)________________ in space


because there is no (c)________________ .
[Ans] (a) convection (b) conduction (c) medium

2B090103Q053Eng

(extension) The shiny surface of the return module of Shenzhou 5 can ________________ heat radiation.
[Ans] Reflect

2B090203Q054Eng

(extension) The urine collecting device on spacesuit ________________ and stores urine because
astronaut may have to work outside the spacecraft for a long time.
[Ans] collects

182
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090103Q055Eng

(extension) Spacesuits keep the astronauts body ________________ by different designs that control the
heat transfer.
[Ans] Temperature

9.6 Space Exploration


2B090203Q056Eng

(extension) Astronaut ________________ was the first man landed on the Moon in 1969.
[Ans] Neil Armstrong

2B090203Q057Eng

(extension) Space shuttles (a)________________ and (b)________________ exploded in 1986 and 2003
respectively.
[Ans] (a) Challenger (b) Columbia

2B090203Q058Eng

(extension) Artificial ________________ are used for international communication, information


collection and navigation. They are important in modern world.
[Ans] Satellites

2B090203Q059Eng

(extension) Joysticks and defogging gel for glasses are ________________ from space technology.
[Ans] spin-offs

2B090203Q060Eng

(extension) Chinas first manned spacecraft was (a)________________ and the astronaut on board was
(b)________________ .
[Ans] (a) Shenzhou 5 (b) Yang Li-wei

Short Questions

9.1 Forces
2B090104Q001Eng

Give TWO examples of non-contact force.


______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
Magnetic force; force of gravity; electrostatic force
(Any two of the above or other reasonable answers.)

183
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090104Q002Eng

(a) What is the unit of force?


________________________________________________________________________
(b) Name a device which is commonly used to measure force in laboratory.
________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) Newton
(b) Spring balance or Newton balance

9.2 Friction
2B090104Q003Eng

List TWO methods to reduce friction.


______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
Use air cushion
Add lubricants such as oil and water
Use ball bearings
Work on smooth surface
(Any two of the above or other reasonable answers.)

2B090104Q004Eng

Suggest TWO daily situations in which we need to increase friction.


______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
Add grooves on car tyres to reduce the chance of slipping of cars
Add sand grains on greasy road to reduce the chance of slipping of cars
Add grooves to the soles of sport shoes to reduce the chance of slipping
(Any two of the above or other reasonable answers.)

2B090104Q005Eng

Look at the warning sign below:

Caution: Slippery

Why should we pay special attention when we walk on a wet floor?


______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
Water on the floor reduces the friction between our shoe soles and the floor. Thus we will slide more
easily.
184
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090104Q006Eng

How can you reduce the friction in the following cases?


(a) Pushing an iron gate.
________________________________________________________________________
(b) Moving a large piece of furniture from the living room to the bedroom
________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) Add some lubricant to the hinge of the gate, so that it can be pushed open easily. (Or other
reasonable answers)
(b) Place a trolley beneath the furniture so that it can be moved easily. (Or other reasonable answers)

2B090104Q007Eng

(a) How does friction affect the motion of objects?


________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
(b) Give ONE example where friction appears.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) Friction opposes the motion of objects.
(b) Friction acts on running cars / flying aeroplanes; friction acts on parachutes when they are opened
in the course of falling; friction acts on objects when objects move on surfaces. (Any of the above
or other reasonable answers)

2B090204Q008Eng

Why can people skate at a high speed on melting ice?


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
It is because the water from the melting ice reduces the friction between the skate boots and ice surface.

9.3 Force of Gravity


2B090204Q009Eng

(extension) List THREE differences between mass and weight.


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

185
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

[Ans]
The mass of an object is determined by the matters of the object while the weight of an object is the
force of gravity acting on the object.
The mass of an object would not be changed from place to place, while the weight of an object can be
different from place to place. For example, the weight of an object on the Earth is 6 times that on the
Moon.
The unit of mass is kilogram, and the unit of weight is newton.

2B090104Q010Eng

(extension) A piece of rock weighs 5 N on the Earth.


(a) What is the force of gravity acting on the rock by the Earth?
________________________________________________________________________
(b) The force of gravity on the Moon is only 1/6 of that on the Earth.
How much does the rock weigh on the Moon?
________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) 5 N (b) 0.83 N

2B090204Q011Eng

(extension) The weight of a book is 10 N on the Earth.


(a) What is the weight of an object?
________________________________________________________________________
(b) What is the weight of the book on the Moon?
________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) The weight of an object is the force of gravity acting the object.
(b) Weight of the book on the Moon = 10/6 = 1.67 N

9.4 A Space Journey


2B090204Q012Eng

Artificial satellites move around the Earth at a very high speed (about 22000 km/h). Why are they not
streamlined?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
Artificial satellites are not streamlined because there is no air in space. Hence, no friction acts on satellites
even though they move at a very high speed.

