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HAND BOOK

LANGUAGE LEARNING
STRATEGIES

By

SYAPRIZAL. M.Pd

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
STKIP PGRI LUBUKLINGGAU
Preface

There are the characteristic we can to stimulate in students to enable them to


become more proficient language learners. This resume helps teachers encourage such
qualities by means of language learning strategies, actions taken by second and foreign
language learners to control and improve their own learning. Learning strategies are keys
to greater autonomy and more meaningful learning. Although, learning strategies are used
by students themselves, teacher plays an important role in helping students develop and
use strategies in ore effective ways.
Second language teaching in recent years has moved away from the quest for the
perfect teaching method, focusing instead on how successful teacher and learner actually
achieve their goals. In the case of teachers, this has led to classroom-cantered research on
linguistic, discoursal, and interactional structure of teaching events. In the case of
learners, it has led to study of 1) how learner approaches learning, both in and out of
classroom, and 2) the kind of strategies cognitive processing they use in second language
acquisition.
Contents

Preface......................................................................................................................................
I

The First Book: Language Learning Strategies


Chapter 1 Looking at Language Learning Strategies.........................................................
01
Chapter 2 Direct Strategies for Dealing with Language.....................................................
07
Chapter 3 Applying Direct Strategies to the Four Language Skill.....................................
13
Chapter 4 Indirect Strategies for General Management of learning.................................
18
Chapter 5 Applying Indirect Strategies to the Four Language Skill..................................
21
Chapter 6 Language Learning Strategy Assessment and Training....................................
30
Chapter 7 Networking at Home and Abroad........................................................................
32

Second Book: Learning Strategies in Second Language


Acquisition

Chapter 1 Introduction ..........................................................................................................


39
Chapter 2 A Cognitive Theory of Learning..........................................................................
41
Chapter 3 How Cognitive Theory Applies to Second Language Acquisition....................
45
Chapter 4 Learning Strategies: Methods and Research .....................................................
50
Chapter 5 Strategies Used by Second Language Learners..................................................
61
Chapter 6 Instruction in Learning Strategies ......................................................................
74
Chapter 7 Learning Strategies: Models and Material.........................................................
81
Bibliography ...........................................................................................................................
87
CHAPTER 1

LOOKING AT THE LEARNING STRATEGIES

WHY LEARNING STRATEGIES ARE IMPORTANT


Learning strategies are steps taken by students to enhance their own
learning. Strategies are especially important for language learning because they
are tools for active, self-directed involvement, which is essential for developing
communicative competence. Appropriate language learning strategies result in
improved proficiency and greater self-confidence.

ORGANIZATION AND BEST USE OF THIS BOOK


The major purpose of this book is to make learning strategies under
standable to teacher of second and foreign language, so they can enable students
tio become better learners. Others, too, many find useful ideas here. 1. To use the
book more effectively, observe how its Chapters are organized and notice their
practical emphasis. Each Chapter offers each preview questions, summary,
activities to help you expand your understanding, and exercises to use with your
students. The epilogue offers specific ideas about the next steps to take, and the
notes provide crucial research data.

Guidelines for general readers


To get the most form this, read actively by using such strategies as
purposeful reading and getting the idea quickly by using the preview questions.
Many of the reading strategies described in this book are a valuable for reading in
ones own native language as they are for reading in a second or foreign language.
Pay attention to the examples and illustration
Go beyond the readers activities to the exercises you can use with your
students. These are classroom exercises which make language learning strategies
come alive for your own learners. Apply to the information in this book as much

1
as you can. Reflect on it. Talk with your colleagues about it. Ask for help form
others. Coe back to the book for further guidance wherever you need it.

Guidelines for Readers Interested Mainly in Specific Strategy Assessment


and Training Techniques.
Some readers might have chosen this book primarily to find out about
particular strategy assessment and training techniques. If you are such a reader,
you might read this Chapter to obtain an overview of the strategy system and
move immediately to next Chapter

A Word about Terminology


1. Learning and Acquisition
According to one well-known contrast, learning is conscious knowledge of
language rules, does not typically lead to conversational fluency, and is derived
from formal instruction. Acquisition, on the other hand, occurs unconsciously and
spontaneously, does lead to conversational fluency, and arises from naturalistic
language use. Some specialists even suggest that learning cannot contribute to
acquisition, i.e., that conscious gains in knowledge cannot influence
subconscious development of language.

2. Process Orientation
Interest has been shifting from a limited focus on merely what students
learn or acquire the product or outcome of language learning and acquisition
to expended focus that also includes how students gain language the process by
which learning or acquisition occurs. This new emphasis involves looking at a
variety of process factors. The development of an interlanguage (the learners
hybrid form of language use that ranges somewhere in between the first or native
language use that range language being learned).
Interestingly, the process orientation (building on general system theory, in
which all phenomena are part of dynamic system) forces use to consider not just
the language learning process it self but also input into this process. The general
term input might include a variety of student and teacher characteristic, such as
intelligence, sex, personality, general learning or teaching style, previous
experience, motivation, attitudes, and so on.

3. Four language skill


Gaining a new language necessarily involves developing four modalities
in varying degrees and combination: listening, reading, speaking, and writing.
Among language teachers, these modalities are known as the four language skills,
or just the four skills. Culture and grammar are sometimes called skill, too, but
they are somewhat different from the big four both of these intersect and overlap
with listening, reading, speaking, and writing in particular ways. The term skill
simply means ability, expertness, or proficiency.

4. Second language and foreign language


The target language or language being learned can be either a second
language or a foreign language. The target language is used as a generic phrase to
cover the two circumstances, second language learning. This second versus
foreign detestation is often baffling to teacher, students, parents, and the general
public.
The difference between second languages learning a second language
learning a foreign language is usually viewed in term of where the language is
learned and what social and communicative functions the language serves there. A
second language ha social and communicative functions within the community
where it is learned. In contrast, a foreign language does not have immediate social
and communicative functions within the community where it is learned; it is
employed mostly to communicate elsewhere.

5. Communication Communicative competence and Related Concepts.


The word communication comes from a Latin word for commonness
including the prefix com which suggests togetherness, joins, cooperation, and
mutuality.
Communicative competence is of courses, competence or ability to
communicate. It concerns both spoken and written language and all for language
skill. Even language learning experts have commonly communication strategies to
refer only to certain types of speaking strategies thus unwittingly giving the false
impression that the skills of reading, listening, and writing and the language
used via these modalities are not really equal partners in communication.

6. Learning Strategy
The strategy concept, without its aggressive and competitive trapping, had
become influential in education, where it has taken on a new meaning and has
been transformed into learning strategies. One commonly used technical
definition says that learning strategies are operations employed by the learner to
aid the acquisition storage, retrieval, and use of information.

FEATURES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES


Communicative Competence as the Main Goal
All appropriate language learning strategies are oriented toward the broad
goal of communicative competence. Development of communicative competence
requires realistic interaction among learners using meaningful contextualized
language. Learning strategies help learners participate actively in such authentic
communication. Such strategies operate both general and specific ways to
encourage the development of communication competence.
Metacognitive (beyond and cognitive) strategies help learner to regulate
their own cognition and to focus, plan, and evaluate their progress as they move
toward communicative competence. Affective strategies develop the self
confidence and perseverance needed for learner to involve themselves actively in
language learning, a requirement for attaining communicative competence. Social
strategies provide increases interaction and moir emphatic understanding, two
equalities necessary to research communicative competence. As the learners
competence grows strategies can act in specific ways to foster particular aspects
of that competence; grammatical, sociolinguistic, discourse, and strategic
elements

Greater Self Direction for Learner


Language learning strategies encourage greater overall self-direction for
learner. Self-direction is particularly important for language learners, because they
will not always have the teacher around to guide them as they use the language
outside the classroom. Moreover, self-direction is essential to the active
development of ability in a new language.

New Roles for Teachers


Teacher traditionally expect to be viewed as authority figures, identified
with roles like parent, director, manage, judge, leader, evaluator, controller, and
even doctor, who must cure the ignorance of the students. As gobson said,
youve got make students toe the line all the time, you cannot assume that theyll
come in, sit down and get on with the job.

Other Features
The other important features of language strategies are problem
orientation, action basis, and involvement beyond just cognition, ability to support
learning directly or indirectly, degree of absorbability, level of consciousness,
teach ability, flexibility, and influence on strategies choice.
Problem orientation language learning strategies are tools. They are used
because there is a problem to solve, a task to accomplish, an objective to meet, or
a goal to attain. Memory strategies are used because there is something that must
be remembered. Affective strategies are used to help the learner relax or gain
greater confidence, so that more profitable learning can make place.
Action Basis related to the problem orientation of language learning
strategies is their action basis. Language learning strategies are specific actions or
behaviors accomplished by students to enhance their learning.
Involvement beyond Just Cognition language learning strategies are not
restricted to cognitive functions, such as those dealing with mental processing and
manipulation of the new language. Strategies also include metacognitive functions
like planning, evaluating, and arranging ones own learning; and emotional
(affective), social, and other functions as well.
Direct and Indirect Support of Learning some learning some learning
strategies involves direct learning and use of the subject matter, in this case a new
language.
Degree of Observability language learning strategies are not always
readily observable to the human eye. Many aspects of cooperating a strategy in
which the learner works with someone else to achieve a learning goal, can be
observed, but the act of making mental associations, an important memory
strategy, can not be seen.
Level of Consciousness the ancient Greek definition of strategies, given
above, implies consciousness and intentionality.
Teachability some aspect of the learners of the learners makeup, like
general learning style or personality
CHAPTER 2

DIRECT STRATEGIES FOR DEALING WITH LANGUAGE

Introduction to Direct Strategies


Language learning strategies that directly involve the target language are
called direct strategies. All direct strategies require mental processing of the
language, but the tree groups of direct strategies (memory, cognitive, and
compensation) to do processing differently and for different process. Memory
strategies, such as grouping and using imaginary, have a highly specific function:
helping students store and retrieve new information. Cognitive strategies, such as
summarizing or reasoning deductively, enable learners to understand and produce
new language by many different means. Compensative strategies, like guessing or
using synonyms, allow learners to the language despite their often large gaps in
knowledge.

Memory Strategies
Memory strategies, sometimes called mnemonics, have been used for
thousand of years. Memory strategies fall into four sets: creating mental linkages,
applying images and sound, reviewing and employing actions.
1. Creating Mental Linkage
a. Grouping
Grouping involves classifying or reclassifying what is heard or read into
meaningful groups, thus reducing the number of unrelated elements.
b. Associating/Elaborating
This memory strategy involves associating new language information with
familiar concepts already in memory. Naturally, these associations are likely to
strengthen comprehension, as well as making the material easier to remember.

c. Placing New Words into a context. (A)

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This strategy involves placing new words or expressions that have been
heard or read into a meaningful context, such as a spoken or written sentence,
as a way of remembering it.
2. Applying Image and Sound
a. Using Imagery
A good way to remember what has been heard or read in the new language
is to create a mental image of it.
b. Semantic Mapping
This strategy involves arranging concepts and relationships on paper to
create a semantic map, a diagram in which the key concepts are highlighted
and are linked with related concepts via arrows or lines.
c. Using Keywords
This strategy combines sounds and images so that learners can more easily
remember what they hear or read in the new language. This strategy has two
steps: First, identify a familiar word in ones own language or another
language that sounds like the new word. Second, generate a visual image of
the new word and the familiar one interacting in some way.
d. Representing Sounds in Memory
This strategy helps learners remember what they hear by making auditory
rather than visual representations of sounds. This involves linking the new
word with familiar words or sounds from any language.
3. Reviewing and employing
The sole strategy in this set is structured reviewing, which is especially useful
for remembering new material in the target language. It entails reviewing at
different interval, at first close together and then increasingly far apart.
4. Employing Action
a. Using Physical Response or Sensation
This strategy may involve physically acting out a new expression that has
been heard. The teaching technique known as Total Physical Response is
based on this strategy students listen to a command and then physically act it
out.
b. Using Mechanical Techniques
To remember what has been heard or read, mechanical techniques are
sometimes helpful.

Cognitive Strategies
Cognitive strategies are essential in a learning new language, such meta
cognitive are a varied lot, ranging from repeating to analyzing expressions to
summarizing. Four sets of cognitive strategies exist, practicing, receiving and
sending messages.

1. Practicing
a. Repeating (A)
Although the strategy of repeating might not at first sound particularly
creative, important, or meaningful, it can be used in highly innovative ways, is
actually essential for all four language skills, and virtually always includes
some degree of meaningful understanding.
b. Formally Practicing with Sounds and Writing Systems (L)(S)(W)
In listening, this strategy is often focused on perception of sounds rather
than on comprehension of meaning
c. Recognizing and Using Formulas and Pattern (A)
Recognizing and using routine formulas and patterns in target language
greatly enhance the learners comprehension and production.
d. Recombining (S)(W)
The strategy of recombining involves constructing a meaningful sentence
or longer expression by putting together known elements in new ways.
e. Practicing Naturalistically (A)
This strategy, of course, centers on using the language for actual
communication.

