Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 17

OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462

DOI 10.1186/s40064-016-3128-y

METHODOLOGY Open Access

Social customer relationship


management: taking advantage
ofWeb 2.0 andBig Data technologies
SergioOrengaRogl andRicardoChalmeta*

Abstract
The emergence of Web 2.0 and Big Data technologies has allowed a new customer relationship strategy based on
interactivity and collaboration called Social Customer Relationship Management (Social CRM) to be created. This
enhances customer engagement and satisfaction. The implementation of Social CRM is a complex task that involves
different organisational, human and technological aspects. However, there is a lack of methodologies to assist com
panies in these processes. This paper shows a novel methodology that helps companies to implement Social CRM,
taking into account different aspects such as social customer strategy, the Social CRM performance measurement
system, the Social CRM business processes, or the Social CRM computer system. The methodology was applied to one
company in order to validate and refine it.
Keywords: Social customer relationship management, Customer engagement, Web 2.0 technologies,
Big Data technologies

Background customer-focused one. The aim is to create value for cus-


The view that companies have of a customer has evolved tomers, understand their needs and offer value-added
dramatically with increasing competition, market globali- services (King and Burgess 2008). This increases the value
sation and technological advances. Prior to the twentieth of the company and allows it to gain a strategic advantage
century companies focused only on production. During over competitors, because customers are more satisfied
the first half of the twentieth century, however, compa- and, therefore, it is easier to retain them (Nguyen et al.
nies began competing to persuade customers to buy their 2007).
products. Later, during the second half of the same cen- CRM has been conceptualised from five different
tury, companies realised that they did not have to sell viewpoints: (1) Process, (2) Strategy, (3) Philosophy, (4)
customers what they manufactured, but had to make Capability, and/or (5) Technological tools (Zablah et al.
what was demanded in market sectors. At the beginning 2004). Therefore, there is no agreed definition of CRM.
of the twenty-first century, a stage began where the pre- Among the most representative definitions is that pro-
vailing business orientation focused on customer rela- vided by Bose (2002) At the core, CRM is an integration
tionship management (CRM), where each customer was of technologies and business processes used to satisfy the
treated individually and uniquely, depending on their needs of a customer during any given interaction. More
preferences (Bose 2002). specifically, CRM involves acquisition, analysis and use
The essence of CRM is to change the strategy of organi- of knowledge about customers to sell more goods or ser-
sations, to move from a product-focused strategy to a vices and to do it more efficiently. In this context, the
work of Michael Fayerman (2002) should also be men-
tioned. This author distinguishes the following three
*Correspondence: rchalmet@uji.es areas of CRM within the company: (a) Operational CRM,
Research Group onIntegration andReEngineering ofSystems (IRIS). which deals with actual interactions with customers; (b)
Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informticos, Unversitat Jaume I,
Av. de Vicent Sos Baynat s/n, Castelln, Spain
Analytical CRM, which analyses data about a companys

2016 The Author(s). This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license,
and indicate if changes were made.
OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 2 of 17

customers and presents them in such a way as allow bet- in the way they relate is not being led by the compa-
ter and quicker business decisions to be made; and (c) nies, but the customers and their expectation that the
Collaborative CRM, which promotes inter-departmental companies with which they relate operate a significant
teamwork and communication within a company for the change in their access models and behave in accordance
purpose of improving overall customer experience. with this new social reality. This new model represents
CRM is not just technology, as a proper implemen- a business opportunity for companies in their customer
tation of CRM requires an integrated and balanced management. As a workspace, it represents a challenge
approach to technology, process and people (Chen and for companies, because it is necessary to manage both
Popovich 2003). However, it has been the evolution of human information, which is characterised by being
information technology and communications which has complex, unstructured, ubiquitous, multi-format and
allowed its implementation. CRM links the systems of multi-channel, and also the traditional information.
front office (sales, marketing, and customer service) and Moreover, Social CRM benefits from Big Data because
back office (financial, logistics, warehousing, accounting, it facilitates more accurate decision-making and a more
human resources, and so forth) through the integration efficient distribution of knowledge among the social cus-
of technological and functional components (Strauss and tomers and the company (Anshari etal. 2015). Big Data
Frost 2002; Zamil 2011). CRM mainly relies on the use technology can be used for many purposes in Social
of structured data from a data warehouse, where data are CRM. Some of these include: (1) Commercial recommen-
extracted, transformed and loaded from operation sys- dation, suggesting the product or service with greater
tems such as ERP, SCM or operational CRM. probability of success for each customer; (2) Competi-
In this context, the emergence of Web 2.0 technolo- tive intelligence, showing real-time automated informa-
gies has allowed the evolution of CRM, which is based tion customised to the situation created by the customer,
on a strategy focused on customer transactions, to Social thereby allowing the company to maintain a contextual-
CRM, which is based on a strategy focused on creating ised dialogue and to obtain real-time information needed
engagement between the customer and the company to make suitable decisions; (3) Debt recovery of custom-
(offering new points-of-contact between the two, not ers from public information sources; (4) Automated cat-
only with the salesperson, and building stronger cus- egorisation and routing of customer interactions over any
tomer links with the company) (Faase et al. 2011). Yet, channel; (5) Predictive models of trend (purchase, aban-
Social CRM does not replace CRM, but complements donment, non-payment, etc.) and clustering of custom-
it. Customer engagement using Web 2.0 technologies is ers; and (6) 360 customer view, showing the relevant
only possible when there is already a customer manage- customer information performed through any channel
ment using CRM (Faase et al. 2011). What Social CRM and format.
adds are social features, functions, processes and differ- The amount of open information available online from
ent forms of interaction between the company and its heterogeneous sources and domains is growing very
customers, suppliers and partners (Greenberg 2010). quickly, and constitutes an important body of knowledge
The social customer is the customer that makes use to support Social CRM. These data sources may dis-
of social software, which moves in a scenario character- close significant business opportunities and competitive
ised by permanent connectivity, mobility, being multi- advantage to those who are able to understand and lever-
channel and the progress of the Internet of Things. The age their value (Torre-Bastida etal. 2015). They can infer
publication of opinions on the Internet allows custom- valuable information as a support for customer-related
ers to share their points of view about a product or decision-making. Therefore, Big Data and Web 2.0 tech-
service. Companies participate in the social network nologies could change Social CRM from an unavoidable
of users connecting to its target group. This facilitates tool to keep/gain the new segment of social customers
the opportunity to gain business-relevant insights from into a business opportunity and a competitive advantage.
the data accessible from the communication among However, the development and implementation
users. These electronic word-of-mouth statements are of Social CRM in a company is a complex task that
very important for organisations, because it is a way involves different organisational, human and technologi-
(1) to know how customers perceive their products cal aspects (Bebensee et al. 2011; Rosenberger 2015). In
and/or services, (2) to intensify the relationship, and order to assist in a process of this kind, a methodology for
(3) to align the business with consumer needs (Rosen- managing the innovation and change involved in Social
berger 2015). This scenario is a new model of interac- CRM is needed, while also reducing both the risk of fail-
tion between people, which is being transferred virally ure in the implementation, as well as the time required to
to the relationship between customer and company. obtain business benefits (Crockett and Reed 2003; Lech
Unlike other technological revolutions, this change 2016; Nguyen etal. 2007).
OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 3 of 17