186
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090104Q013Eng

There are three gas jars in a laboratory. One of the jars is hydrogen.
(a) What test can be used to test for hydrogen?
________________________________________________________________________
(b) Hydrogen can be used as a fuel. Give ONE example.
________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) Pop sound test; put a burning splint into the jar and a 'pop' sound would be heard if it is
hydrogen.
(b) It can be used in rockets.

2B090204Q014Eng

Parachutes are installed at the back of space shuttles. They are opened when space shuttles return to the
Earth and land on the ground. What is the function of parachutes and why?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
Parachutes are used to slow down space shuttles. When parachutes are opened, friction (air resistance)
acting on space shuttles is greatly increased and hence space shuttles can be slowed down.

2B090204Q015Eng

(extension)
(a) What are the THREE main modules of a manned spacecraft?
________________________________________________________________________
(b) Which module is the control centre where astronauts stay?
________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) They are orbit module, return module and propulsion module.
(b) Return module

2B090104Q016Eng

(extension) Why is a rocket designed in multi-stages?


______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
Once the fuel inside a rocket stage is used up, the stage can be detached so as to reduce the weight of the
rocket.

2B090104Q017Eng

Why is a racing car streamlined in design?


______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
Streamlined race cars can reduce the air resistance acting on them
187
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090104Q018Eng

Liquid hydrogen has some advantages over the solid fuel used in some rockets. Suggest ONE advantage.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
The pumps for the fuel and oxygen can be turned on and off at any time to control the burning process
and the thrust
Liquid hydrogen can provide a larger thrust to the rockets.
(Any one of the above or other reasonable answers)

2B090104Q019Eng

Solid fuel has some advantages over liquid hydrogen used in same rockets. Suggest TWO advantages.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
Solid fuels are easier to handle and occupy less space. (Or other reasonable answers)

2B090204Q020Eng

Using the principle of action and reaction forces, explain how a rocket lifts off.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
As hot gas is ejected downwards from rockets (action force on gas), an equal but opposite force is thus
exerted on the rocket (reaction force on the rocket) to lift it up.

9.5 The Life of an Astronaut in Space


2B090104Q021Eng

Why do astronauts especially need to do exercises in space?


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
In the state of weightlessness, astronauts do not need to use muscle to support their body against the force
of gravity. Thus they have to do exercises to maintain good muscle condition.

2B090104Q022Eng

What is the major energy source of the Space Station?


______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
Solar energy

188
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090104Q023Eng

(extension) Is it possible to transfer heat in solids by convection? Why?


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
No, heat cannot be transferred in solids by convection. In solids, particles are tightly bonded and cannot
move from place to place. Thus convection cannot occur in solids and transfer heat.

2B090104Q024Eng

(extension) Why summer clothes are usually light in colour?


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
Compared with dark-coloured clothes, light-coloured clothes absorb less heat. People in light-coloured
clothes feel cooler.

2B090104Q025Eng

(extension)
(a) What are the THREE methods of heat transfer?
________________________________________________________________________
(b) Which method(s) can be used to transfer heat in space?
________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) The three methods are conduction, convection and radiation.
(b) Radiation

2B090104Q026Eng

(extension) A space suit weighs 1300 N on the Earth. How can astronauts manage to wear such heavy
spacesuits and work in space?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
In space, the force of gravity is nearly zero. Therefore, astronauts do not feel the weight of space suits.

9.6 Space Exploration


2B090104Q027Eng

(extension) Give TWO reasons to support space exploration programmes.


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
It helps to develop new materials and technologies; increase our knowledge of the universe (Or any other
reasonable answers.)
189
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090104Q028Eng

(extension) Give TWO reasons to protest against space exploration programmes.


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
It needs a lot of money; space exploration is dangerous and accidents happened from time to time (Or any
other reasonable answers.)

2B090104Q029Eng

(extension) Give TWO uses of artificial satellites.


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
Detect natural resources on the Earth; broadcast live programmes around the world; collect data for
weather forecast (Any two of the above or other reasonable answers.)

2B090204Q030Eng

(extension)
(a) Which THREE countries have sent men into space?
________________________________________________________________________
(b) Among these three countries, which one has sent men into the moon?
________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) Russia, USA and China
(b) USA

Long Questions

2B090205Q001Eng

Two students, A and B, are asked to do an experiment. First, student A is asked to sit on a stool and
student B is asked to sit on a trolley facing student A as shown.

student A student B
(a) Let student A pull the rope. What happens?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
190
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

(b) Explain what is observed in (a).