2. Receiving and Sending Messages


a. Getting the Idea Quickly (L)(R)
This strategy is used for listening and reading. It helps learners home in on
exactly what they need or want to understand, and it allows them to disregard
the rest or use it as background information only.
b. Using Resources for Receiving and Sending Messages (A)
This strategy involves using resources to find out the meaning of what is
heard or read in the new language, or to produce messages in the new
language.

3. Analyzing and Reasoning


a. Reasoning Deductively (A)
This strategy involves deriving hypotheses about the meaning of what is
heard by means of general rules the learner already knows.
b. Analyzing Expressions (L)(R)
To understand something spoken in the new language, it is often helpful to
break down a new word, phrase, sentence, or even paragraph into its
component parts.
c. Analyzing Contrastively (L)(R)
It involves analyzing elements (sounds, words, syntax) of the new
language to determine likenesses and differences in comparison with ones
own native language. It is very commonly used at the early stages of language
learning to understand the meaning of what is heard or read.
d. Translating (A)
Translating can be a helpful strategy early in language learning, as long as
it is used with care. It allows learners to use their own language as the basis
for understanding what they hear or read in the new language.
e. Transferring
Directly applying previous knowledge to facilitate new knowledge in the
target language.

4. Creating Structure for Input and Output


a. Taking Notes
This strategy is very important for listening and reading. Key points can be
written in the learners own language at first.
b. Summarizing
This strategy helps the learners structure new input and show they
understand in summarizing, that is making condensed, shorter version of the
original passage.
c. Highlighting
This strategy emphasizes the major points in a dramatic way, through
color, underlining, CAPITAL LETTERS, Initial Capitals, BIG WRITING,
bold writing, *star*,boxes, circle and so on.

Compensation Strategies
All four skills are important and deserve special attention and action.
Learning strategies help the learners to develop each of the skills. Applying
Compensation strategies can help learners overcome knowledge limitation in all
four language skills.
1. Guessing Intelligently (GI) in Listening and Reading
a. Using Language Clues: suffixes, prefixes, and word order are useful
linguistic clues for guessing meaning. For example: we can guess the
conversation about gardening if the words used are shovel, grass, mower,
lawn etc.
b. Using other clues. Clues such as forms of address (titles, nicknames)
which imply social relationship help learners guess the meaning of what
they hear or read. My pet, dear husband, dear friend, Mr. Dr. Professor,
etc. For the learners, all these are aids for understanding the rest of the
passage.
2. Overcoming Limitation in Speaking and Writing
a. Switching to the mother tongue or code switching without translating
it.
b. Getting help/ asking for the missing expression. In this case the
learners want other person to simply provide what the learners dont know.
c. Using gesture. The learners use physical motion (gesture) during a
conversation to indicate the meaning. One can make gestures indicating
the size, shape, color of something.
d. Avoiding communication partially or totally. It involves avoiding
communication. When difficulties are anticipated. Avoid words, concepts,
or grammatical structures that the learners dont know.
e. Selecting the topic. Learners choose the topic of conversation based
on their interest. The reason is that they maybe possess the needed
vocabularies.
f. Adjusting/ approximating the message, this is used to alter the message
by omitting some items of information; making the idea simpler: Say pipe
for water pipe, president instead of principle.
g. Coining words, it means making up new words to communicate a
concept for which the learners dont have the right vocabulary
h. Using circumlocution or synonym. The learners use a circumlocution
(the use of a large number of unnecessary words to express an idea
needing fewer words).
CHAPTER 3

APPLYING DIRECT STRATEGIES TO THE FOUR


LANGUAGE SKILLS

Introduction
We are going to discuss how the three groups of direct strategies memory,
cognitive, and compensation strategies are used to develop each of the four
language skills : listening (L), reading (R), speaking (S), and writing (W), A (all
skills)

Creating Mental Linkages.


Three kinds of strategies are useful for making mental linkages: grouping,
associating / elaborating and placing new word into the context. There are the
most basic memory strategies and the foundation of more complex memory
strategy.

Grouping (L) (R)


Grouping involves classifying or reclassifying what is heard or read into
meaningful groups, thus reducing the number of unrelated elements. It some
tomes involves labeling the groups as well. Notice that same of the examples
below involve other strategies, too, such as paying attention or taking notes.

Associating/Elaborating (L) (R)


This memory strategy involves associating new language information with
familiar concepts already in memory. Naturally, these associations are likely to
strengthen comprehension, as well as making the material easier to remember.
Below are some real instates of associating / elaborating that are personally

1
significant to the learner involved. Any association must have meaning to the
learner, even though it might not make a great deal of sense to someone else.

Placing New Words into a context. (A)


This strategy involves placing new words or expressions that have been
heard or read into a meaningful context, such as a spoken or written sentence, as a
way of remembering it.

Applying Images and Sounds


- Using Imagery (L) (R)
A good way to remember what has been heard or read in the new language
is to create a mental image of it. The imaginary used to remember expressions
does not have to be purely mental. Drawings can make mental images (of object
like house or tree, or descriptive adjective like wide and tall) more concrete. Even
abstract words like evil or truth can be turned by symbols on a piece of paper

- Semantic Mapping (L) (R)


This strategy involves arranging concepts and relationships on paper to
create a semantic map, a diagram in which the key concepts are highlighted and
are linked with related concepts via arrows or lines. Such a diagram visually
shows how ideas fit together. This strategy incorporates a variety of other memory
strategies; groping, using imaginary, and associating / elaborating.

- Using Keywords (L) (R)


This strategy combines sounds and images so that learners can more easily
remember what they hear or read in the new language. This strategy has two steps:
First, identify a familiar word in ones own language or another language that
sounds like the new word. Second, generate a visual image of the new word and
the familiar one interacting in some way.
- Representing Sounds in Memory (L) (R) (S)
This strategy helps learners remember what they hear by making auditory
rather than visual representations of sounds. This involves linking the new word
with familiar words or sounds from any language; the new language, ones own
language, pr any other

- Reviewing Well (A)


The sole strategy in this set is structured reviewing, which is especially
useful for remembering new material in the target language. It entails reviewing at
different interval, at first close together and then increasingly far apart.

- Employing Action
Using Physical Response or Sensation (L)(R)
This strategy may involve physically acting out a new expression that has
been heard. The teaching technique known as Total Physical Response is based on
this strategy students listen to a command and then physically act it out.
1. Using Mechanical Techniques (L)(R)(W) to remember what has been
heard or read, mechanical techniques are sometimes helpful. Practicing
2. Repeating (A)
Although the strategy of repeating might not at first sound particularly
creative, important, or meaningful, it can be used in highly innovative
ways, is actually essential for all four language skills, and virtually always
includes some degree of meaningful understanding.
3. Formally Practicing with Sounds and Writing Systems (L)(S)(W)
In listening, this strategy is often focused on perception of sounds rather
than on comprehension of meaning
4. Recognizing and Using Formulas and Pattern (A)
Recognizing and using routine formulas and patterns in target language
greatly enhance the learners comprehension and production.
5. Recombining (S)(W)
The strategy of recombining involves constructing a meaningful sentence
or longer expression by putting together known elements in new ways.
6. Practicing Naturalistically (A)
This strategy, of course, centers on using the language for actual
communication.

Receiving and Sending Messages


Getting the Idea Quickly (L)(R)
This strategy is used for listening and reading. It helps learners home in on
exactly what they need or want to understand, and it allows them to disregard
the rest or use it as background information only.
Using Resources for Receiving and Sending Messages (A)
This strategy involves using resources to find out the meaning of what is
heard or read in the new language, or to produce messages in the new
language.

Analyzing and Reasoning


Reasoning Deductively (A)
This strategy involves deriving hypotheses about the meaning of what is
heard by means of general rules the learner already knows.
Analyzing Expressions (L)(R)
To understand something spoken in the new language, it is often helpful to
break down a new word, phrase, sentence, or even paragraph into its
component parts.
Analyzing Contrastively (L)(R)
It involves analyzing elements (sounds, words, syntax) of the new
language to determine likenesses and differences in comparison with ones
own native language. It is very commonly used at the early stages of language
learning to understand the meaning of what is heard or read.
Translating (A)
Translating can be a helpful strategy early in language learning, as long as
it is used with care. It allows learners to use their own language as the basis
for understanding what they hear or read in the new language.
Transferring
Directly applying previous knowledge to facilitate new knowledge in the
target language.

Creating Structure for Input and Output


Taking Notes (L)(R)(W)
This strategy is very important for listening and reading. Key points can be
written in the learners own language at first.
Summarizing (L)(R)(W)
This strategy helps the learners structure new input and show they
understand in summarizing, that is making condensed, shorter version of the
original passage.
Highlighting (L)(R)(W)
This strategy emphasizes the major points in a dramatic way, through
color, underlining, CAPITAL LETTERS, Initial Capitals, BIG WRITING,
bold writing, *star*,boxes, circle and so on.
CHAPTER 4

INDIRECT STRAETGIES FOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT


LEARNING

Introduction
Metacognitive allow the learner to control their own cognition that is to
coordinate the learning process by using function such as centering, arranging,
planning and evaluating. Effective strategies help to regulate emotions, motivation
and attitude. Social strategies help students learn thought interaction with others.

Metacognititve Strategies
Metacognitive means beyond, beside, or with the cognitive. Therefore,
metacognitive strategies are actions which go beyond purely cognitive device, and
which provide a way for learners to coordinate their own learning process.
Metacognitive strategies include three strategies sets: centering, arranging and
planning and evaluation.
1. Centering your learning
a. Over viewing and linking with already known material
b. Paying attention
c. Delaying speech production to focus on listening
2. Arranging and planning of your learning
a. Finding out the language learning
b. Organizing
c. Setting goals and objective
d. Identifying the purposes of a language task
e. Planning for language task
f. Seeking practice opportunities
3. Evaluation of your learning 18
a. Self-monitoring
b. Self-evaluating
Affective Strategies
The term effective refers to emotions, attitudes, motivations and values. It
is impossible to overstate the importance of the effective factors influencing
language learning. Language learners can gain control over these factors through
affective strategies. An affective strategy includes three strategies sets: lowering
anxiety, encouraging your self, taking your emotional temperature.
1. Lowering anxiety
a. Using progressive relaxation, deep breathing, or meditation
b. Using music
c. Using laughter
2. Encouraging your self
a. Making positive statement
b. Taking risks wisely
c. Rewarding your self
3. Taking your emotional temperature
a. Listening to your body
b. Using a checklist
c. Writing a language learning diary
d. Discussing your feeling with someone else

Social Strategies
Language is a form of social behavior, it is communication, and
communication occurs between and among people. Learning a language thus
involves other people, and appropriate social strategies are very important in this
process. Three sets of social strategies, each set comprising two specific strategies
are included here: asking questions, cooperating with others, and empathizing
with others.
Social Strategies
1. Asking Question
a. Asking for clarification or verification
b. Asking for correction
2. Cooperating with Others
a. Cooperating with peers
b. Cooperating with proficient users of the new language
3. Emphasizing with others
a. Developing cultural understanding
b. Becoming aware of others thoughts and feelings
CHAPTER 5

APPLYING INDIRECT STRATEGIES TO THE FOUR


LANGUAGE SKILLS

Introduction
Indirect strategies works best when used in combination with direct
strategies. Direct strategies involve the language directly, while indirect strategies
provide indirect support for language learning through: focusing, planning,
evaluating, seeking opportunities, controlling anxiety, increasing cooperation and
empathy and other means.