The literature about Social CRM does not contain Social software only provides the framework, the con-
any specific methodologies to help in the development tent is provided by people (Omerzel 2010). Furthermore,
of Social CRM. The research that exists on the topic of the number of people using social software is very impor-
Social CRM focuses primarily on the characteristics, tant. As more people use these applications, the overall
opportunities and benefits that Social CRM offers (Faase value of knowledge will be significantly increased, i.e.
et al. 2011; Greenberg 2010; Mosadegh and Behboudi collective intelligence will increase (Shimazu and Koike
2011) but does not offer any methodological guidelines. 2007). Users provide data and services in a way that
To help solve this problem, a methodology called allows others to combine them again, thus creating a net-
SCRM-IRIS is presented in this paper, which guides the work of effects through the architecture of participation
development and implementation of Social CRM in a (OReilly 2005). Recently, the social media have become a
company. The rest of the paper is organised as follows. strategic tool for organisations, since they allow compa-
Section two shows the literature review. In section three nies to meet the needs of customers as well as to provide
the research method that was followed to obtain the them with new services (Go and You 2016).
methodology is shown. Section four presents the meth-
odology proposed for the implementation of Social CRM. Social CRM
Finally, section five presents the conclusions. CRM can take advantage of social media, whose rela-
tional properties and characteristics are particularly
Literature review well suited to customer interactions (Olbrich and Hols-
Social software ing 2012). Social CRM can be defined as A philosophy
There is no generally agreed definition of Web 2.0. One and a business strategy, supported by a technology plat-
of the most widely used is that proposed by Tim OReilly, form, business rules, processes and social characteristics,
who defines it as a set of economic, social, and technol- designed to engage the customer in a collaborative con-
ogy trends that collectively form the basis for the next versation in order to provide mutually beneficial value in
generation of the Interneta more mature, distinctive a trusted and transparent business environment. Its the
medium characterised by user participation, openness, companys response to the customers ownership of the
and network effects (Musser et al. 2006, p. 4). Web 2.0 conversation (Greenberg 2009). This definition includes
is not only a new generation of technologies, but also a the central principle of customer engagement, which was
change in the way in which users access the Internet in missing in earlier CRM models, and social media tech-
order to mutually interact and collectively create knowl- nologies facilitate this customer engagement (Olbrich
edge. Some of the most common Web 2.0 tools include: and Holsing 2012).
Wikis, Group chats, Social bookmarking, Mashups, Therefore, for a Social CRM system to work, there must
Blogs, RSS, Folksonomy, Podcasts and Social Networks. be an important cultural and behavioural change both in
Social software (which consists of the applications cre- the company as well as in the customers, as they have to
ated with Web 2.0 technologies for social purposes) ena- change the way in which they interact (Greenberg 2009).
bles the development of new communication tools that Contribution, sharing, collaboration, dynamism and
allow a competitive advantage to be created in organi- bidirectional trust between the company and customers
sations (Wirtz etal. 2013). In social media (which is the become fundamental aspects in Social CRM (Lee and
set of social software applications), users can find not Lan 2007). The concept of social customer thus appears,
only information, but are active contributors (Lai and which can be defined as a new type of customer that
To 2015; Razmerita et al. 2009) and can freely express uses social software to search for, compare and exchange
their comments, views and emotions (Feng et al. 2011). views on products and services offered by a company,
Therefore, social media encourage the creation, sharing and who expects companies to not only be present in that
and exchange of data. As stated above, there is a large social software but also to respond to questions and par-
variety of types of social software applications, such as ticipate. This customer acquires knowledge about new
Social Networks (which allow social capital to be man- products and services through social channels and net-
aged more efficiently), Blogs (to communicate with oth- works, prefers a conversation with the particular brand
ers more effectively), Wikis and Social bookmarking (to rather than it being just a way to send messages and at
make better use of collective intelligence), Group chats, the same time wait for an answer, and wants the company
Mashups, Multimedia Sharing, RSS, Folksonomy or to listen to and solve their problems quickly.
Podcasts. These technologies are open and are designed The social customer creates a new business model,
to encourage collaboration as well as to facilitate social called social business, which can help companies
interaction and the sharing of knowledge (Dietrich etal. increase their profitability because it allows a number
2008; Kirchner etal. 2009; Ras and Rech 2009). of qualitative and quantitative benefits to be obtained.
OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 4 of 17

The qualitative ones include: a better understanding and A more subtle aspect of Big Data which is not fre-
interpretation of the market, by interacting with custom- quently mentioned is that the analysis of massive data,
ers in real time; benefiting from word of mouth; involving which are often incomplete and even slightly inaccurate,
and engaging the customer at all stages of development seeks to find correlations and detect things that are hap-
of the product or service offered by the company (design, pening, largely ignoring the analysis of causality. The
production, testing, etc.); improving the overall customer emphasis is on the what, not the why. However, the
experience and lifetime value; enhancing products and growing analytical arsenal and existing advanced mod-
services, or building up trust (Faase etal. 2011; Mosadegh elling techniques applied to massive datasets by profes-
and Behboudi 2011; Reinhold and Alt 2011; Sarner etal. sionals with appropriate levels of creativity and expertise
2012). Some the most significant quantitative benefits are currently reaching an enormous degree of success
that could be achieved with the use of Social CRM are: in discovering correlations in previously unknown cus-
increased sales; decreased service costs; reduced or tomer knowledge.
replaced direct costs of printing and online advertising;
reduced direct staff time costs; increased direct revenue Big Data inSocial CRM
from memberships, registers and advertising, exhibitions Big Data is a technology with a real ability to transform
and sponsorship (Dreyer and Grant 2011b). very significant aspects of customer relationship man-
However, this new business model has a number of agement, thereby providing companies with a competi-
risks for companies (Assaad and Marx Gmez 2011). tive advantage over its competitors. Big Data technology
Both good and bad news spread quickly; social software allows knowledge to be extracted from customer infor-
is not well controlled or censored, so anyone can publish mation and converted, in an effective, secure and scalable
anything good or bad about the company or its products way, into real business value. From customer information
or services; and problems regarding personal privacy and and through Big Data, a company is able to reveal hidden
security can emerge as the user is required to share at knowledge of the customer, turning it into opportunities
least some personal data. to maximise the business value of each customer, to act
preventively, to improve customer satisfaction, to iden-
Big Data tify new opportunities, or to predict their tendency and
Moreover, Social CRM benefits from Big Data, which is intention profile.
based on the current ability to have a large amount of It is noteworthy that companies are harnessing the
data and draw conclusions about all sorts of company- power of Big Data and analytics to apply it in customer
customer processes and interactions. The digital world, relationship management (Marshall et al. 2015). The
mobility, and permanent connectivity have completely business value is derived from the knowledge gener-
changed these processes and interactions over the last ated, once it is transferred to the design of products or
two decades. In addition, advances in infrastructure, services, to the segmentation of customers and markets,
storage techniques, and data-processing allow these huge to the acquisition of new customers, to the understand-
volumes of structured and unstructured customer data ing of customers, to the evolution of the portfolio, to the
to be analysed in a very fast and efficient way, and with optimisation of any of the internal procedures and pro-
an acceptable cost for most organisations. Due to the duction processes, or to the changing way companies
amount and complexity of these data, it is difficult to pro- relate with employees, citizens, suppliers, partners or
cess them using traditional tools, so the use of Big Data customers.
technology is essential in order to take advantage of this
kind of data (Syed etal. 2013). Research methodology
Big Data technology is able to overcome the difficul- Since Social CRM complements CRM, in order to obtain
ties involved in understanding and extracting relevant a Social CRM methodology, called the SCRM-IRIS meth-
knowledge from different kinds of data, which include: odology, that guides the development and implementa-
Diversity in types of fonts, formats and languages; tion of Social CRM in a company, an initial version was
Unstructured information (ideas, emotions, nuances, first developed based on the CRM implementation meth-
ambiguities, polysemy, etc.) that is contextual and has odology presented by Chalmeta (2006). This methodol-
complex and fuzzy relations, such as distance, overlap, ogy was supplemented, adapted and updated based on
correlation, similarity, opposition, etc.; Dependence on the review of the existing literature on Web 2.0, Big Data,
the context in which it is emitted; Semantic problems CRM and Social CRM, as well as on the experience of the
due to the fact that language is constantly changing; and authors. This initial version was then applied to one com-
Dependence on grammar, language and the medium pany with the aim of analysing, validating and refining it.
used. In order to carry out the application, a work plan based
OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 5 of 17