__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(c) Are there action and reaction pairs involved in (a)?
__________________________________________________________________________
(d) Then, student A is asked to sit on a trolley facing student B as shown below. Student A is asked to
pull the rope again. What happens?

student A student B
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(e) Explain what is observed in (d).
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) Student B moves towards student A.
(b) As student A pulls the rope, he exerts an action force on the rope and B moves towards A. At the
same time, the rope exerts a reaction on A, but the friction between the stool and the ground offsets
the reaction force, thus student A does not move.
(c) Yes
(d) Student B moves towards student A, at the same time student A moves towards student B.
(e) As student A pulls the rope, he exerts an action force on the rope, thus B moves towards A. At the
same time, the rope also exerts a reaction on A, thus A moves towards B.

2B090105Q002Eng

Some spacecraft use hydrogen as fuels.


(a) What are the colour and the smell of hydrogen?
__________________________________________________________________________
(b) What can you use to test for hydrogen?
__________________________________________________________________________
(c) What will be observed in the test in (b)?
__________________________________________________________________________
(d) What is formed when burning hydrogen in air?
__________________________________________________________________________
(e) What would you use to test for the liquid formed in the hydrogen test?
__________________________________________________________________________
191
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

(f) State TWO advantages of using hydrogen as the fuel in rockets.


__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(g) State TWO disadvantages of using hydrogen as the fuel in rockets.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) Colourless, odourless / no smell
(b) Use a burning splint
(c) A pop sound is heard.
(d) Water is formed.
(e) A piece of dry cobalt chloride paper is used.
(f) Burning hydrogen is clean; hydrogen is very light in weight; hydrogen will not contaminate the
environment in case of accident (Any two of the above or other reasonable answers.)
(g) Hydrogen is colourless and odourless, thus the detection of leakage is very difficult; Hydrogen
burns explosively with air, in case of leakage, explosion will occur.

2B090105Q003Eng

(extension) Look at the foam cup that we use in holding hot drink.

The foam cup is specially designed for holding hot drink. It can keep the temperature of hot drink for a
long time. There are many features which enable the foam cup to keep the temperature of the content
constant.
(a) The cup is white. Why is it useful in keeping the temperature of the content constant?
__________________________________________________________________________
(b) The cup is made of foam. How does foam help to keep the temperature of the content constant?
__________________________________________________________________________
(c) How does a lid help to keep the temperature of the content constant?
__________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) The white surface can reduces heat that enters or leaves the cup.
(b) Foam is a poor heat (thermal) conductor. It prevents heat loss by conduction and convection.
(c) The lid reduces heat loss by convection.
192
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090105Q004Eng

An unknown colourless and odourless gas was found. Tests were done in order to find out what the gas
was and the results of the tests were recorded in the table below:
Tests Results
1 glowing splint test The splint went out slowly.

2 burning splint test A pop sound was heard.

3 lime water test No change

4 dry cobalt chloride paper test No change

(a) Was the gas oxygen? Why?


__________________________________________________________________________
(b) Was the gas carbon dioxide? Why?
__________________________________________________________________________
(c) Was the gas water vapour? Why?
__________________________________________________________________________
(d) Was the gas hydrogen? Why?
__________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) No, because the glowing splint did not relight.
(b) No, because the lime water did not turn milky.
(c) No, because the dry cobalt chloride paper did not turn pink.
(d) Yes, because the gas burned with a pop sound. This was the test for hydrogen.

2B090105Q005Eng

(extension) Look at the drawing of the space shuttle below:

193
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

(a) Label the parts A, B and C on the diagram above.


__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(b) What is/are carried in the part labeled A?
__________________________________________________________________________
(c) What kind of fuel is used in part B?
__________________________________________________________________________
(d) What is the use of part B?
__________________________________________________________________________
(e) What do parts A and B do in the space journey?
__________________________________________________________________________
(f) A space shuttle has some advantages over a spacecraft. Give ONE advantage.
__________________________________________________________________________
(g) The outer surface of the orbiter is covered with heat-resistant tiles. Why is it so?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) A: external fuel tank; B: solid rocket boosters; C: cockpit
(b) Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen
(c) Solid fuel
(d) They provide extra pushing force for the space shuttle during lift off.
(e) They work together to send the space shuttle into the orbit.
(f) A space shuttle can transport man to space and bring them back to the Earth many times. (Or other
reasonable answers)
(g) When the orbiter returns to the Earth, it experiences friction with the atmosphere and the
temperature is very high, thus the orbiter is covered with heat-resistant tiles to protect the orbiter
from being burnt.

2B090205Q006Eng

The diagram below shows a man pushing a wooden box along the floor.

194
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

(a) Draw arrows and label the arrows with the letter in the brackets on the diagram to show the
following forces:
1. the action force exerted on the box by the man (A)
2. the reaction force exerted on the man by the box (B)
3. the friction exerted on the shoes by the floor (C)
4. the friction exerted on the box by the floor (D)
(b) Suggest a method that could help the man to push the box with less force.
__________________________________________________________________________
(c) State TWO characteristics of friction.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a)

A B

D C

(b) Push the box on some rollers


Push the box on a trolley
Push the box on a smooth floor
(Any one of the above or other reasonable answers.)
(c) Friction always opposes the motion of an object.
The size of friction depends on the nature of the contacting surfaces of the two objects.