I. Meta Cognitive Strategies :


A. Centering your learning;
1. Overviewing and linking with already known material
2. Paying attention
3. Delaying speech production to focus on listening
B. Arranging and planning your learning;
1. Finding out about language
2. Organizing
3. Setting goals and objectives
4. Identifying the purpose of a language task (Purposeful
listening/reading/speaking/writing)
5. Planning for a language task
6. Seeking practice opportunities
C. Evaluating your learning;
1. Self monitoring
2. Self evaluating

2
1
APPLYING METACOGNITIVE STRATEGIES TO THE FOUR SKILLS
A. Centering Your Learning
1. Overviewing and Linking with Already Known Materials, involves
previewing the basic principles and/or material including new vocabulary for an
upcoming language activity, and linking these with what the learners already
know. Example in reading, Anh, a refugee learning English, sees that the next
story to be read is about workers in big city. She overviews the material and
considers how the troubles of the workers in the story relate to her own struggles
to get a good job.
Getting ready to do a writing assignment, Saskia does 10 minutes of
nonstop writing a kind of writing brainstorming in which ideas are not censored
[1]. At other times, Saskia brainstorming out loud with a small group or
participates in debates to generate ides for writing [2]. Such activities help her
bring out her own existing ideas and start expanding them as preparation for the
future writing task
2. Pay attention
This strategy involves two modes, directed attention and selective
attention. Directed attention (concentration) means deciding generally or globally
to pay attention to the task and avoid irrelevant distracters. In contrast, selective
attention involves deciding in advance to notice particular details.
In reading, Emily decides to pay close attention to the way characters in
her German short story bring conversations to close and how they use polite
phrases. Full participation in spoken communication demands directing attention
to general context and content. Learners can also pay selective attention to
particular elements of the speech act, such as pronunciation, register, style,
physical distance from other speakers, grammar, and vocabulary.
Writing in the new language, like writing in the native language, requires
directed attention. For instance, Sangeeta determines she will concentrate
wholeheartedly on writing a letter in her new language, Chinese, blocking out
noise and interruption until she is finished. For writing, selective attention may
mean deciding in advance which aspects of the writing to focus on at any given
time, likes structure, content, tone, sentence construction, vocabulary, punctuation
or audience needs.
3. Delaying Speech production to Focus on Listening.
This strategy relates to listening and speaking rather than reading and
writing

B. Arranging and Planning Your Learning


1. Finding Out About Language Learning.
This strategy uncovering what is involved in learning
2. Organizing
This Strategy includes a variety of tools, such as creating the best possible
physical environment, scheduling well, and keeping a language learning
notebook.
3. Setting Goals an objectives
Goals and objectives are expressions of students aims for language
learning. Goals are generally considered to be long range aims referring to the
outcome of many months or even years. Objectives are short term aims for
hour, days, or weeks.
Reading goals might be become proficient enough to read professional
material in a technical area, to read magazine or newspaper for pleasure, to
read short story\ies with ease, to understand signposts in the foreign country, to
reach a superior reading proficiency level, or to pass the reading exam required
for graduated school entrance.
Goals for writing might include developing enough writing skill to
maintain correspondence with foreign friends, to succeed in school or
university courses conducted entirely in the target language, to write
acceptable business letters, to write scientific articles publishable in
international journals, or to pass the language course.
4. Identifying the Purpose of a Language Learning
This strategy involves determining the task purpose-an act useful for all
language skills (carrying out that purpose is the subject of various direct
strategies, such as analyzing expressions, guessing, and practicing.
Reading activities are also enhanced by having a clear purpose. Teach our
students to look for the purpose in light of the situation and the type of
material. Various formats suggest different purpose for reading; looking
quickly through the piece to gets the main idea or gist (skimming), searching a
pidly for a particular piece of information (scanning), reading a longer ext for
pleasure (extensive reading). And reading a shorter text carefully in detail
(intensive reading)
The purpose of a writing task is related to the type of written format and
the needs of the potential audience. Language learners will have a great
advantage if they know some possible purposes for writing, such as providing
factual information, convincing the audience of the validity of a point,
persuading someone to act or think in certain way, entertaining the audience,
making the reader feel emotion deeply or evoking a certain mood( light,
happy, serious, somber, tense, fearful)
5. Planning for a Language Task
This strategy always involves identifying the general nature of the task, the
specific requirements of the task, the resources available within the learner,
and the need for further aids.
In using for a reading task. Janette decides to read an article about fashion
in the German womens magazine Burda. She figures this task will require her
to recognize and understand a variety of words related to womens attire, such
as clothing items, styles, and colors. She considers whether she has the needed
vocabulary, realizes she knows a few fashion related words, and assumes she
can guess many more expressions from the pictures and the text. To help her if
she gets completely stumped, Janette decides to keep a dictionary handy.
In using this strategy for a writing task, Livia realizes first that she wants
to write a letter to a friend overseas. Next she decides her letter will require a
range of specific language functions (like asking question, describing, and
explaining), a number of structures (such as past, present future, and
conditional), and vocabulary that is adequate to talk about personal things to
her friend. After considering whether she has the necessary knowledge, she
seeks additional resources by asking native speaker for help with certain
colloquial expressions. ( in a longer piece of writing the planning steps would
occur repeatedly, with plans made, ad remade as ideas evolve)
6. Seeking Practice Opportunities
Language learners must seek cut or create-opportunities to practice any
and all of the four language skills. This strategy underscores students
responsibility to generate their own opportunities to practice
Here are some examples of seeking practice opportunities. Bob decides to
submit his name and address to the German magazines pen-pel list so that he
can begin a correspondence in German. And Eva takes out a subscription to Le
Monde as a way of pushing herself to practice reading French every day.

C. Evaluating Your Learning


The two strategies in this set relate to monitoring ones own errors and
evaluating ones overall progress.
1. Self Monitoring
This strategy does not center as much on using the language as it does on
students conscious decision to monitor- that is notice and correct-their own errors
in any of the language skills.
A similar process occurs in reading. Readers often skim or scan, make
guesses about what will come next, and correct any misinterpretations as they
move ahead. For writing, avoid teachers frequent practices of appropriating the
whole error monitoring function and splashing fountain of red ink over students
compositions.
2. Self Evaluating
This strategy involves gauging either general language progress or
progress in any of the four skills. Global impressions are often faulty and the more
specific the learner is in self evaluating, the more accurate the evaluation.
As applied to reading, self evaluating might consist of learners assessing
their proficiency in a variety of ways. For instance learners might consider
whether their speed or comprehension is acceptable at this point. They might
estimate whether their reading skills have improved since the last check. They
might consider what proportion of a reading passage they understand, and whether
this represents any sign of progress.
Learners can learn to use self evaluating effectively for writing. They can
review samples of their own work, note the style and content of the writing, and
asess progress overtime. They can compare their writing with the writing of more
proficient language users and with that of their peers

APPLYING AFFECTIVE STRATEGIES TO THE FOUR SKILLS


II. Affective strategies:
A. Lowering your anxiety;
1. Using progressive relaxation, deep breathing or meditation
2. Using music
3. Using laughter
B. Encouraging yourself;
1. Making positive statements
2. Taking risks wisely
3. Rewarding yourself
C. Taking your emotional temperature;
1. Listening to your body
2. Using a checklist
3. Writing a language learning diary
4. Discussing your feeling with someone else
A. Lowering Your Anxiety
1. Using Progressive Relaxation, Deep Breathing, or Meditation
These techniques are all effective anxiety reducers, according to scientific
bio-feedback research. Progressive relaxation involves alternately tensing and
relaxing all the major muscle group one at a time. Deep breathing is often an
accompaniment to progressive relaxation, involves breathing low from the
diaphragm, not just from the lungs.
Meditation means focusing on a mental image or sound to center ones
thoughts, an it too, helps to reduce the anxiety that often dogs language learners
2. Using Music
This strategy is useful before any stressful language task
3. Using Laughter
Laughter is the best medicine, as the saying goes. The use of laughter is
potentially able to cause important biochemical changes to enhance the immune
system

B. Encouraging Yourself
1. Making Positive Statements
The strategy of making positive statements can improve each of the four
language skills.
2. Taking Risks Wisely
This strategy involves a conscious decision to take reasonable risks
regardless of the possibility for probability of making mistakes or encountering
difficulties it also suggests the need to carry out this decision in action that is
employing direct strategies to use the language despite fear or failure.
3. Rewarding Yourself
Learner often expects to be rewarded only by external sources, such as
praise from the teacher, a good grade on the test or a certificate of
accomplishment.
C. Taking Your Emotional Temperature
This set of strategies for effective self assessment involves getting in touch
with feeling, attitudes, and motivation through a variety of means. The strategies
described here enable learners to notice their emotions, avert negative ones, and
make the most of positive ones.
1. Listening to Your Body
One of the simplest but most often ignored strategies for emotion self
assessment is paying attention to what the body says.
2. Using a Checklist
A checklist helps learners in a more structured way to ask themselves
questions about their own emotional state, both in general and in regard to specific
language tasks and skills.
3. Writing a language Learning Diary
Language learning diaries or journals is narratives describing the learners
feeling, attitudes, and perception about the language learning process.
4. Discussing Your Feeling with Someone Else
Language learning s difficult and learners often need to discuss this process
with other people.

APPLYING INDIRECT STRATEGIES TO THE FOUR LANGAGE


SKILLS
III. Social Strategies:
A. Asking Questions;
1. Asking for clarification or verification
2. Asking for correction
B. Cooperating with others;
1. Cooperating with peers
2. Cooperating with proficient users of the new language
C. Empathizing with others;
1. Developing cultural understanding
2. Becoming aware of others thoughts and feelings
APPLYING SOCIAL STRATEGIES TO THE FOUR SKILLS
A. Asking Questions
This set of strategies includes both asking for clarification or verification
and asking for correction.
1. Asking for Clarification or Verification.
Learners who are reading in the new language may also use the strategy of
asking for clarification or verification. Usually task ask someone more proficient
in the target language, although students at the same proficiency level can often
provide clarifying or verifying information
2. Asking for Correction
This strategy is mostly used in speaking and writing because errors which
are most obvious to other people occur in producing the new language.

B. Cooperating with Others


1. Cooperating with Peers
This strategy involves a concerted effort to work together with other
learners on an activity with a common goal or reward.
2. Cooperating with Proficient Users of the New Language
In reading and writing the target language, students often need to
cooperate with proficient language user.

C. Empathizing with Others


Understanding and producing the new language involves empathy with
other people, especially with individuals from the target culture
1. Developing Cultural Understanding
Background knowledge of the new culture often learners understand what
is heard or read in the new language.
2. Becoming Aware of Others Thoughts and Feelings
Learners can purposefully become aware of fluctuation in the thoughts and
feeling of particular people who use the new language.
CHAPTER 6

LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGY ASSESSMENT AND


TRAINING

Introduction
Now that you know how language learning strategies can be applied to the
four language skills, you are ready to put strategy into action. The first step
involves identifying and diagnosing your students strategies so that training
program you devise will be effective. The second step is conducting the training.

Strategy Assessment
Some of the most important strategy assessment techniques include:
Observations, Interviews, think-loud procedures, Note-taking, Diaries/journals,
Self-report surveys
Observation
Interview and Think Aloud Procedures
1. A model of interviewing
2. A guide for think-aloud interviews
3. Interviews involving Self-Observation
4. Semi-structured interviews
5. Think-aloud procedures used interviewing
Note Taking
Note taking is a self-report technique that can be extended to any language
task. In note-taking there are three techniques for strategy assessment; first, a
group of students is asked to note down their learning difficulties when
performing a language task and to use these notes in an interview. Second, use of
note-taking involves a daily and occurs prior to the semi-structured interview,
already mentioned. Third technique, asks students to take notes on a grid,

30
describing the strategies they employ; then they rate those strategies in terms of
frequency of use, enjoyment, usefulness, and efficiency.
Diaries / Journal
Diaries / journal are forms of self-report which allow learners to record their
thoughts, feelings, achievements, and problems, as well as their impressions of
teachers, fellow students, and native speakers.
Self-report surveys
Self-report surveys are instruments used to gather systematic, written data on
language learning strategy use
.
Strategy Training
3 types of Strategy Training
1. Awareness Training
2. One-Time Strategy Training
3. Long-term Strategy Training
Steps in Strategy Training Model
1. Determine the learners need and the time available
2. Select strategies well
3. Consider integration of strategy training
4. Consider motivational issues
5. Prepare materials and activities
6. Conduct completely informed training
7. Evaluate the strategy training
8. Revise the strategy training
CHAPTER 7

NETWORKING AT HOME AND ABROAD

Introduction
This Chapter presents examples of language learning strategies in action in
many countries.
The examples are in two general groups:
1. Explicit encouragement of language learning strategies.
2. Active but implicit simulation of language learning strategies.
The first examples point out that by using specific language learning
strategies, it can encourage the students in learning. The second examples point
out that active language learning might be more helpful to stimulate the use of
language learning strategies.

