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BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY

College of Engineering, Architecture, Fine Arts


Gov. Pablo Borbon Campus II, Alangilan, Batangas City, Philippines 4200
www.batstate-u.edu.ph Telefax: (043) 300-4404 locs. 106-118

PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION
CE 412: Construction Materials and Testing

Name: __________________________________ SR Code:


_________________
Section: __________________ Date:

GENERAL DIRECTIONS.
1. Write the answers on the sheet/space provided.
2. Cell phones are ordered shut-off during examination time.
3. Any form of cheating (discussion with seatmates, copying from notes and/or
from seatmates, taking answers via mobile phones, etc.) during examination
time renders the examination a grade of zero (0).

I. MODIFIED TRUE OR FALSE. If the statement is true write TRUE on the space
provided before each number and if the statement is FALSE, underline the
word(s) that make the statement incorrect and write the correct word(s) on the
space provided before each number. (2 points each)
1. The Construction Materials Testing deals with the physical
properties of common construction materials primarily metals, plastics, wood,
concrete, etc.
2. First cement was produced by early Greeks and Romans from
volcanic ash mixed with slaked lime.
3. Materials testing is not the measurement of the
characteristics, properties and behaviour of such substances as metals,
ceramics, or plastics under various conditions.
4. The Greeks used marbles and other stones as their main
construction material.
5. The word cement was invent from the latin word opus
caementicum.
6. During the Roman Period, they used mud and sticks as their
main construction materials.
7. In 1756, John Smeaton made the first modern concrete by
adding pebbles as a coarse aggregate & mixing powder brick into the cement
8. The first rotary kiln to produce Portland cement patented in
1885 was designed by Thomas Edison.
9. Reinforced concrete is a concrete in which metal (as steel) is
embedded so that the tow materials act together in resisting forces.
10. Structural integrity assures that the construction will perform
its designed function, during reasonable use, for as long as the designed life of
the structure.
11. Most of the structural failures are associated with materials
and are the consequence of human mistake involving a lack of know-how about
materials or the combination of contrary materials.
12. There are structural failures that can be endorsed to
uniformity in materials.
13. Salt of zinc, manganese, tin, cooper and lead acts as
retardants.
14. Structural integrity and failure is an aspect of engineering
which deals with the ability of a structure to support a designed load (weight,
force, etc...) without breaking, tearing apart, or collapsing, and includes the
study of breakage that has previously occurred in order to prevent failures in
future designs.
15. Water with less than 3000 ppm dissolved solids can be used
satisfactorily for making concrete.
16. Materials fabrication is a process which is performed to
select the best materials which may have the potential to perform well both in
industrially and commercially.
17. Structural failure refers to the loss of structural integrity,
which is the gain of the load-carrying capacity of a component or member within
a structure, or of the structure itself.
18. In CMT, the durability of the materials is tested, which is the
ability of the material to exist for a short time without significant deterioration.
19. Assuring the strength of the materials is the contractors
responsibility.
20. Natural ground water seldom contains less than 20 to 30
ppm of iron.

II. CROSSWORD PUZZLE. (30 points)


ACROSS
2 Construction material which is not resistant to fire
5 Process which is performed to select the best materials which may have the
potential to perform well both in industrially and commercially
9 The river sand is almost __________ in color
11 Another term for unprocessed construction material
12 Saturated-surface dry
15 The word ___________ was invented from the Roman word opus
caementicum
16 Aggregates resulting from the processing of inorganic materials e.g.
construction and demolition waste
17 _________ aggregates is produces by natural processes of weathering and
erosion
18 _________ aggregates is used to produce lower density concretes
20 Also known as Bank run or River run
23 It is a natural process to reduce rocks to suitable sizes
24 _____________ capacity represents the maximum amount of water the
aggregate can absorb
27 A device for characterizing the particle size distribution of a sample,
typically using a woven screen such as a mesh or net or metal
28 Involving a lack of know-how about materials or the combination of contrary
materials
29 ____________ aggregates generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone
with most particles passing through a 9.5mm sieve
30 Moisture condition of aggregates which contains an excess of moisture on
the surface

DOWN
1 A bright white with a blu/gray tint colored gravel
3 Moisture condition of aggregates which is fully absorbent
4 Roman period's chief building material
6 Refers to the loss of structural integrity
7 Course that deals with the physical properties of common construction
materials and principles of testing
8 _________ apparatus is used for the determination of the consistency of
freshly mixed concrete
10 Another word for crushed stone
13 Most mined materials in the world
14 Aggregates used for high density concrete
19 _________ machine is used to measure the degradation of mineral
aggregate of standard grading
21 The most common constituent of sand
22 Obtained as waste products from kilns, blast furnace and etc.
25 Aggregates which particles are greater than 4.75mm, but generally
range between 9.5mm to 37.5mm in diameter
26 Mixture of dark bituminous pitch with sand or gravel, used for surfacing
roads.