on the case study methodology proposed by Runeson and and independent methods (copies of the documents and
Hst (2009) was followed. This consists of the following reports used in the company).
stages: Design and planning of the case study; Prepara- The questionnaires were answered by IRIS research-
tion for data collection; Collecting evidence; Analysis of ers during individual interviews with Social CRM project
collected data; and Validation of collected data. Each of team members. Once the implementation of each of the
them is described below: nine phases that compose the SCRM-IRIS methodology
had finished, the IRIS researchers interviewed the five
Design andplanning ofthe case study area managers from the Social CRM project team on an
The aims of the case study are: (a) to validate the SCRM- individual basis. These interviews lasted approximately
IRIS methodology by verifying and confirming its useful- 20 min and were open (thus allowing interviewees to
ness, accuracy and quality, and (b) to refine and improve give a wide range of answers) and semi-structured (the
the methodology developed initially from the experience questions were planned only as a guide, not to be asked
acquired by the researchers, the feedback obtained from in that same order, thereby allowing both the interview-
the company involved, and the conclusions drawn in the ers and the interviewees to improvise). The aims of these
case study. interviews were: to analyse the execution of the phase, to
The research work was conducted over a period of obtain feedback about the experience and the observa-
10 months. The first task was to select the company tions of each manager in each phase, to detect errors, and
in which the case study was to be applied. The criteria to collect proposals for improvement to the SCRM-IRIS
underlying the selection of this company were essentially: methodology from each of them. There was a different
(1) a willingness to collaborate in the research, and (2) the questionnaire for each phase, and those questionnaires
fact that the management of this company was consider- were common to all interviewees. Table 1 presents
ing the idea of improving the efficiency of their customer an example of the questionnaire followed by the IRIS
relationship management using Web 2.0 and Big Data researchers to conduct the interviews after the process
technologies. The selected company was a SME from the map phase.
metal sector with a workforce of 250 employees. Their Most comments obtained were positive, indicating
target customer ranges from large supermarkets to little that the SCRM-IRIS methodology guided them perfectly
grocery stores and individuals, from all over the world. It throughout the implementation of all the phases and
is important to note that this company was already using made them consider things that had not been proposed
a traditional CRM application. so far, such as for example a strategic focus on social cus-
tomer engagement, the social customer profile that they
Preparation fordata collection should lead, and they had to take into account the average
To begin the research work, an introductory series of age of users. They were also very surprised by the amount
group interviews were held in the company. The pres- of information that could be obtained about social cus-
entation focused on the basic points of a Social CRM tomers. Moreover, negative comments were taken into
project and, at the same time, the methodology that was consideration to improve the methodology, such as the
going to be used (initial version of the SCRM-IRIS meth- lack of a company social media policy and guidance on
odology) was also explained to them. how the employees had to use social software, besides
In order to undertake all the research tasks during the training them in legal issues, and the need for different
application of the methodology in the company, a mixed levels of segmentation based on communities and sub-
work team was set up with members that came from both communities. In addition, some negative comments said
the IRIS Research Group and the Social CRM team of the that once Social CRM was implemented, all possible
company. The company Social CRM project team was tasks related to its use should be carried out by low-level
made up of five area managers, representing the main staff, as their labour costs were lower, but they must be
areas of the company: General management, Commercial properly trained and high-level staff must support them
management, Financial management, Technical manage- when they needed it.
ment and Operations management. Once the project had finished, meetings were held with
the Social CRM project team in the company in order to
Collecting evidence enrich the initial SCRM-IRIS methodology by modify-
The data collected were the results of applying the dif- ing/incorporating/removing phases, tasks, tools, and so
ferent stages of the initial version of the SCRM-IRIS on. After this process of revising the initial methodology,
methodology to the company. Qualitative data were it was enhanced by incorporating all the contributions
used, which were collected through direct methods detected and then validated with the general agreement
(using an assortment of questionnaires and templates) of the Social CRM project team.
OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 6 of 17

Table1 Interview questionnaire forthe process map phase

Interview questionnaire
Phase: process map
1 What new business processes have been created in your department at this phase?
2 What existing business processes have been improved in your department at this phase?
3 Are there any business processes that have not been considered at this phase?
4 What information does Social CRM offer that you did not have before?
5 How do you think the company benefits from new or modified business processes?
6 Has the company assigned the necessary resources for a successful implementation of this phase?
7 Has the researcher provided the necessary means for a successful implementation of this phase?
8 Have you missed the collaboration of someone or something in the implementation of this phase?
9 What problems have you noticed in the implementation of this phase?
10 What would you change or improve in the implementation of this phase? How would you do it?
11 Is there any information that has not been considered at this phase and that you think should have been taken into account?
12 Is it worth the effort invested in the implementation of this phase in view of the expected result?
13 Have the desired results been achieved in the estimated time?
14 What is your general opinion about the implementation of this phase?

Analysis ofdata collected Users can access the information they need at the
The persons responsible for the application of the time and place where they need it (even in real time).
SCRM-IRIS methodology in the company indicated Furthermore, such information is always up to date.
that the use of this methodology has allowed them Decrease in the use of other communication chan-
to have an excellent view of the needs, scope, con- nels (e.g. e-mail, phone, etc.), as the Social CRM ena-
sequences and opportunities of the project, as well bles more effective communication.
as allowing them to implement Social CRM quickly Decrease in the work undertaken by the companys
and without any significant problems. They also employees due to: (1) the simplicity, speed, cen-
indicated that this has enabled them to have greater tralisation, efficiency and control provided by Social
control over the project, because all the steps to be CRM, and (2) customers can manage different tasks
performed in each stage of the implementation are on their own, for example, can track their orders, can
clearly defined. make or change their orders, etc.
On the other hand, the following benefits have also It allows potential social customers to be found
been highlighted by the Social CRM team of the company quickly, as well as the tracking of current social cus-
as being the most important provided by Social CRM: tomers.
It allows the company to know in real time what peo-
Centralisation of knowledge relating to the com- ple think about the products and/or services offered
panys customers in an accessible (for both internal by the company, or by their competitors.
users and users outside the company) and easy-to-
use system, allowing a constant flow of that knowl- After a year using Social CRM, a comparison of the value
edge. of some indicators with the value obtained a year before
Quick compilation and dissemination of information the implementation of Social CRM was performed. In this
relating to customers. comparison, some significant increases can be observed
Allows an exchange of customer portfolios between due to the introduction of Social CRM in the company.
salespeople that is quick, easy and reliable, because The most significant increases are: New supermarket cus-
the system centralises all the knowledge about cus- tomers (3 %); New grocery store customers (18 %); New
tomers, including the historic features, preferences, individual customers (27%); Customer loyalty (11%); Cus-
movements, etc. tomer satisfaction (24%); Amount of sales (13%); Amount
It records all the history of queries and problems invoiced (10%); and Presence in new countries (33%).
from customers with the solutions that were adopted.
This history is available to answer queries or similar Validation ofthe data collected
problems (for that client or others) more efficiently As the data collected was qualitative, it was analysed
and requiring less time. using qualitative data methods of analysis. In this case,
OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 7 of 17