I. Explicit Encouragement of Language Learning Strategies


1. The language Learning Disk: A videodisk for Training Language
Learning Strategies (USA).
2. CALLA: A Model of Content-Based Language Learning Which
includes Training In Strategies (USA)
3. The CRAPEL Model of Self-Directed Language Learning (France)
4. Training in Language Learning Strategies for Peace Corps Language
instructors and Volunteers (Philippines)
5. A Eurocentre Experiment in Autonomy (England)
6. GRASP: An In-service Teacher Training Project Involving Self-Direction
for Teacher and Learners (England)
7. Strategy Training in Primary School Classes Involving English as a Foreign
Language (Denmark)
8. Exploring Language Learning in a University Language Institute
(USA)

32
9. Language Therapy in a Multiage Setting (Israel)
10. Strategy Training In a Typical University Spanish Class (USA)
11. Strategy Training with Adult Refugees (Denmark)

1. The language Learning Disk: A videodisk for Training Language


Learning Strategies (USA).
2. CALLA: A model of Content-Based Language Learning .
The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA) has
been designed by Anna Uhl Chamnot and J. Michael OMalley. This model
embeds training in learning strategies within activities for developing both
language skills and content area skills.
The model has three components:
a. The content components which represent declarative knowledge, e.g.
concept, facts, skills for science, Mathematics and social study or
language are ( Grammar, rhetorical, literary knowledge)
b. The English Language Development Component which aim to teach
procedural knowledge that students need to use language as a tool for
learning.
c. The Learning Strategies Instruction Component which helpful
for the teacher to foster autonomy to their students.
3. The CRAPEL Model of Self-Directed Language Learning (France)
The Centre de Recherches et dApplications Pedagogiques en Langue
(CRAPEL) is part the University de Nancy II in France. The ultimate goal of this
model is learner autonomy or self-directed language learning opportunities for a
variety of learner, e.g. university students, outside students, employee. This model
is known the individualized learner-helper design. helper is a learner who is
competent speaker of English experience in assisting autonomous learner. The
helpers role is to help learner in learning how to learn, here he acts as observer,
open the discussion, and give advice.
The learners role is to define needs, goals, priorities, selecting materials,
organizing learning experience, determining time to study, diagnosing his or her
learning difficulties, developing learning technique, self monitoring, evaluating
progress.
4. Training in Language Learning Strategies for Peace Corps Language Instructors
and Volunteers (Philippines)
The purpose of this training is to train both instructor and learners in
strategies for communicative language teaching and learning as a part of larger
training effort. The project was a joint effort designed and led by Anne Lomperis,
formerly of the Refugee of Service Center (Manila Office) of the center for
Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC, USA, and Bibbet Palo, Language Specialist
of the Peace Corps Philippines.
The Language learner was Peace Corps Volunteers. The Instructor was
native speakers from the Philippine. They were expected to provide 180 to 190
hours of language instruction to each of PCVs who previously had little or no
instruction in communicative language teaching strategies.
5. A Eurocenter Experiment in Autonomy (England)
The Eurocentre language training institute caters mainly to students who
wants to able to live in the country of the target language, and who is less
concerned with professional or vocational language requirement.
This experiment was autonomous language learning. It involved
continuous self-assessment of communicative skills. Self assessment served two
purposes:
a. aiding learners to discover and use assessment criteria.
b. helping them evaluate their own progress in order to plan future.
6. GRASP: An in-Service Teacher Training Project Involving Self- Direction for
teachers and Learners (England)
The project is concerned with the entire teaching-learning process. It
focuses on providing in-service training to teachers, with the objective of
encouraging active learning, self-direction, and problem solving for both teacher
and students.
Through in-service training, teacher learn how to develop a curriculum,
designing clear objective, thinking of the solution in achieving objective, selecting
the best solution, putting solution into action, and reviewing the solution. He/ she
also learn how to make their own strategies to learners characteristic.
7. Strategy Training in Primary School Classes involving English as a Foreign
Language (Denmark)
This Strategy Training Known The Flower Model Introduced by Leni
Dam, and it is good for primary school classes. In this model, students work out
their own needs and interest, arrange their own syllabus, make decisions, and
form contracts with the teacher.
The model of language Education is represented as a series of petals on a
flower, as shown in Figure 7.1. In the center of the flower is the word
NEGOTITION. The petals include: Objective, Activities, Outcomes, Evaluation,
Pupils Contributions, and Materials. On each of petals its concept is broken down
into components.
8. Exploring Language Learning in a University Language Institute.
This learning strategy was introduced by Anita Wenden. The aim of this
strategy was to sharpen and expand student awareness of various aspect of their
language learning: They are
a. Strategy they utilized
b. Aspect of language they attended to
c. Their evaluation of their language profiency
d. Creteria used for judging the usefulness of various learning context
and strategies.
e. Their objective
f. Themself as facilitating or inhibiting language learning (e.g. feeling,
language aptitude, personality)
g. Their belief about how best to learn a language.
Each of the aspect formed the basis of module which is reflecting
informed training The training task consist of comprehension exercises class
discussion based on the reading, listening passage, outside language practice, and
writing diaries.
9. Language Therapy in Multi Setting (Israel)
Andrew Cohen, a well known reseacher and teacher from Hebrew
University of Jerussalem, has become an official language Therapist The
language Therapy is carried out by using two formal hour long talk to the current
students.
The talks concern various aspect of strategy and self direction, e,g.
strategy for paying attention, vocabulary learning, developing speaking, reading,
and writing skills. The talks spontaneously and lively which try to awaken
students from apathy. He also inspires learners to try better strategies on their own
through his mixture of new information, humour, and friendly cajoling.
10. Strategy Training in a Typical University Spanish Class (USA)
The strategy is carried out by using communication classroom activities
(the activities are taken from the book, and some from self created). Through
diaries, classroom discussion, and peer sharing, the students periodically
evaluated their old and new learning strategies.
In the process of communication classroom activities students used:
a. Metacognitive strategy, especially for listening and planning task.
b. Social strategy, to cooperate with peer and asking question.
c. Compensation strategy: guessing meaning, and talking around an
unknown word.
d. Affective strategy: use laughter,
11. Strategy Training with Adult Refugee (Denmark)
- Participants : Adult refugee
- Classroom Activities : Communicative activities
- Strategy of training :
a. Using Exercises
b. Memory strategies (e.g. Grouping, and labelling)
c. Metacognitive strategy
d. Social Strategy
e. Affective strategy(e.g. Diary keeping)
II. Active but Implicit Simulation of Language Learning Strategies.
In these illustrations indicate of active language learning using strategy
training. The following examples are :
a. Language Learning Strategies in High- Technology Simulation (USA).
This language learning strategies use high- technology simulation. The
simulation use two prototypes whereas both of them combining a communicative
approach to language learning with technological capabilities in an interactive
videodisk. The two of prototypes are:
1. No Recuerdo ( I dont remember)
2. Direction Paris
b. Language Learning Strategies in Low- Technology Simulations for
Learning Spanish (USA).
This language learning strategy is not use high- technology, but it is a
classroom based simulation. One of the simulations is called NEW IDENTITY,
which last from 1 to 2 hours.
In simulation, the students receive a hand out sheets complete as an
assignment. Each person is to take on an new identity as Hispanic residing in an
unspecified Latin America city. Participants are given a choice of four Hispanic
surnames and four places of work (restaurant, clinic, store, and bank). Then, they
are asked to perform new families groups and workplace groups by process
negotiation and information exchange.
c. Strategies in Multilingual, International Simulation Using
Telecommunications (worldwide)
This simulation known as ICON (International Communication and
negotiation Simulation), encourages the use of diverse language learning
strategies in- a worldwide, computer networked telecommunication effort
involving multiple teams and many languages.
Participants: 20 university teams and 7 languages; English, French,
Rusian, German, Hebrew, Japanese, and Spanish. Each university team represents
a different country in an International political scenario. Some of the team
represents their own country.
The topic is International Policy Issues such as; super power relation,
European Intergration, Middle East conflict, North-South relation, Human right,
The gulf war, NATO< OECD, and International Trade. Communication between
team occurs through a variety of computer technology.
d. Learning Strategies Encouraged by Games for Students of English as a
Foreign Language (Hungary)
These strategies are using a series of games for students of English as a
foreign language in Budapest, Hungary. The games are considered for 15 to 16
years old, and focus on speaking ability since the goal is communicative activities.
The games is called 96 or speaking faces which deal with packs of 96 cards,
each card containing a professional- quality photograph of face.
Many kinds of face are included: young, old, plain, attractive, sad, happy,
tired, animated, and multiethnic. The learner self-generated description of the
people represented by the face.
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Background
In this sectional we introduce some of the early studies on learning
strategies in second language acquisition and cognitive psychology In order to
establish a framework for describing the research presented in later chapter. These
provided the empirical background for the initial investigation we developed.

Research on learning strategies


The literature on learning strategies in second language acquisition
emerged from a concern for identifying in the characteristic of effective learners.
Research efforts concentrating on the good language learner. (Naiman Et
al.1978;Robin 1975) had identified strategies reported by students or observed in
language learning situation that appear to contribute to learning. The effort
demonstrated that students do apply learning strategies while learning a second
language and that these strategies can be described and classified.

Theoretical background in second language acquisition


There has been no comprehensive analysis describing the influences the
influence of the cognition in second language acquisition. Nevertheless, at the
time of our initial investigations, a number of theorists had articulated positions
that included a cognitive component in second language process. The second
language acquisition had emerged in two general areas; that the attempt to
describe language proficiency or language competence, and the attempt to explain
influences on second language acquisition.
The fundamental concept of language competence expressed by Cummins
was extended by Tikunoff (1985) in model intended to elaborate on the
description of students functional proficiency in academic setting. Tikunoff
concepts: interact ional, academic, and participative competence. The successful
participation in a classroom setting requires that a student: 1) observe classroom
social rules of discourse, 2) function at increasingly complex cognitive levels, and
3) be competent in the procedural rulers of the class.
CHAPTER 2
A COGNITIVE THEORY OF LEARNING

Background
Linguistics theories assume that language is learned separately from
cognitive skills, operating according to different principles from most learned
behaviors. (e.g., Spolsky 1985). This assumption is represented in analyses of
unique language properties, such as developmental language order, grammar,
knowledge 5of language structures, social and contextual influences on language
use, and the distinction between language learning and acquisition.

Language as a Cognitive Skill


The advantages are:
1. Considerable research in cognitive skill acquisition has
occurred in recent years in such disciplines as cognitive psychology and in
the information processing aspects of computer sciences.
2. To viewing second language acquisition as a cognitive skill
is that the level of specificity and the dynamic or process orientation of
models of skill acquisition allow us to provide a more detailed process
view of second language acquisition that is provided by most by most
current models of second language learning.
3. Viewing language acquisition as a cognitive skill provides a
mechanism for describing how language learning ability can be improved.
4. Related advantage is a pedagogical one, and pertains to the
development and use of learning strategies in second language instruction.
Representation Memory
Declarative knowledge
Procedural knowledge
Production system

41
Stages of skill acquisition
Cognitive stage
Associate stage
Autonomous stage
Complements to the stage-related theory of learning
Learning by formal rules
Unitary process for learning complex skills
Implications for instruction

Language comprehension
It is generally viewed in cognitive theory as consisting of active and
complex processes in which individuals construct meaning from aural or written
information (Anderson 1985; Byrnes 1984; Call 1985; Howard 1985; Pearson
1985; Richards 1983).

Language comprehension
Perceptual Processing
It focuses on the oral or written text, with portions of the text being
retained in short-term memory.
Parsing
It process words, and phrases are used to construct meaningful mental
representations of text.
Utilization
It consists of relating a mental representation of the text meaning to
declarative knowledge in long-term memory.

Bottom-up processing leads 3 types of inefficiencies


1. The meaning of any word often depends on the context in which it is
used.
2. Lexical access will be faster if the context can be used to narrow the
range of possible meanings that must be explored in long-term
memory.
3. Bottom-up processing or processing words without using context to
project additional meaning, can be expected to have inefficiencies
since individuals who do make predictions about text meaning tend to
have greater comprehension (Palincsar and Brown 1984)

Language production

Language Production

Construction

Transformation

Execution

Construction
An individual decides what to say, it based on the goals the speaker or
writer has for language production.
Transformation
The speaker or writer who has decided what to say must convert the
information into meaningful sentences.
Execution
While executing the written product, the writer may pause and return to
the previous stages to alter or make new plans as the writing progresses.