III. IDENTIFICATION. From the pool of words below, choose the appropriate
answer to the following descriptions. (1 point each)

gravelly sand sand Joseph Aspdin brick


works

oven dry mutual attrition vicat apparatus concreting works

efflorescence pit sand gravel cement

crushed stone sand/artificial sand fine sand sieve

le-chatelier apparatus aggregates moisture

1. A naturally occurring granular material composed of


finely divided rock and mineral particles.
2. The presence of fine rounded grains is due to
_______________under the action of water current.
3. All moisture is removed from the aggregate by heating
in an oven at 105 C (overnight heating usually is sufficient).
4. Sand should be used with finest modulus 2.5 to 3.5 and
silt contents should not be more than 4%.
5. A bricklayer in England who developed portland
cement.
6. Sand found as deposits in soil and consists of sharp
angular grains, which are free from salts.
7. Crystalline deposit on surfaces of masonry.
8. Sand manufactured in conformance to IS Codes and is
an effective alternative to river sand.
9. Finest modulus of fine sand should be 1.2 to 1.5 and silt
contents should not be more than 4%.
10. Sand passing through a sieve with clear openings of
7.62 mm. It is generally used for concrete work.
11. Sand passing through a sieve with clear openings of
1.5875 mm. It is mainly used for plastering.
12. A binder, a substance used in construction that sets
and hardens and bind other material together. (
13. This is the instrument used to test the fineness of
cement.
14. This is the instrument used to test the consistency of
a cement.
15. This is the instrument used to test the soundness of
cement.

IV. FILL IN THE BLANKS. Read each statement and fill each blank with the correct
answer. Write your answer on the blank provided. (1 point each)
__________________ (1) is widely used as a surfacing for roads and
driveways, sometimes with tar applied over it. Also known as __________________
(2), DGA (Dense Grade Aggregate) QP (Quarry Process), and shoulder stone.
__________________ (3) the name is telling, because it usually contains
some amount of precious metals, such as gold or silver.
__________________ (4) is a bed of gravel located on the side of a
__________________ (5) above the present stream bottom, indicating the former
location of the stream bed when it was at a higher level.
__________________ (6) is a gray colored gravel which is a by-product of
the steel industry. It is the best gravel for __________________ (7) and porous like
lava rock.
Gravel composed of __________________ (8) rock fragment that have a
general particle size range and include size classes from granule-to boulder-
sized fragments.
__________________ (9) gravel that consists of small, rounded stones
used in concrete surfaces.
__________________ (10) is a bright white with a blue/gray tint colored
__________________ (11), very clean looking gravel. Packs hard but can be a little
dusty. A harder form of Limestone.
__________________ (12) the size and density are required so that, when
placed along shorelines, its able to provide stability in the soil and prevent
erosion from occurring.
Many homeowners, parks and other organizations choose to use
crushed aggregate when constructing paths and __________________. (13)
__________________ (14) is generally rounded, semi-polished stones,
potentially of a wide range of types that are dredged or scooped from river beds.
It is also often used as concrete __________________ (15) and less often as a
paving surface.

V. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Encircle the letter that best fits the question. (1 point
each)
1. It is used for the determination of the consistency of freshly mixed
concrete, where the maximum size of the aggregate does not exceed
38mm.
a. Slump Test Apparatus
b. Concrete Vibrating Table
c. Concrete Permeability Apparatus

2. It is used to test material to determine or demonstrate their ability to


withstand shaking.
a. Slump Test Apparatus
b. Concrete Vibrating Table
c. Concrete Permeability Apparatus

3. This apparatus is used to determine the durability of rocks and the


probable amount of deterioration of weak rocks, over a period of time,
after simulated exposure to nature's continual wetting and drying cycles.
a. Abrasion Machine
b. Slake Durability Apparatus
c. Proctor Compactor

4. It is used to measure the degradation of mineral aggregate of standard


gradings resulting from a combination of actions including attrition,
impact and grinding in a rotating steel drum containing a specified
number of steel spheres.
a. Abrasion Machine
b. Slake Durability Apparatus
c. Proctor Compactor

5. A measure of the ability of an aggregate particle to stand up to pulling or


crushing forces.
a. Permeability
b. Absorption
c. Strength

6. Refers to the particle's ability to allow liquids to pass through.


a. Permeability
b. Absorption
c. Strength

7. Denotes the ability of the material to absorb and retain water.


a. Permeability
b. Absorption
c. Strength

8. The particle-size distribution of an aggregate as determined by a sieve


analysis (ASTM C 136 or AASHTO T 27).
a. Grading
b. Sieving
c. Particle size

9. The mass of a unit volume of material in its natural state.


a. Density
b. Density Index
c. Bulk Density

10.The mass of a unit volume of homogeneous material.