2B090105Q007Eng

A flat magnet A is placed on a smooth desktop as shown below:

magnet A

magnet B

Another magnet B is moved near to magnet A as shown. Magnet A moves away without direct contacting.

195
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

(a) Why does magnet A move away?


__________________________________________________________________________
(b) Why does magnet A move away without direct contact with magnet B?
__________________________________________________________________________
(c) Turn magnet B upside down and move it near to magnet A again. What will happen?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) Like poles repel
(b) Magnetic force is a non-contact force.
(c) Magnet A will be attracted towards magnet B.

2B090105Q008Eng

Forces are measured in newtons. The downward force due to gravity on a mass of 1 kg on Earth is about
10 N.
(a) What would be the downward force on a bag of the following things?
(i) 5 kg of potatoes: _________________________
(ii) 10 kg of rice: ___________________________
(b) The mass of a piece of iron is 10 kg on Earth. What is the mass of the same piece of iron on the
Moon?
__________________________________________________________________________
(c) On the Moon, the force of gravity is about one-sixth of that on the Earth. A man weighs 1500 N on
the Earth. How many newtons would the man weigh on the Moon?
__________________________________________________________________________
(d) What is the definition of the following quantities?
(i) Mass: _______________________________________________________________
(ii) Weight: _____________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) (i) 50N
(ii) 100N
(b) 10 kg
(c) The weight of the man on the moon = 1500 N 1/6 = 250 N
(d) (i) The mass of an object is a measure of the amount of matter it contains.
(ii) The weight of an object is the force of gravity of the Earth acting on that object.

196
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090205Q009Eng

Read the following paragraph about the training of astronauts and answer the questions below.

Training for astronauts


Before an astronaut is assigned to a shuttle mission, he or she has to complete a year
of basic training program, then he or she starts the more advanced and specific
training until the mission takes place. Most astronauts wait and train for an average of
five more years before flying in space. While waiting, astronauts keep training and
learning how to operate new equipment.
Basic training for astronaut candidates includes classes in geology, engineering,
astronomy, spacecraft design and human physiology. They are exposed to microgravity
by working underwater in diving suit. This is the closest situation to simulate
microgravity on Earth. Candidates are given survival training in the event of an
emergency water landing or parachute escape.
Much of their time is spent practising operations in simulators when they practise
living, working and checking equipment in very small quarters similar to those in the
space shuttle. Recently, astronaut candidates also get a taste of microgravity by
taking parabolic flights. In these flights, an aeroplane free falls in an arc like a tossed
ball, causing short intervals of microgravity and often air sickness.

(a) What classes will be taught to the astronaut?


__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(b) What kinds of training are given for the astronaut to experience the microgravity?
__________________________________________________________________________
(c) List THREE things that astronauts learn during their training.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(d) Why do astronauts need to go through such a long and tough training program before they can go
into space?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

197
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

[Ans]
(a) The classes include geology, engineering, astronomy, spacecraft design and human physiology.
(b) Training underwater with the diving suit on, and taking parabolic flights
(c) Learn how to operate new equipment
Learn how to fly the space shuttle
Learn the knowledge in different fields
Learn how to work in microgravity environment
Learn how to live and work in the space shuttle
(Any three of the above or other reasonable answers.)
(d) Goingto space involves great challenges; the environment in space is not familiar humans. Any
small mistakes can damage the whole project and human lives, and also, the time and money
being invested in the project is wasted. Therefore, each astronaut needs to be well trained before
they can carry out the mission.
(This is just a sample answer; students are encouraged to answer their own point of view.)

2B090205Q010Eng

Tommy always wants to build a spacecraft which can fly into space. However, he encounters a few
questions listed below. Try to solve them for him.
(a) Why do rockets designed to have multi-stages?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(b) If the spacecraft uses up its fuel in the space, can it still move? Why?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(c) When the spacecraft returns to the Earth, large amount of heat is produced. How does this heat
form? What should be done to prevent the damaging effect of heat on the spacecraft?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) The rocket does not need to waste fuel by carrying unnecessary weight into space, because it
discards each stage after the fuel in the stage is used up.
(b) Since there is no air in space, a moving spacecraft can move forwards continuously in space even
when it has no fuel.
(c) As the spacecraft enters the atmosphere at a very high speed, a great friction is produced between
the body of the spacecraft and the atmosphere and thus large amount of heat is produced. Heat-
resistant materials must be used to cover the body of the spacecraft to prevent the damage made by
the great heat.