the analysis was inductive and was carried out parallel process of developing and implementing a CRM System.
to the data collection, as it was performed after each of It considers and integrates various aspects, such as defin-
the stages that make up the SCRM-IRIS methodology ing a customer strategy, re-engineering customer-ori-
had finished. The purpose of this was to be able to react ented business processes, human resources management,
quickly to the assessments encountered during the analy- computer system, management of change or continuous
sis of each stage and thus rectify each one of them and improvement.
take advantage of these improvements in the following The SCRM-IRIS methodology does not replace the
stages. CRM-IRIS methodology, but instead complements it, in
Any threats to the validity of the case study were order to adapt it to the features of Web 2.0 and Big Data
reduced by using the Lincoln and Guba model (Robson technologies. It has not been necessary to add or remove
2002), in which five strategies are proposed for use in phases, modify their sequence of application or delete
data collection to tackle three types of threats to validity. the previous activities inside each phase. However, new
The three types of threats considered were reactivity (the activities inside each phase and modifications to some
researchers presence can affect the setup of the study), of the previous activities of the CRM-IRIS methodol-
researcher bias (the researchers preconceived ideas can ogy have been added. Figure1 shows these additions and
affect the way the researcher asks questions or interprets modifications.
answers) and respondent bias (the researchers influence
on the attitude of the people being studied) (Karlstrm Project management andprerequisites
and Runeson 2006). There are no substantial differences in the project man-
With regard to the five possible strategies, in the pre- agement between a Social CRM Project and a CRM Pro-
sent case study they were considered in the following way ject, both of which must be managed as an engineering
in order to make the results valid: (1) Prolonged involve- project. However, in the Social CRM Project the follow-
ment: the researcher is familiar with the environment ing basic prerequisites for success should be taken into
being studied (in this case study, the researchers and account:
the company had already been collaborating on previ-
ous projects). (2) Triangulation: the application of sev- Viability of the project Before starting the project
eral methods in the study of a single object. In this case there should be an analysis of whether Social CRM
study, four types were considered: Spatial triangulation can be viable in the company, considering different
of data (three sources of data were considered: observa- aspects such as whether Social CRM is appropriate
tion, interviews and documentation); Personal triangu- for the sector in which the company operates, the
lation of data (all the members of the company Social technological level of the company and its capacity to
CRM project team were interviewed in order to obtain increase it, the ability of users to use social software
information from each of them); Investigator triangula- applications, resistance to sharing knowledge and
tion (the interviews were conducted by a researcher and resistance to technological change especially in older
reviewed by another researcher); and Theoretical trian- employees and customers, etc. (Assaad and Marx
gulation (the different points of view of the members of Gmez 2011), as Social CRM will change the way of
the Social CRM project team were taken into account). working (Dreyer and Grant 2011a).
(3) Member checking: obtaining feedback from the peo- Profit estimation An estimate of both the quantitative
ple who are interviewed (in the case study, after each and qualitative benefits expected to be achieved with
interview, a report containing the relevant information the implementation of Social CRM must be carried
from the interview was checked by each interviewee). (4) out. When estimating benefits it is very important
Negative case analysis: attempting to find another expla- to think of not only the social objectives such as the
nation that differs from the one initially assumed for the number of fan pages and weekly tweets but to cor-
observed phenomenon (here, the two researchers were relate Social CRM with the contribution of top busi-
working separately (investigator triangulation)). (5) Audit ness objectives. It is necessary to estimate return on
trail: keeping a record of all the documentation of the investment (ROI), business value and budget justifi-
project so as to be available in the future. cation for social projects before developing it.
Risk management A risk assessment of the Social
SCRMIRIS methodology CRM must be carried out during this stage of the
The methodology for the implementation of Social CRM project in order to determine what issues need atten-
presented in this paper is based on the proposal by Chal- tion. First, the risks are identified, such as: possible
meta (2006) for CRM. This methodology, called CRM- misuse of the social software, posting of negative viral
IRIS, is organised in nine phases and helps during the messages, privacy management, security of informa-
OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 8 of 17

Project Management and


Prerequisites
Viability of the Project
Profit Estimation
Risk Management
Assignment of Roles

Social Customer Strategy


Identify Social Customers
Search New Social Customers Organizational Framework
Segment Social Customers Review of the Enterprise
Analyse the Profitability of Definition
Social Customers Review of Objectives
Define Objectives of Social
Customers

System for Assessing


Customer Relations
Traditional Web Indicators
Generic Social Indicators
Specific Social Indicators
Define Connections Indicators /
Objectives

Process Map
Social Media Monitoring and
Responding
Social Profile Mapping
Outreach and Lead Generation
Community Management

Computer System
Human Resources Transactional Social CRM
(Operational)
Defining Social Media Policy
Analytical Social CRM
Risk of Private Use of Social Media
Strategic Social CRM

Implantation
Responsibility of the Community
Manager

Monitoring
Monitoring Indicators
Improving the System
User Motivation
Control System Use
Assessment of User Satisfaction
Analysis of the System Stability
Fig.1 Additions and modifications to the CRM-IRIS methodology in order to consider Social CRM
OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 9 of 17

tion, publication of private or confidential informa- 2010; Mosadegh and Behboudi 2011). (3) Customers
tion, publication of misleading or false information, are immune to the complexity of the departments of
posting of negative comments, etc. Afterwards, the company, so that all departments should manage
every risk is assessed in relation to the frequency customers. (4) The customer is the one who sets the
with which they may occur compared to the poten- schedule, because if the company is not responding to
tial negative effect (financial, security, image, privacy, him when he needs it, other companies will respond
etc.) if they happen. Finally, priorities are established to him. (5) The customer already coexists with the
to mitigate the risks, addressing first the most severe multi-channel, and he expects the same from the
and frequent events (Dreyer and Grant 2010). Once company, that his information, the state of his prod-
the risks have been understood, the methods to be ucts and services, or the processes in progress, are
used to manage them must be defined, such as for visible and can be interacted with from any channel.
example (Dreyer and Grant 2010): Defining policies (6) The company must change its focus, from business
for users; Monitoring the social website to find out transactions to managing customers and connected
what is being said; Educating users on legal issues social communities with which they can maximise
such as copyright and anti-trust; Educating users on their business transactions and opportunities.
the principles of social media; or Updating insurance Review of objectives It is very important to define the
policies to cover social media work. general objectives that can benefit from the use of
Assignment of roles The role of Community Manager social software, as well as the strategy to be followed
must be assigned to an employee (or several employ- in order to achieve them, and the role that primary
ees) of the company (the marketing manager is rec- users (staff and key volunteers) should adopt (Dreyer
ommended). His/her duty is to manage, build and and Grant 2010). An example of an objective is to
moderate existing communities in the company by increase customer loyalty by making use of social
committing to social customers, making them feel software.
part of the company and motivating them to take
action, both on their own platforms, as well as using Customer strategy
other public social software. Depending on the com- Social CRM is focused on social customer management,
panys structure, there may be several Community as well as on identifying, attracting and achieving new
Managers located in different departments (usually in social customers (Greenberg 2010). Social customers are
membership, communications or government rela- those customers of the company that are managed using
tions) who collaborate with each other (Dreyer and Social CRM. For them it is necessary to define the Social
Grant 2011a). It is also necessary to consider whether Customer Strategy, which is a part of the overall Cus-
other roles need to be created (such as content crea- tomer Strategy.
tor, data analyst, and so on) to cover certain duties Social customer strategy is defined by social customer
and to work with the Community Manager on social engagement, not social customer management as in tra-
media projects (Dreyer and Grant 2011b). ditional CRM, which implies that there is a mutual bene-
fit planned from the beginning (Mosadegh and Behboudi
Organisational framework 2011). In order to define the Social CRM strategy, the
In this phase, the analysis of the companys objectives company should take the following steps:
and culture should be performed taking into account the
different characteristics of Social CRM: Identify social customers
First, the social customers must be identified from the
Review of the enterprise definition The aim, vision, current customers with whom collaboration and rela-
strategy, policy and values of the company should tionships of commitment by Social CRM can be set up. It
be reformulated, taking into account how the com- is important to consider that building relationships with
pany sees and manages its customers to enhance the inappropriate customers is one of the main reasons for
benefit of both parties. The following key aspects of failure in projects of systems related to the customer (Hu
Social CRM should be taken into account: (1) Corpo- et al. 2013; Lambert 2010). The identification of social
rate strategy has to consider social customer (Green- customers can be accomplished by Big Data techniques
berg 2010). (2) The relationship between business and of advanced analytics, since they help to discover trends,
the social customer focuses on a collaborative effort, patterns and other insights, applied to historical informa-
and on social customer engagement and commit- tion from past interactions with customers and public
ment, not social customer management (Greenberg information on social networks.
OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 10 of 17