Learning strategies as cognitive skills


1. Definition and classification
Definition of learning strategies are: based on Weinstein and Mayer (1986),
learning strategies have facilitation as a goal and are intentional on the part of the
learner. Its focusing on selected aspects of new information, analyzing and
monitoring information during acquisition, organizing or elaborating on new
information during the encoding process, evaluating the learning when it is
completed, or assuring oneself that the learning will be successful as a way to
allay anxiety.
2. Strategies as cognitive processes
It concerns the way in which strategies can be described within the context
of the theory. Set of questions concerns how the strategies may be learned by a
person who does not presently use them on a task where they might facilitate
learning.
a. Metacognitive strategies
b. cognitive strategies. Strategy representation and acquisition in
cognitive theory

Preliminary Classification of Learning Strategies


1. Generic Strategy Classification
a. Metacognitive strategies
b. Cognitive strategies
c. social/Affective strategies
2. Representative strategies
3. Definitions

Conclusions
The cognitive theories gave a descriptive view of language comprehension
which indicated that comprehension of both oral and written texts is an active,
constructive process that progresses from attention and encoding processes
through utilization of the meaning interpreted. Cognitive theory views declarative
knowledge as being acquired most effectively by building upon prior knowledge,
whereas procedural knowledge may be learned more effectively through cued
practice with the complete skill or with portions of it can be compiled.
CHAPTER 3

HOW COGNITIVE THEORY APPLIES TO SECOND


LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

Background
McLaughlin (1987) draws the distinction between inductive and deductive
theories of second language acquisition. Some of the second language acquisition
work has given tacit recognition to concepts in cognitive theory, but has not fully
exploited them to describe as many constructs as might be possible.
According to McLaughlin, second language learning as the acquisition of
a complex processing theory. On of the principal concepts is that individuals
acquire mastery over complex new skills through performing aspects of the skills
that require little processing capacity, freeing attentional process for other aspect
that demand conscious effort. Mc Laughlin (1987) examines a number of
applications of cognitive theory to second language acquisition, including lexical
retrieval, syntactic processing, reading, speaking and discontinuities in the process
of second language acquisition
1. Lexical retrieval
In lexical retrieval, individuals retrieve precise meanings of words
appropriate to specific contexts from among a range of possible alternative
meaning. Lexical retrieval concerns the manner in which meanings are retrieved
and whether the retrieval entails automatic or controlled processing.
2. Syntactic processing
One of the questions addressed in these studies concerned the way in
which individuals process continuous text while reading or listening in terms of
attention to meaning as contrasted with structure and form in the text.
3. Reading comprehension
It is consistent with a long line of cognitive research with native speakers
of English performed by others. The cognitive basis for reading comprehension

4
has been as essential factor in understanding how native English speakers learn
read and how readers process text. Reading comprehension as a process of
representing with reasonable accuracy the information contained in a text, more
recent views of reading focus on the constructive elements of the process and
acknowledge that what is retained is the result of a dynamic interaction between
the reader, the task and the context.
4. Speaking skill
McLaughlin relies on Levelts (1978) suggestion that speaking is an
example of a complex cognitive skill that can be differentiated into various
hierarchical subs - skills, some of which might require controlled processing while
others could be processed automatically.

Relationship of Cognitive Theory to Specific Constructs


Declaratives knowledge
According to Andersons (1983, 1985), there are three sets of questions
concerning second language acquisition in declarative knowledge:
1. How meaning in two languages is represented in memory, and how the
transfer of knowledge in a first language (L1) to second language (L2)
expression take place
2. Whether some types of knowledge are more easily transferred to the L2
than others
3. How metalinguistic information is stored and influences performance for
bilinguals.

Procedural Knowledge
According to Canale and Swain (1980) define the four components of
communicative competence as the ability to use grammatical, sociolinguistic,
discourse, and strategic skills.
Look at the table 3.1(pg. 74)
Stages of skill acquisition
1. The parallel between stages and second language construct
2. The learners awareness of learning processes
3. The rate of language acquisition for selected learning tasks
4. The retention or loss of language over time

The advantages of second language acquisition as a cognitive skill


1. It can provide a comprehensive and well specified theoretical framework
for second language learning.
2. The theory can explain a number of useful constructs that have been
discussed in the second language literature as relatively isolated
phenomena and place them within the context of a broader theoretical
statement.
3. The theory can be adapted to provide a detailed process view of second
language acquisition.
4. The theory is that greater focus is given to a number of new directions for
research.

III. APPLYING COMPENSATION STRATEGIES TO THE FOUR


LANGUAGE SKILLS
All four skills are important and deserve special attention and action.
Learning strategies help the learners to develop each of the skills. Applying
Compensation strategies can help learners overcome knowledge limitation in all
four language skills.
Compensation Strategies
3a. Guessing Intelligently (GI) in Listening and Reading
GI Is essential for L and R. It helps learners let go of the belief they have
recognized and understand a very single word before they comprehend the
overall meaning.
Using Language Clues: suffixes, prefixes, and word order are useful
linguistic clues for guessing meaning. For example: we can guess the
conversation about gardening if the words used are shovel, grass, mower,
lawn etc.
Using other clues ( for L and R). Clues such as forms of address (titles,
nicknames) which imply social relationship help learners guess the
meaning of what they hear or read. My pet, dear husband, dear friend, Mr.
Dr. Professor, etc. For the learners, all these are aids for understanding
the rest of the passage.
The speakers tone of voice, facial expression, emphasis and body
language can help
Learners understand what is said.
Perceptual clues such as audible or visual. On television film, the learners
can guess what the actors said by their gesture.
Text structure in L and R like introduction, summary, conclusion, title can
give clues. For example: description of people can help students guess
what the character might do.

How to Promote Guessing


Build guessing systematically by leading students step by step through
different stages of guessing. You can start with global comprehension. To simulate
guessing, ask the students some preview before they tart reading or listening. Or
interrupt a story in the middle to ask for prediction about what will happen. Or
you can ask which picture corresponds to what they are listening or reading

3. b Overcoming Limitation in Speaking and Writing


1) Switching to the mother tongue or code switching without translating it.
Ex: I give the food to ombay.
2) Getting help/ asking for the missing expression. In this case the learners
want other person to simply provide what the learners dont know.
Example: someone says, He wants(confused), so the native
speaker can help finish the sentence.
3) Using gesture. The learners use physical motion (gesture) during a
conversation to indicate the meaning. One can make gestures indicating
the size, shape, color of something.

4) Avoiding communication partially or totally. It involves avoiding


communication. When difficulties are anticipated. Avoid words, concepts,
grammatical structures that the learners dont know.
5) selecting the topic (S and W). Learners choose the topic of conversation
based on their interest. The reason is that they maybe possess the needed
vocabularies. For example: Paris is interested in football. So it means he as
known some terms like offside, ball possession, referee, injury time, and
so on. ).

6) Adjusting/ approximating the message ( S and W). this is used to alter the
message by omitting some items of information; making the idea simpler :
Say pipe for water pipe, president instead of principle.
7) Coining words ( S and W). it means making up new words to
communicate a concept for which the learners dont have the right
vocabulary. For instance:
-A German student, Michael Ballack doesnt know the expression
bedside table and coin the expression to night table, as the
direct translation of nacttisch
Someone who uses the word airball instead of balloon.
8. Using circumlocution or synonym. The learners use a circumlocution (the
use of a large number of unnecessary words to express an idea needing
fewer words). Examples:
a. Id better wear car seatbelt. Id better tie myself in.
b. I need a towel. I need a thing that can dry my hands on.
c. She needs a pen. She needs a tool for writing.
CHAPTER 4

LEARNING STRATEGIES : METHODS AND RESERACH

Background
Research on learning strategies is based on the assertion that strategies
begin as declarative knowledge that can become proceduralized with practice and,
like complex cognitive skill; proceed through the cognitive, associative, and
autonomous stages of learning.
At the cognitive stage, the strategy application is still based on declarative
knowledge, requires processing in short- term memory, and is not performed
automatically.

A Framework for Data Collection on Learning Strategies


Contain six elements:
1. The strategy or strategies which are the objective of data collection
2. The language skill or task of interest
3. The temporal relationship between the strategy use and the data collection
4. The level of training required for the informant to respond
5. The elicitation procedure, and
6. Whether or not the data collection is performed individually or in a group

Objective of data collection


At least three secondary objectives:
1. To focus on strategies that are represented as declarative or as procedural
knowledge
2. To identify overt or covert strategies
3. To distinguish among executive strategies, cognitive strategies, social
strategies, affective strategies.

50
Declarative Versus Procedural Knowledge
Strategies that are only recently learned or discovered are likely to operate
under a deliberate rule-based system and function as declarative knowledge, while
strategies that have been used repeatedly are most likely operating as procedural
knowledge.
Complex cognitive skills such as learning strategies are often acquired
gradually over repeated opportunities for cued practice, but may be performed
autonomously or without reference to the original rule when they are thoroughly
learned( Gagne 1985)
We suspect that highly effective language earlier transfer at least some
strategies they have learned earlier on similar tasks, or combine strategies to
maximize learning, and may perform these functions automatically from the
onset. Because strategies that have become proceduralized may be operating
automatically through connections in long-term memory, the process does not
enter short term memory ( Ericson and Simon 1987)
The process of data collection using introspective reports is complicated
considerably in analyzing proceduralized strategies, but may be facilitated under
three conditions:
1. In second language acquisition, learners often experience tasks that
vary in difficulty for them, as when portions of a communication are
easily understood while other portions are far more demanding. Under
these conditions, the person may tend to use learning strategies
consciously for the more demanding portion of the task, while
processing the less demanding portion automatically. The consciously
processing becomes available for introspective analysis.
2. Condition that may facilitate data collection with proceduralized
learning strategies is that certain types of tasks such as responding to
dictation and producing original writing require deliberate processing.
Under these circumstances, the learning strategies will be accessible
to introspection, and the learner should be able to provide an account
of the strategy even though the strategy may occur automatically with
another task.
3. An individual may be interrupted mid- task so that processes that
otherwise would occur automatically might be available for
introspection.

OVERT VERSUS COVERT BEHAVIOR


Some strategies occur overtly and are relatively easy to observe, whereas
other strategies occur only covertly and require introspective forms of data
collection in which the informant provides a description of the strategy used.
Examples of overt strategies include note taking and referencing skills, such as
using a dictionary.
Strategies that occur overtly cannot qualify as mental processes.
Nevertheless, the mental processes underlying these overt strategies could easily
entail such strategic modes of processing as self-monitoring, summarizing, and
differencing (among other strategies). It is for this reason that we group these
overt activities as learning strategies.

STRATEGY TYPE
The intent of data collection may be to obtain information on all types of
strategies, to focus on one specific category of strategy (e.g., self monitoring). The
usual procedure has been to generate information on all strategies, although other
approaches are possible, as when the in used with a specific language task.
Wenden (1983). For example, asked informants questions about the types of
metacognitive strategies they use in second language acquisition. The broadest
range of coverage for strategy use can be obtained with questions, whereas the
narrowest range of strategy coverage seems likely to occur with think-aloud
procedures, because the data collector is constrained from using prompts for
additional by the nature of the approach.
Language Task
The investigation of learning strategies in second language research may
concentrate on the students first or second language, on any of the four language
modalities (listening, speaking, reading, writing, or some combination of these),
or on other aspects of the language task. For example, the investigation might
concentrate on specific tasks that typically occur in second language classrooms
irrespective of the modality, such as following directions, learning grammar.

First and Second Language


Investigations may attempt to obtain information on strategies that are
used in the first language or the second language, or may attempt to compare
strategies used in the first or second language acquisition research has been to
analyze learning strategies used in acquiring a second language.
The typical focus of investigation in second language acquisition research
has been to analyze learning strategies used in acquiring a second language.
However, by comparing the strategies used in a first and second language with
identical tasks, such as reading, the investigator can obtain critical information
about the extent to which the learner has internalized procedures that have been
found to facilitate learning in the first language and transferred them to the second
language

Language Modalities
The focus of research on learning strategies might be on all four language
skills or only on one or more language modalities. The typical approach in studies
of second language skills listening, speaking, reading, writing. The early work
on learning strategies by Naiman et al. (1978) elicited information from
respondents concerning each of the four language skills using multiple data
collection procedures. The respondent can be asked to describe uses of strategies
in general with second language acquisition or can be asked to describe the
strategies used with specific language tasks. In our own work, we have varied the
data collection approach depending on the purpose of the study and the depth with
which we wished to elicit information about strategies used with individual
language skills. When greater depth was required, we tended to focus on a single
language skill, such as listening comprehension. Many of these language learning
activities crossed modalities, as in preparing a brief speech and listening to a
teachers lecture. This approach proved useful, because students could relate to the
type of task they were asked to discussed through analysis of their experiences in
the classroom.

Specificity of Task
Respondent can be asked to describe their strategies in general in second
language acquisition or can be asked to describe their strategies whit specific
language learning task. In reporting strategies in a diary, for example, the
individual probably describes strategies that are practiced on isolated tasks that
seem difficult or important or on functional tasks experienced in context.
One unique form of think- aloud that has been introduced recently is a
think-aloud on variant of the cloze test, referred to as a C-test (Feldman and
Stemmer 1987; Grotjahn 1987). This type of test is more likely to elicit the
respondents knowledge of structural rules in the second language. Grorjahn
combined the C-test methodology with a think- aloud approach because of both an
interest in the underlying mental processes occurring while students responded to
the test and uncertainty about what the test was actually measuring.

Temporal Relationship
The contiguity of data collection with the task on which the student is
asked to report uses of learning strategies is a critical determinant of the type of
information that can be expected. Faerch and Kasper (1987) distinguish three
distinct types of data collection along this dimension:
1. Simultaneous introspection or concurrent performance of the task and
reporting on the strategies used.
2. Immediate retrospection, or introspection about a task that was just
completed
3. Delayed retrospection, or analysis of strategies used with previously
completed tasks.