198
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090205Q011Eng

John throws a coin vertically upwards. It falls after reaching the highest point and returns again to Johns
hand at the same position.
(a) Describe the change in speed as the coin moves (i) upwards and (ii) downwards.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
(b) There is a force that causes the coin to return.
(i) Name the force.
_____________________________________________________________________
(ii) What is the direction of the force when the coin rises and falls?
_____________________________________________________________________
(iii) Is the force still acts on the coin when the coin reaches the highest point?
_____________________________________________________________________
(iv) Describe the reaction of this force.
The reaction force acts on _____________________ by ___________________ .
[Ans]
(a) (i) The coin moves upwards with a decreasing speed.
(ii) The coin moves downwards with an increasing speed.
(b) (i) The force of gravity
(ii) The force of gravity acting on the coin always points downward.
(iii) Yes.
(iv) The reaction force acts on the Earth by the coin.

2B090205Q012Eng

The time for a basketball player to jump up and return to the ground is called the hanging time. The
hanging time consists of two parts:
1. Time to rise from the ground to the highest point (t1)
2. Time to fall back to the ground after reaching the highest point (t2)
(a) If air resistance is ignored, t1 and t2 are always equal. If the air resistance is strong enough to affect
the motion, what happens to t1 and t2? Briefly explain your answer.
(i) The rising time t1 is __________________ (longer / shorter).
_____________________________________________________________________
(ii) The falling time t2 is __________________ (increases / decreases).
_____________________________________________________________________
(b) Peter said that the hanging time on the Moon is shorter than that on the Earth.
Is he correct? Briefly explain your answer.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

199
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

[Ans]
(a) (i) t1 is shorter. Both the force of gravity and the air resistance oppose the upward motion so that
the coin reaches the highest point at a greater rate.
(ii) t2 is longer. The air resistance points upwards so that the total force pulling the coins down is
smaller and the coin speeds up at a smaller rate.
(b) He is wrong. The hanging time is longer on the Moon.
It is because the force of gravity is smaller on the Moon.

2B090105Q013Eng

Sam tries to move a heavy box of drinks on the floor in a supermarket.


(a) He pushes the box forwards but the box does not move. Why?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(b) Sam thinks that a wet floor might help him move the box easily. Why is it easier to move the box
on a wet floor?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(c) However, Sams mother doesnt think pouring water on the floor is not a good idea. She worries
that it causes potential danger. What potential danger does a wet floor cause?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(d) Sam asks people to help him put the heavy box on a cart. Then he can move the box easily. Why is
it easier to move the box on a cart?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) There is a large friction between the floor and the box.
(b) Water can act as a lubricant to reduce friction.
(c) People may easily slip on the wet floor.
(d) The wheels of the cart roll and the friction is thus much reduced.

2B090105Q014Eng

Maglev train () is the fastest train in the world. Its highest speed is 450 km/h. When it moves, a
magnetic force slightly lifts up the train.
(a) Explain briefly why slightly lifting up the train helps the train move in a high speed.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(b) Is the magnetic force acting on the train a contact force or non-contact force?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(c) Name a force that would slow down the train.
___________________________________________________________________________
200
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

(d) Suggest another ONE design for the train to move in such a high speed.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) As the train and the rail are no longer in contact, there is no friction between them.
(b) Non-contact force
(c) Air resistance
(d) The shape of maglev train is streamlined.

2B090105Q015Eng

David is playing football and his position is a goalkeeper.


(a) When he catches the ball, he finds that the ball easily slips away. Suggest ONE way to help him.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(b) Explain your answer in (a).
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(c) Davids boots have studs (). What is the function of the studs?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(d) It starts raining in the second half of the game and David find it harder to hold the ball. Briefly
explain why.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) He can wear gloves for goalkeeper.
(b) The rough surfaces on the gloves increase friction between the ball and the gloves.
(c) The studs on the boots increase friction and prevent the player from slipping.
(d) Water is a lubricant that reduces friction.

2B090105Q016Eng

The first successful manned Moon mission is Apollo 11 of USA. The spacecraft is carried by a hydrogen-
fuelled rocket called Saturn 5.
(a) Explain briefly why the rocket is design in streamlined.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(b) What is the advantage of using liquid hydrogen fuel over solid fuel?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(c) What is the disadvantage of using liquid hydrogen fuel over solid fuel?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
201
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

(d) What product(s) will be formed when hydrogen burns with oxygen?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) Streamlined shapes can reduce air resistance when passing through the atmosphere during the
launch.
(b) The burning process can be controlled.
(c) Liquid fuels are much heavier than solid fuels.
(d) Water will be formed.

2B090105Q017Eng

Walking on a wet floor is very difficult because the fiction between the floor and the shoes is greatly
reduced. Though friction sometimes causes inconvenience, we cannot live a normal life without it.
(a) What is friction?
Friction is a force that ________________ the motion of an object when the object slides over a
_____________________ .
(b) Write down TWO ways to reduce friction.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(c) Write down TWO examples that we make use of friction in our daily life.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(d) Write down ONE example of nearly frictionless motion in our daily life.
___________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) opposes, surface.
(b) Any two:
Using air cushion
Using rollers
Using lubricants
(Accept other reasonable answers.)
(c) We use friction in walking to prevent slipping.
We use friction to prevent a nail from slipping out.
(Accept other reasonable answers.)
(d) Skating on ice surface
(Accept other reasonable answers.)

