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Purposes / reasons for going to war(Italy)Daniel Ding History 12 Ghani

The feelings of the Italian people on the outbreak of hostilities were at first very mixed.Italy had for thirty years
been the Ally of the Central Powers in the Triple Alliance. Italy's commercial relations with Germany were also
very intimate, especially after the outbreak of the tariff war with France in the last years of the nineteenth century.
(Villari, Luigi."The War on the Italian front" London: COBDEN-SANDERSON, 1932. Print. )

1.Rivalry with Austria-Hungary: the fight for Italian independence between 1848 and
1866

Italys century-old rivalry with Austria-Hungary is one of its major reasons for joining the
WW1. Austria-Hungary had been a major force against Italian unification following Napoleons
fall, and Italian unity had only been achieved after three wars against Austria.(Italys three Wars
of Italian Independence)(Villari, Luigi."The War on the Italian front" London: COBDEN-
SANDERSON, 1932. Print. )

The establishment of the Italian Republic and later of the Kingdom of Italy, ruled by Napoleon,
encouraged nationalism in those who lived in the regions.(Mary, Melfi. "Italy Revisited by Mary
Melfi." Italy Revisited by Mary Melfi. N.p., 2009. Web. 18 Nov. 2016.) After Napoleon fell, Italy was
again controlled largely by the Austrian Empire and the Habsburgs, as they directly controlled
the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of Italy and were, together, the most
powerful force against unification. ("How Napoleon became 'King of Italy'". Napoleon.org. 23
October 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2015.) The Austrian Empire vigorously repressed
nationalist sentiment growing on the Italian peninsula, as well as in the other parts of Habsburg
domains.(Mary, Melfi. "Italy Revisited by Mary Melfi." Italy Revisited by Mary Melfi. N.p., 2009.
Web. 18 Nov. 2016.)

Italian nationalism and Austrian interests clashed in the three Wars of Italian Independence
between 1848 and 1866 ultimately leading to Italian victory. (Plumoyr. AustriaItaly Relations.
Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 8 Dec. 2008, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/austria
%e2%80%93italy_relations.)

2.Rivalry with Austria-Hungary: Italian regions granted to Austria in 1815

Italy had a longstanding rivalry with Austria-Hungary, dating back to the Congress of Vienna in
1815 after the Napoleonic Wars, which granted several regions on the Italian peninsula to the
Austrian Empire.(Nicolle, David (2003). The Italian Army of World War I. Osprey Publishing.
ISBN 1-84176-398-5.) Austria continued to dominate and tyrannize over several provinces
inhabited by highly civilized Italian communities or by peoples which, if the Italian and Slav
elements were mixed, the civilization was essentially Latin and Italian. (Villari, Luigi."The War
on the Italian front" London: COBDEN-SANDERSON, 1932. Print. )

A radical nationalist political movement, called Unredeemed Italy (Italia irredenta), founded in
the 1880s, started claiming the Italian-inhabited territories of Austria Hungary, especially in the
Austrian Littoral and in the County of Tyrol. (IndieJones. "Italian Front (World War I)." Wikipedia.
Wikimedia Foundation, 30 June 2005. Web. 18 Nov. 2016. )
The annexation of those Austrian territories that were inhabited by Italians, became the main
Italian war goal, assuming a similar function as the issue of Alsace-Lorraine had for the
French.(Nicolle, David (2003). The Italian Army of World War I. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-
84176-398-5.)

3.Rivalry with Austria-Hungary: Austrias hostility toward Italy

Austria continued to remain a menace to Italian security in spite of the Alliance, to arm against
Italy, to fortify the frontiers of the Trentino and the Venezia Giulia, to cover the border area with
a network of strategic roads and railways.(Villari, Luigi."The War on the Italian front" London:
COBDEN-SANDERSON, 1932. Print. )

Many of the leading military men in Austria-Hungary were simply itching to attack
Italy(Villari, Luigi. London: COBDEN-SANDERSON, 1932. Print. ). Many militarists such as
General Conrad von Hotzendorff distrusted the expansionist tendencies of Italy
(https://www.britannica.com/biography/Franz-Graf-Conrad-von-Hotzendorf), and more than
once proposed a "preventive war" against her.(Villari, Luigi."The War on the Italian front" London:
COBDEN-SANDERSON, 1932. Print. )

4.The territorial gains obtained from the Treaty of London(this reason is connected to the
previous 3 reasons)

In the early stages of the war, Allied diplomats courted Italy, attempting to secure Italian
participation on the Allied side, culminating in the Treaty of London of 26 April 1915 in which
Italy renounced her obligations to the Triple Alliance.(Nicolle, David (2003). The Italian Army
of World War I)

The Treaty of London, 1915, was a secret pact between the Triple Entente(United Kingdom,
France, Russia) and Italy, signed in London on 26 April 1915 by the triple entente and the
Kingdom of Italy.(Baker, Ray Stannard. Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement, Volume I
Doubleday, Page, and Company, 1923. pages 5255) According to the pact, Italy was to join the
Entente and declare war against her former allies--Austria and Germany.