Informant Training
Most data collection techniques for investigating learning strategies do not
require prior training of informant. Prior training has not been used with
questionnaires, guided interviews, and other techniques that give structure to the
informants task. In own work we have allowed respondents at the intermediate
level of proficiency in the second language to warm up on tasks in their first
language and then switch to the same language in which the task is performed (the
second language) when reporting on their learning strategies.

Elicitation Procedures
There are at least three aspects of the elicitation procedure that have an
important influence on data collection- the language in which the data are
collected , the degree of structure given to the task, and whether the elicitation is
oral or in writing.

Language of Data Collection


The customary approach in studies of second language acquisition has
been to permit respondents to use their native language in describing their
language learning strategies. In our own work, where we performed retrospective
interviews with students of English as a second language, we encouraged students
with beginning level skills in English to use their native language in describing
their strategies, and gave the option to students at the intermediate level to decide
on the language in which they preferred to be interviewed.

Degree of Structure
A high degree of structure in the data collection means that the instrument
will have a strong influence on the content of the informant has little influence on
the specific content. Procedures with the highest degree of structure are
questionnaires and rating scales, which may determine not only the type of
strategy but also the type of task and the setting where the strategy is used. For
example, a questionnaire can determine not only the type of strategy is used with a
vocabulary or a listening task, and that the task appears in a classroom or while
the informant is involved in a functional activity such as listening on the
telephone. A number of investigators have reported on learning strategies based on
the use of questionnaires in both the second language literature (e.g., Oxford
1986; Politzer and McGroarty 1983)

Oral or Written Responses


Responses that are requested in writing may consist of diaries or diaries or
more structured approaches such as Questionnaires. Various investigators (e.g.,
Rubin 1981) have attempted to use diaries, for they may contain reasonably
complete records of informant impressions about daily second language
interchange.

Individual versus Group Data Collection


The final characteristic of data collection used to identify learning
strategies in second language acquisition research is whether the data are collected
individually or in a group. This issue usually arises only with interviews, since
most diaries are reported individually and most questionnaires and observations
are performed with group.
The principal disadvantage in conducting group interviews is that the
strategies reported are difficult to relate to individual learning outcomes, as has
been performed with questionnaires.

Multiple Data Collecteion Procedures


The different type of data collection procedures may lead to different
conclusion about the character and use of learning strategies. E.g. Naiman. 1978
used multiple data collection techniques in his own work consistent with the
purpose of the study.
When we have focused in depth on the ways in which strategies are used
with individual tasks, we have used think aloud procedures combined with
individual interviews and group administered questionnaires.

Issues In The Use Of Self-report Data


Selinger (1983) raised concerns about the veridicality of verbal reports
with the processes they purportedly represent in commenting upon an early study.
Selinger states the informats description of an underlying process the
description as refering to process other than those the learner intended. Verbal
report are considered in this view to be usefulninformation about how learner use
what they know rather than as a means of uncovering underlying learning process.
Ericsson and Simon (1987) note that the major change in thinking that
occures during think-aloud interviews is that than rate of thinking has to be
slowed down to allow for the additional time required for verbalization of the
thought. They race the conclusion based on two types of analysis. One is by
analyzing concurrent and retrospective verbal reports against a priori plausible
thought sequneces that emerged in a task analysis. Second type of analyisis is
through inspection of findings from reudant obeservations, as are found in
analysis of eye movements and verbal reports.
Brown (1983) have noted that thinking aloud may not alter the underlying
reasoning process, but may nevertheless have either a salutary or detrimental
influence on learning.

Review Of Reaserch On Application Of Learning Strategies


Rubins (1975) early suggestion that good language learner has much to
teach us about learning strategies was apparently made in awareness of some of
the literature in cognitive psychology extant at the time (rubun, personal
communication).
Three major contributions of in cognitive psychology :
1. A difination and classification of learning strategies
2. Descrivtive information on strategy application for different types of
students and tasks
3. Validation of strategy effectiveness through either correlational or
experimental on the effectiveness of strategy training.

Definitation and Classifation


Brown and Palincsar (1982); metacognition has been used to refer to
knowledge about cognition or the regulation of cognition. Knowledge about
cognition may include applying thoughts about the cognitive operations of one
self or others, while regulation of cognition includes planning, monitoring, and
evaluating a learning or problem solving activity.
OMalley (1985) students without metacognitive approaches are
essentially learners without direction and ability to review their progress,
accomplishments, and fature learning directions.

Brown and Palinesar (1982) describe metacognitive strategies:


Knowing about learning
Question : How does this language Decision: learners make judgements about
work? the linguistic and sociolinguistic codes
Decision: learners make judgements about
Question : Whats it like to learn a How to learn a language and about
language? what language learning is like
Decision : learners decide on linguistic
Planning objectives, reserch, resources, and
Question : what should I learn and how? use of resources.
Decision : learner decide to give priority to
special linguistic items.
Question : What shoud I emphasize? Decision : learner decide to change their
approach to language learning

Question : How should I change? Decision : learner determine how well they use
the language and diagnose their needs.
Self evaluating Decision : learner determine if an activity or
Question : how am I doing? strategy is useful
Decision : learner make judgements about how to
Question : What am I getting? learn a language and about what
language learning is like
Question : how am I responsible for
learning? How is language leraning
affecting me?

Description of Strategy Applications


Brown (1983) discussion of the tetrahedral model they use to describe the
factors that must must be considered in describing a learning activity. The model
consist of learning strategies, learner characteristics (which includes strategies but
also includes attitudes and prior knowledge), the nature of materials (the similarity
of element to be learned, coplexity of the materials, sequencing, organization),
and the criterion task (e.g) recognition, recall, transfer, or problem solving.

Validition of Strategy Effectiveness


The work designed to validate strategy effectiveness has used anecdotal
reports, correlational approaches, and experimantal tarining. The correlation work
between experimental training and experimental strategy: attempts to correlate
strategic behavior with language proficiency associated with instruction. All of
the experimental work has been performed in second language acquation studies,
while virtully all of experimental work has been performed in the field of
cognitive psychology.
Zimmerman and ponds (1986) bears of issue of the relationship between
strategies in reading achivement. They administered a self regulated learning
strategies interview to tenth-grade students from both high and low achivement
track. Interview were recorded and coded into fourteen strategy categories
definded from analyses of prior literature that cosist of fifteen categorie and
difinition.
They used two basic approaches in validiting the influence of strategy use
on learning. The first approaches, each of fifteen strategies was found to
descriminate significantly between students in the high and low achivement tracks
based on finding in a discriminant function analysis. The second approaches, they
used on learning was to analyze the relationship between the total self-regulated
learning strategies score and performance on a standardized test of reading and
math achivement, controlling for socioeconomic status and gendre
CHAPTER 5

STRATEGIES USED BY SECOND LANGUAGE


LEARNERS

Background
The first study attempted to define and classify strategies used in second
language acquisition and used retrospective interviews with students learning
English as a second language. The second study extended this purpose and again
used retrospective interviews to identify strategies in second language acquisition
but with native English-speaking students learning foreign languages. The third
study was designed to build on the definitions and classifications established with
retrospective interviews by using think-aloud data collection to probe/investigate
in greater depth the ways in which individual strategies are used by ESL students
on a listening comprehension tasks. The final study reports the results of think-
aloud interviews conducted longitudinally with students learning foreign
languages.
Study 1:
Learning strategies used by beginning and intermediate ESL students.
In cognitive psychology, there were questions about the overlap between
meta-cognitive and cognitive strategies and very little interest in how strategies
were used with second language learning tasks or at different levels of language
proficiency.
Objectives
The primary purpose of this study were: 1) to identify the range of
learning strategies used by high school students on language learning tasks; 2) to
determine if the strategies could be defined and organized within existing strategy
classification frameworks; 3) to determine if the strategies varied depending on
the task or the level of English proficiency of the student. Secondary purpose of

6
1
the investigation was to determine what teachers knew about the strategies their
students used while learning on second language tasks.

Procedures
The study was designed to provide retrospective interview data from high
school ESL students and their teachers on the uses of learning strategies in second
language acquisition activities occurring both within and outside the classroom.
Participants
The participants in this study were seventy high-school-age students
enrolled in ESL classes during the 1983 Spring semester and twenty-two teachers
providing instruction in the classes. The study was performed in three high
schools in two suburban school districts in a mid-Atlantic state. A
Methods
There were three data collection instruments in gathering information on
strategies used by students. The first was a student interview guide, which
contained questions concerning strategy use with each of the seven classroom
tasks and two non-classroom language tasks. Students were asked to describe the
special things they did or the tricks they used to study each task. The second
data collection instrument was a teacher interview guide that was parallel to the
students interview guide in focusing on specific language tasks and asking about
strategies used by the ESL students of the teachers interviewed. The third
approach was classroom observation. The observation form was designed to
detect learning strategy use in the classroom setting.
Results
A total of 638 independent strategy occurrences was identified across the
nineteen student interviews, indicating that students had no difficulty in
identifying the special tricks they used in learning on the tasks identified for the
study. There were 33.6 strategies per student interview, and 25.4 individual
strategies per teacher interview. There were only 3.7 strategies per classroom
observation of a full hour.
Because the student interviews were more reliable and more productive
than the other sources data, all analyses were based on self-reports from students.

Definition and Classification


The basic classification scheme proposed by Brown and Palinesar (1982)
consisting of meta-cognitive and cognitive strategies was used in the initial
definition of strategies.
Strategy Use by Type of Student
It was found that beginning level students were able to identify more
strategies than intermediate level students. Students with beginning level
proficiency in English identified almost twice as many cognitive strategies as
students with intermediate level proficiency, and identified 40% more meta-
cognitive strategies.
Table 5.1 ESL Descriptive Study: Learning Strategy Definitions and
Classifications
Learning strategy Definition
A. Meta-cognitive Strategies
Planning Previewing the main idea and the concept of the
Advance organizers material to be learned.
Directed attention Deciding in advance to attend in general.
Functional planning Planning for and rehearsing linguistic components.

Selective attention Deciding in advance to attend to specific aspects of


input.
Self-management Understanding the conditions.
Monitoring Checking ones comprehension during listening or
Self-monitoring reading or checking the accuracy.
Evaluation Checking the outcomes of ones own language learning.
Self-evaluation

B. Cognitive Strategies
Resourcing Using target language reference materials.
Repetition Imitating a language model.
Grouping Classifying words, terminology, or concept.
Deduction Applying rules to understand or produce the second
language/making up rules based on language analysis.
Imagery Using visual images (either mental or actual) to
understand/remember new information.
Auditory Planning back in ones mind the sound of word, phrase, or longer
representation language sequence.
Keyword method Remembering a new word in the second language.

Elaboration Relating new information to prior knowledge, relating different


parts, making meaningful personal associations with the new
information.
Transfer Using previous linguistic knowledge or prior skills to assist
comprehension or production.
Inferencing Using available information to guess meaning of new items,
predict outcomes.
Note taking Writing down key words or concepts.

Summarizing Making a mental, oral, or written summary of new information.

Recombination Constructing a meaningful sentence or larger language sequence.

Translation Using the first language as a base for understanding, producing


the 2nd language.
C. Social Mediation Eliciting from a teacher or peer additional explanations,
Question forrephrasing, examples, or verification.
clarification
Cooperation Working together with one or more peers to solve a problem, pool
information, check a learning task, model a language activity, or
get feedback on oral written performance.
Range and Type of Strategies
The various types of planning shown in Table 5.1 accounted for 85% of all
meta-cognitive strategies, with selective attention (22.3% of meta-cognitive
strategies), advance preparation (2.14%), and self-management (19.6%) assuming
predominant roles. In contrast, no single cognitive strategy seemed to emerge as
dominant, with the highest use mentioned for repetition (19.6% of all cognitive
strategies), note-taking (18.8%), imagery (12.5%), and translation (11.3%). Two
strategies that require little conceptual processing repetition and translation
accounted for over 30% of all strategy uses.
Type of Task
Among the language learning tasks, the highest frequencies of strategy use
were for vocabulary learning (16.6% of all strategies reported), pronunciation
(13.8%), and oral drills (11.4%), for a total of over 40%. The lowest frequencies
of strategy use were for listening comprehension with inferencing (7.2%), making
an oral presentation (8.2%), and engaging in operational communication (9.9%).
Discussion
At least four important implications emerged from the study. First,
although students reported using strategies, they rarely used them on integrative
tasks and often relied upon strategies that did not demand elaborative or active
mental processing. Second, although the teachers of these students had little
awareness of the types of strategies their students actually used and little
familiarity with processes by which strategy use could be encouraged. Third, the
strategies did not appear to be different from those reported in the cognitive
literature. Fourth, strategy use and conscious analysis of learning occur with both
classroom and non-classroom learning.
Study 2:
Learning strategies used by foreign language students
A three-year project was conducted (1985 88) to investigate learning
strategies in foreign language instruction. This project consisted three separate
studies a descriptive study, a longitudinal study, and a course development
study.
Objectives
The major purposes of the descriptive study were:
1. to determine if the students of the Spanish and Russian use similar
strategies and if this strategies can be defined;
2. to determine differences in strategy use between beginning level and
intermediate or advanced level students;
3. To identify the range and variety of strategies used by high school
and college foreign language students.
Procedures
In the descriptive phase of the study researchers were interested in
identifying learning strategies used by typical foreign language students at the
high school and college level. Observations allowed identifying 7 different types
of language learning foreign students encountered in class.
Participants
The participants in this study were sixty-seven high school Spanish
students and thirty-four college Russian students.
Methods
The instrument used to collect data on strategy use reported by students
was the General Interview Guide. The same instruments were used for each
language group. The General Interview Guide described the 9 types of learning
tasks and contained questions after each task description.
Results
There was more time and opportunity for Russian students to contribute
more strategies and to discuss more different types of language tasks than was
possible for the Spanish students.
Definition and Classification
The classification scheme developed for the ESL study (see Table 5.1) was
used with some modifications to classify strategies reported by Spanish and
Russian students.