202
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090105Q018Eng

(extension) This question is about the life of astronauts in space.


(a) State ONE problem that astronauts face about eating and drinking in space.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(b) Give TWO more problems that astronauts face in space.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(c) Suggest TWO important features of the spacesuit.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(d) What kind of colour the spacesuit should be?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) Food and drink will float around in space.
(Accept other reasonable answers.)
(b) (Accept any two reasonable answers such as difficulties in taking shower and go to the toilet,
keeping muscles strong, sleeping, getting energy sources, communicating with others.)
(c) The spacesuit should be airtight to maintain a constant air pressure inside.
The spacesuit should be made of poor conductor of heat to slow down heat loss.
(Accept any reasonable answers.)
(d) The colour should be white and shiny.

2B090105Q019Eng

When working outside the spacecraft in space, astronauts need to wear spacesuits to protect themselves.
(a) Space is a vacuum.
(i) What is a vacuum?
_____________________________________________________________________
(ii) In which way can heat transfer through a vacuum?
_____________________________________________________________________
(b) Why the surface of the spacesuit is painted shiny?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(c) The spacesuit consists of different parts, for examples, a primary life support system and a urine
collecting device.
(i) What does the primary life support system contain? Suggest TWO.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
(ii) State the function of the urine collecting device.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
203
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

[Ans]
(a) Radiation
(b) It is because shiny surface can reflect heat radiation from the Sun.
(c) (i) The primary life support system contains food and water supplies.
(ii) It collects and stores urine.

2B090105Q020Eng

Space exploration activities have been ongoing since 1950s. Besides increasing our knowledge of space,
space exploration also helps to develop new technologies that improve our daily life.
(a) Which countries have sent men into space?
___________________________________________________________________________
(b) Who is the first astronaut in China who travelled in space?
___________________________________________________________________________
(c) Write down TWO applications of artificial satellites.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
(d) Write down TWO spin-offs of space technologies.
___________________________________________________________________________
[Ans]
(a) Russia (USSR), USA and China
(b) Yang Li-wei.
(c) International communication
Information collection
Navigation
(Accept any two reasonable answers.)
(d) Scratch-resistant lenses
Joysticks
(Accept any two reasonable answers.)

Miscellaneous Questions

2B090106Q001Eng

(extension) Match the parts of a space shuttle in Column I with the appropriate descriptions in Column II.
Write your answer in the blanks below.
Column I Column II
(a) Solid rocket booster (i) helps to slow down the orbiter on landing
(b) Orbiter (ii) stores liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen
(c) External fuel tank (iii) carries the cockpit and the cargo bay with it
(d) Parachute (iv) provides extra pushing force during lift off
(a) ______ (b) ______ (c) ______ (d) ______
[Ans]

204
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

(a) iv (b) iii (c) ii (d) i

205
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090106Q002Eng

(extension) Match the features of the spacesuit in Column I with their functions in Column II. Write your
answer in the blanks below.
Column I Column II
(a) White and shiny surface (i) collects and stores the urine of the astronaut
(b) Life support system (ii) communicates with the spacecraft
(c) Liquid cooled underwear (iii) reflects the radiation from the Sun
(d) Urine collecting device (iv) regulates the body temperature of the astronaut
(e) Special joints (v) reduces heat absorption
(f) Gold-coloured helmet visor (vi) provides oxygen and water
(g) Radio system (vii) allows flexible movement of the astronaut
(a) ______ (b) ______ (c) ______ (d) ______
(e) ______ (f) ______ (g) ______
[Ans]
(a) v (b) vi (c) iv (d) i (e) vii (f) iii (g) ii

2B090106Q003Eng

(extension) Match the features of a spacesuit in Column I with their functions in Column II. Write your
answer in the blanks below.
Column I Column II
(a) Primary life support system (i) reflects radiation from the Sun
(b) Bendable joint (ii) maintains constant air pressure
(c) Built-in radio systems (iii) contains food and water supplies
(d) Airtight design (iv) allows comfortable bending of body parts
(e) Liquid cooled underwear (v) allows communication between astronauts
(f) Urine collecting device (vi) collects and stores urine
(g) Visor coated with golden (vii) brings away heat released by the astronaut
substance during movement
(a) ______ (b) ______ (c) ______ (d) ______
(e) ______ (f) ______ (g) ______
[Ans]
(a) iii (b) iv (c) v (d) ii (e) vii (f) vi (g) i