The territorial gains the Triple Entente promised Italy is a major reason why Italy joined the war.
Italys desire to complete her national unity by annexing the (Austro-Hungarian) districts
inhabited by a population wholly or predominantly Italian or with a definitely Italian tradition
and civilization(Villari, Luigi."The War on the Italian front" London: COBDEN-SANDERSON,
1932. Print. )

was fulfilled by the Triple Ententes Treaty of London. The Treaty of London would allow Italy
to receive the fulfillment of its national dream: control over territory on its border with Austria-
Hungary stretching from Trentino through the South Tyrol to Trieste. In addition, the Allies
promised the Italians parts of Dalmatia and numerous islands along Austria-Hungarys Adriatic
coast; the Albanian port city of Vlore (Italian: Valona) and a central protectorate in Albania; and
territory from the Ottoman Empire.(History.com staff. Italy Declares War on Austria-Hungary.
History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2009, www.history.com/this-day-in-history/italy-declares-war-
on-austria-hungary. )
The Triple Entente fulfilled most of Italys demands with the London Pact, however, Germany
and Austria could not do so. Austria- Hungary only suggested that she might grant a small part
of what Italy was asking for and was prepared to make even that concession only after the end of
the war. Austria-Hungary, as appears from a statement made by the late Count Tisza, was
determined after the war to break any promises which she might be induced to make to Italy and
refuse to hand over such territories as she undertook to give her.(This is confirmed by Baron
Macchio, the last Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to Italy, who speaks of the "momentary"
concessions to be made) (Villari, Luigi."The War on the Italian front" London: COBDEN-
SANDERSON, 1932. Print. )

5.Result
On 23 May, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary.(Nicolle, David (2003). The Italian
Army of World War I. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-398-5.)Fifteen months

later, Italy declared war on Germany.

Territory promised to Italy by the Entente in 1915s Treaty of London, which included South Tyrol, the Austrian littoral,
Dalmatia and the Albanian port of Valona. (Image fromhttp://www.marelic.net/italian-plans-eastern-adriatic/)

Specific goals and objectives(Italy) Daniel Ding History 12 Ghani


One of Italys major goals in the war was to gain territory, especially (Austro-Hungarian)
districts inhabited by a population wholly or predominantly Italian or with a definitely Italian
tradition and civilization.(Villari, Luigi."The War on the Italian front" London: COBDEN-
SANDERSON, 1932. Print. ) Territory was the price of Italian participation in the war; whichever
side offered the land it most coveted. Territory was the price of Italian participation in the war;
whichever side offered the land it most coveted the Austro-Hungarian territory in the Trentino
to the north and around the Adriatic coast to the east would likely gain Italian
support.(Morrow, John. The Great War: An Imperial History. New York: Routledge, 2005. Print.)
Germany and Austria Hungary could not fufill Italys need, and might only grant a small part of
what Italy was asking for and was prepared to make even that concession only after the end of
the war. (Villari, Luigi."The War on the Italian front" London: COBDEN-SANDERSON, 1932. Print.
)However, it was fufilled by the Triple Ententes Treaty of London. This is one of the reasons
why Italy turned on its old allies and joined the Triple Ententes side.

Another goal Italy desired (and obtained in the London Pact) was to secure a satisfactory
frontier(border) which could be easily defended. (Villari, Luigi."The War on the Italian front"
London: COBDEN-SANDERSON, 1932. Print. ) Consquently, she asked for the Alto Adige, in
order to extend her frontier to the Brenner watershed, and besides the purely Italian districts
beyond her then north-east frontier, the whole area up to the crest of the Julian Alps including
some Slav and some mixed Italo-Slav districts.(Villari, Luigi."The War on the Italian front"
London: COBDEN-SANDERSON, 1932. Print. )

Bibliography

(Villari, Luigi."The War on the Italian front" London: COBDEN-SANDERSON, 1932. Print. )

(Mary, Melfi. "Italy Revisited by Mary Melfi." Italy Revisited by Mary Melfi. N.p., 2009. Web. 18 Nov. 2016.)

(Plumoyr. AustriaItaly Relations. Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 8 Dec. 2008, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/austria


%e2%80%93italy_relations.)

(IndieJones. "Italian Front (World War I)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 June 2005. Web. 18 Nov. 2016. )

(Villari, Luigi."The War on the Italian front" London: COBDEN-SANDERSON, 1932. Print. )

(Nicolle, David (2003). The Italian Army of World War I. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-398-5.)

("How Napoleon became 'King of Italy'". Napoleon.org. 23 October 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2015.)

(Baker, Ray Stannard. Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement, Volume I Doubleday, Page, and Company, 1923. pages 5255)

(History.com staff. Italy Declares War on Austria-Hungary. History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2009, www.history.com/this-day-in-
history/italy-declares-war-on-austria-hungary. )