Table 5.2. Foreign Language Descriptive Study: Learning Strategy


Definitions and Classifications
Learning strategy Definition
A. Meta-cognitive Strategies
Planning Planning the parts, sequence, main ideas,
Organizational planning language functions to be expressed orally or in
writing.
Delayed production Consciously deciding to postpone speaking to
learn initially through listening comprehension.
B. Cognitive Strategies
Rehearsal Rehearsing the language needed.
Translation Using the first language as a base.
Note taking Writing down the keywords and concepts.
Substitution Using a replacement target language word/phrase.
Contextualization Assisting comprehension or recall.
C. Social/Affective Strategies
Self-talk Reducing anxiety by using mental techniques.

Range and Types of Strategies


Both Russian and Spanish students at all levels of study reported using far
more cognitive strategies than meta-cognitive ones, though the differences were
not as great as those reported by ESL students. Cognitive strategy use was about
59% for Spanish students and about 58% for Russian students, whereas ESL
students reported using cognitive strategies between 65 and 73% of the time.
Strategy Use by Level of Study
Both Spanish and Russian students at higher levels of study reported using
more strategies than did beginning level students.

Strategy Associated with Instructional Tasks


Strategies appeared in the foreign language study that may have been used
as a result of direct instruction by specific teacher.
Effective versus Ineffective Learners
More effective students used learning strategies more often and had a
wider repertoire of learning strategies than did less effective students.
Discussion
The researchers found that learning strategies of foreign language students
could also be classified as meta-cognitive, cognitive, or social/affective. Some
modifications of strategy definitions were made to accommodate strategies for
reading and writing as well as oral tasks in the foreign language.
Study 3:
Listening comprehension strategies used by ESL students
Research and theoretical background
Listening comprehension has become the foundation of a number of
theories of second language acquisition that focus on the beginning levels of
second language proficiency.
Listening to spoken language has been acknowledged in second language
theory to consist of active and complex processes that determine the content and
level of what is comprehended (Byrnes 1984; Call 1985; Richards 1983). These
processes take utterances as input for constructing meaning-based proportional
representations that are identified initially in short-term memory and stored in
long-term memory.
Objectives
The questions addressed in this study concern the comprehension
processing of ESL students while listening to academic texts. The researchers
wanted to know if the strategies students used paralleled the three theoretically
derived phases of the comprehension process and if there were differences in the
strategies reported by effective and ineffective listeners.

Procedures
Participants
Eleven high-school-age students enrolled in ESL classes in two suburban
public high schools served as participants in this study. All students were
classified by the school district at the intermediate level of English proficiency.
Methods
Data collection was entirely conducted through individual interviews and
consisted of two phases of approximately one hour each: a training phase, a
reporting phase.
Results
Statistical analyses of strategy uses indicated that there were significant
differences between effective and ineffective listeners on self-monitoring, or
checking ones comprehension while it is taking place; elaboration, or relating
new information to prior knowledge or to other ideas in the text; and inferencing,
or using information in the text to guess at meaning or complete missing ideas.

Discussion
The tasks requirements and the strategies used could be seen to vary
depending on the phase in the listening comprehension process:
Phase Strategy
Perceptual processing Selective attention
Self monitoring
Parsing Grouping (listening for larger chunks)
Inferencing from context
Utilization Elaboration from world knowledge,
Personal experiences, or self- questioning.
The fact that students nominated as effective listeners used strategies more
successfully than those nominated as less effective listeners suggests the less
successful students may need assistance in becoming more strategic learners.

Study 4:
Longituginal study of learning strategies used by foreign language
students for different language tasks
Objectives
The objectives of the foreign language longitudinal study were: 1)
investigate the cognitive processes revealed by students of Spanish and Russian as
they worked on different language tasks; 2) describe the range and frequency of
strategies used for the different tasks; 3) identify differences in strategy use
between effective and less effective students; and 4) discover if the strategy use of
individual students changed over time.
Procedures
The general procedure followed in the longitudinal foreign language study
was to elicit from students accounts of their cognitive processes as they engaged
in a variety of language tasks.

Participants
The participants in the study included forty Spanish students (twenty-
seven effective and thirteen ineffective) and thirteen Russian students (eight
effective and five ineffective).

Methods
Students workbooks and interview guides were developed for each level
of study for both Spanish and Russian students. The workbooks contained various
language tasks based on the types of activities included in the curriculum that
students were currently studying. The interview guides provided a script for the
interviewer to introduce each activity, copies of the students tasks, and probe
questions (e.g. What are you thinking? or How did you figure that out?).

Table 5.3 Foreign Language Longitudinal Study: Learning Strategies and Their
Definitions.
Meta-cognitive strategies involve thinking about the learning process, planning for learning,
monitoring the learning task, and evaluating how well one has learned.
1) Planning: Previewing the organizing concept , proposing strategies, generating
a plan.
2) Directed attention Deciding in advance to attend in general to a learning task
3) Selective attention Deciding in advance to attend to specific aspects.
4) Self-management Understanding the conditions.
5) Self-monitoring
a. Comprehension monitoring, b. Production monitoring.
c. Auditory monitoring, d. Visual monitoring, e. Style monitoring.
f. Strategy monitoring, g. Plan monitoring, h. Double check.
6) Problem identification
7) Self-evaluation
a. Production evaluation, b. Performance evaluating, c. Ability evaluation,
d. Strategy evaluation, e. language repertoire evaluation.

Cognitive strategies involve interacting with the material to be learned, manipulating the
material mentally or physically, or applying a specific technique to a learning task.

1) Repetition, 2) Resourcing, 3. Grouping, 4) Note-taking,


5) Deduction/Induction, 6). Substitution,
7) Elaboration: a) personal elaboration, b) world elaboration,
c) Academic elaboration, d) Between parts elaboration,
e) Questioning elaboration, f) Self-evaluative elaboration,
g) Creative elaboration, h) Imagery.
8) Summarization, 9) Translation, 10) Transfer, 11) Inferencing.
Social and affective strategies involve interacting with another person to assist learning or
using affective control to assist a learning task.
1) Questioning for clarification, 2) Cooperation, 3) Self-talk,
4) Self-reinforcement.
Factors Affecting Language Performance
A number of factors were found to influence the strategies students chose
to employ and whether or not they used strategies at all. For example, the
objective of a particular language course. The degree of language learning was
also a factor. Critical factor in strategy use was the task itself.
Effective versus Ineffective Students
In general, more effective students used a greater variety of strategies and
used them in ways that helped the students complete the language tasks
successfully. Less effective students not only had fewer strategy types in their
repertoires but also frequently used strategies that were inappropriate to the tasks.

Longitudinal Comparisons
No clear pattern emerged in the longitudinal comparisons of strategy use,
possibly due to differences in the tasks students worked on from one year to the
next and/or to the limited number of students for whom longitudinal data were
available.
Table 5.4 Foreign Language Longitudinal Study: Strategies Preferred for
Different Language Tasks
Task Meta-Cognitive Strategies Cognitive Strategies
Vocabulary Self-monitoring Resourcing
Self-evaluation Elaboration
Listening Selective attention Note taking
Self-monitoring Elaboration
Problem identification Inferencing
Summarizing
Cloze Self-monitoring Translation
Self-evaluation Deduction
Inferencing
Elaboration
Writing Organizational planning Resourcing
Self-monitoring Translation
Self-evaluation Deduction
Substitution
Elaboration
Summarizing

Strategies Used for Different Tasks


The importance of the specific language task in eliciting particular types of
strategies became increasingly apparent as the researchers analyzed data from the
foreign language longitudinal study. Table 5.4 identifies favored strategies for
different types of language tasks.
Discussion
The longitudinal study strategy use in foreign language acquisition
revealed that no clear pattern of strategy shift appeared for students interviewed.
Changes in strategies use appeared to be limited to the type of task on which
students were assigned to work by their teachers.
Finally, nomination as a successful language learner appeared to be
associated with greater motivation for learning the second language as well as
with more frequent and varied use of learning strategies.
CHAPTER 6

INSTRUCTION IN LEARNING STRATEGIES

Background
Instruction in learning strategies has been done with strategist that
facilitate the acquisition of declarative knowledge (generally referred to as
memory training and procedural knowledge , such as reading comprehension and
problem solving)

Issues in Instruction
Separate versus integrated instruction
Arguments in favor of separate training program:
1. Strategist are to many context (Derry and Murphy, 1986)
2. Students will learn strategist better if they can focus all their attention on
developing strategist , processing skill rather than try to learn context at
the same time ( Joneset.all.1987)

Integrated Instruction
Argue that learning in context is more effective than learning separate
applicability skill whose immediate applicability may not be evident to the learner
(Wenden 1987). Practicing strategist on authentic academic and language task
facilitates the transfer of strategist to similar tasks encountered in other class
( Campione and Armbruster 1985)

Weinstein and Underwood 1985


They have developed and implemented both separate and integrated
instruction in learning strategist. The separate training consists of a special
university courses designed to teach students how to use learning strategist
effectively. Practice is provided by applying these strategists to student are other

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courses. The integrated training consists of teaching content teacher how to
incorporate learning strategy instruction into their regular classroom.

Direct versus Embedded instruction


In direct instruction, students are informed of the value and purpose of
strategy training. Embedded instruction, students are presented with activities and
materials structured to elicit the use of the strategy being thought but are not
informed of the reasons why this approach to learning is being practiced.

Researchers recommend
Many researchers recommend that instruction in learning strategist be
direct better than embedded (Brown et, al.1986), Wensten and Mayer 1986,
Winograd and Hare 1988.

Instructional Implementation
Instructional implementation is concerned with understanding improving
and applying methods of putting some developed instruction into use. The result
of instructional implementation as a professional activity is an instructional
program and / or an institution that has been modified in such as to result in the
optimal effectiveness of that program.

Teacher Training Derry and Murphy (1986)


Discuss a number of strategy training studies conducted in four domains
1. Memory training
2. Reading strategist training
3. Problem solving training
4. Support training

Materials and Curriculum Development


A teacher must develop materials as well as carry out the instructional
techniques that will familiarize their students with learning strategy application.
Scope and Sequence framework for learning strategy instruction
First language context Second language context
Jones.et.al.1987 OMalley and Chamot (1988)
General guidelines all subject) General guidelines (content based ESL)
1.Acess strategy use with 1.preparation :Develop students awareness to
different
-think aloud - small group retrospective interviews about school
task
-interviews - modeling think-aloud, then having students think
aloud
Questionnaires in small group
- Discussion of interview and think
aloud

2. Explains strategy by 2.presentation: develop students knowledge


about strategy
-Naming it - providing rationale for strategy use
-Telling how to use it - describing and naming strategy
Step by step - modeling strategy

3. Model strategy by for 3.practice: develop students skill in using strategy


for
- demonstrating academic learning through:
- Verbalizing own thought - cooperative learning task
- Think aloud while problem solving
- peer tutoring in academic task
- Group discussion

4. Scaffold instruction by 4. Evaluation; Developing students ability to


evaluate own strategy use
Providing support while students practice - writing strategist used immediately after task
Adjusting support to students needs - discussing strategy use in class
Phasing out support to encourage - keeping dialogue journals (with teacher
strategy )