2B090106Q004Eng

Match the terms in Column I with their meanings in Column II. Write your answer in the blanks below.
Column I Column II
(a) Conduction (i) heat transfer by particle vibration
(b) Radiation (ii) heat transfer by movement of particles
(c) Lubricant (iii) heat transfer without medium
(d) Convection (iv) method to produce heat by friction
(e) Rubbing (v) liquids used to reduce friction

206
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

(a) ______ (b) ______ (c) ______ (d) ______ (e) ______

207
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

[Ans]
(a) i (b) iii (c) v (d) ii (e) iv

2B090106Q005Eng

(extension) Match the units in Column I with their quantities in Column II. Write your answer in the
blanks below.
Column I Column II
(a) kg (i) pressure
3
(b) kg/cm (ii) speed
(c) N (iii) power
(d) kPa (iv) density
(e) kW h (v) weight
(f) km/h (vi) mass
(g) kW (vii) energy
(a) ______ (b) ______ (c) ______ (d) ______
(e) ______ (f) ______ (g) ______
[Ans]
(a) vi (b) iv (c) v (d) i (e) vii (f) ii (g) iii

2B090106Q006Eng

Match the terms in Column I with their meanings in Column II. Write your answer in the blanks below.
Column I Column II
(a) Friction (i) the unit of force
(b) Newton (ii) the unit of mass
(c) Kilogram (iii) an instrument for measuring force
(d) Gravity (iv) the amount of matter in an object
(e) Spring balance (v) the force acting against movement
(f) Weight (vi) the measure of force of gravity on an object
(g) Mass (vii) the force pulling all things down onto the Earth
(a) ______ (b) ______ (c) ______ (d) ______
(e) ______ (f) ______ (g) ______
[Ans]
(a) v (b) i (c) ii (d) vii (e) iii (f) vi (g) iv

208
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090106Q007Eng

(extension) Match the space spin-offs in Column I with their origins in Column II. Write your answer in
the blanks below.
Column I Column II
(a) Joystick (i) technology to detect the birth of stars
(b) Ear thermometer (ii) material for making spacecraft seats
(c) Fire fighter wear (iii) technology to detect any toxic vapors
(d) Smoke detector (iv) technology to make robot controllers
(e) Shock absorbing helmet (v) material for making spacesuits
(a) ______ (b) ______ (c) ______ (d) ______ (e) ______
[Ans]
(a) iv (b) i (c) v (d) iii (e) ii

2B090106Q008Eng

(extension) Match the parts of a spacecraft in Column I with the appropriate descriptions in Column II.
Write your answer in the blanks below.
Column I Column II
(a) Solar panel (i) sends and receives communication signals
(b) Antenna (ii) collects energy from sunlight
(c) Orbit module (iii) is the control centre that carries the astronauts
(d) Return module (iv) contains equipment for experiments
(e) Propulsion module (v) gives power for the spacecraft to change its
direction
(a) ______ (b) ______ (c) ______ (d) ______ (e) ______
[Ans]
(a) ii (b) i (c) iv (d) iii (e) v

2B090106Q009Eng

Match the forces in Column I with the examples in Column II. Write your answer in the blanks below.
Column I Column II
(a) Magnetic force (i) the force that holds the Earth and moon in
(b) Gravity their places
(c) Friction (ii) part of a pair of forces that same size but
(d) Reaction force opposite directions
(iii) a force that exerts on the road by the tyre
(iv) a force that makes a compass always pointing
to the north
(a) ______ (b) ______ (c) ______ (d) ______
[Ans]
(a) iv (b) i (c) iii (d) ii

209
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090106Q010Eng

(extension) Match the keywords in Column I with the great events in space exploration history in Column
II. Write your answer in the blanks below.
Column I Column II
(a) Gagarin (i) The first artificial satellite in the Earth orbit
(b) Columbia (ii) The first reusable manned spacecraft
(c) Sputnik (iii) The largest space telescope
(d) Hubble (iv) The first human stepped on the Moon
(e) Armstrong (v) The first human in the Earth orbit
(a) ______ (b) ______ (c) ______ (d) ______ (e) ______
[Ans]
(a) v (b) ii (c) i (d) iii (e) iv

2B090106Q011Eng

(extension) Match the vehicles in space exploration history in Column I with the countries concerned in
Column II. Write your answer in the blanks below.
Column I Column II
(a) Mir Space Station (i) China
(b) Space Shuttle Challenger (ii) USA
(c) Long march rockets (iii) USSR
(d) Ariane rockets (v) Europe
(a) ______ (b) ______ (c) ______ (d) ______ (e) ______
[Ans]
(a) iii (b) ii (c) i (d) iv