Finding new social customers sub-communities, using as criteria the characteris-


One of the strengths of Social CRM is that it facilitates tics that are thought to be appropriate, depending on
the search for new potential social customers that can each community.
contribute in the future to the enterprise in terms of Finally, there is a last level of segmentation that
branding, development or improvement of products or identifies social customers who provide more value
services, etc. In order to carry out this search it is very within the initial segment. Some possible criteria for
useful to perform social profile mapping, which is the segmentation at this level are: profitability, growth
process of collecting social data about people and their potential, volume, competitive positioning issues,
relationships, to know more about them and to analyse access to market knowledge, market share goals,
whether they or their contacts are potential possible cus- margin levels, level of technology, resources and
tomers for the company (Dreyer and Grant 2011a). Big capabilities, compatibility of strategies, channel of
Data tools of advanced analytics can be used to listen to distribution, and buying behaviour (Lambert 2010).
and learn from the social media activity and apply the There must also be a periodic monitoring of the evo-
insights to identify possible customers. lution of communities and sub-communities in order
to better understand their life cycle and thus manage
Segmenting the social customers them more efficiently, and, if necessary, undertake
The traditional methods of customer segmentation are the social customer segmentation once again (Karrer
based on characteristics such as age, gender, interests and etal. 2008; Serrat 2010).
consumer habits. However, Social CRM allows another
form of segmentation, since it has a lot of information Analyse the profitability ofsocial customers
that can be gathered online and is growing quickly. To The profitability and potential of each social customer
manage and analyse that vast amount of information and community that the company has is analysed. The
in real time, with the aim of segmenting social custom- profitability analysis is carried out not only in economic
ers, it is necessary to use Big Data tools (such as Apache terms but also in relation to the image, productivity or
Mahout for databases, and R as a programming lan- any other benefit that the company can obtain as a result
guage), with data mining techniques (Petz et al. 2014): of the relationship with the social customers.
clustering, classification, association, regression and
visualisation. Regarding the types of segmentation, the Define the objectives ofsocial customers
most frequently used are: attitudinal, behavioural, demo- The objectives that will be assigned to each social cus-
graphic, loyalty and value-based (Fotaki etal. 2014). tomer and each community, in the short, medium, and
Social customers can be organised in communities long term are defined. These objectives are established
(social groups), which are groups of users linked by some based on the profitability and potential of each social
kind of feature, relationship or common interest (Karrer customer and community. Examples of social customer
et al. 2008; Wu et al. 2009). To do this, Social Network objectives might be to improve the image, collaboration in
Analysis (SNA) tools are used, which provide mathemati- the design and development of products, generating rev-
cal and statistical routines that are applied to analyse the enue with more effective cross-marketing, cross-selling
social networks, the results of which are represented in and/or up-selling, to reduce marketing costs, etc. In order
a social network diagram. The SNA employs community to achieve this, the company must develop strategies that
detection algorithms using the social contacts of individ- enable social and business customers to operate as a true
uals (Mosadegh and Behboudi 2011). community, thereby generating some feeling of belonging
By being in the appropriate community, social custom- and loyalty from the social customers. Social interactivity
ers can (a) attract new social customers, (b) retain other with social customers must be enhanced to obtain new
social customers, and (c) acquire a new product or ser- ideas and different points of view. This will allow the social
vice by being influenced by other social customers of the customer to be known from another perspective, under-
same community (McKay 2009; Serrat 2010). The seg- standing their preferences and also their demands and
mentation process should be carried out as follows: needs in order to provide a better service and/or product.
After defining the objectives for each social customer or
First, organise social customer types into different community, the level of fulfilment of these objectives can
segments based on the communities concept, using be analysed through Big Data advanced analysis tools.
as criteria the enterprise products and/or services of
interest to each social customer. System forassessing customer relations
Then, in the communities deemed necessary, other The distinguishing characteristics of Social CRM com-
levels of segmentation can be considered to create pared to traditional CRM make it necessary to define
OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 11 of 17

new indicators that are not in the measurement system within each process to consider the contributions of the
of a traditional CRM. These indicators should help to social customer. These contributions can come from both
assess not only the degree of compliance with the needs direct feedback as well as in an indirect form by extract-
and expectations of customers, as in traditional CRM, ing knowledge about their emotions and behaviour from
but also new aspects such as the degree of interaction, the profiles and maps of experience that are stored by
collaboration or commitment of social customers with the technological part of Social CRM (Mosadegh and
the company, the involvement of company staff in Social Behboudi 2011). As an example, Table2 shows the busi-
CRM, or the business performance objective for Social ness processes of different departments which have been
CRM. The use of Big Data advanced analysis tools allows improved as a result of the implementation of the SCRM-
the defined indicators to be assessed both quickly and IRIS methodology in the company of the case study.
accurately. The indicator system of the Social CRM will Moreover, due to the characteristics of Social CRM,
be made up of: there are several processes that did not exist in the com-
pany and had to be designed and implemented for the
Traditional indicators like web page views, number first time. These processes can be grouped into four areas
of clicks, conversion rate and page or site stickiness (Dreyer and Grant 2011a): Social media monitoring and
(Greenberg 2010), although also taking into account responding; Social mapping profile; Outreach and lead
aspects such as time spent on a page, the number of generation; and Community management.
times a page has been visited by the same person and
the number of page views per session. Human resources
Generic social indicators such as (Greenberg 2010): Almost every department of the company must par-
ticipate in the Social CRM. Each department will be
Volume The number of times a topic is mentioned responsible for the part that is related to their roles in
compared to historical patterns. the company. The communication department is gener-
Tone The percentages of positive, negative and ally the one that should monitor and assign the right peo-
neutral opinions. ple to respond in public social spaces (Dreyer and Grant
Coverage The number of sources that are generat- 2011a).
ing the conversation regarding a particular topic. Social software is not free, because time is money, and
Authorisation Classification of sources by their time must be invested in company staff working on a job
level of authority, and observation of how many that involves Social CRM. So it is important that much of
rises or falls of conversations are generated by this work is carried out by low-level staff, as their labour
authoritative sources. costs are lower. Lower-level staff can be trained with the
Specific social indicators to monitor aspects of Social necessary skills to enable them to manage social software
CRM of interest, such as: the resolution time for applications, supported by the highest-level staff only
queries, the number of posts, the accuracy of the when needed (Dreyer and Grant 2011b).
answers, the number of participants, etc. (Sarner A social media policy must also be defined, which must
et al. 2010). And also the number of times an issue be derived from the social media strategy adopted, and
has been read on each channel, when and by which which aims to educate employees by providing guidance
social customer, as well as whether it has been on how the company requires them to use the social soft-
shared. ware. This policy should focus less on the donts and
Finally, the cause-effect relationships between the more on the dos and should facilitate and make the
above indicators and the business objectives are interaction with customers more pleasant and safer, as
defined. well as improving the ability to carry out the work. The
main characteristics of good policies are: built on trust,
Process map practical, designed to educate, without absolutes, in plain
Initially, Social CRM was mostly a concern of market- language, friendly, consistent, prepared for mistakes, and
ing, but it now affects every customer-oriented disci- clear about due process (Dreyer and Grant 2010).
pline, from marketing and sales to customer service and One last thing to consider is the risk of employees
support, as well as other internal company processes using the social software for private use. While such use
such as design, research, innovation, etc. Each of these is made in the proper environment among employees
enterprise business processes must be analysed, defin- and with partners and social customers, it can lead to a
ing how they can benefit from Social CRM through Web better business relationship. Controlling use is very dif-
2.0 and Big Data technology. This will involve redesign- ficult, so there must be trust and such control should not
ing the processes, modifying or adding new activities be undertaken (Assaad and Marx Gmez 2011).
OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 12 of 17