a. Density
b. Density Index
c. Bulk Density

11.Indicates the degree to which the volume of a material is filled with solid
matter.
a. Density
b. Density Index
c. Bulk Density
12.Influenced by nature of material, its structure, porosity, character of pores
and mean temperature at which heat exchange takes place
a. Thermal Capacity
b. Heat conductivity
c. Chemical resistance

13.The ability of a material to withstand the action of acids, alkalis, sea water
and gases.
a. Thermal Capacity
b. Heat conductivity
c. Chemical resistance

14.The property of a material to absorb heat described by its specific heat.


a. Thermal Capacity
b. Heat conductivity
c. Chemical resistance

15.Denotes the ability of a water-saturated material to endure repeated


freezing and thawing with considerable decrease of mechanical strength.
a. Weathering Resistance
b. Frost resistance
c. Durability

16.The ability of a material to resist the combined effects of atmospheric and


other factors.
a. Weathering Resistance
b. Frost resistance
c. Durability

17.The ability of a material to endure alternate wet and dry conditions for a
long period without considerable deformation and loss of mechanical
strength.
a. Weathering Resistance
b. Frost resistance
c. Durability

18.The ability of a material to restore its initial form and dimensions after the
load is removed.
a. Elasticity
b. Plasticity
c. Hardness

19.The ability of a material to resist penetration by a harder body.


a. Elasticity
b. Plasticity
c. Hardness

20.The ability of a material to change its shape under load without cracking
and to retain this shape after the load is removed.
a. Elasticity
b. Plasticity
c. Hardness

21.Aggregates in this condition will not contribute free water nor absorb
water from the mix.
a. Wet
b. Air dry
c. Surface saturated dry

22.All moisture removed from surface, but internal pores partially full. This
condition may occur on a hot summer day or in an arid region.
a. Wet
b. Air dry
c. Surface saturated dry

23.All pores completely filled with water with a free water on the surface.
a. Wet
b. Air dry
c. Surface saturated dry

24.Represents water in excess of the SSD state, also expressed as a fraction


of the SSD weight.
a. Surface Moisture
b. Absorption Capacity
c. Moisture Content
25.Represents the maximum amount of water the aggregate can absorb.
a. Surface Moisture
b. Absorption Capacity
c. Moisture Content

26.The fine aggregate must not have more than ____% retained between any
two consecutive standard sieves.
a. 54%
b. 45%
c. 39%

27.The fineness modulus of fine aggregates must be not less than ___ nor
more than ___.
a. 2.2, 3.2
b. 5.5, 8.0
c. 2.3, 3.1

28.The fineness modulus of course aggregates must be not less than ___ nor
more than ___.
a. 2.2, 3.2
b. 5.5, 8.0
c. 2.3, 3.1

29.Aggregate tensile strengths range from _______ MPa.


a. 2 to 15
b. 5 to 12
c. 3 to 18

30.Compressive strengths of aggregates range from ______________ psi.


a. 12,000 to 36,000
b. 1,000 to 4,000
c. 10,000 to 40,000

31.Coarse aggregate generally have absorption levels (moisture contents at


SSD) in the range of _______.
a. 0.2% to 4%
b. 0.2% to 2%
c. 2% to 6%

32.Fine aggregate generally have absorption levels (moisture contents at


SSD) in the range of _______.
a. 0.2% to 4%
b. 0.2% to 2%
c. 2% to 6%

33.The coefficient of thermal expansion of aggregates ranges from


_________________.
a. 0.65 x 10-6 per C to 5 x 10-6 per C
b. 0.55 x 10-3 per C to 5 x 10-3 per C
c. 0.55 x 10-6 per C to 5 x 10-6 per C

34.The absorption and surface moisture of aggregates should be determined


according to ASTM C 70, C 127, C 128, and C ________ (AASHTO T 255) so
that the total water content of the concrete can be controlled and correct
batch weights determined.
a. 556
b. 566
c. 655
VI. ENUMERATION. (1 point each)
Physical Properties of Materials
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Mechanical Properties of Materials
1.
2.
3.
4.
Methods in Measuring Voids
1.
2.
Characteristics Behavior of Materials under Stress
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Ways to Check the Quality of Cement
At shop (at least 3)
1.
2.
3.
At site (at least 3)
1.
2.
3.
At laboratory (at least 3)
1.
2.
3.
Impurities in Mixing Water
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Sources of Water
1.
2.
3.
Shape of Aggregate Particle
1.
2.
3.
4.
Equipments used in Testing Durability and Abrasion
1.
2.
Equipments used in Aggregate Classification
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

VII. ESSAY. Explain the following. Maximum of 5 sentences.


1. What is Construction Materials and Testing? (5 point)
2. Importance of Construction Materials and Testing. (10 points)
BONUS.
a. Complete name of the reporters. (10 points)
b. Complete name of the laboratory technician. (5 points)
CROSSWORD PUZZLE