2B090106Q012Eng

Match the forces in Column I with their typical sizes in Column II. Write your answer in the blanks
below.
Column I Column II
(a) Force of gravity on an apple by the Earth (i) 104 N
(b) Force of gravity on Moon by the Earth (ii) 2N
(c) Force of gravity on an ant by the Earth (iii) 800 N
(d) Biting force of a man (iv) 108 N
(e) Launching force of a space shuttle (v) 1020 N
(a) ______ (b) ______ (c) ______ (d) ______ (e) ______
[Ans]
(a) ii (b) v (c) i (d) iii (e) v

210
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090106Q013Eng

(extension) Match the uses of artificial satellites in Column I with the types of artificial satellites in
Column II. Write your answer in the blanks below.
Column I Column II
(a) Guiding the courses of aeroplanes (i) Communication satellites
(b) Taking pictures of cloud patterns (ii) Earth observation satellites
(c) Broadcasting live news around the world (iii) Navigational satellites
(a) ______ (b) ______ (c) ______
[Ans]
(a) iii (b) ii (c) i

2B090206Q014Eng

(extension) In the following action list, some of them are relevant to a space shuttle journey. Arrange the
relevant actions in sequence by numbering them in the brackets. For the irrelevant actions, put an x in
the bracket.
(a) Start the space mission [ ]
(b) Release the propulsion and orbit module [ ]
(c) Drop rocket boosters with parachutes [ ]
(d) Launch with rocket boosters [ ]
(e) Drop different stages after fuel is run out [ ]
(f) Enter the orbit and shut down the engines [ ]
(g) Drop the fuel tank [ ]
(h) Return module falls into the atmosphere [ ]
(i) Open parachute when landing to slow down. [ ]
[Ans]
(a) 5 (b) x (c) 2 (d) 1 (e) x (f) 3 (g) 4 (h) x (i) 6

2B090206Q015Eng

(extension) In the following action list, some of them are relevant to space journey of Shenzhou 5.
Arrange the relevant actions in sequence by numbering them in the brackets. For the irrelevant actions,
put an x in the bracket.
(a) Start the space mission [ ]
(b) Release the propulsion and orbit module [ ]
(c) Drop rocket boosters with parachutes [ ]
(d) Launch [ ]
(e) Drop different stages after fuel is run out [ ]
(f) Enter the orbit and shut down the engines [ ]
(g) Drop the fuel tank [ ]
(h) Return module falls into the atmosphere [ ]
(i) Open parachute when landing to slow down. [ ]
[Ans]

211
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

(a) 3 (b) 5 (c) x (d) 1 (e) 2 (f) x (g) x (h) 6 (i) 7

212
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090206Q016Eng

(extension) The following are famous events in the history of space exploration. Arrange the events
according to the dates they happened
A US space shuttle Columbia exploded.
B China's lunar satellite Cheng'e 1 reaches the Moon orbit.
C USSR astronaut Yuri Gagarin orbited the Earth.
D US astronaut Neil Armstrong stepped on the Moon.
E The construction of International Space Station started.
Sequence: ______ ______ ______ ______ ______
[Ans]
C D A E B

2B090106Q017Eng

(extension) The following are important events in the history of space exploration. Arrange the events
according to the dates they happened.
A The first successful launch of reusable manned spacecraft
B The first successful launch of manned spaceflight of China
C The first successful launch of modern rockets
D The first human stepping on the Moon
E The first human reaching the Earth orbit
Sequence: ______ ______ ______ ______ ______
[Ans]
C E D A B

2B090106Q018Eng

The following statements are INCORRECT. Circle the wrong word(s) on the left column and write the
correct ones on the right column. There might be more than one mistake in each sentence.
Statement Correction
(a) Action and reaction are equal in size and opposite
in directions, acting on the same object.
(b) The mass of everything becomes zero in space
where the gravity is zero.
(c) Burning fuel in the atmosphere makes the returning
spacecraft very hot.
[Ans]
(a) on the same object on two different objects
(b) mass weight
(c) Burning fuel Friction

213
Question Bank (Ch. 9)

2B090106Q019Eng

The following statements are INCORRECT. Circle the wrong word(s) on the left column and write the
correct ones on the right column. There might be more than one mistake in each sentence.
Statement Correction
(a) To prevent a space shuttle from burning up, its surface
is covered with heat-conducting materials.
(b) Parachutes are used to reduce the temperature of the
space shuttle.
(c) Spacesuits is designed to protect the astronauts from
comets.
[Ans]
(a) heat-conducting heat-resistant
(b) temperature speed
(c) comets radiation

2B090106Q020Eng

The following statements are INCORRECT. Circle the wrong word(s) on the left column and write the
correct ones on the right column. There might be more than one mistake in each sentence.
Statement Correction
(a) Fiction is a kind of non-contact force between two
surfaces sliding over each other.
(b) The Earth exerts a pushing force on objects on or
around it and the force is called gravity.
(c) The weight of an object is always the same on
every plant.
(d) Heat transfers in space by convection.
[Ans]
(a) non-contact contact
(b) pushing pulling
(c) weight mass
(d) convection radiation

214