Table2Business processes improved as a result of the CRM. Both public (developed by other enterprises) and
implementation ofthe SCRM-IRIS methodology inthe case private (developed by the enterprise) ones should be
study taken into account, and those that will make up the com-
Department Business process puter system should be decided together with how they
will be related to each other.
Strategic management Real-time analysis of the competitive
environment
The computer support system of Social CRM is of great
Detection of changes in the competitive
importance as it is the basis on which the Social CRM
environment is run. This computer system has three basic objectives
Data-driven decision-making (Reinhold and Alt 2011): To create a tool to efficiently
Strategic planning discover the opinions and user reviews about the com-
Operations Troubleshooting in the products/services pany and its products or services; to establish a contact
offered channel for two-way interaction with users of social soft-
Increasing the quality of the products/ ware; and to provide the means to integrate social con-
services offered tent from the social software to processes and systems
Offering an efficient catalogue of products/ oriented towards the social customer.
services based on sales trends analysis
The minimum requirements and/or abilities that the
Research and development Monitoring the performance and quality of
the products/services offered computer system must have to achieve these objectives
Identifying the needs of customers of new are: (a) Data storage, (b) Customer Profiles storage, (c)
products/services Social knowledge, advanced analysis and monitoring,
Identification of improvements in the (d) User Generated Content (Mosadegh and Behboudi
products/services offered 2011), and (e) User interaction (Reinhold and Alt
Marketing/sales Analysis of customer information 2011).
Identification of potential customers The computer system to support Social CRM will con-
Identification of the most valuable custom sist of a set of Big Data and social software applications,
ers
and a set of Big Data and social software tools.
Analysis of competing companies
The Big Data and social software applications are Wikis,
Gathering information about customers
needs Blogs, Social Networks, Hadoop, MapReduce, Cassandra,
Research about the company image etc. The private Social CRM applications must be developed
Service acceptance analysis considering the following characteristics (Sarner etal. 2012):
Monitoring social networks
Price monitoring To make social customers feel more involved in their
Detection of new releases by competing own decisions.
companies To give social customers access to more and better
Analysis of relations in social networks information on products and services.
Predicting customer behaviour To provide more control in managing the public image
Accurate prediction and awareness of and reputation online as well as how to decide what
customers needs personal information is to be used.
Making real-time customised offers To improve self-esteem, friendship, the level of respect
Encourage participation and interaction in and commitment of social customers.
every channel
To encourage participation in many-to-many relation-
Quick reaction to market opportunities
ships with social customers, prospects, selling partners
Analysis of sales trends
and employees.
Customer assistance Identifying customers who are at risk of
ceasing to be customers of the company To capture and share user-generated data and content.
Analysis of how customers use the com To provide various levels of autonomy and commit-
pany website ment to cede control of the community.
Monitoring how customers use the prod To demonstrate the existence of mutual and balanced
ucts/services offered by the company benefits for both the company and the community.
to detect potential problems and/or
improvements
To understand the profile, needs and feelings of social
customers about the products and/or services offered
by the company.
Computer system
This phase considers the Big Data and social software Regarding the Big Data and social software tools, there
(or Web 2.0) applications and tools to be used in Social are many types of tools that can be part of a Social CRM
OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 13 of 17

computer system. Below are the most important types of tems (like corporate ERP, BI, structured databases,
tools (Dreyer and Grant 2011a): etc.) and social software that supports and stores
human information and communication. The latter
Social media monitoring These filter the web content represents a major technological challenge because
based on various characteristics, such as for example it makes it necessary to work with complex, unstruc-
the mention of keywords or comments about a par- tured, ubiquitous, multi-format and multi-channel
ticular topic. The Big Data advanced analysis tools information.
provide speed and accuracy in monitoring social Enrichment This level works with the data gathered
media, allowing companies to have real-time infor- by the Content level. The objective is to enhance the
mation with which to make decisions. data and to identify and to extract valuable informa-
Social media management/marketing systems These tion for the company CRM from those data. For this
manage the process of posting and responding purpose different advanced data analysis techniques
through social media channels, facilitating and unify- are used. These techniques are organised in four
ing such management across multiple channels. groups: Inquire, Interact, Investigate and Improve.
Social discovery These search for contacts in social The result is valuable social data obtained from social
media profiles and map the relationships between software, links to valuable corporate data, and valu-
contacts, allowing information to be found from the able new data (metadata) generated from the analy-
contacts. In addition, they categorise, standardise sis of the previous data gathered at the Content level.
and structure the big unstructured data existing in These data are stored in a Social CRM structured
the social media, in order to harness the wisdom of database. Metadata are used to simplify and reduce
crowds, without human intervention. the complexity and processing time at the next level
Email systems These help to connect and communi- (Modules level).
cate with contacts and customers by e-mail, creating Modules The enriched information extracted from
and/or segmenting mailing lists using social discov- the Enrichment level and stored in the Social CRM
ery data and allowing information from social discov- structured database is processed by the three main
ery data to be provided in e-mails. modules of the Social CRM software, using differ-
Communities These help to create social links ent techniques like data mining, predictive analysis
through the website, offering various extra features to or machine learning: (1) Transactional Social CRM
the contacts. (Operational). This supports the business processes
Association management systems Databases where that can be improved with the Social CRM: Market-
data such as contacts, interactions, transactions car- ing, Sales, After-sales, Design, Research, Innovation,
ried out, etc. are recorded. etc.; (2) Analytic Social CRM. This allows data from
Social network analysis These analyse the social net- social customers to be used to manage and improve
work links using graph theory and display the results relationships with existing social customers and
in social network diagrams. This is a nice graphi- achieve business objectives. Moreover, it also car-
cal way to analyse and visualise the large amount of ries out an analysis of online social communities to
existing data, as well as those generated every day. find new potential social customers in these com-
It is a part of Big Data that focuses on relationships munities. Finally, it also allows measurement of the
and/or interactions between users of online social indicators of the Social CRM performance meas-
networks (Alamsyah and Peranginangin 2013). urement system; and (3) Strategic Social CRM. This
permits each social customer (profile, contacts, etc.)
To support Social CRM, a Social CRM Computer Sys- to be assessed and grouped in segments depend-
tem Architecture is proposed. It allows advantage to be ing on their characteristics. In addition, it allows the
taken of Web 2.0 and Big Data technologies (Fig.2). definition of objectives for each segment in the short,
This Social CRM Computer System Architecture is medium, and long term, as well as definition of the
composed of three levels: strategy to be used in each segment to meet the pro-
posed objectives.
Content This level allows both structured and
unstructured data to be gathered from different Implantation
sources. At this level the links with the data sources The person in charge of the implantation should be the
are made by applying the necessary filters and pat- Community Manager, who should always be available to
terns to obtain only valuable data for the company. solve problems or queries arising from users, both in the
Data sources can be both traditional computer sys- implementation as well as when the system is operating.
OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 14 of 17