Developing motivation by 5. Expansion : develop transfer strategies to


new task by
Providing successful experience - discussion on metacognitive aspects of strategy use
Relating strategy use to improve - additional practice on similar academic task
Performance - assignment to use learning strategies on task related
to cultural background of students.
Instruction in Learning Strategies for Second Language Acquisition
Memory training in second language learning has focused on mnemonic
techniques that facilitate vocabulary learning (Thompson 1987). Training
procedures that use paired associate techniques include peg-wor method in which
second language learners use a list of memorized the word to learn vocabulary or
grammatical categories in the second language (Desrochers 1980;Paivio and
Desrochers 1979).
The key word method, in which students learn sets of words through the
combination of an auditory and imegery link( Atkinson and Raugh 1975;Presley,
Levin and Delaney 1982). In reviewing the various mnemonic techniques for
memory training, Thompson (1978) identifies a number of constraints that can
limit the usefulness of these techniques for strategy training, including the
additional effort required to learn the associated relationships, the lack of
meaningful relationships between the item to be learned, potential difficulties with
pronunciation, individual differences such as age, prior educational experiences
and cultural background, learning style predilections, task difficulty and
proficiency level of student
Training studies on comprehension strategies in second language learning
have investigated reading comprehension more frequently than listening
comprehension.
A number of second language learning studies have been
undertaken in France and elsewhere under the auspices of CRAPEL, these studies
are guided by an approach in which second language learners are provided with an
option for self directed rather than traditional classroom courses (Holec 1987).
Improving comprehension skill (listening and reading) and oral production skill
were of objective of these studies.
Oral production skill were the focus of a training project conducted at
Eurocentre language training institute in England. Wenden (1987) summarizes the
objectives of this project as development of student ability to assess their own oral
language through activities such as using checklistto evaluate their own taped
language samples.
Learning Strategy Instruction in First Language Contexts
Several studies have sought to improve student reading comprehensions
through training in the use of elaboration or meaningful association of new
information with prior knowledge. The ability to use elaboration successfully
allows the reader to construct meaning by making explicit connections between
the written text and individual schemata or knowledge frameworks. In our
strategy identification research, we have found elaboration to be frequently used
strategy for listening, reading, writing, and grammar activities (Chamot et al.
1988b; O Malley et at al. 1987).
Another type of learning strategy that has been successfully use for
training in first language contexts is cooperation or cooperative learning.
Cooperative learning involves social strategies in which student work together in
heterogeneous small group toward a common goal. Extensive research on
cooperative learning indicates that it is effective increasing achievement on school
tasks as well as fostering positive attitudes of student toward themselves and each
other (Slavin 1980).
A multiple strategy training program is reciprocal teaching, developed by
palincsar and Brown (1984) for improving reading comprehensions. This
instructional strategy embodies cooperative learning techniques in which students
work in small groups to develop comprehension of written text.
Another teaching technique with classroom is K-W-L (Ogle 1987), in
which students first identify what they already know about a topic, then state what
they want to learn about the topic and after interactingwith the new information,
what they have learned about the topic.
Graham et al. (1987) have conducted a number of studies in which
learning disabled English speaking upper elementary student received explicit
instruction in composition strategies to improve their written production. These
studies included training in vocabulary enrichment, use of advanced planning to
generate content tobe included and techniques for revising and editing what
students had written (Graham et al. 1987; Harris and Graham 1985 in press) from
the research indicate that strategy training techniques can be used for various
aspects of the writing process and that student weak in writing skills can improve
the quality of their writing through the application of specific composition
strategies.

Study 1. Learning Strategy Instruction with Student of ESL


In conducted first study, by taught high school ESL students
metacognitive, cognitive, and social strategies to use for vocabulary development,
listening comprehension, and oral production. One of the most important findings
of this study was that strategy training could be effective in classroom setting for
integrative language tasks such us listening and speaking. Although the results of
our training study were statically significant favoring the group trained in
strategies, the size of the effect with listening comprehension was nevertheless
modest.
A number of factors may have influenced the degree of effectiveness,
among them training design, including difficulty of materials and frequency of
cues for using the strategies and the effect on strategy preferences of student
cultural and educational background.

Study 2: Learning strategies taught by foreign language instruction


In second strategy training study in which worked with foreign language
instructors instead of directly with students. Classroom observations revealed how
the instructors integrated learning strategy training into their regular foreign
language classes. Identified that the particular strategies taught for listening
comprehension, reading and speaking and also described the somewhat different
instructional approaches taken by each instructor.
The most important finding from this study was that while learning
strategies can be taught in the language classroom, the endeavor is neither simple
nor always successful. Factor such as teacher interest and willingness to commit
additional time to the instruction and the ability to maintain a high level of student
motivation are critical to the success of learning strategy instruction.
Research on strategy training with second and foreign language students is
in its infancy, as most studies to date have concentrated on identifying and
describing strategies students have either developed on their own or in classes
conducted in their first language. In view the major obstacle to be overcome in
future research on strategy training is to discover how second language teachers
can be trained to provide learning strategy instruction to their students.
In most second language learning strategy training studies, researchers, not
teachers, have provided direct strategy instruction to students. Because researchers
typically have limited amounts of time to spend with students, we have little
information about the effects of extended strategy training. As learning strategy is
a part of procedural knowledge, we would expect that their acquisition would
require a considerable investment of time for cued practice, feedback and
discussion activities.
The only way to provide for such extended instruction and practice in
learning strategies is to involve regular classroom teaches over a semester or year
in the teaching of learning strategies. For this to take place, extensive staff
development activities are needed and neophyte strategic teachers would probably
need extensive support from researchers, staff developers and coaching partners in
order to successfully implement a program of learning strategy instruction.
CHAPTER 7

LEARNING STRATEGY: METHOD AND MATERIALS

Second Language Learning Strategy Training Materials


In this section we will describe some recent instructional materials that
have been developed to teach learning strategies to second language students. We
also comment on their methodological approach and the specific learning
strategies and other skills and content presented.

Learning strategy materials for adults language learners.


Rubin and Thompson (1982) have developed a set of guidelines,
suggestions, and explanations of the language learning process designed to assist
foreign language students in becoming more successful language learners. This
approach is an example of separate and direct training. As the intention is for
students themselves to use the information and suggestion instead of having
teachers provide instruction part of their language class.
Rubin and Thompson provide practical suggestions for becoming more
successful language learners by describing the language learning process,
recommending specific learning strategies, and suggesting helpful language
learning resources.
They describe fourteen learning strategies. The strategies are not classified
according to their characteristics (e.g., metacognitive, cognitive, social, and
affective) but according to learning behaviors. Each strategy name is a phrase
beginning with an imperative, such as, find Your Own Way, Be Creative,
Make Your Own Opportunities, Learn To Make Intelligent Guesses, and
Learn Production Techniques. Some examples of specific applications of
strategies identified in our research are:

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Metacognitive Strategies: Self-management is a key strategy recommended by
Rubin and Thompson. Example of applications of this strategy include identifying
ones own successful learning experiences, organizing ones study approach,
taking advantage of diverse learning opportunities, and interacting with native
speaker of the language.
Planning Strategies: For example, students are provided with suggestions
on how to rehearse expected conversational exchange, look at the major points of
a story or conversation to get a general idea of the content, and plan to pay
attention to major grammatical points explained by the teacher.
Monitoring Strategies: Many of the suggestions for self evaluation could
also be applied online for self monitoring. Students are advised to use their own
errors in the second language to identify their areas of weakness, to understand
why they are making certain types of errors, to make use of the teachers
corrections, and to evaluate the effectiveness of different kinds of practice on their
learning.
Cognitive Strategies: For example, Practice and Rehearsal are
recommended repeatedly. And suggestion are offered for silent rehearsal and
learning formulaic and idiomatic language such as social conversational routines.
Deduction/Induction and Transfer Strategies: These are illustrated by
suggestion for applying grammar rules in language production and inducing rules
from language input, using linguistic transfer to aid language learning. The
strategy identified by Rubin and Thompson as mnemonic includes practical
techniques for memorizing language items. Such as grouping words in various
ways, using mental images, and using context to assist recall of specific words.
Elaboration, inferencing, and substitution are recommended throughout
the book. Students are reminded to use what they already know to understand and
produce the new language. They are told to use paraphrase and synonyms as
substitutes for language items that they do not know or cannot recall.
Social and affective strategies: Students are reminded to ask questions for
clarification not only in the classroom but also when interacting with native
speakers of the target language so as to keep the conversation going. Students are
told not to be afraid to make errors, not to panic if they do not understand
everything, and not to be discouraged if they make incorrect guesses.
Ellis and Sinclair (1989) have developed actual instructional materials to be used
with intermediate-level EFL and ESL students in the language classroom. Their
objectives are to help students become more effective and more responsible
language learners, to provide the language teacher with a model for learner
training, and to show the teacher how to integrate learner training of strategies and
language, even though the materials themselves address strategy instruction only.
These materials also provide direct training in learning strategy use, as students
are made aware throughout of the value and purpose of strategy training.
The model for strategy instruction consists of three phases. In the first
phase students are introduced to language learning processes through discussions
with the teacher, questionnaires about their learning approach, analysis of their
language learning needs, and investigation of learning resources available outside
the language class. The second phase, described more fully later, provides direct
instruction and practice in learning strategies for particular skills. In the third
phase of the model, students take charge of their own learning through activities
that help them identify resources and plan realistically for continued language
study as part of their overall schedule.
The second phase of the Ellis and Sinclair model is the most extensive, as
it integrates seven learning strategies and six areas of language focus within a
matrix that provides forty two different types of practice activities. The language
areas addressed are vocabulary development, grammatical study,
listening/viewing, speaking, reading, and writing. The first strategies to be
presented are metacognitives ones, which provide a basis for the introduction of
cognitive strategies.
The metacognitive strategies are:
Self awareness, in which students develop an understanding of themselves
as learners and of their individual attitudes and a motivation toward
different aspects of the target language.
Language awareness, in which students develop metalinguistics
knowledge about language as an organized system. Such knowledge
includes the ability to identify language register and functions, as well as
strategies for different language skill, and the ability to make grammatical
deduction and linguistic transfer;
Self-assessment, in which students learn to monitor and evaluate their
language learning progress; and
Setting short-term aims, in which students identify goals and use self-
management techniques to determine which are achievable in a realistic
time frame.
The Ellis and Sinclair model identifies three cognitive strategies:
1) Personal strategies, in which learners discover the different learning
strategies that work for them;
2) Risk taking, in which learners involve themselves actively in the language
learning process;
3) Getting organized, in which learners organize their time and their
materials.

Learning Strategy Materials for Content-Based ESL


We have developed a set of instructional materials that teach students
learning strategies for both language and content to be used by upper elementary
and secondary school ESL students at the intermediate level of English
proficiency. The objectives of the materials are to develop academic English
language skill through content-based instruction, to develop understanding in skill
content areas, and to teach students learning strategies that will help them become
autonomous learners of both language and content. The materials focus on the
content areas of social studies and mathematics, where instruction is provided on
learning strategies for developing procedural knowledge in all four language skill,
and for understanding and recalling the declarative knowledge presented by the
content topics.
Suggestion to the teacher for strategy instruction in social studies and
mathematics activities include:
Previewing the book and new units. Advance organization is taught as
students are shown how to use the table of contents, section headings, and
question to preview upcoming information.
Teaching vocabulary. Selective attention is taught as students identify
unknown words, then use a variety of cognitive strategies to understand and
remember them.
Teaching Reading. A number of metacognitive, cognitive, and social and
affective strategies are taught to develop reading comprehension in social studies.
These include advance organization to skim a passage, selective attention to skim
for specific information, evaluation of ones own comprehension, elaboration of
prior knowledge, making inferences about meaning of new words, taking notes,
producing oral and written summaries, and questioning for clarification and
verification of meaning.
Teaching listening. Strategies taught for listening comprehension include
selective attention to main ideas, taking verbal notes in social studies, and writing
numerical data while listening to mathematics problems. Students are taught to
pay attention to linguistics markers that signal main ideas, details, and discourse
structure in oral presentations on social studies topics.
Teaching oral language. Discussion activities are integrated with the
presentation and practice of content in both social studies and mathematics.
Strategies taught for these activities include elaboration of prior knowledge,
working cooperatively in pairs of groups, asking questions to increase
comprehension, and using organizational planning to develop oral reports in social
studies and explanations of problem solutions in mathematics.
Teaching writing. For both types of writing, the major strategy taught is
organizational planning; in which students plan the parts and sequence to be
produced. Other strategies practiced for writing include note taking, using
resource materials in social studies, using imagery to illustrate word problems,
and sharing written products during cooperative activities.
Teaching test-taking skill. Students are reminded to elaborate on their prior
knowledge, make inferences, use self-talk to reduce test anxiety, and, most
important, to evaluate their own performance.
Teaching content-specific concept and skills. Example of these strategies
are: creating imagery for map skill, graphing, measurement, and geometry;
selective attention to words embodying key concept and relationships; self-
evaluation of ones level of understanding; elaboration of prior knowledge to
relate to and understand new concept presented; questioning when comprehension
is incomplete; and working cooperatively with other students to develop and share
both factual and process knowledge.
Bibliography

Rebecca, L. Oxford. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher


Should Know. The University of Alabana

Michael, J. OMalley. (1990). Learning Strategies in Second Language


Acquisition. United States of America.

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