Fig.2 Social CRM computer system architecture


OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 15 of 17

It is important that the response time in resolving prob- To carry out a control of accesses and input from all
lems or concerns is short. users, as it is very important they make good use of
Implementing a Social CRM system is very similar the system.
to the implementation of a CRM system; therefore, the To carry out periodic user surveys to assess their
steps to be followed in implementing a Social CRM sys- level of satisfaction with the Social CRM, and to
tem are the same as those shown in Chalmeta (2006). The ascertain the level of acceptance of the system and
collaboration of all Social CRM users in the implemen- compile their suggestions for improvement. After the
tation is critical, so it is essential that they change their results of the surveys have been obtained, they are
mentality and assume that the centre of Social CRM is studied and the relevant modifications are made.
the social customer. On the other hand, in order to take To periodically carry out an analysis of the systems
advantage of Big Data advanced analysis tools, it is nec- stability, which checks whether the Social CRM sys-
essary to have good quality data. To ensure that the data tem is working properly, if it reacts correctly to the
are of good quality, organisations must maximise the fol- data it manages and if users use it properly.
lowing properties (Chiang and Sitaramachandran 2015):
(a) Existence. The organisation has or can get the data; (b) Conclusion
Validity. The data values are within an acceptable range; Organisations must be aware of the shift that is occur-
(c) Consistency. The same data has the same value regard- ring in the use of data and must actively prepare to par-
less of where it is located; (d) Integrity. Completeness ticipate in it. Among the measures to be taken, three are
relationships between data elements; (e) Accuracy. The absolutely critical: Treating information and data as a
data describe the properties of the model; and (f ) Rele- corporate asset at the same level as human and financial
vance. The data are appropriate to achieve the proposed resources; The company should be capable of generating
objectives. and sharing knowledge from the data; and Designing and
The person in charge of the creation and maintenance implementing a technology infrastructure that makes
of the continuous improvement system is also the Com- it possible to address the challenges and opportunities
munity Manager, as he/she is the one who knows the presented by technological disruptors such as Security,
entire system best and, therefore, is also better able to Cloud, Mobility, and Big Data.
identify potential future improvements. This paper presents a methodology, called the SCRM-
IRIS methodology, to help companies to obtain value
Monitoring from data, by developing a Social CRM system. The
Social CRM must be monitored throughout its entire methodology has been applied to a company in order to
lifespan. The Community Manager is in charge of car- refine and validate it. Those responsible for the applica-
rying out this monitoring process. The characteristics of tion of the SCRM-IRIS methodology in the company
Web 2.0 and Big Data technologies allow the monitoring have indicated that the use of the SCRM-IRIS method-
to be carried out quickly and effectively, while providing ology has allowed them to gain an excellent view of the
great control over the system. needs, scope, consequences and opportunities of the pro-
In order to establish an effective monitoring system, ject, as well as allowing them to implement Social CRM
the following tasks must be carried out: quickly and without significant problems. They have also
indicated that the methodology has enabled them to have
To monitor the indicators defined in stage four of the greater control over the project, because all the activities
methodology so as to be able to carry out a follow-up to be performed in each phase of the implementation are
of the system in order to measure its performance. clearly defined.
To do so, the following technologies (which are based There are various proposals for future investigations.
on Big Data advanced analysis tools) are used: Social The future of Big Data and Web 2.0 technologies is going
Media Monitoring, Social Media Management/Mar- through a general expansion for all industries to be
keting Systems and Association Management Sys- applied to all business processes and aspects of organi-
tems. sations. Through Big Data analytics and Web 2.0 tech-
To adapt or modify the functionalities required, in nologies, the company can not only quickly and reliably
order to fix errors and improve the system. monitor the acceptance of its products and/or services
To generate and maintain a system of periodic moti- in the marketplace, but they also allow them to under-
vation for users, to reward users that make good use stand their business environment as well as find and
of the Social CRM system, since the participation of strengthen competitive advantages (Kwon et al. 2014).
users is essential for Social CRM. Therefore, new methodologies, similar to the SCRM-IRIS
OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 16 of 17

methodology, are needed to support the adoption and Dietrich J, Jones N, Wright J (2008) Using social networking and semantic web
technology in software engineeringuse cases, patterns, and a case
implementation of Big Data and Web 2.0 technologies study. J Syst Softw 81(12):21832193
in other areas of the company, such as company strategy, Dreyer L, Grant M (2010) Social media, risk, and policies for associations. Social
supply chain management, product design, and so on. Fish & Croydon consulting white paper (online), 14 pages, January 13,
2010. http://www.socialfish.org/whitepaper. Accessed 2 May 2015
Finally, some limitations of this paper should be noted Dreyer L, Grant M (2011a) Social CRM for associations. SocialFish & Avectra
and discussed. First, the qualitative method used for the white paper (online), 14 pages, March 29, 2011. http://www.socialfish.
analysis of the benefits obtained by the company from org/whitepaper. Accessed 18 March 2015
Dreyer L, Grant M (2011b) ROI and the impact of social CRM. SocialFish &
the application of the methodology is not as accurate as a Avectra white paper (online), 16 pages, August 17, 2011. http://www.
quantitative analysis. The method is based on the opinion socialfish.org/whitepaper. Accessed 19 Feb 2015
of those in charge at each implantation. However, their Faase REM, Helms RW, Spruit MR (2011) Web 2.0 in the CRM domain: defining
social CRM. Int J Electron Cust Relat Manage 5(1):122
experience and professionalism make it possible to rely Fayerman M (2002) Customer relationship management. New Dir For Inst Res
on the veracity of these results. Only a basic quantitative 2002(113):5768
analysis was performed. This can be future research for Feng S, Wang D, Yu G, Gao W, Wong KF (2011) Extracting common emotions
from blogs based on fine-grained sentiment clustering. Knowl Inf Syst
academics that can apply advanced quantitative meth- 27(2):281302
ods to measure the benefits of SCRM-IRIS at depart- Fotaki G, Spruit M, Brinkkemper S, Meijer D (2014) Exploring big data opportu
ment level as well as business level. Finally, the company nities for online customer segmentation. Int J Bus Intell Res 5(3):5873
Go E, You KH (2016) But not all social media are the same: analyzing organiza
where the SCRM-IRIS methodology was applied already tions social media usage patterns. Telemat Inform 33(1):176186
had CRM technologies (without Social CRM features). Greenberg P (2009) Social CRM comes of age. ORACLE. http://hosteddocs.
Therefore, if this methodology were to be applied in a ittoolbox.com/social-crm-comes-of-age_paul-greenberg.pdf. Accessed
15 Sep 2015
company that did not have them, the implementation Greenberg P (2010) The impact of CRM 2.0 on customer insight. J Bus Ind Mark
process would be more expensive and complex, because 25(6):410419
the implantation of CRM strategies, culture and com- Hu Y-H, Huang T, Kao Y-H (2013) Knowledge discovery of weighted RFM
sequential patterns from customer sequence databases. J Syst Softw
puter systems, and training of the employees would have 86(3):779788
to be undertaken from scratch. Karlstrm D, Runeson P (2006) Integrating agile software development
into stage-gate managed product development. Empir Softw Eng
Authors contributions 11(2):203225
This work was carried out in collaboration between the authors. Both authors Karrer B, Levina E, Newman MEJ (2008) Robustness of community structure in
read and approved the final manuscript. networks. Phys Rev E 77(4):046119
King SF, Burgess TF (2008) Understanding success and failure in customer
Competing interests relationship management. Ind Mark Manage 37(4):421431
Both authors declare that they have no competing interests. Kirchner K, Razmerita L, Nabeth T (2009) Personal and collective knowledge
management in the Web 2.0: two faces of knowledge management.
Received: 21 April 2016 Accepted: 23 August 2016 Paper presented at the 9th international conference on innovative inter
net community systems, Jena, Germany, pp 1526
Kwon O, Lee N, Shin B (2014) Data quality management, data usage experi
ence and acquisition intention of big data analytics. Int J Inf Manage
34(3):387394
Lai LSL, To WM (2015) Content analysis of social media: a grounded theory
References approach. J Electron Commer 16(2):138152
Alamsyah A, Peranginangin Y (2013) Effective knowledge management using Lambert DM (2010) Customer relationship management as a business pro
big data and social network analysis. Learn Organ Manage Bus Int J cess. J Bus Ind Mark 25(1):417
1(1):1726 Lech P (2016) Causes and remedies for the dominant risk factors in Enterprise
Anshari M, Alas Y, Yunus N, Sabtu NI, Hamid MH (2015) Social customer System implementation projects: the consultants perspective. Springer
relationship management and student empowerment in online learning Plus 5:238. doi:10.1186/s40064-016-1862-9
systems. Int J Electron Cust Relat Manage 9(2/3):104121 Lee M, Lan Y (2007) From Web 2.0 to conversational knowledge management:
Assaad W, Marx Gmez J (2011) Social network in marketing (social media towards collaborative intelligence. J Entrep Res 2(2):4762
marketing) opportunities and risks. Int J Manag Public Sect Inf Commun Marshall A, Mueck S, Shockley R (2015) How leading organizations use big
Technol 2(1):1322 data and analytics to innovate. Strateg Leadersh 43(5):3239
Bebensee T, Helms R, Spruit M (2011) Exploring Web 2.0 applications as a McKay L (2009) Strategy and social media: everythings social (now). CRM Mag
mean of bolstering up knowledge management. Electron J Knowl Man 13(6):2428
age 9(1):19 Mosadegh MJ, Behboudi M (2011) Using social network paradigm for develop
Bose R (2002) Customer relationship management: key components for IT ing a conceptual framework in CRM. Aust J Bus Manage Res 1(4):6371
success. Ind Manage Data Syst 102(2):8997 Musser J, OReilly T, The OReilly Radar Team (2006) Web 2.0 principles and best
Chalmeta R (2006) Methodology for customer relationship management. J practices. OReilly radar report, Nov 2006
Syst Softw 79(7):10151024 Nguyen TH, Sherif JS, Newby M (2007) Strategies for successful CRM imple
Chen IJ, Popovich K (2003) Understanding customer relationship management mentation. Inf Manage Comput Secur 15(2):102115
(CRM): people, process and technology. Bus Process Manage J 9(5):672688 OReilly T (2005) What is Web 2.0design patterns and business models for
Chiang F, Sitaramachandran S (2015) A data quality framework for customer the next generation of software. http://oreilly.com/pub/a/web2/archive/
relationship analytics. Web information systems engineering, vol 9419. what-is-web-20.html?page=1. Accessed 18 Aug 2015
Springer, Part II, pp 366378 Olbrich R, Holsing C (2012) Modeling consumer purchasing behavior in social
Crockett B, Reed K (2003) The foundation of insight: three approaches to shopping communities with clickstream data. Int J Electron Commer
customer-centric understanding. The Ultimate CRM Handbook, McGraw- 16(2):1540
Hill, New York
OrengaRogl and Chalmeta SpringerPlus (2016)5:1462 Page 17 of 17

Omerzel DG (2010) The impact of knowledge management on SME growth Serrat O (2010) Social network analysis. Asian Development Bank, Washington,
and profitability: a structural equation modelling study. Afr J Bus Manage DC
4(16):34173432 Shimazu H, Koike S (2007) KM2.0: business knowledge sharing in the Web 2.0
Petz G, Karpowicz M, Frschu H, Auinger A, Sttesk V, Holzinger A (2014) age. NEC Tech J 2(2):5054
Computational approaches for mining users opinions on the Web 2.0. Inf Strauss J, Frost R (2002) Customer relationship management E-marketing, 2nd
Process Manage 50(6):899908 edn. Prentice Hall, New York
Ras E, Rech J (2009) Using Wikis to support the Net Generation in improving Syed A, Gillela K, Venugopal C (2013) The future revolution on big data. Int J
knowledge acquisition in capstone projects. J Syst Softw 82(4):553562 Adv Res Comput Commun Eng 2(6):24462451
Razmerita L, Kirchner K, Sudzina F (2009) Personal knowledge management: Torre-Bastida AI, Villar-Rodriguez E, Gil-Lopez S, Del Ser J (2015) Design and
the role of Web 2.0 tools for managing knowledge at individual and implementation of an extended corporate CRM database system with
organisational levels. Online Inf Rev 33(6):10211039 big data analytical functionalities. J Univ Comput Sci 21(6):757776
Reinhold O, Alt R (2011) Analytical social CRM: concept and tool support. In: Wirtz BW, Piehler R, Ullrich S (2013) Determinants of social media website
Proceedings of the 24th bled econference efuture: creating solutions for attractiveness. J Electron Commer 14(1):1133
the individual, organisations and society. Bled, Slovenia, pp 226241 Wu B, Ye Q, Yang S, Wang B (2009) Group CRM: a new telecom CRM framework
Robson C (2002) Real world research: a resource for social scientists and from social network perspective. In: Proceeding of the ACM first interna
practitioner-researchers, 2edn. Blackwell, New York tional workshop on complex networks meet information & knowledge
Rosenberger M (2015) Social customer relationship management: an management, pp 310
architectural exploration of the components. Lect Notes Comput Sci Zablah AR, Bellenger DN, Johnston WJ (2004) An evaluation of divergent
9373:372385 perspectives on customer relationship management: towards a com
Runeson P, Hst M (2009) Guidelines for conducting and reporting case study mon understanding of an emerging phenomenon. Ind Mark Manage
research in software engineering. Empir Softw Eng 14(2):131164 33(6):475489
Sarner A, Thompson E, Dunne M, Davies J (2010) Top use cases and benefits Zamil AM (2011) Customer relationship management: a strategy to sustain the
for successful social CRM. Gartner research, ID number: G00209091 organizations name and products in the customers minds. Eur J Soc Sci
(online), 9 pages, Dec 3, 2010. http://www.gartner.com/id=1485114. 22(3):451459
Accessed 22 July 2015
Sarner A, Thompson E, Sussin J, Nikos D, Maoz M, Davies J, Mann J (2012)
Magic quadrant for social CRM. Gartner research, ID number: G00237431
(online), 20 pages, 27 Sept 2012. http://www.gartner.com/id=2179417.
Accessed 24 July 2015